You are on page 1of 92

tHo.

fv>w>fylRvD>ftylR
oGH.fxH;rk.fcGgw>fpkql.fcD.fwu;w>frl;w>f&>f
wz.f'D; pH.fnD.fyDwhtp>v>
unDb.fuDb.fcJ'Ju0DRwz.ftylR
2011=2013eH.f

b.fw>fxk;xD.f&RvDRv>unDydmfrk.fu&>

1

w>bd;b.'k;oh.ngwz.
ypH;bsK;b.ySR'Ju0DRzdwz.'D; ySRtg'H;tg*RvXt[h.eDRvDRySRw>*h>w>usdR'D; qD.xGJrRpXRySRvX w>u&X u
&dw>&J.w>usJRwz. vXuuGJ;w>ymzsgwbh.tHRt*D>M.vDRI AvHmymzsgwbh.tHR ymzsgxD.0J w>b.ud>b.*DRw
z.vXpH.nD.yDwhoElvX'Ju0DRtylRtHR wrRpXR0JySRvXtwl>b.oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>rRqgrRy,GJ'D; w>pkql.cD.wu;
vXusJ'fvJ.'fvJ.t*h>b.q.<yymol.ymo;'D;urXur.vXySRw0Xtw>vlRydmxGJw>od.w>oDw>bsXvX'Ju0DR
tywD>tHR rh>w>wcgvXtvDRpH;xD.y-wXR'd.r;ph>uD;M.vDRI rh>b.uG>u'guhRvX'Ju0DRtylR ySRw0Xwz.teD.
*H>eD.'G;tzDcd.< w>zh.qX'D;w>ymtd.vDRqDtDRtzDcd.M.< w>oh.wz.tHR rh>w>vXtwRw>vX'Ju0DRwz. u
b.rRvXxD.ySJRxD.0Jw>yXqSX&J.usJRpH.nD.yDwhtHRtd.'H;0Jtgr;b.q.< yxH.b.'D;ymol.ymo;vX'Ju0DRt
ylRtHR ySRw0Xtw>vlRydmxGJw>od.w>oDw>bsXtHR rh>w>vXtvDRpH;xD.y-wXRwcg'D; w>tHRrh>0JySRw0X tw>rReXR
'D; tw>rRvd.xD.z;xD.w>wcgvXtwRw>z;'d.tCd -uX;vXw>ymyeD.'D;ymvk>ymyShRtDRM.vDRI yemoyS>yS>
vXyySRw0XtHRqJ;vJRoud;w>qlrJmng'fod;u'k;td.xD.oElwcgvXtuuJxD.w>rRpXRvXw>wDw>-w>'D;w>'D
o'XySR[D.cd.zdw>cGJ;w>,mwz.vXySRunDuvkmwz.cJvXmt*D>M.vDRI
y0JySRunDzdoh.wz. yo;ckpH;bsK;b.uD>uFD.wJ.y'd.vXt[h.ySRw>ysJ vXyuEkmvDRtd.u'kyo;vX
uD>uFD.wJ.tylR cDzsdyxHyuD>tylR td.'D;w>'k;w>,RtCdM.vDRIAyymol.ymo;ph>uD;vXySRb.uDb.cJwz.t
eD.*H>eD.'G;vX'Ju0DRwz.tylRtd.0Jtgr; vXtwrh>0JuFD.wJ.xHzduD>zdwz.b.tCdw>tHR'k;td.xD.w>vXt
wRw>'D;ySRvX w>u'd;M>uFD.wJ.xHuD>pH.nD.yDwhw>wDw>-w>t*D>M.vDRI zJyuGJ;ymzsgxD.pH.nD.yDwhw>*h>uD
wz.vXySRb.uDb.cJwz.t*D>tHRM.< w>tHR wrh>vXytJ.'d;ymzsgxD.vX w>wymuJuD>uFD.wJ.xHuD>tCd
M.b.I yw>ymzsgtHRtw>ynd. wrh>vXyuyJmtXyJmoDuDF.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhb.I yw>ynd.M. rh>'fod;w>uuG>
u'guhRySRb.uDb.cJydmrk.wz.tw>'d;M>b.w>tusdRtusJqlw>wDw>-w>t*D><vDRqD'.w>vXySRw0Xty
wD>tylRM.vDRI 'fod;'D;ySRz;'D;e>yX>yw>ymzsguoht*D>M. yb.ol0Jzd;oJp;w>uwdRwz.'ftrh>w>wDw>-w>< rh
wrh> pH.nD.uGD> rhwrh> w>bH.w>bXwz. 'fod;u'k;bs;pJySRunD'D; w>ol.xD.qDvDRwz.'D;usdRusJwz.vXw>
oltDRvX'Ju0DRwz.'D; vXuD>uFD.wJ.tylRoh0Jt*D>M.vDRI zJyolw>uwdRtzsX.oh.wz.tHRtcgM. ytJ.'d;'k;
bs;pJw>uwdRtzsX.wz.tHRCkm'D;'Ju0DRoElM.vDRI ySRz;vHmw>ymzsgwz.ub.oh.ngymol.ymo;vXw>u
wdR t zsX.vX w> oltDRvX'Ju0DRtylRtHRtw>pdw>urDR w'H;od;vdmto;'D;uFD.wJ.xHuD>oJp; w>ol.xD.qDvDR
wz.tod;M.b.I vHmw>ymzsgtHR wtd.'D;w>ymo;vX w>wymuJuFD.wJ.xHuD>y'd. rhwrh> w>ol.xD.qDvDR
usdRusJwz.rhwrh>cX.p;wz.t*D>b.I

2

w>*h>cd.wDwz.tvHmwdRCh

ubsH;yR

tHo.vXw>ylRvD>tylR
w>bd;b.'k;oh.ngwz.
w>*h>cd.wDwz.
1. w>uwdRvXng
2. w>*h>w>udsRcJvXmtw>uGJ;zk.ymzSd.
3. w>ol0D>}oJtzsX.'D;tcDynDwz.
3.1 w>uwdR0D>}oJtcDynDwz.vXw>ymzsgwbh.tHRtylR
4. w>*h>rd>yS>wz.

1
2
3
5
7
13
16

4.1 w>uG>u'guhRunDb.uDb.cJEGHbh.vXmw>td.o;
4.2 'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ
4.2.1 w>*h>w>usdRtcD.xH;cD.bdtw>pH.pdRwJpdR
4.2.2 qXuwD>cJtHRw>*h>rd>yS>
4.2.3 (IRC/LAC) trlt'gvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtylR
4.2.4

w>ymvDRwz.vXtrh>'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz.vXoHG.xH;
rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.tylR
4.2.5 w>vDRqDwz.vX'Ju0DRwbh.'D;wbh.
4.2.6ySRvXtrRvd.xD.z;xD.pH.nD.yDwhtw>zH;w>rRwz.teD.*H>eD.'G;
tw>w>qDwvJrh>w>vXttg
4.2.7 w>vJRqluD>oXbhwbh.tw>'db.
4.2.8 w>vDRzsJ.vDR[dvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtylR
4.3 uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ
4.3.1 uGD>rh.w>rl;w>&>vXw>usJRClusJRzd;tDRwoh
4.3.2w>rRw&Dwygtrl;vXw>usJRClusJRzd;tDRM>'D;wM>
4.3.3w>}wDrRwHmwmwz.vXw>'d;M>uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwht*D>wz.
4.4 w>zH;w>rRrl'gwz.vXpH.nD.yDwhtudsRtusJtylR
4.5 w>*h>w>usdRb.C;w>'k;CmvX'Ju0DRtylR
31

5. w>CkxH.w>tusdRtusJ
5.1 w>*h>w>usdRtuvkmwz.vXw>xXzSd.tDRwz.
5.2 w>rl;w>&>vXty.CkmvXw>ymzsgwbh.tHRtylRwz.
5.3 w>vlRydmrRxGJw>tusdRtusJvXw>rRtDRM>'D;ohwz.
5.4 w>CkxH.oh.ngtw>ymyeD.wz.
5.5 w>ymzsgqdzk.udm(*H>cD.xH;w>ymzsg)
5.6 w>*h>w>usdRvXw>ub.z;qdtDRwz.

w>CkxH.M>wz.
6. w>rl;w>&>wz.cJvXmtw>td.o;wz.

35

6.1 w>rl;w>&>tpXvXtuJxD.to;ohoh.wz.
6.2 pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXtywD>xD.b;t-uX;'D;uXuD.
6.3 w>vXb.w>wD.zsgxD.tDRqlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ
6.4 w>rl;w>&>vXb.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh

3

6.5 w>rl;w>&>wz.vXb.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh
6.6 w>[h.xD.w>xH.'D;w>yJRxHedRcDwz.
6.7 w>vXb.w>xH.M>tDRvXtl;yF.'Ju0DRylR
6.8 w>uG>u'guhRpH.nD.yDwhtw>zH;w>rRtwuDG>

45

7. oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;
7.1 w>*h>w>usdRtvXtySJRw>uGJ;zk.A
7.2 w>ymzsgxD.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ
7.3

w>rl;w>&>vXw>bSg&SJtDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh
7.4 w>rl;w>&>vXb.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh
7.5 w>[h.xD.w>xH.'D;w>qdurd.<'D;w>yJRxHedRcDwz.
7.6 oHG.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;tw>pH.nD.yDwhtpXcJvXmvX'Ju0DR(7)bh.tylR
55

8. eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;
8.1 eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rRo;cJvXmteD.*H>eD.'G;
8.2 w>rl;w>&>wz.vXw>wD.xD.tDRqlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ
8.3 w>rl;w>&>wz.vXw>bSg&SJtDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh
8.4 w>rl;w>&>vXw>bSg&SJtRD vXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh
8.5 eD.cdw>pkql.cD.wu;tpXcJvXm
8.6 w>[h.xD.w>xH.'D;w>yJRxHedRcD
8.7 w>tX.vDRwl>vdmwz.

67

9. oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;vXt*kmt*Rwz.
9.1 uG>u'guhRw>*h>cJvXmt*h>tusdRtwuGD>
9.2 w>wD.zsgxD.qlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ
9.3 w>rl;w>&>wz.vXb.w>bSg&SJtDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh
9.4 w>rl;w>&>wz.vXb.w>bSg&SJtDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh
9.5 w>[h.xD.w>xH.w>qdurd.'D;w>yJmxHeDRz;
10. w>rl;w>&>vXw>wwD.zsgxD.tDRqlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz.

71

10.1 w>rl;w>&>t*h>tusdRtwuGD>
10.2 w>[h.xD.w>xH.w>qdurd.'D;w>yJRxHedRcD

74

11. w>[h.ul.[h.z;weDRql=====
11.1 w>[h.ul.[h.z;weDRql'Ju0DR
11.2 w>[h.ul.[h.z;weDRqlunDb.uDb.cJurH;wHm
11.3 w>[h.ul.[h.z;weDRql(UN) w>u&Xu&d<xH*kRuD>*RursX>obVu&X<

vHmbs;pJ1: uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhw>rRur.uDG>rh.vXw>usJRClusJRzd;wM>

85

vHmbs;pJ 2: unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmw>od.w>oD(39)xH.

86

vHmbs;pJ 3: w>*h>w>usdRtcD.xH;cD.bd'D;w>uJxD.o;tcD.xH;cD.bdt*h>tusdR

89

vHmbs;pJ 4: vHmrJmzsX.tzk.wz.tcDynD'D;w>uwdRtySJRwz.

90

4

1. w>uwdRvXng
oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;rh>0Jw>*h>uDwcgvXtuJxD.to;oukRq;';vX[D.cd.csX'Dwbh.'gtylRM.vDRI
w>tHRrh>ph>uD;w>*h>uDz;'d.wcgvX unDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DREGHbh.tylR vXttd.ol.vDRto;vXuD> y,DR'D;uFD.
wJ.uD>qXtylRM.vDRI xH*kRuD>*R'D;[D.u0DRu&l>u&Xwz. Ckm'D;unDydmrk.u&X *JRvdmrR0Jql.ql.vXtgeH.
tgvgtwD>ylR'fod;urRpXR'D;'Do'XoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;vXt'Ju0DRwz.tylRM.vDRI
vX[D.cd.csXxHuD>tgbh.tylRusJvXtuJxD.vd.0JwbdvXtrRpXR0JvXw>rRvDRpSRoGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.
wu;vXySRw0XtylRM.rh>0J<cDzsdw>ymzsgxD.0Jw>wwl>vdm0JoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;wohb.t*h>M.
vDRIpH.nD.yDwhoElrh>0Jw>tusdRtusJvXt&h'd.tusgwcgvX ySRw0Xol0JvXurRpSRvDRw>pkql.cD.wu;t*D>
M.vDRI unDydmrk.u&XqXwJm0JvX uCkoh.ngrRvdtgxD.b.C;pH.nD.yDwhoElvX oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.
wu;ySRwl>b.w>wz.t*D> vXttd.vX'Ju0DRtylRwz.tHR w>oltDRohvXusJ'fvJ.< rh>tuJbsK;uJzSd.vX usJ'f
vJ.'D;wuJbsK;uJzSd.vXusJ'fvJ.<rhwrh>rh>trRvDRpSRoGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;vXusJ'fvJ.t*h>M.vDRI
w>CkxH.oh.ngtHRw>ynd.rh>'fod;uCkxH.M>oGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>tpXvXtwuGD>z;vJ>vXt
td.zsdzsdzsgzsgvX'Ju0DRwz.tywD>< wrh>xJvXu0DR'hwbh.b.wbh.tylR rhwrh> 'Ju0DRwbh.b.wbh.tylR
M.b.I cJtHR ytJ.'d;[h.eDRvDR w>vXyCkxH.M>wz. 'fod;yu'k;xD'guGHmoGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w
z.<u,J>rh>w>pkql.cD.wu;vX'Ju0DRwz.tylRvXusJvXtoD'D;uJxD.vd.xD.to;ohwz.t*D>M.vDRI
w>CkxH.oh.ngtHRymzsgxD.0JvXpH.nD.yDwhoElvXoGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;ySRwl>b.w>wz.'d;M>
b.0JvX'Ju0DRtylRwz.tHR wvXwySJR0JvXuqD.xGJrRpXR0Jw>vXuywkm rhwrh> urRpSRvDRw>pkql.cD.wu;w
z.M.b.I ySRw0Xcd.e>vX'Ju0DRwz. vXt[H;rl'gvXpH.nD.yDwhoEltylRwz. wtd.'D;w>eJ.usJ< w> qD.xGJ rR
pXR< w>yD;w>vD'D;w>rRvdwz.vXvXySJRyJSRvXurRpXRt0Joh. 'fod;ucDqXuhRw>pkql.cD.wu;trl;t&>wz.
vX'Ju0DRwz.tylRvX usJvXt-uX;'D;uXuD.t*D>M.b.I nDEk>tg'.w>wuh> oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD. wu;ySR
wl>b.w>wz. w'd;M>w>wDw>-w>vXpH.nD.yDwhoEltHRtylRb.I ySRrRur.oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w
z.w'd;M>b.w>pH.nD.vXt-uX;tb.'D;uXuD.'D;uGD>rh.vXtrRur.0Jwz.M.b.Itgwuh>ySRw0Xcd.e>w
z. woh.ngvDRwH>0JvXub.rR0Jw>rEkRb.C;w>rl;w>&>wz. rhwrh> ub.rR0Jw>rl;w>&>wz.vX usJ'f vJ.
t*h>vDRwH>vDRqJ;M.b.I
yemvXySRwwl>vdm0JpH.nD.yDwhtpXvXw-uX;wb.'D;wuXuD.vXtb.C;'D;oGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.w
u;vXyySRw0XtylReDw*RM.vDRI b.q. w>vXyCkxH.M>vXw>CdxHwbsDtHR ymzsg0J'.vXpH.nD.yDwhtpX b.
C;oGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkq.l cD.wu;wz.t*H>p>'d.r;< ySRrRur.w>t*D> w>ydmxGJxD.tcHpSR< 'D;w>tusdRtusJ
vXtwDtvdR'D; 'H;od;vdmto;wtd.xDbdb.M.vDRI w>td.o;'ftHRoh.wz.tHR rRtgxD.0JoGH.xH;'D;rk.cGg
w>pkql.cD.wu;wz.vXyySRw0XtylR'D;wrRpSRvDR0JoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.M.b.I
ySRwl>b.oGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;tguwX>vXb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRwz.tylRrh>0Jydmrk.wz.M.vDRI ydmcGg
vXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;wz. tguuh>ynd.0Jydmrk.'D;zdo.ydmrk.wz.tgM>'H;ydmcGgrhwrh>zdo.ydmcGgwz.M.
vDRI 'funDydmrk.u&XtHRw>[h.pd[h.urDRySR'D; 'fy*H>cD.xH;w>b.ud>b.*DRtd.0JvXydmrk.wz.t*D>tod;< y
xH.b.vXySRw0X'Dwzkwl>b.cD.b.w> cDzsdoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu; w>tpXvXtydmxGJxD.tcH rh>vX pH.
nD.yDwhoElt*H>p>vXubSg&SJw>*h>uDwz.tHRtCdM.vDRI w>CkxH.oh.ngb.C;pH.nD.yDwhoElwcgtHR ym
zsgxD.0JvXoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;ySRwl>b.w>'D;ySRrRur.w>wz.tw>rl;w>&>wcgb.wcgpkmpkm
b.w>bSg&SJtDRvXpH.nD.yDwhoEltHRvXusJ'fvJ.t*h>M.vDRI
yemvXpH.nD.yDwhtpXtuH>tpDwz.< vXyxH.b.tDRvXoGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.t
zDcd.tHR rh>w>vXtvDR*mvdmto;'D;uGD>rh.wz.vX'Ju0DRwz.tylRM.vDRI unDydmrk.u&Xtd.'D;w> b.ud>
b.*DRvXySRwl>b.w>'D; ySRrRur.uGD>rh.wz.cJvXmtzDcd.vXyySRw0XtylRM.vDRI pH.nD.yDwhoElrh>w>wcgvX
ub.'Do'XySRud;*R'J;vXySRw0XtylR'D; ub.rh>w>vXttd.zsdzsdzsgzsgvXw>pkql.cD.wu;tHRpH.nD.yDwhoEl
w>wl>vdmtDRwohb.M.vDRI pH.nD.yDwhoEltHR rh>wuJxD.vd.xD.b.wcD yub.rRoud;w>wylRCD 'fod;u
rR*hRxD.tDRt*D>M.vDRI
5

unDydmrk.u&XtJ.'d;ymzsgxD.w>vX yCkxH.oh.ngwz.'D;w>pkql.cD.wu;xD'gydmrk.wz.tHRvXySR[D.cd.
zdw>cGJ;w>,mw>rRtwuGD>tylRM.vDRI ydmrk.wz.t*H>cD.xH;ySR[D.cd.zdw>cGJ;w>,mwz. wrh>xJvXw>rR[;
*DRtDRud;eHR'J;vXuD>y,DRtylR{dRb.<vX'Ju0DRtylR'.vJm b.w>rR[;*DRtw>cGJ;w>,mwz.M.vDRI ySRunDzd
wz. b.*JRvdm0JvXuM>b.uhR'H.rd.u&h.pH.oElvXuD>y,DRtylR ,Hmwh>vHvXteH.(60)eH.qltzD cd.'D;b.
w>rXql.Ch>td.u'kto;vXb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRwz.tylR vXt0Joh.w>ylRzsJ;t*D> tgM>'H;(25)eH.vHM.vDRI qX
uwD>b.vH0JvXw>qDwvJub.td.xD.0JvXw>vD>cHcgvXmtylRvHM.vDRI
unDydmrk.u&XymzsgxD. yw>b.ud>b.*DRwz. b.C;pH.nD.yDwhoEltw>wb.vD>b.p;'D; tywD>w-uX;
uXuD.vX'Ju0DRwz.tylR vXteH.wz.teH.vHb.q. yw>b.ud>b.*DRwz.tHR xJ'.b.o*X>'D;w>*h>uD
tuvkmuvkmwz.M.vDRIyb.w>wJySRxDbdtd.cd;'H;rhwrh>yw>ChxD.wz. rh>w>vXtgwvXtcX; vXuJxD.
to;wohb.M.vDRI yb.w>wJySRvXpH.nD.yDwhoEltHR w>urlRur.wtd.eDwrHRb.'D;pH.nD.yDwhtHR wrh>
ydmrk.wz.tw>zH;w>rRb.M.vDRI
yb.w>'k;oh.eD.ph>uD;ySRvX ywrh>yD>&DvXtxD.b.w>rRvdb.tCd w>[h.ul.ySRvX yw-uX;rRb. xGJyo;
b.'D;b.yvD>yo;vXywrh>ySRvXttd.'D;w>ohw>b.vXue>yX>w>*h>uDoh.wz.tHRM.b.Iyb.w>'k;oh.
ngySRvXyw-uX;rRb.xGJyo;'D;w>*h>w>usdRoh.wz.tHRb. rh>vXw>tHR rh>0Jw>*h>uDwz.vXydmrk.w>u&X u
&dtw>[H;rl'gM>b.trJmngM.vDRIA yb.w>eJ.ySRvX yub.[;xD.uGHmvXpH.nD.yDwhw>*h>uDwz.tylR'D;
ymvDRvXySRohySRb.wz.tpkylR rhwrh>ymvXydmcGgwz.tpkylRM.vDRI yb.w>wJph>uD;ySRvX 'fySRb.uDb.cJw
z.tod; yub.vlRydmrRxGJw>'fw>ymyeD.ySRtod;M.vDRI vXw>qJ;w>vRcJvXmtylR 'fydmrk.wz.t w>vJR cDzsd
tzDcd. w>oh.wz.tHR rh>0J w>upD.wrHRCDvX w>e>[lb.tDR zJvXydmrk.wz.wJzsgxD.0J< ymzsgxD.tw>b.
o;<rhwrh>ChxD.0JvXw>uywkmw>pkql.cD.wu;xD'gtDRwz.tcgM.vDRI
w>ywkmw>c;tw>&J.w>usJR p;xD.to;vX(2011)eH.tcg'D; w>tHR'k;td.xD.w>rk>v>vXySRb.uDb.cJw
z. uuhRb.uhRqluD>y,DRylRylRzsJ;zsJ;'D; vXySJR'D;w>ol;oh.vRuyDRt*D>M.vDRI w>pH;uwdRw>ywkmw>c;w>
&J.w>usJRtHR vJRto;u,Du,Db.q. w>td.o;zsg0JvXySRb.uDb.cJwz. -uX;uwJmuwDRto;vXw>uhR
u'guhRqltxHtuD>t*D>M.vDRI ySRb.uDb.cJydmrk.'D;ydmcGgwz. vXuuhRu'guhRwz. -uX;td.'D;pH.nD.yD
whoElwz. vX ttd.'D; w>od.w>oDw>bsX vX trh>twD'D; oJp;vXt-uX;0Jb.0J'D;-uX;uXuD.vdmto;wz.
M.vDRIrh>vXw>tHRurRpXRt0Joh.vXuuhRol.xD.uD>y,DR'H.rd.u&h.pH.oElvXw>obVuoht*D>M.vDRI

6

2. w>*h>w>usdRcJvXmtw>uGJ;zk.ymzSd.
wylRv>v>vXydmrk.ydmrXRwz.'D;ydmrk.zdo.wz.td.0JtvD>M.<t0Joh.td.'D;cD.wCmw>cGJ;w>,mvXtu
b.ylRzsJ;'D;w>pkql.cD.wu;M.vDRI w>ymzsgwbh.tHRorHord;rRuG>0J rh>ydmrk.ydmrXRoh.wz.'D; ydmrk.zdo.w
z.vX ttd.vXunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DREGHbh.vXm vXttd.ol.vDRto;vXuD>uFD.wJ.'D;uD>y,DRtqX tHR rh>t
ol.zSHo;nDb.vXtw>cGJ;w>,mtylR{g< rhwrh>td.rlb.ph>uD;vX cD.wCmySR[D.cd.zdtcGJ;t,m tylRph>uD;{g
t*h>M.vDRIvDRqD'.w>vXw>CkxH.M.wcgtHR orHord;wh>0Jw>rl;w>&>(289)cg vXtrh>oHG.xH; rk.cGgw>pkql.
cD.wu;xD'gydmrk.vXrJ>&Rrd>'Ju0DR< rJ>v;tl'Ju0DR< tlyF.'Ju0DR< ed.zd'Ju0DR<bg'd.,g< xgr[h.'Ju0DRwz. p;
xD.vX(2011-2013)eH.twD>ylR vXuCkoh.ng0Jw>rEkRoh.wz.vX b.w>rRpXRtDRvXtb.*h>b.0DvX w>ym
zsgxD.w>trRur.uGD>rh.w>rl;w>&>wz.'D; wuwD>CD pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz.vXw>[h.uhRw>cD qXvX
w>rl;w>&>wz. tzDcd.td.'fvJ.t*h>M.vDRI yusX>wH>uhRvXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz. [h.w>qD.xGJrRpXRvX
pH.nD.yDwhtpX wb.bsD;b.'g 0JvX ySRvXtwl>b.w>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&> (80%)vX 'Ju0DR (7)bh.tusg
(6)bh.tylRM.vDRI w>vDRurXur.tw>td.zsgxD.wcgvX t[h.ul.ySRvX pH.nD.yDwh tusdRtusJ td.0J'.vX
ydmrk.ydmrXRwz.'D; ydmrk.zdwz.t*D> vXtvDRwlmvDRum'd.r;vXu'Do'Xt0Joh.wz. rhwrh> urRvDRwH>0JvX
tu'd;M>*H>cD.xH;ySR[D.cd.zdtcGJ;t,mwz.t*D>rh>*hRM.b.I
rwRoh.wz.vXt-uX;z;vHmymzsgwbh.tHRvJ.´
yChun;b.ySRud;*R'J;vX to;pJb.C;w>yXw>qSXwz.< pH.nD.yDwhrhwrh>oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pk ql.cD.wu; w
z.vX'Ju0DRwz.tylR uz;b.w>ymzsgwbh.tHR'Dwbh.ng = wrh>xJw>*h>w>usdR cJvXmw>uGJ;zk.ymzSd.tHRM.
b.I yChun;vXySRz;vHmzdwz. vXw>pdw>urDRtd.vXtpkylRwz. urRw>qDwvJvXwuD>cgpH.nD.yDwht
usdRtusJvXb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRwz.tylRvXuqd;ug0Jyw>CkxH.M>wz.tHR'fod;uuJxD.w>*hRxD.eD>eD>'D;
wkRvDRwDRvDRt*D>M.vDRIw>tHRymCkm'D;unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHm<( UNHCR)<w>rRoud;w>urH;wHmvDRqD
'.w>vXySRvD>td.urSHwz.vXuFD.wJ.uD>ylRvXtrh>( CCSDPT)<(IRC)w>u&Xu&d'D;zd;oJp;w>qD.xGJrRpXR
(LAC)w>wdmusJRySRrRw>zdwz.vXtrh>w>u&Xu&dz;'d.oh.wz. vXttd.'D;rl'gcd.oh.vXpH.nD.yDwhvX'J
u0DRwz.tylRt*D>M.vDRI b.q. yw>CkxH.M>w>oh.wz.tHR rh>ph>uD;yw>b.,d.b.bSDwcgvXyySRw0X
tw>uJcd.uJe>t*D><ySRvXtqD.xGJusd.phw>qD.xGJrRpXRwz. qlw>u&Xu&doh.wz.tHR wcg*hRwcg*hRttd.
wz.t*D>< 'D;xH*kRuD>*RursX>obshu&Xwz. vXt[h.w>qD.xGJrRpXRw> cDzsdtw>zH;w>rRwz.qlySRwl>b. w>
pkql.cD.wu;wz.ttd.M.vDRIvXcHuwX>ytJ.'d;pH;vXyw>CkxH.M>t0JtHRupH;uuwdRw>'D;'Ju0DRurH;
wHm w z. vXttd.'D;w>pdw>urDRweDR'D;w>ohw>b.vXu[H;xD.zD.xD.w>tywD>wz.wbsDCD 'fod;urR*hR
xD.uhRpH.nD.yDwhtw>cDqX'D;'fod;w>pkql.cD.wu;vXtxD'gydmrk.wz.w>u[H;xD.*h>0DvXttd.'D;w>pH.
nD.vXtrh> w>vXw>zD.CH;wH>tDRM>'D;wkRvDRwDRvDR'd.xD.t*D>M.vDRI w>e>yX>'D;w>ohywHxD. w>qlpH.nD.yD
whtusdRtusJvXtb.bsD;b.'gM. urh>w>wcgvXu[h.w>cGJ;w>,mqlySRw0X'Dwzkng vXtutd.rlb.vX
w>td.rlvXt*hRxD.< urh>ph>uD;w>wcgvXw>uwJmuwDRqdo;vXySRb.uDb.cJwz. uuhRu'guhRqlteD>
up>'.0Jt[H.tCDw>td.w>qd;tvD>tusJt*D>'D; urRpXRt0Joh.vX uol.xD.ySRw0XwzkvXtySJR'D;w>wD
w>-w><w>vXt-uX;uXuD.'D;ySRw*Rb.w*R'D;w>rkmw>ck.wz.M.vDRI
yxH.M>w>rEkRwz.vJ.´
w>tk.uDRwz. b.w>ymzsgxD.tDRvXw>ymzsgwbh.tHRtylR zsgxD.0J'.vXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ vXySRb.uD
b.cJwz.'d;M>0Jwz.M. wrh>w>wcgvXt'Do'XySRwl>b.w> vXtwl>b.oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;wz. b.
'D;wrRpSRvDRph>uD;oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.b.Itg'.w>wuh>vXoHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>
rl;w>&>wz.tylRcJvXmM. ydmrk.ydmrXRwz. 'd;M>b.pH.nD.yDwhtpX vX twb.*h>b.usdR< w-uX;uXuD.vdm
o;'D;wrh>w>vXt'H;od;vdmto;ph>uD;b.I

7

wuD>cgpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtHRvDRwlmvDRum0J'd.r;vXw'Do'XySRw0Xwz.b.'D;[h.w>rRpXRvXtrRrkm
xD.uhRydmrk.vXtb.wl>b.oHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.b.I 'D;'fM.tod; wCdxHorHord;w>qlySR
vXtrRur.w>wz.CH;CDm'D.vDRwH>vDRqJ;b.I vXub.rRw>tHRtvD>M. yw>CkxH.M>ymzsgxD.0J'.vX
w>pkql.cD.wu;xD'gydmrk.tHRM. nDEk>w>qXwJmtDRzSHwvX'D; w>ymtDR'ftrh>w>urRur.w>qH;qH;zdwcg'D;
w>vXt&h'd.wcgb.M.vDRIpH.nD.yDwhtpXvXt'k;td.xD.oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.w
-uX;uXuD.'D;tywD>wxD.b;b.M. cDzsdvXw>od.w>oDvX'Ju0DRwz. w>wuGJ;vDRtDR&SJ&SJvXySRe>yX>tDRoh
b.< 'D;'Ju0DRw>[h.w>pH.nD.tusdRtusJwz.w>td.,XRwtd.b.< w>qD.xGJrRpXRvXpH.nD.yDwh'D;'Ju0DR
bH.bXwz.urRvXxD.ySJRxD.w>t*D>wtd.b.tCdM.vDRI
p;xD.vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh wtd.'D;w>tusdRtusJw>od.w>oDwz. vXwtd.'D;w>uGJ;vDRto;&SJ&SJvXw>e>
yX>tDRoh*hR*hRvXty.Ckm'D;w>rRtusdRtusJvDRwH>vDRqJ;b.'D; vXw>[h.w>pH.nD.t*D> w>rRtusdRtusJvX
tymvDRCmto;vXw>ue>yX>tDRoh&SJ&SJwtd.b.< wu;b. w>eJ.vDRwz.tywD>wqDb.wqDph>uD; w
td. zsg&SJ vX pH.nD.yDwhwz.ub.[H;xD.zD.xD.w>rl;w>&>t*D>b.I w>ymvDRw>eJ.usJvX tvDRwH>vDRqJ;vX
w>ub.[H;xD.zD.xD.yXqSX&J.usJRwtd.vDRwH>vDRqJ;b.M.vDRI w>pH.nD.yDwhtpXtwuGD>tHRtd.,HR0J'd.
r;'D; td.'.xJtH.udmzdM.vDRI 'D;w>tHR [h.w>cGJ;w>,mtgxD.'.xJwpJ;zdvX ttgM>'H;ySRrRur.w>[h.w>
tX.vDRvXw rRur.w>tHRvXRb.< cDzsd ySRvXttd.'D;w>pdw>urDRwz. zsgvXtxk;,Hmto; vXu[h.w>pH.
nD.vXw>'k;Cmwpd>wvD>'.vJmt*D>M.vDRI
exH.M.w>rEkRwz.vJ.´
pH.nD.yDwhtpXtwuDG>tHR rh>w>wcgvXttH.'d.r;< 'D;tywD>zk.'D;tw>vJRusJtd.'H;0Jz;,HRng'H;vXub.rR
w>tgM>'H;ySRrRur.w> tw>[h.w>tX.vDRtDvDRqJ;vDRtrHR vXw>ur.vXtrR0JtHR wrRur.vXR0Jb.M.
'H;vDRI tcDynD w>pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXt*hRM>'H;w>tHRt*D> ub.vJRusJ,HR'H;0JM.vDRI b.rEkRtCdvJ.M. yrh>
uG>vX'Ju0DRurH;wHmwz. vX'Ju0DRtgwuh>tylR tw>pdw>urDRM. zsgvXt0Joh.wz. b.w>zD.CH;CmtDR
vXw>u&Xu&dtgzk<w>pdw>urDRtgcgvXpH.nD.yDwhtpXvXw>[h.tDRw>ysJ'D;uol0J'fvJ.tzDcd.<wu;'H;b.
wuD>cgcJtHR w>tusdRtusJvXw>oltDRtHR t0Joh.b.[H;xD.zD.xD.ySRrRur.w>wz. vXtrh>ySRwz.vXt
olw>pkql.cD.wu;'d.'d.rk>rk>wz.vXtvDRysHRvXySRw0Xt*D>M.vDRIt0Joh.wtd.'D;w>bH.w>bXw>yD;w>
vD w z.vDR wH> vDRqJ;eDwrHRb.'D; wtd.ph>uD;'D;w>od.vdvX ub.[H;xD.zD.xD.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtHR'f
vJ.t*h>vDRwH>vDRqJ;ph>uD;b.I usd.phw>qD.xGJrRpXRwqH;wuh> vXw>urR*hRxD.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJvX 'J
u0DRwz.tylR vXtymCkm'D; (UNHCR)'D;(IRC/LAC)w>wdmusJRtHR uJxD.w>vXt'db.ySRvXub.rRvX
xD.ySJRxD.pH.nD. yDwhtusdRtusJwz. vXtrh>'Ju0DRurH;wHm< u0DR'hurH;wHm'D; 'Ju0DRbH.bXwz.tw>zH;w>
rRph>uD;M.vDRI 'Ju0DRwz.tw>yXw>qSXtHR< w>w[h.tDRw>yXw>w>qSXtusdRtusJ'D; w>td.,XRwz.vXt
vD>td.0JeD>eD>wz.tHRvDRwH>vDRqJ;b.tCd yxH.b.vXw>tpXvXtxD.wz. rh>w>vXt*H>qH;bgp>0J'd.r;
vXtzsgxD.0JvXvHmymzsgwbh.tHRtylRM.vDRI y[h.ul.qSXEkmvX zJtHRw>vdmtd.eD>eD>oyS>uwX>vX w>ub.
rRqdtDRvXpH.nD.yDwhw>zH;w>rRtusdRtusJtwuDG>tHR w>ub.uG>u'guhRtDRbsJ;bsJ;bsD;bsD; vDRwH>vDRqJ;
vXtqdtcVM.vDRI
eD.*H>eD.'G;w>ymzsgrEkRwz.zsgxD.0J'fvJ.

8

w>rl;w>&>cJvXmtw>*h>tusdRwz.
 w>udugvDRuhRw>pkql.cD.wu;tuvkmwz.vXw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHR
 oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;= 21%
 eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;= 72%
 oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;vXt*kmt*Rwz .= 7%
 w>rl;w>&>289 cgtusg

84% b.w>wD.zsgxD.tDRql'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh'D;uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhw>rl;w>&> (242 ) cg

w>rl;w>&>16% w>wwD.zsgxD.tDRb.,w>rl;w>&>(47)cg
 w>rl;w>&>242 cg b.w>wD.zsgxD.tDRqlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ

87% b.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh

13% b.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh
'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ< wrh>uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtudsRtusJb.< [H;xD.zD.xD.oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.
cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>'d.'d.rk>rk> (87%) vXyeDRz;vDRtDR 'ftrh>w>rl;w>&>vXtymCkm'D;oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.w
u;<eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;(vXtymCkm'D;[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;)'D;w>rl;w>&>t*kmt*Rwz.(t'd=
w>rRuRySRunD)M.vDRI eD.*H>eD.'G;t0JtHR [h.w>eJ.usJvXw>urR*hRxD.'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtHR u
rh>w>wcgvXt'db.w>t'd.trk> vXurRpSRvDRuhRoHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;vXySRw0XylRM.vDRI w>tHR
rh>w>vXttd.'D;t*h>tusdReD>eD>vX w>urRtgxD.w>td.,XRwz.'D;w>tuH>tpDwz. 'fod;utd.0JvXw>
uqd;ugtDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhwz.t*D>< 'D;w>tHR 'fod;w>uymyeD.w>vDRzsJ.vDR[d< w>vDRwlmvDRum tg
tg*D>*D>wz.vXb.w>ymzsgxD.tDRvXw>CkxH.M>wz.tHRtzDcd.M.vDRI
uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ[H;xD.zD.xD.w>*h>w>usdRvXttd.vDRwJ (13%)rh>w>wcgvXtwvDRemvX
td.'D;tu[kunD>< xd.[l;xd.*JRyo;'d.r;wz.M.vDRI erh>uG>vX t ylRuGHm teH.(20)M. ySRb.uDb.cJw>
rl;w>&>wz.rh>w>wcgvXwrh>w>nDEk>wcgvXb.w>wl>vdmtDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJb.M.
vDRI cDzsdvX (UNHCR)'D;(IRC/LAC) w>wdmusJRtw>eJ.usJtpXtzDcd. cJtHR yxH.b.tgxD.vXw>rl;w>&> 'd.
'd.rk>rk>vXb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRylRwz.b.w>wl>vdmtDRvXw>rl;w>&>'d.'d.rk>rk>vXb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRylRwz.
b.w>wl>vdmtDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtylRM.vDRI
vXoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>tgtg*D>*D> (80%)vX'Ju0DRCkbh.wz. tylR< ydmrk.ydmrXRwz.< 'd;
M.b.0JpH.nD.yDwhtw>qD.xGJrRpXRwz.vX tw-uX;uXuD.vdmto;b.M.vDRI ytJ.'d;vX w>ub.ym
ol.ymo;vX pH.nD.yDwhtpX vXtw-uX;uXuD.vdmto;b.tHR ub.y.Ckmph>uD;'D; w>vXw>ymzsgxD.tDR
vXvmwz.tHR 'ftrh>=ySRrRur.w>tw>qJ;vDRtrHRvX vHmw>tX.vDRtDvDRtylR vXtwrRur.w>tHRvXR
b.t*h><rhwrh>Ch>zsd;uGHm<[h.phtD.vD;(w[h.qlySRwl>b.w>ttd.b.)rhwrh>w>w[H;xD.*h>0DpH.nD.yDwh
tusdRtusJeDwrHRqlySRrRur.w>ttd.b.< w>w[h.w>ur.eDwrHRb.< w>xk;uGHmtDRvXySRw0Xw>zH;w>
rRtylR< rhwrh>[h.tDRvHmvDRzS.qlySRvXtwl>b.w>oh.wz.tHRM.vDRI w>pH.nD.yDwhtpX'ftHRwuvkm w
rh>w>wcgvX turRpXRo;w>wl>b.tw>ylRvD>ylRusJvX tuJxD.to;vXw>pkql.cD.wu;tCdM. b.'D;
tgM>tM. urh>w>wcgvXtrRto;'fod; (tHo.td.vXw>ylRvD>ylRusJtylR)tod;'D; ySRwl>b.w>tHR ub.
qJ;vJRcDzsdb.w>tql;tqg0JtHRM.vDRI
pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJvXt*H>p>tHR [h.ySRw>oh.nge>yX>vX ySRvXtrRur.oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;
wz.rRw&Dwygw>ohvX twtd.'D;w>[H;M>tDR*h>0DeDwrHRb.< vXM.trJmng rh>w>wcgvXtrh> w>[h.*H>
[h.bgtDRvX tuqJ;rRur.uDG>rh.t*D>M.vDRI yxH.M>pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXtw-uX;uXuD.b.tHR tgM>'H; w
0m(58%)vXtrh> w>rl;w>&>tcg(60) vXtrh>oHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;teD.*H>eD.'G;bl;uxJod;vdmt
o;'D;w>rl;w>&>vXb.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh'D;uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhteD.*H>eD.'G;M.vDRI

9

w>oh.wz.tHR b.w>[H;M>tDRw>rReD.rRCgvDRwH>vDRqJ;vX w>vDRwlmvDRum'ftHRtod;wz. [h.w>*H>w>
bgqlySRrRur.w>wz. vXw>ys>zsJ;uGHmtDR'D; w>wpH.nD.tDRb.M.vDRI tcDynD ySRrRur.w>wz. cDzsdpH.
nD.yDwhtpXvXtw-uX;uXuD.b.'ftHRtzDcd.t0Joh.uwl>b.0JvXt0Joh.rh>rRur.w>b.q.w>w[H;
M>tDRt&hb.'D;rR0JohxDbdM.vDRI
oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>tgtg*D>*D>wz.vX'Ju0DREGHbh.vXmtylRrh>eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;<'D;
vXw>oh.wz.M.tylR(92%)rh>eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.M.vDRI'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh[H;xD.zD.
xD.w>rl;w>&>wz.tHRcJvXmCmCm vX'Ju0DRtgwuh>tylR'D; pH.nD.yDwhtpXwz. wrh>w>vXt'Do'Xydm
rk.ydmrXRwz.vX cgqlngw>pkql.cD.wu; vXu[Jb.tDRwz.'D; w>tHR wqD.xGJrRpXRydmcGg vXtrh>ySRrRu
r.w>wz.tvk>v>ouJ;y0;w*hRtHR 'fod;w>qDwvJutd.rh>*hR< urR*hRxD.uhR0Jt*D>rh>*hRM. wtd.eDwpJ;
b.IrJ>v;'D;tlyF.'Ju0DRcHbh.tHR eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>ymzsgxD.0JtguwX>vX'Ju0DRt*R,J>bh.tusg
M.vDRIrJ>v;'Ju0DR rh>'Ju0DRvXt'd.uwX>wbh. vXuwJyF;ySRb.C;w>rl;w>&>teD.*H>tguwX>zJM.vDRI tl
yF.'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ[H;xD.zD.xD.eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.wkRvDRwDRvDR'd.wuh>
M>'Ju0DRvXt*RCkbh.'D; w>tHRurh>w>wcgvX t[h.*H>[h.bgydmrk.oh.wz. vXuwD.zsgxD.w>pkql.cD.
wu;vXtwl>b.0Jwz.M.vDRI
tlyF.'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJpH.nD.[h.w>ur.( 93%)qlySRrRur.w>vXtoleD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;
wz.vXub.td.vXw>'k;CmtylR< 'fyymyeD.w>pH.nD. 'ftrh> pH.nD.yDwhtpXvX tw-uX;uXuD.b.wcg
ph>uD;M.vDRI cDzsdw>xXEkmCmySRvXw>'k;CmtylRtzDcd. wrh>pH.nD.yDwhw>vdmb.wcgvX tvDRol.rHo;rkm
w>vXvXySJRySJR qlySRwl>b.w>vXtwl>b.w>pkql.cD.wu;wz.t*D>b.I cDzsdw>qH;uwX>pSRuwX>vXtrh>
w>xXEkmvDRw>qlw>'k;CmtylR 'ftlyF.'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhrRw>qXwJm&SJ&SJwJmwJm vXySRrRur.w>wz. vXySR
w0XtylR vX(w>pkql.cD.wu;xD'gydmrk. rh>w>rRur.uGD>rh.z;'d.wcg) 'D;w>tHR rh>w>cgvX w>wl>vdmtDRw
ohvhRwuhRb.'D; ydmrk.wz. w>ub.'Do'XtDRvXw>pkql.cD.wu; 'D;ySRrRur.w>wz. ub.w>pH.nD.
tDRM.vDRI vXw>'ftHRtzDcd. w>pkql.cD.wu;pSRvDR0J'D; ydmrk.wz.tw>wD.xD.w>pkql.cD.wu;[JtgxD.
0J'.M.vDRIxJ'.ySRrRur.w> (20%) vX'Ju0DRCkbh.vXmtylR 'd;M>b.w>pH.nD.vXtrh> w>'k;CmtDRvX w>
'k;CmtylRM.vDRI
y[h.ul.vX w>rR*hRxD.uhR pH.nD.yDwh tusdRtusJ vX'Ju0DRcJvXmtylR u[h.*H>[h.bgydmrk.wz.vX uwD.
zsgxD.w>rl;w>&>teD.*H>tgxD.'D; urRpSRvDRoGH.xH;rk.cGg w>pkql.cD.wu; w>uJxD.o; wz. 'D;'k;eJ.ySRrR
ur.w>wz.vX w>wuG>rJm'D;ys>ylRuGHmt0Joh.vX trRur.w>tCdb.M.vDRI vXw>rl;w>&>( 289)cgt
usg vXtb.w>xXEkmCkmtDRvXw>ymzsgwbh.tHRtylR vXydmrk.(47)*RCkxX0JvX wwD.xD.tw>rl;w>&>ql
pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJeDwcgttd.b. vXtymzsgxD.0Jw>rl;w>&>cJvXm vXw>CkxH.M>tDRtusg( 16%)M.
(w>wwD.xD.tDRvXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJb.M.vDR)IrJ>v;'D;rJ>&Rrd>'Ju0DRcHbh.tHR rh>'Ju0DRcHbh.vX ySReD>
w*Rb.w*R wwD.zsgxD.tw>rl;w>&>teD.*H>eD.'G;tguwX>vX w>ymzsgtylR vXtrh>(29%)'D;(40%)M.
vDRI tklyF.'Ju0DRzsgxD.0JvX w>wwD.xD.w>rl;w>&>qlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJteD.*H>rh>(0%)vXtrh> w>w cg
vXt'k;eJ.y0Jwz. vXySRwl>b.w>td.'D;w>emM>vDRto;vXvXySJRySJR vXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtylRM.vDRI
vXw>M.tCd w>rR*hRxD.uhRpH.nD.yDwhtpXuuJbsK;uJzSd.0JvXySRwl>b.w>wz.t*D>'D;ySRw0X'Dwzkngt
*D>M.vDRI
w>rEkRoh.wz.vXtvD>td.vXw>ub.qDwvJtDRvJ.´
yw>rk>v>uG>pdvXySRw0Xwz.t*D>rh>0Jw>xl.zsJ;xD.vXw>pkql.cD.wu;tuh>t*DRcJvXmtylRM.vDRIyvd.
b.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJvXtwkRvDRwDRvDRvXt[h.w>upD.zsdzsdzsgzsg vX w>vX w>pk ql.cD.wu;vX yySRw
0XylRtHR w>wl>vdmtDRwohvhRwuhRb.M.vDRI ytJ.'d;xH.vXydmrk.wz.b.w>'Do'XtDRvX[D.cd.zdcGJ;,m
eD>eD>uD>uD>M.vDRI vXyw>CkxH.M>w>tzDcd. yrR*hRxD.yw>[h.ul.[h.z;qlySRb.rlb.'gwz.cJvXm vXu
[H;M>w>*h>w>0DvXusJ'fvJ.'D;ub.rRw>qDwvJrEkRwz.vXusJ'fvJ.t*h>M.vDRI
unDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DR td.xD.wh>vHvX tgM>'H; (25)eH. vHRvHR 'D; pH.nD.yDwhvXtw-uX;uXuD.wz.tHR w>
ub.rRb.uhRtDRcJtHRM.vDRI udsmphw>qD.xGJrRpXR tgtg*D>*D> 'D;*X>*X>usXRusXRtd.0JvX w>urR*hRxD. pH.nD.
yDwhtusdRtusJt*D>M.vDRIvXw>M.tCdw>tHRwrh>vXusdmphw>qD.xGJrRpXRwvXwySJR'D;pSR0JvXw>urR*hR
10

xD.uhRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJt*D>tCdM.b.I rhrh>wcDrh>'.vXw>td.,XRwz. b.w>oltDRtusdRtusJt
zDcd.M.vDRI
vXw>cDqXuhRw>vXw>CkxH.M>w>vXw>ymzsgwbh.tHRtzDcd.<(w>ynd.ub.vJR0JvdRvdRql)w>ub.'k;
ohxD.b.xD.'D;rRql.xD.uhR'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJM.vDRI'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhySRvXtrRvdmxD.z;xD.
w>wz.[H;xD.zD.xD.w>rl;w>&>wz. tgtg*D>*D>b.q. w>td.,XRwz.td.'.xJ pSRudmzdvXuol0Jt*D>
M.vDRI 'Ju0DRtw>yXw>qSX'k;eJ.zsgxD.0J'.vX t0Joh.td.'D;tw>ohw>b.vX urR*hRxD.'D;rRvdmxD.z;
xD.uhRw>tusdRtusJvXtbHblz;'d.wcgtHRvX ty.Ckmym*D>'D;ySRtgtg*D>*D>tHRM.vDRI yxH.w>yXqSXtusdR
tusJvXtvJRto;b.*h>b.0DvXw>eDRvDRw>tD.w>tD'D;w>ul.b.ul.ohtw>rRwuGD>ylRwz.M.vDRI vX
w>M.tCduD'd.r;vX yu&SJyF;b.rEkRtCdvXw>oh.wz.tHR uJxD.vdmxD.woh'D; w>yXqSXtDRwvJRto;
vXt*h>tusdRvXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ tylRvJ.t*h>M.vDRI tcDynDw>rR*hRxD.w>tHR*hRxD.0JohvX w>eDRvDR
w>tD.w>tD'D; w>ul.b.ul.ohtoeX.'D;w*hRxD.0JvX pH.nD.yDwhtoeX.b.M.rh>w>vXtuDcJz;'d.w>
cgvXyub.*SJyF;w>tHRvX rEkRtCduJxD.0Jwohb.t*h>M.vDRI vXw>M.tCdw>u&Xu&dcd.oh.wz.vX
t[H;rl'gwz.< ySRvXtqD.xGJusdmphw>qD.xGJrRpXRwz.vX t[H;rl'gvXpH.nD.yDwhvX 'Ju0DRwz.ylRub.
ymol.ymo;'D; ynd.w>vdRvdRql w>rR*hRxD.w>td.,XRcDzsd w>ol.xD.uhR'D;[h.w>rRpXRvX w>td.,XRw z.
vdRvdRql'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJM.vDRI vXcHuwX>< yvd.b.vXydmcGgwz.ub.td.'D; w>[H;xD.zD.
xD.rl'gvXw>pkql.cD.wu;xD'gydmrk.tHRM.vDRI w>tHR,Hmwh>r;vHvX ydmrk.ydmrXRwz. tw>*hh>uDt0JtHRrh>
w>*h>uDwcgvX b.w>ymyeD.tDR< zJydmcGgoh.wz.rRur.uDG>rh.'D; [H;pd[H;urDRtuwD>M.vDRI vXw>M.t
CdydmcGgvXttd.wh>t*kRt*Rwz. ub.uwdRxD.w>'D; wb.td.upk'kbSh.bSD.rhwrh> uwdRvDReHRvDRth'D;
eHRb.z;vJ>b.C;'D; w>rRur.uDG>rh.tHRt*h>M.b.I ydmcGgcJvXmtd.'D;trlt'gvXub.qXxX.'D;ub.
rRoh.ng0JvXw>vXw>pkql.cD.wu;xD'gtrd>wz.< tzdrk.wz.< t'Dyk>0J>rk.w z.<trgwz.< 'D;trk>*>w
z.<M.rh>w>oh.wz.vXw>wl>vdmtDRwohvhRwuhRb.t*h>M.vDRI
?pH.nD.yDwhvX'Ju0DRylRw>yXw>qSX vXuD>y,DR'D;uD>uFD.wJ.uD>qX =zDvpH.< w>&J.w>usJRwz.< 'D;w>vX w>
rRtDRuJxD.vdmxD.ohwz./ w>[h.ul.[h.z;vX t[JvXw>ymzsgwbh.tHRtzDcd.< cDzsd zF.pdrdR ySRvDRCkxH.
oh.ngw>b.C; w>rRvdM>b.C;<ySRb.uDb.cJwz.t*h>tusdR<w*R vXtrh>( cX.pxX.rJ;cDecHR)(Kirsten
McConnachie)vXtrRvdw>vX(Oxford)zF.pdrdR<2013
11.1 w>[h.ul.[h.z;cd.oh.wz.=

(1)IrR*hRxD.'D;rR'd.xD.vJ>xD. unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHm w>od.w>oDw>bsXwz.'fod; ?w>od.w>oD zd;oJ
p;vXb.w>e>yX>tDR/tHRutd.0JvX'Ju0DREGHbh.vXmtylRvXw>oltDRuoht*D>vXub.w>rRtDR0HR0JwJm0J
vXCkvgtwD>ylRM.wuh>Iw>tusdRtusJ0JtHRunDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmub.uwJmuwDR'D;wDcd.&d.rJ0JwkR
vDRwDRvDRvXttd.'D;w>tuH>tpDvXvXySJRySJRtylRM.vDRI'D;w>&J.w>usJRt0JtHRub.td.'D;w>rRoud;w>
u&l>cX.p;'ftrh>'Ju0DRurH;wHmcX.p;vX'Ju0DRud;zsX.'J;ub.td.'D;w>rRoud;w>bl;bl;wH>wH>'D;unDb.
uD b.cJurH;wHmwz.< wuwD>CDCkm'D; 'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhySRvX trRvdmxD.z;xD.w>wz.< unDydmrk.u&X<
'D;*H>cD.xH;w>u&Xu&dcX.p;wz.<ySRw0XcX.p;wz.<'D;ySRwl>b.w>wz.<Ckm'D;ySRvXtqD.xGJrRpXR'D;[h.
ul.[h.z;w>tusdRtusJwz.<'fw>ChxD.wh>0Jtod;M.vDRI
(2)I&J.usJRw>uG>u'guhRwuD>cgpH.nD.yDwhw>rRtwuGD>tusdRtusJwz.(unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmw>
od.w>oDwz.<w>usJRClusJRzdS;'D;w>bSg&SJw>obH.bk.tw>eJ.usJ<w>rRur.uGD>rh.vXw>usJRClusJRzd;tDR
wM><w>eJ.usJvXw>'k;Cmt*D>)vXw>uCkxH.M>uhRw>vDRzsJ.vDR[dwz.t*D><w>vXtw*X>wusXRw'H;
od;vdmo;wz.<w>vXtcd.csXvdmo;wz.<'k;td.xD.uhR'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhw>rRoud;w>u%l>'fod;uym
ol.ymo;vXw>CkxH.M>w>oh.wz.tzDcd.'D;[H;xD.*h>0D'D;ymyeD.w>uDw>cJwz.vXCkvgtwD>ylRI
(3)IrRvDRwH>vXw>od.w>oD'D;w>eJ.usJwz.b.w>uG>u'guhRtDR'D;b.w>ym*X>ymusXRuhRtDR'fod;u[h.
w>'Do'XvDRwH>vDRqJ;qlydmrk.wz.vXtwl>b.oHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.t*D>M>wuh>I
11

(4)IrR*hRxD.uhR'D;rRvXxD.ySJRxD.uhR pH.nD.yDwhtpXvX tusdRtusJb.bsD;b.'g vX w>pH.nD.ySRrRur.w> w
z.t*D>'D;'fod;u[h.ySRwl>b.w>'D;ySRw0Xwz.tw>bH.w>bXw>ylRzsJ; vX ySRvXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.
ttd.<'D;ymzsgxD.vXuGD>rh.'d.'d.rk>rk>vXb.w>oltDRwz.w>wwl>vdmtDR'D;wl>upktDRb.M.vDRI
(5)IrR&SJxD.ySRvXtzD.Cmw>pdw>urDRwz.'D;ySRvXtrRvXxD.ySJRxD.w>wz.?pH.nD.yDwhtMqX.<tw>pd
w>urDR<tw>rRtusdRtusJtwuGD>wz./M.wuh>IrRvDRwH>vXw>[h.w>pdw>urDRvXw>vXtzsgzsdzsgzsgvX
w>ymuJtylRqlu&l>wzk'D;wzktylRvXw>od.w>oD'D;pH.nD.yDwhw>rRwuGD>ylRM.wuh>Iw>oh.wz.tHRtzD
cd.[h.w>*h>w>usdRqlbd;b.oh.ngtDRqlySRursX>wz.wuh>I
(6)I[h.w>td.,XRtvXtySJR'D;rRtgxD.tDR<rR*hRxD.tywD>wz.ql'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhoElwz.tylRM.wuh>I
(t'd=usdmphw>qD.xGJrRpXR<w>yD;w>vD<ySRrRw>zdwz.<w>tusdRtusJwz.<vHmwdRChwz.<w>rRvdwz.<)
(7)I'k;td.xD.w>tusdRtusJvXtttd.'D;tywD>vXw>u[H;M>w>ymuDRwz.vXw>rl;w>&>cJvXmwz.
t*D><wuwD>CDtd.'D;w>'dol.'do;vXtb.C;'D;rk.cGgw>b.vD>b.p;vXw>uxXzSd.w>tk.uDRwz.t*D>
vXttd.'D;w>tusdRtusJwqDb.wqDM.wuh>I

12

3. w>ol0D>}oJtzsX.'D;tcDynDwz.
oJp;w>bsXvXt[h.w>tcGJ;t,mvXw>vXerRtDRoh<wohb.wz.w>tuddsRtusJcJvXmM.w>uGJ;vDRtcDynD
pH;w>'fvJ.'fvJ.t*h>vDRwH>vDRqJ;'fod;w>tHRw>uolb.tDR &SJ&SJzdvXtusdRtusJb.'D;rwRwz.vXt-uX;pH.
nD.w>qXwJmw>vJ.'D;ub.rR0JvXusJ'fvJ.t*h>M.vDRIt'd=w>t*h>tusdRtcDynDvXw>uGJ;tDRtvXtySJRw
z.b.w>rR*hRxD.tDR tCd yoh.ngb.ohvX w>rEkRwuvkmvX yub.ud;tDR vX ?w>rRuRySRunD/<rhwrh> /
w>rRw&Dwyg? (rh) ?w>tJ.bX/'D;ub.rh>w>'fvJ.wuvkmvX yoltDRuM> vJ. t*D>M.vDRI 0D>}oJ t*h> tusdR
tcDynDwz.tvD>td.oyS>uwX>vX w>*h>tgrHRtzDcd.vXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJt*D>M.vDRI w>uJxD.to;
wz.b.w>wD.xD.tDR0HRtvD>cH< w>ydmxJGxD.tywD>wz.vX pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz.tylR'd;oMRxD.t
o;vXw>ur.rEkRwcgvX b.w>rRur.tDRvJ.M.vDRI 0D>}oJvXw>oltDRwz. w>rh>wymvDRtcDynDt*h>t
usdR rh>wtd.< rh>wvXwySJR b.M.uJxD.uhRto;v X<w>vXw>[h.w>qXwJmwz.< urlmur.0J'.nDu'.vX
w>vXb.w>rRur.tDR'D;w>-uX;[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvXusJ'fvJ.tylRM.vDRI
zJyrRw>vDRCkxH.M>w>tqXuwD>< yxH.b.vXb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRwz.tylR< w>eJ.usJvXtvDRwH>vDRqJ;'D;&SJ
&SJvXw>uusX>wH>oJp;vXt[h.w>tcGJ;vXw>ub.rR'D;wb.rRw>rEkRvJ.wz.t*D>wtd.ymvDRto;b.I
'D;w>tHR'k;td.xD.w>o;'h'D'D;'k;uJxD.uhRpH.nD.yDwhtpXvXtw'H;od;b.wz.M.vDRIvXM.trJmng<w>eJ.
usJtcDynDvXw>rRtudsRtusJy*D>tcDynDvDRwH>vDRqJ;vXt&SJvXySRvXtyXqSX&J.usJRw>vXpH.nD.yDwhtylRw
z.t*D> wtd.ymvDRto;b.I t'd= w>t*h>tusdR vX tymCkm 'D; w>vXt&h'd.vX pH.nD.yDwh tvHmt vJ>ylRw
z.?unDb.uDb.cJw>bsX(39)xH./b.w>wX.yD.tDR'fvXvmtod;M.vDRI
yxH.b.ph>uD;vXw>uDw>cJtd.0J'.vXw>t*h>tusdRtcDynDvXtb.C;'D;(usdm)tw>*h>uDtd.z;'d.vXt
uJxD.to;vXw>ub.qdurd.'D;ymol.ymo;vXt*h>tusdR< td.zsg}wX>uvm vXw>ub.rR*hRxD.w>t*D>
'D;vXw>ub.rRvXxD.ySJRxD.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJt*D>M.vDRI ySRb.uDb.cJwz. tgwuh>uwdRunDusdm
rhwrh>y,DRusdmM.vDRI xH*kmuD>*R tvHmtvJ>wz.'D; ursX>obVu&Xwz.vX trR w>vX ysDylRpH.nD.yDwh wz.
ol0JtJuvH;tudsmM.vDRIusdmvXxHvD>uD>ylRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJol0JvXuFD.wJ.uD>ylRwcDrh>0JuFD.wJ.usdm<
'ftrh>uFD.wJ.xHzduD>zdtod;M.vDRIusdmvXw>ymzsgvGH>usdmpkmpkmtHRtd.'D;tvHmrJmzsX.vXtvDRqDvdmto;
M.vDRI'D;wuwD>CDw0D>}oJwz.'D; vHmySJRusdRwz.rh>w>wz.vX w>oltDRvX&lwhw>uwdRvXttd.'D; tcDynD
vXt,dm<'D;rh>w>vXtbHbl'd.r;'D;w>tHRzsgvDR*mvXw>tHRrh>(usdm,J>usdmwusdm)M.vDRIrhwrh>vXw>qJ;rR
w>[l;w>*JRvDRvDRqDqDvXw>vJRcDzsdw>uDw>cJvXtb.xGJvdmo;'D;w>xd.Clxd.zSd.uhRusdmvXw>e>yX>tDRu
ohcDzdsw>&J.w>usJRwcgcgb.'D; uxH.b.vXoJp;w>bsXwz.< w>od.w>oDwz.< 'D;w>'d; M>pH. nD.yD whvX ySR
b.uDb.cJwz.t*D> vXtymCkm'D; ydmrk.wz.vX w>pkql.cD.wu;'db.tDR< u td.wh>vX w>zD.CH; tDR'D;w>
wvXwySJRb.tylRM.vDRI
3.1 0D>}oJ'D;w>uwdRtzsX.wz.vXvHmymzsgwbh.tHRtylRtcDynD

'fod;w>ue>yX>w>ymzsgtHR < zJtHRyxXEkmvDRCkmtDR'D;w>eJ.usJweDRvX yolw>uwdRtzsX.wz.weDR'fvJ.t*h>
'fvJ.M.vDRI ywxXEkmCkmzd;0Jp;0D>}oJ tcDynDt*h>tusdRwz.b.I w>t*h>w>usdR tcDynDwz. 'd;oMRxD.t
o;vXw>uwdRtzsX.wz.vXb.w>olnDEk>tDRvXrk>rqgweHRtHRyw>td.o;tzDcd.M.vDRI
w>qdurd.tDRvXtrRur.w> = ySRw*RvXb.w>ym'h.ymur.tDRvX trRur.b.w>vX w>rl;w>&>tylRM.
vDRI w>wD.xD.w>rl;w>&> rhwrh> pH.nD.yDwh tusdRtusJ wuwX>'H;b.tCd zJM.tqXuwD>M. w>pH.nD.tpX
vXw>qXwJm b.C;w>vXb.w>rRur.tDRtHR w[JxD.'H;b.M.vDRI ywolw>uwdRtzsX.wzsX.tHRcJtHRcJ
tHRvXw>ymzsgwbh.tHRtylRM.b.I 'fyymyeD.wh>tod;vX oJp;w>oh.nge>yX>tzDcd. ySRw*RM.w>ud;tDRw
bsDCDvXySRrRur.w>M.wohb.Irh>vXzd;oJp;tusdRtusJtHRw>rRtDRw0HRwwJm'D;w>qXwJmwvDR'H;b.tCd
M.vDRIvXoJp;trJmng ySRw*Rv>v>vXoJp;w>pH.nD.tpXrh>w[JxD.vX trRur.w>b.'D; w>ud;tDRvXySR
rRur.w>wohb.Iw>ub.ud;tDRvXySRvXw>qdurd.tDRvXtrRur.w>M.vDRI
13

'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh = w>tusdRtusJwz.vX trh>< w>od.w>oDtusdRtusJwz.vX tb.xGJb.C;'D;'Ju0DRCkm
'D;ySRrRw>zdwz. (u0DR'hcd.e>< 'Ju0DRurH;wHm wz.< bH.bX< pH.nD.uGD>wz.<) vXttd.'D; rl'gw>pdw>urDR w
z.vX'Ju0DRtylRM.vDRI
[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu; = eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu; b.w>rRur.tDRvX ySRvXtbl;'D;ySRwz. vXtrh>y[H.zd
CDzd'.y0JM.vDRI w>oh.wz.M.y.Ckm0J'D;oGH.xH;w>rRqg rhwrh> w>pkql.cD.wu;ohM.vDRI w>tHRnDEk>0R
oh.wz.olw>pkql.cD.wu;xD'gtrgM.vDRI
w>[h.phtD.vd; phvXySRrRur.w>< b.[h.0Jqly'd.cX.p;rhwrh> ySRb.rlb.'gwz.( 'ftrh>qlyXRuD> w z.
ttd. rhwrh> ySRvXt[Hw>bH.w>bXySRrRw>zdwz.ttd.) w>vXphtD.vd;M. w>w[h.
tDRqlySRwl>b.w>ttd.b.I phvXb.w>[h.tDRqlySRwl>b.w>ttd.M. rh>phvXw>ud;
tDRvX?w>b.ph/vXrk>qh.rk>*DRw>uwdRupH;0JvXphvXw>[h.tDRvX twl>b.cD.b. w>
'D;w>b.'dqgtDRtzDcd.M.vDRI
w>wDw>-w>
w>uwdR0JtHRb.w>oltDRvXusJcHbdM.vDRI
(1)I vXw>u'k;eJ.zsgxD. w>od.w>oD tu-wL>< tusdRtusJwz.< 'D; w>vX ttd.'D; w>
[H;M>rl'gvXub.[H;xD.zD.xD.w>rl;w>&>wz.vX b.w>rRur.tDRvXxHzduD>zd u
rsX>wz.tzDcd.M.vDRI
(2)Iyrh>uG>u'guhRvXw>b.xGJvX tb.C;'D;pH.nD.yDwhvX ySRwl>b.w> rhwrh> xHzduD>
zdursX>vXtrRur.w>'D; 'd;M>w>qXwJmwrHRrHR vXtb.w>ymyeD.tDRvX t0Jrh>ySRrRu
r.w>'D; w>ur.vXySRrRur.w>tHR b.w>ymvDRtDRvXw>utd.'D;w>[H;M>rl'gvXw>
[H;xD.zD.xD.tDR 'ft-uX;uXuD.'D;w>ur.vXtrRur.0Jtod;tzDcd.M.vDRI vXw>
bl.w*hRwD>w*hR'D;w>o;tk;tylRyolw>uwdRtzsX.wzsX.tHRtcDynDwvXwySJRvXw>ym
zsgwbh.tHRtylRb.M.vDRI
pH.nD.yDwh
tusdRtusJ

w>tusdRtusJwz.'Dwcgng< ySRrRw>zd< oJp;< w>bsXwz.< w>bH.w>bX< w>pH.nD.w
z.<uDG>bsD.wz.<pH.nD.yDwht0JR'X;vX'Ju0DRwz.tylR<'D;uDG>bsD.vXuFD.wJ.uD>ylRw
z.M.vDRI w>oh.wz.vXw>ymzsgvXx;tHR td.'D;trlt'gvXub.rRtrlt'gvXw>
[h.xD.uhRw> cDqXzJw>wrHRrHRvXtrh>uJxD.to;vXtrR[;*DRxHzduD>zd< ursX>wz.t
w>od.w>oDoJp;wz.tqXuwD>M.vDRI

oHG.xH;'D;rk.cGg
w>pkql.cD.wu;
w>rl;w>&>t*kR
t*Rwz.
w>tpXvX
t[JxD.

vXw>ymzsgwbh.tHRtylR w>xXEkmCkm0J'.'D;w>rRuRySRunD< w>usJ;pX;rRuRySRunD< 'D;
w>tJ.bXw>oh.wz.M.vDRI

ySRvXtrRur.
w><rhwrh>ySRvX
trR[;*DRw>
vXw>ymvDRtDR
wz.
eD>cdw>rRrJmqS;
eD>cdw>pkql.cD.
wu;

ySRw*Rv>v>vXtolb.w>pkql.cD.wu;vXw>rl;w>&>tylRM.vDRIvXyw>CkxH.M>
w>tHRtylR<yCkxH.M>Ckm'D;w>pH.nD.yDwhtpXwz.vXw>tusdRtusJtuwX>M.vDRI
vX w>M.tCd ypH;vXySRw*Rv>v> vXtrRxD'gw> rhwrh> rR[;*DRw>vXw>ymvDRCmtDR
vXw>wb.rRtDRb.'D;rRb.0Jwz.M.rh>ySRrRur.w>M.vDRI

w>tpX rhwrh> w>cDqX ql w>rl;w>&>vXt[JvX pH.nD.yDwh tusdRtusJ vX'Ju0DR rh>*hR <uFD.
wJ.rh>*hRM.vDRIw>qXwJmb.w>rRtDRvXySRb.rlb.'gvXw>[h.pd[h.urDRtDRvX ySR xH zd
uD>zd'D;ursX>vXtrRur.uDG>rh.wz.t*D>M.vDRI

eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;vXb.w>oltDR cDzsdySRvXtwrh>e[H.zdCDzdb.(ySRw>csX)vXw>ym
zsgwbh.tHRtylR w>xXEkmCkmtDR'D;eD>cdw>rRrJmqS;< w>rRrJmqS;cDzsd w>rRysHRrRzk;wz.< w>
rRoHrR0Dwz.'D;[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.M.vDRI
14

oGH.xH;w>pk
ql.cD.wu;
oGH.xH;'D;rk.cGg
w>pkql.cD.wu;

vXw>ymzsgwbh.tHRtylR<w>xXEkmCkmtDR'D;w>rRw&DwygvX trh>w>zD.ql.rHCkmql.
'D;oHG.xH;w>rRrJmqS;(w>xd;b.'D;w>wcgcgvXw>rRtDRvXtrh>oGH.xH;tusJvXty.
Ckm'D;w>rRql.vXySRwb.o;b.< b.q. wrh>w>vXtusJ;pX;rR0J'fod;urRw&Dwyg
0Jt*D>b.I)
w>tHRtcDynDrh>0J?oGH.xH;'D;w>pkql.cD.wu;/ M.vDRI w>tHRrh>w>rRzsgxD.w>vk>v>
ouJ;y0;wcg vXtuJxD.w>rHR[lo.zsgvX[D.cd.'Dbh.ng vXtylRuGHmeH.tpdRwz.
tpdRM.vDRI vXw>ymzsgwbh.tHRtylR yolw>0JtHRvXtcDynDrh>0J ?w>pkql.cD.wu;xD
'gydmrk./M.vDRI b.q. w>eD>eD>wcD oGH.xH;'D;rk.cGGgw>pkql.cD.wu;tHR tcDynDrh>w>
vXt'd.0J,dm0J'd.r;M.vDRIvXw>0JM.tylRy.Ckm'D;ydmcGg'D;ydmcGgzdo.wz.wl>b.
oGH. xH;w>pkql.cD.wu; rhwrh> wl>b.rk.cGg w>pkql.cD.wu;ohM.vDRI vXw>M.tCd
w>vXoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;tHRtd.'D;tuh>t*DRtgrHRtguvkmM.vDRIb.q.
vXw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHR yynd.w>vXtb.C;'D;eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;'D;oGH.xH;w>pk
ql.cD.wu;wz. vXb.w>rRur.xD'gtDRqlydmrk.wz.ttd. cDzsdydmcGgwz.M.vDRI
w>vXoHG.xH;rk.cGGg w>pkql.cD.wu;vXtJuvH;usdm(SGBV)tHR w>usdmxHuhRtDRvXySR
unDusdmwrh>w>vXtwkRvDR'D;tvXtySJRb.I

uFD.wJ.
pH.nD.yDwh
w>rRysHRrRzk;

xHvD>uD>ylRzd;oJp;tusdRtusJ tuFD.wJ.y'd.eD>cdw>rRrJmqS;tw>rRysHRrRzk;'d.'d.rk>rk>
vXttd.vXw>ynd.tylR< td.'D;w>emvXtql.vXw>pkql.cD.wu;tHR uuJxD.t
o;'D;'k;td.xD.w>ysHRw>zk;vXtywD>xD

ySRwl>b.w>

ySRvX twl>b.cD.b.w>pkql.cD.wu;vXw>rl;w>&>tylRwz.M.vDRI(wd>eD. = w>vD>
vXw>oltJuvH;usdm tvD> wz. < ySRwl>b.w>vX twl>b.oGH.xH;rk.cGg w>pk ql.cD.w
u;vXtwoHwyS>b.<b.oh.oh.w>uD;tDRvX?ySRwl>b.w>vXtvJRcDzsd0Jw>vXt
b.uG>qX.rJm0Jwz.M>'D; ylRzsJ;xD.uGHm0JvXtw>vJRcDzsdttXtoDtHRtylR/M.vDRI('f
w>uwdRzsX.t0JtHR vXySRunD 0D>}oJwtd.b.tzDcd. ywoltDRvX w>ymzsgwbh.tHR t
ylRb.I)

15

4. w>*h>rd>yS>
ySRvXt[JvXuD>y,DR'D;td.0Jqd;0JvX unDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRcGHbh.vXmtylR vXttd.0J'.vXuD>uFD.wJ.'D;uD>
y,DRtqXwz.tHR td.'D;w>cGJ;w>,mvXu'd;M.b.w>wDw>-w>'D; uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhvXb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DR
vXtd.0Jqd;0JvXtylRM.vDRI 'Ju0DRcGHbh.tHR td.ol.vDRto;vXuD>uFD.wJ.tylR< tcDynDrh>0J uFD.wJ.y'd.t
vdmtyRtHR td.'D;w>pdurDRySJRwkm vXySRb.uDb.cJwz.tzDcd.'D;vX 'Ju0DRwz. 'fttd.'D;w>pdurDRySJR wkmvX
uD>uFD.wJ.'Dwbh.ngtzDcd.tod;M.vDRI vXuD>uFD.wJ.tylRtHR oJp;oEltd.'.xJwcg{dR'D; oEl0JM. rh>0JuDF.
wJ.zd;oJp;oElM.vDRI xHuD>vXttd.'D;w>pdurDRySJRwkmwbh.pkmpkmvX[D.cd.'Dbh.tylRtd.'D;w>pdw>urDRvX
uzD.CH;0JoJp;w>bsXql y'd.'D; tw>vD>w>usJwz.M.vDRI b.q.oemuh 'fw>ymzsg wh>vX tqX'd. (3) b.uD
b.cJ'Ju0DR wz. b.ol0Jw>od.w>oDw>bsXwz. tguvkmtgcg vXtusg y.Ckm0J'D;xH*kRuD>*RtoJp; M.vDRI
vXM.trJmng<uFD.wJ.ty'd.wz.td.'D;w>pdw>urDRySJRwkmvXt[h.w>cGJ;w>,mvXySR'Ju0DRzdwz.vXw>rl;
w>&> vXw>ymyeD.0Jtd.weDR vXrh>wtJ.'d;CkxX0JvX uvJRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhoh'D; tup>'.0JbSg&SJ0JvX 'J
u0DRylRohM.vDRI
pH.nD.yDwh'D;w>wDw>-w> rh>w>wcgvXtuFD;rJ;CJ; bHbl'd.r;vXw>vD>ud;ylR'J;< 'D;vDRqD'.w>vXw>vXtb.
C;'D;ySRb.uDb.cJwz.M.vDRI qXuwD>cJtHR ySRvXttd.vXb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRwz.tylR teD.*H>td.0 J*D>rk> *D>
yR'D; ySRoh.wz.tHR wrh>uFD.wJ.txHzduD>zdb.tCd 'k;td.xD.pH.nD.yDwhoElvXttd.'D;w>wRw>wz.tg
r;< 'D;w>0JM. rh>w>wcgvXtvXmbl.vXmphR< vXmw>qXuwD>'D; 'd;oMRxD.ph>uD;to;vX epH;uwdRvXt*h>w
z.tzDcd.M.vDRI
vHmymzsgwbh.tHRynd.0JvdRvdR b.C;'D;oHG.xH;rk.cGGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>'D; tw>wDw>-w>tpXvX
t[JxD.wz. vXunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DREGHbh.vX unDtguwX>tylRM.vDRI ywCkoh.ngrRvdM>w>rl;w>&>
vX u&h.eH.b.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRcHbh. tylRM.'H;b.I zJyrh>ol 0D>}oJ vXtrh> ?yXRuD>/ < ?pH.nD.uGD>wz.< /?w>Cd
xHoh.ngw>/<?Cdm/'D;oJp;w>bsXoh.wz.tHRM.<yub.qSXcDw>*h>tHRqluDF.wJ.zd;oJp;oEl'D;xJ'.w>vD>
'D;ySRvX'd;M>b.w>[h.w>ysJvXuFD.wJ.ty'd.{dRM.vDRIb.q.oemuh<vXySRz;w>zdz;0J'D;ue>yX>0JnDnDt
*D>< vHmymzsgwbh.tHR w>uolw>uwdR0D>}oJtzsX.wz.'ftrh> (?w>wDw>-w>/'D;/w>rl;w>&>/)vXw>uqSXcD
qlySR*Rttd.<w>tuh>t*DRwz.'D;w>tusdRtusJwz.<cHrHRvXmvX'Ju0DRwz.tylR'D;qluD>uFD.wJ.tylRph>
uD;M.vDRIb.rEkRtCdvJ.M. vX'Ju0DRylRM. w>ol0D>}oJvXtrh> oJp;t0D>}oJwz.'D; w>tuh>t*DRwcDwwkR
xD.'D; zd;oJp;tuh>t*DRvDRwH>vDRqJ;b.I 'D;w>tHR wrh>w>vX b.w>ym*X>ymusXR'D;wl>vdmtDRvX uD>uFD.wJ.y
'd.b.I b.q. 0D>}oJ'D;w>uwdRvX w>uol tDRvX t*Rwtd.ph>uD;b.I vXw>*h>tHRtzDcd.< 'fod; ySRz;w>ymzsg
wbh.tHR ue>yX>0J&SJ&SJt*D> w>rh>olzd;oJp;tusdmwzsX.CDvXw>qSXcDtusdRtusJt*D> b.q.w>M>pdM>urDRvX
pH.nD.yDwhwcD w'fod;vdmto;b.M.vDRI 'fypH;wh>vXx;tod; pH.nD.yDwhvX uD>uFD.wJ.ty'd.tw> pdw> u
rDRySJRwkmtd.0J'.vXb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRud;bh.'J;tzDcd.tCd<pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJvX'Ju0DR'D;uD>uFD.wJ.y
'd.tHRvDRqDvdmto;M.vDRI
w>t&h'd.wrHR vX wuD>cg w>td.o; vX tuJxD.to;ohvXb.uDb.cJzdoh.wz.vXuD>uFD.wJ.tylRrh>0J w>
qSXuhRu'guhRqlxHvD>uD>ylRvXtrh>0Jw>wcgvXtd.zsgvXtuJxD.to;ohp;xD.vHvX(2011)zJw>rRw>ywkm
w>c;tusdRtusJ'D;uD>y,DRvHRvHRM.vDRIw>eD>eD>wcDw>tudsRtusJtHRrRto;CX'd.r;<'D;w>vDRvDRqDqDvXt
qDwvJto;td.xD.ph>uD;vXw>M.tzDcd. w>wX.yD.td.xD.0JtgrHRtguvkm b.C;ySRb.uDb.cJwz.u
uhRu'guhRqluD>y,DRuM>uohvXusJ'fvJ.t*h>M.vDRIzJw>uGJ;vHmymzsgwbh.tHRvXtb.C;'D;ySRb.uDb.
cJwz.t*h>tqXuwD><cX.p;wz.vXtrh>(UNHCR)y'd.zd;oJp;ySRrRw>zdwz.<'D;xH*kRuD>*RursX>obVu&X
wz. [l;*JR'D;usJ;pX;0J'.vX ?w>uwJmuwDRo;vXw>uhRu'guhRt*D> /vXw>td.o;0JtHRtuwD> ywl>b.vX
w>uwJmuwDRo;w>[l;w>*JR b.w>rRtDRtrJmng w>-uX;[H;xD.zD.xD.b.C;w>CkxH.M> w>rl;w>&>'D;w>
tpXvX[JxD.wz.tHRvXtrh>tvdm0JeD>eD>vXw>ub.CkxH.M>tDRM.vDRI
16

4.1 w>uG>u'guhRunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DREGHbh.vXmw>td.o;

ySReD.*H>eD.'G;vX unDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DR EGHbh.vXmtylR vXw>u&Xu&d (TBC) tw>CkxH.M>ymyeD.ySRunDeD.
*H >eD. 'G; zJ vg'H . pJ b X.(2013)eH. tzDc d. ySR eD . *H > td. 0J( 104,199)*R'D ; ydmrk . 'D; yd mcG g teD. *H > wz.
rh>w>vXtxJod;vdmo;CmCmM.vDRI
(TBC) tw>rRvDRwH>ySReD.*H>eD.'G;wz.

'Ju0DR
rJ>v;tl;
rJ>&Rrd>
rJ>v;
tl;yF.
ed.zd
bg'dR,g
xgr[h.
cJvXm

zJ'H.pJbX.(2013)eH.twD>ylR
ySReD.*H>eD.'G;
11,957
13,450
43,255
13,154
12,572
3,251
6,560
104,199

unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHm(KRC)rh>ySRw0Xtuh>t*DRw>ol.vDRqDvDRo;urH;wHmwzkvXub.uG>xGJu[k
u,munDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DREGHbh.vXmM.vDRIuFD.wJ.b.rlb.'gwz.ymyeD.0JunDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmtHR
urh>ySRwzkvXtuJxD.cX.p;vdRvdRvXySRb.uDb.cJwz.t*D>'D;urRoud;w>'D;w>u&Xu&dt*kRt*Rwz.
M.vDRI'Ju0DRwzsX.b.wzsX.pkmpkmturH;wHm vXtCkxXxD.0Jwz.('Ju0DRurH;wHm) rh>'Ju0DRtySRvXtyXqSX
&J.usJRw>M.vDRIunDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmtHR [h.ul.rRpXRqD.xGJ0J'Ju0DRurH;wHmwz.'D;[h.rRpXRt0Joh.vX
w>td.,XRwz. vX 'Ju0DR w>yXqSX t*D> 'D; w>t0JM. rh>w>tcd.oh.wcgvX uFD.wJ.y'd.b.rlb.'gwz.tw>
b.xGJ'D;b.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRt*h>M.vDRI
unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmtrlt'gtgcgtusgwcg<rh>0Jub.rR*hRxD.'D;uG>xHrRpXRb.C;ySRb.uDb.cJw
z.tw>wDw>-w>vXunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRwz.tylRM.vDRI(UNHCR)'D;xH*kRuD>*RursX>obVu&XtgzkrR
oud;Ckmw>'D;ySRw0Xtw>yXw>qSXtuh>t*DRvXuqD.xGJrRpXRRySR[D.cd.zdw>o;unDRw>vd.b.tw>rRpXR
wz.'D; *H>cD.xH;w>qD.xGJrRpXRw>zH;w>rRwz.ql ySRvXttd.vX'Ju0DRwz.tylRt*D>M.vDRI( UNHCR)trl
t'grh>0J ub.uG>xHorHord;'D; ub.uwdRM>cJ;w>vXySRb.uDb.cJwz.tw>'Do'Xt*D>M.vDRI 'fbDrk>pXzSd.
u&XySRb.rlb.'gwzktod;< t0Joh.rh>ySRwzkvX ub.qD.xD.rRpXRw> wkRvXtwkRxD.xD.b; 'fxH*kRuD>*Rt
ywD>tod;M.vDRI vXySRb.uDb.cJt*kmt*Rw>td.o; vX[D.cd.'Dbh.ngwz.< (UNHCR) nDEk>[h.w>qD.
xGJrRpXRw>zH;w>rRwz.'D; w>wdmusJRw>zH;w>rRwz. rRvXxD.ySJRxD.w>zH;w>rRwz.vdRvdRqlb.uDb.cJ'J
u0DRtylRM.vDRI b.q.vXunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DR vXttd.vXuD>uFD.wJ.tylRwz.wcD rR0JwqH;wuh>M.
vDRI nDEk>tg'.w>wuh>vXunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRylRwcD (UNHCR)[h.usdmphw>qD.xGJrRpXR qlxH*kRuD>*Ru
rsX>obVySRrRoud;w>u&XweDRttd. vXurRvXxD.ySJRxD.w>t*D>b.q.<xH*kRuD>*RursX>obu&XtHR rRvX
xD.ySJRxD.w>wdmusJRwz.vdRvdRql'Ju0DRtylRM.vDRI(t'd= UNHCR)[h.usdmphw>qD.xGJrRpXRvXxH*kRuD>*R
ursX>obVu&XvXtrh>(IRC) w>u&Xu&d vXtb.C;w>[h.w>qD.xGJrRpXRzd;oJp;w>[h.ul.[h.z; (LAC)
w>wdmusJR'D;uD>trJ&uRb.uDb.cJurH;wHm( ARC)w>u&Xu&dvXtqD.xGJrk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>wdm
usJRw>&J.w>usJRtHRph>uD;M.vDRI b.C;'D;w>*h>tHR w>wX.yD.ymzsgtDR'fvmtod;M.vDRI tg'.w>wuh>< u
rsX>obVu&Xwz. rh>ySRrRoud;w>u&l>tuh>t*DRwz.vX ttd.ol.vDRto;vX0h>bDuD;'D; b.w>ud;tDRvX
(CCSDPT)w>rRoud;w>urH;wHm vXuzH;w>rRw>wz.vXySRvD>td.urSHwz. vXttd.vXuD>uFD.wJ.tylR
t*D>M.vDRI
xH*kRuD>*RursX>obVu&XvXtrh>ySRrRoud;w>u&l>wz. td.0J'.'D;tw>zH;w>rR0JRusdR vXtb.C;'.0J'D;
tDRpkmpkmM.vDRI(t'd=w>td.ql.td.cV<w>ul.b.ul.oh<w>bH.w>bXvXw>tD.w>tDt*D><)'D;t0Joh.wzk
17

pkmpkmrRvDRwH>ph>uD;0JvX tokwrR'Du-xXvdmo;tw>zH;w>rRwz.vX 0JRusdRt*Rwz.rRwh>0JvHwz.w*hRt
*D>M.vDRIvXbDrk>pXzSd.u&XywD>xDvDRqD'.w>vXw>u[ku,m'Do'XySRb.uDb.cJwz. (UNHCR) trJmng
xH*kRuD>*RursX>obVu&XweDR vXtrRw>vdRvdRb.C;'D;w>&J.w>usJR vXtrh> w>vXtb.xGJb.C;'D;w>*h>
uD vXtrh>oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu; vXtb.w>CkxH.M>tDRtpXvXt[JxD.cJtHRwbh.tHRt*h>M.vDRI
w>u&Xu&dwz.vXtrRw>rR'fM.wz.rh>0J w>u&Xu&dvXttd.ol.vDRqDvDRto;vX (0h>EFL,D;)vXtrRpXR
w>vXySR[D.cd.zdw>ol.unDRo;unDRxH*kRuD>*RursX>obVu&XvXtrRvXxD.ySJRxD.w>t&h'd.r;wcgvX w>
M. b.w>wDw>-w>w>cGJ;w>,mw>wdmusJRvX b.w>ud;tDRvX (LAC) vXtrRoCJRCkmw>'D;unDb.uDb.cJ
urH;wHm(KRC)wuwD>CDrRoud;Ckmph>uD;w>'D;oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;tw>&J.w>usJRzdwz.M.vDRI
ursX>obVu&X vXtrh> (LAC)vXtrRoCJRw>bl;bl;wH>wH>'D;unDb.uDb.cJurH; wHm vXtrRw>b.C;'D;
w>eDRvDRw>tD.w>tD'D;w>yXw>qSXvX'Ju0DRtylR<'D;w>u&Xu&dvXtrh>( ARC)vXtrRw>b.C;'D;oGH.xH;
rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>&J.w>usJRwz.M.vDRI w>rRoud;w>u&l>tHRteD>up>'.0J< 'ftrh>u&l>wzktuh> t
*DR td.0J'fySRwzk vX ttd.'D;tcX.p;'.0Jpkmpkm vX t'd;yXqSXvDRto;'.0JvX u&l>wzktHRtw>qXwJmtzDcd.< t
urH;wHmwz.'D;ySRrRoud;w>u&l>tgzkwz.td.'D;tw>zH;w>rRvXtvk>bXuGHmoGH.xH;rk.cGGgw>pkql.cD.w
u;'D;w>wDw>-w>tusdRtusJwz.vXt[l;*JRvX'Ju0DRtylRcDzsd?w>'Do'XoGH.xH;w>rRql.rRpd;'D;w>[H;ur.
w>pdw>urDR/wz.M.vDRI
uFD.wJ.ty'd.tHRtd.'D;w>pdw>urDRvXuuG>orHord;w>zH;w>rRvX(UNHCR)rR0Jwz.<(CCSDPT)w>'Do
'XurH;wHmw>rRoud;w>u&l>wz.tw>zH;w>rR 'D;turH;wHmwz.tw>td.o;< 'D;b.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRwz.
M.vDRI
4.2 'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ
4.2.1 tw>pH.pdR t*h>tusdR tcD.xH; cD.bdvXtylRuGHm vX unDb.uDb.c Jwz.p;xD.to;oDoDcgM.<yrh>uG>
u'guhRvXtylRuGHm (1995)eH.M.< ySRb.uDb.cJwz. td.'D;w>cGJ;w>,m wqH;wuh> <(rhwrh> )wtd.'.vJm 'D;

w>cGJ;w>,mvXu'd;M>wD.xD.b.tw>rl;w>&>qluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ'.vJmb.I w>rl;w>&>wz.
b.w>bSg&SJtDRvX'Ju0DRtylR< cDzsdw>ol0Jw>od.w>oD<w>bsXwz.vXtpHmpkmvdmo;< 'ftrh>vk>v>xloElw>
bsX< unD'DuvkmpXzSd.u&X w>bsX< 'D; w>bsXvX b.w>'k;td.xD.tDRvX b.uDb.cJurH;wHm wz.tCdM.vDRI zJ
M.tqXuwD> (UNHCR)rhwrh> (INGO) xH*kRuD>*RursX>obVu&Xwz. w[JEkmvDRtgtg*D>*D>vX'Ju0DRylR 'fod;
qXuwD>cJtHRtod;b.I zJM.tqXuwD> w>u&Xu&dwz.td.'.xJpSRzk'D;pSR*RM.vDRI tqXuwD>zJM. w>u&X
u&dcd.oh.vXtEkmvDRrRpXRw>zJM.rh>0J( TBC)w>u&Xu&dvXtrRw>bl;bl;wH>wH>'D;unDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DR
p;xD.vX'Ju0DRtd.xD.vHRvHRtuwD>M.vDRI
zJ(2003)eH.vgrhRtylR< p;xD.zJ (UNHCR) uGJM>vGJM>0JuFD.wJ.ty'd. (usJ;pX;uwdRw>vX w>vX w>qDwvJu
td.xD.t*D>)0HRtvD>cH uFD.wJ. y'd.tHRtX.vDRwl>vdm0JvX w>uvdmbXvdmuDG> ySRvXtrRur.uDG>rh.vXttd.
vXb.uDcJ'Ju0DRylRwz.M.vDRI(UNHCR)'k;td.xD.0Jw>wdmusJRwcgvX tb.w>ud;tDRvX?w>wDw>-w>t
w>yXw>qSX/vXty.Ckmy.*D>'D;ySRb.uDb.cJw>yXw>qSX'D;uD>uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhvXb.w>ymyeD.tDRvX
b. w>e>yX>xGJtDR vXcHcD,>yRvXm<'D;rRtgxD.ySRb.uDb.cJwz.tw>cGJ;w>,mvXu'd;M>w>cGJ;w>,mvXu
wD.xD.b.tw>rl;w>&>wz.qluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJM.vDRI
vXw>*h>oh.wz.tHRtzDcd. w>tpXvXt[JxD.wz.tusg< w>wdmusJRwcgtHR ymvDRph>uD;w>tpXwz. w>*h>
rd>yS>wqHwxH.vX b.w>ymyeD.wh>CmtDRvXtrh>/w>rRur.uDG>rh.vXw>usJRClusJRzd;woh/vXtrh>w>u
r.wcgvXw>[h.w>pH.nD.'D;w>bSg&SJtDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJvhRwuhRwM>b.M.vDRI
w>ydmxGJuFD.wJ.ty'd.tw>eJ.usJtHR< uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtHR td.'D;w>pdw>urDRvXuGD>rh.EGHrHRvX
b.w>ymyeD.tDRtzDcd. vXu[h.uDG>rh.w>pH.nD>t*D>M.vDRI vXuDF.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ'D;w>uymy
eD. w>rRu r.wz.tHRt*D> uFD.wJ.yXRuD>wz.ub.CdxHoh.ng0Jw>*h>w>usdRwz.tHRvX'Ju0DRtylRM.vDRI
'D;uFD.wJ.uDG>bsD.wcDurRtrlt'gvXw>[h.w>pH.nD.qlySRw*RvXtb.w>vdmbXvdmuDG>tDRvXw>rl;w>&>
18

wz.tHRt*D>M.vDRI uG>b.vXvHmbs;pJeD.*H>(1)tylRvXtymzsgxD.w>vXvXySJRySJRb.C;w>rRur.uDG>rh.vX
w>usJRClusJRzd;tDRwohb.wz.M.t*h>wuh>IuDG>rh.vXtymyeD.0JwqHwrHRtrJmng<uFD.wJ.ty'd.tHR<[h.
w>pdw>urDRqlb.uDb.cJurH;wHm'D;'Ju0DRurH;wHmwz. vXu[H;xD.zD.xD.b.C;xHzduD>zdursX>tuDG>t
*kRt*Rwz.vXw>rh>rRur.tDRM.vDRI
zJ (2005)eH.tylR< (IRC) vXtrh>xH*kRuD>*R ursX>obVu&X 'k;td.xD.0J (IRC/LAC)w>wdmusJR M.vDRI p;xD.vX
(2005)eH.< w>wdmusJRtHR 'd;M>b.0Jusd.phw>qD.xGJrRpXRtvXtySJR'd.'d.rk>rk>vXxH*kRuD>*RySRw0Xwz.<vXt
y.Ckm'D;(AUSAID< DFID)'D;(UNHCR)wz.M.vDRIyrh>uG>vXt0Joh.tw>u&Xu&dt*h>tusdR(website)t
ylR yxH.b.vX xJ'.(DFID)xJwzk{dR qD.xGJrRpXR0Jusd.phw>qD.xGJrRpXR tpSRuwX>(35)uuGJ> vX ph,lR&dRtHR ql
(LAC)w>wdmusJR t*D>M.vDRI vXw>wdmusJR t0JtHRtzDvmM. (IRC/LAC)tHRrRoCJRoud;Ckmw>'D; w>u&Xu
&dcHzk vXtrh>unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHm'D;u&h.eH.b.uDb.cJurH;wHmcHzktHR 'fod;urR*hRxD.w>od.w>oDw>
bsXwz.vXySR'Ju0DRzdwz.uolb.0JvXb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRcGHbh.vXmtylRcDzsdtol.xD.M>0Jzd;oJp;tw>ohw>
b.'D;w>ohyXqSX'Ju0DRtHRqlySRb.uDb.cJurH;wHmwz.ttd.<'D;[h.zd;oJp;w>[h.ul.[h.z;qlySRb.uD
b.cJwz.ttd.'D; qD.xGJrRpXRySRb.uDb.cJw>rl;w>&>wz.vX w>uqSXcDtDRqluFD.wJ.oJp;w>bsXtusdRt
usJtzDvmM.vDRI
(LAC)tHR qDvDRto;vX'Ju0DRoXbh.tylR vXtrh>rJ>v;'Ju0DR< tlyF.'Ju0DR'D;ed.zd'Ju0DRwz.M.vDRI 'D;vX'J
u0DRvXttd.wh>vGH>bh.M.(LAC)wEkmvDRrRw>vXtylR'H;b.M.vDRI
'fw>ol.xD.zd;oJp; w>ohw>b.tHR rh>w>vX t&h'd.r;tod;< (IRC/LAC) b.w>[h.tDR rl'gvX urRpXRuGJ;oJp;
wz.vX w>e>yX>tDRohvXySRw0XvX 'Ju0DRwz.tylRM.vDRI zJ (2009)eH.tylR (IRC) ymzsgxD.0JoJp; wz.vXw>
e>yX>tDRoh'D;nDvXySRw0Xwz.t*D>td.zsg0J'ftzDvmtod;tHRvDRI
(LAC)cJtHRrh>ySRwzkvXtqD.xGJrRpXRunD'D;u&h.eH.b.uDb.cJtw>uJcd.uJe>vXutd.'D;w>wDcd.&d.rJvX
urR*hRxD.oJp;w>bsXwz.vXw>e>yX>tDRohvX'Ju0DRwz.t*D><vXt(rh>w>wcgvXt'k;bs;pJ'Ju0DR'D;)uD>
uFD.wJ.toJp;w>bsX wuwD>CD ub.rh>w>wcgvX ySRw0XoltDRoh'D;uJxD.vd.xD.ohM.vDRI?w>rR*hRxD.oJ
p;w>bsXvXw>e>yX>tDRohvXySRud;*R'J;tHR ub.rh>w>wcgvX ty.Ckm'D;w>zH;w>rRtwuGD>w>rRtusJ vX w>
uJcd.uJe>tywD> vXw>ubSg&SJ'D;qSXcD w>vXw>rRur.tDRwz.'D; ub.rh>w>wcgvX ySRvX'Ju0DRylRwz. w>
uoh.ngymyeD.tw>cGJ;w>,m'D;trlt'gvXcgqlngt*D>M.vDRI( LAC)qD.xGJrRpXRph>uD;'Ju0DRw>uJcd.uJe>
cDzsdw>uG>u'guhRoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;< 'D;[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.vX b.w>[H;xD.zD.
xD.tDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz.tylR 'D;w>uG>u'guhRw>[H;xD.zD.xD.w>ur.oh.wz.tHR w>
tpXvXt[JxD.wz. ub.rh>w>wz.vXtrh>zd;oJp;w>bsXvXw>uGJ;tDRwz.tHR 'db.w>rRur.wz.tHR
M.vDRI/ (uFd0Jvf[;'Hef)vXtrh>(IRC) w>'Do'Xw>wdmusJRrl'gcd. vXtd.'D;w>vJRcDzsdw*Rtw>uwdR<zJ (2009
eH.)tqXuwD>M.vDRI
'f(IRC/LAC)'D;(UNHCR)w>wdmusJRw>eJ.usJtpX[JxD.0Jtod;<yxH.b.vXw>*hRxD.'D;w>qDwvJwz.vX
'Ju0DRtylR vXtrh>w>'d;M>b.w>cGJ;w>,mvXw>wDw>-w> cDzsdwD.xD.b.w>rl;w>&>wz.qlpH.nD.yDwht
usdRtusJM.vDRI yrh>xd.o}wDRuG>uhRvXteH.(20)ylRuGHmM.<cJtHR yxH.b.vXw>rl;w>&>vXt'd.'d.rk>rk>vX 'J
u0DRtylRwz. b.w>wl>vdmtDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtywD>M.vDRI (UNHCR) cX.p;wz.'D;
(IRC/LAC)ySRrRw>zdwz.ph>uD;uG>xHorHord;'D;qD.xGJrRpXRw>rl;w>&>oh.wz.tHRM.vDRI
b.q.oemuh<ywxH.b.w>ynd.vX w>ymvDRtDRtHRtwkRxD.<xD.b.vDRwH>vDRqJ;vX (IRC/LAC) tw>
wdmusJR tHR tylRb.I p;xD.vX (2005)eH.vHRvHR 'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ tHR b.w>uG>u'guhRtDRvX unD
b.uDb.cJurH;wHm'D;(IRC/LAC) vXttd.'D;w>rRoud;Ckmw>'D;(UNHCR)b.q. wkRCDRvX(2014)eH.vH
b.q. w>uG>u'guhRw>od.w>oDwbh.tHR w0HR0JwJm0J'H;b.M.vDRI 'Ju0DRw>od.w>oDwu-wL>tHR wrh>
w>od.w>oDwz.vXt&SJ< tvXtySJR'D; rh>w>wcgvXtwkRod;b.vdmto;'D;'Ju0DRwz.tw>pH.nD.yDwht
usdRtusJtw>td.o;'H;b.I zd;oJp;w>od.w>oDvX b.w>e>yX>tDRoh'D;w>rRtDRuJxD.vd.xD.ohvX b.w>
tX.vDRwh>CmtDRvX (IRC/LAC) 'D;unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHm ySRrRoCJRCkmw>u%l>u&Xwz.M. wtd.zsgxD.
0J'fw>tX.vDRwh>CmtDRtod;b.I
19

zJ(2009)eH.td.'D;w>qXuwD>CH;CD.'D.vXw> vXw>od.w>oD<toDy}wDmwz.vX'Ju0DRwz. t*D>vXt[h.
w>obVvXw>wzD.CH;w>vXRb. ? w>ur.rk>qh.rk>*DR/ t*D> td.0JtubsH;yR (20)M.vDRI 'D; ?w>rRur.uDG>
rh.tusdRtusJ/td.0J(13)ubsH;yRM.vDRI w>od.w>oDy}wDmtHR 'd;oMRxD.to;vXuFD.wJ.oJp;w>bsX'D; w>
oh.wz.M. rh>w>vXtuGJ;to;tvXtySJR'D; rhrh>w>wz.vX twuDG>vJ> vX ySRw0Xwz.t*D>b.q. t&h'd.r;
vXySRw0Xwz.u[h.xD.tw>yJmxHeDRz;< w>rR*hRxD.< 'D;w>[h.ul.[h.z;ub.M>0JM.vDRI zJ(2011)eH. w>
od.w>oDvX w>uGJ;y}wDmCmtDRwbh.tHR b.w>xk;uGHm -wLmuGHmtDR owl>uvm vX twtd.'D;w>wJe>yX>vX
t*h>tudsReDwrHRb.M.vDRI w>od.w>oDtoDwbh.tHR b.w>'k;oh.ngqlySR'Ju0DRzdwz.ttd. vXb.w>
ud;tDRvX?w>rR*k>xD.yoDxD.zd;oJp;tw>usJR ClusJRzd;tywD>( DMLS)/wbh.tHRtd. xD.0JM.vDRI'D;zJ
(2012)eH.tylR< vHmwbh.tHR b.w>qDwvJuGHmu'D;tDRqlvHmtoDwbh.vX b.w>ud;tDRvX ?w>usJRClusJR
zd;'D; w>bSg&SJuhRw>obH.bk.tvHmeJ.usJ/(MDRG)M.vDRI vHmvXw>xk;xD.tDRwz.tHR 'D;w>qXwJmvXb.
w>rRtDRwz.tHRrh>(IRC/LAC)(UNHCR)unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHm'D;u&h.eH.b.uDb.cJurH;wHmwz.trl
t'gM.vDRI
zJ(2014)eH.tylR(MDRG)vXtrh>?w>usJRClusJRzd;'D;w>bSg&SJw>obH.bk.tvHmeJ.usJ/vXttd.0JtubsH;
yR(80)ubsH;yRtHR b.w>xk;xD.&RvDRtDR 'D; b.w>rRuG>tDRvXrJ>v;'Ju0DRtylRM.vDRI ?w>usJRClusJRzd;'D;w>
bSg&SJw>obH.bk.tw>eJ.usJ/wbh.tHR wrh>zd;oJp;w>uGJ;vXw>e>yX>tDR&SJ'D;nDb.trJmng rh>vHmwu-wL>
vXtrh>w>eJ.usJvXw>usJRClusJRzd;rhwrh>w>[h.w>qXwJmvXxHzduD>zdursX>wz.vXxD'gzd;oJp;'D;rRur.tDR
wz.t*D>M.vDRI
4.2.2qXuwD>cJtHRw>*h>rd>yS>

w>zH;w>rRtusdRtusJw>rRwuGD>vXw>wymyeD.tDR 'D;wzd;oJp; vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJt*D><b.w>
vJR'k;td.xD.tDRvXunDb.uDb.cJurH;wHm'D;(IRC/LAC)vX'Ju0DRoXbh.tylRM.vDRIw>rRuG>w>&J.w>usJR
0JtHR'd;oMRxD.to;vXw>rRtusdRtusJtwuGD>vXtrRto;vXrJ>v;'Ju0DRylR'D;w>&J.w>usJRwrHRCDtHRb.
w>EkmvDRp;xD.rRtDRvXtlyF.'Ju0DRtylR'D;ed.zd'Ju0DRwz.tylRzJw>vD>vX(IRC)qDvDRymvDR(LAC)td.w>t
vD>wz.M.vDRIvXunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRt*RvGH>bh.tylRM.(MDRG) wEkmvDR[l;*JRrRw>'H;b.'D; wkRcJtHR y
xH.b.vX (MDRG)?w>usJRClusJRzd;'D;w>bSg&SJw>obH.bk.tw>eJ.usJ/wbh.tHR 'fyymzsgxD.w>rRtusdR
tusJtod; w>wp;xD.oltDRvX'Ju0DRvGH>zsX.tHRtylR'H;M.b.I(IRC/ LAC) 'D;unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmwz.
tw>ymo;td.0JvX w>tusdRtusJt0JtHR w>uolb.tDRvXunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DREGHbh.vXmtylR vXcgqlng
t*D>M.vDRI w>rRtusdRtusJtHR tvD>td.0J'.vX w>ub.ym*X>ymusXRtDRvXySRb.rlb.'gvXw>[h.pd[h.u
rDRtDR vXtb.xGJwz.b.q. w>eJ.usJwbh.tHR w&SJ0JvXw>ub.rRtDRtusdRtusJ'fvJ.'D; w>ub.rRtDR
tcgzJvJ.t*D>M.b.I w>rRtusdRtusJtHR tcd.oh.td.0JoXcgM.vDRI tcd.oh.wcgb.wcg td.'D;*h>tusdR w
cgpkmpkmvXb.w>ymzsgxD.tDRM.vDRI
1IMDRG (w>usJRClusJRzd;'D;w>bSg&SJuhRw>obH.obk.w>eJ.usJ)
2IunDb.uDb.cJurH;wHm(KRC)w>od.w>oDw>bsX(39)xH.vXb.w>'k;td.xD.tDRvX2011eH.I
3I w>rl;w>&>wz.vX trh> w>rRur.uDG>rh.vX w>usJRClusJRzd;tDRwoh ( vX w>uqSXcD qluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yD wh
tusdRtusJt*D>)
vXw>zH;w>rRtwuDG>tHRtylR<cDzsdvXw>od.w>oDwz.t*H>p>'D;w>CkxXvXt*kmt*Rwtd.b.tzDcd.<unD
b.uDb.cJurH;wHmtw>od.w>oDw>bsX(39)xH.tHRrh>w>vXto[D.ql.r;vX'Ju0DRwz.tylRM.vDRIunD
b.uDb.cJurH;wHmtw>od.w>oD(39)xH.tHR td.0J(oX)ubsH;'D; b.w>uG>u'guhRtDRzJ(2011)eH.'D;cJtHR y
xH.b.vXuJxD.w>t&h'd.wuh>vXw>oltDRohvX'Ju0DRwz.tylR'd.M>'H;unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmtw>
&J. w>usJR w>ymo;td.ymvXcgqlngw>uol(MDRG) ?w>usJRClusJRzd;w>obH.bk.tw>eJ.usJ/wuh>'H;M.
vDRI(uG>b.vXvHmbs;pJeD.*H>(2)vXtymzsgb.C;'D;(KRC)unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmtw>od.w>oD( 39)
xH.)M.wuh>I vXusJt*Rwbdyrh>uG>M. w>rRoCJRCkmw>'D;(IRC/LAC) vXurR*hRxD.uhRunDb.uDb.cJ
urH;wHm zd;oJp; tw>ohw>b.t*D>< unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHm tw>od.w>oDw>bsX ( 39)xH.tHR< wrh>zd;oJp;
w>uGJ;wcgvX tvXtySJRb.bsD;b.'gvXtu[h.w>eJ.usJtvXtySJRql'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz.t
td.vXutd.'D;w>'Do'XtvXtySJRvXySR'Ju0DRzdwz.t*D>b.I
20

eD.*H>
19

23

29
30

31
33
35
39

unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmw>od.w>oDw>bsX?39 /xH.vXtb.xGJvdmo;'D;
oHG.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.
w>vXw>ymvDRCmtDR'D;w>rh>rRur.tDRwz. w>[H;*h>0D
t*h>tusdR
zdo.vXteH.td.(7)eH.wkR(18)eH.wz.rh>rR 1I[h.w>oh.ng
ur.w>'D; w>wb.[H;tDR*h>0DvXtw'fod;'D; 2I[h.yvD>
w>[H;M>ySR'd.wkmcd.ySJR*h>0Dtod;M.b.I
3I[H;*h>0D'ft-uX;0Jb.0Jtod;
(w>bsX)
=w>wb.rRur.ySR*h>0DtxloElb.I(uDG>xH) 1I[h.yvD>
=tJ.bXrgtJ.bX0R
2Iw>uusJRClusJRzd;
=w>td.CkmvXwcsK;zsDo;
3I[H;*h>0D'fw>u&Xu&db.xGJ[h.w>ur.tod;
=w>CkeD>up>tbsK;vXeD>cdoGH.xH;
w>wb.rRoHrR0Dw>b.I(uDG>rh.)
1IqSXqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'g
w>wb.[;CkM>ySRunDvXuvJRrRw>vXw> 1IqSXqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'g
csXrh>*hR<&dzSd.ymzSd.tDRvXeD>up>t[H.rh>*hRM.
b.I(uGD>rh.)
rk.cGgw>rRw&Dwyg'D;w>pkql.cD.wu;M.
1IqSXqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'g
w>wb.rRtDRb.I(uGD>rh.)
wb.rRqgySRt*kmt*Rwz.vXeD>cdrh>*hR<
1IqSXcDqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'g
eD>o;rh>*hRM.b.I(uDG>rh.)
w>wb.rRb.'deD>w*Rtw>obVb.I
1IqSXqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'g
(uGD>xHqluDG>rh.)
w>wb.rRwXxD. wXvD R w>vX'Ju0DR ylR b.I 1I[h.yvD>
(uDG>xHqluGD>rh.)
2Iw>'k;Cmwvg
3IphtD.vd;1000b;

vXM.trJmng vX w>rRtusdRtusJ cd.oh.oXrHRtzDcd.< w>uGJ;vDRymvDR Cm w> *h>w>usdR td.0Jwcg vX tb. w>
ymyeD.tDR'D; w>ud;tDRvX?w>eJ.usJvXw>u'k;Cmw>t*D>/M.vDRI vHmvHG>bh.tHR b.w>usdmxHtDRvXunD<
y,DR< 'D; tJuvH; usdm 'D; td.0J'.v X unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHm ttd.< rhwrh> (IRC/LAC) wz.ttd.M.vDRI
w>eJ.usJvXw>'k;Cmw>t*D>tHR wJe>yX>0Jb.C;'D;ySRb.uDb.cJwz. vXtrRw>'fbH.bXtod;wz. ub.
ydmxGJ0J w>vXxH*kRuD>*RymyeD.0JwDRywD>wz. zJt0Joh.rh>'k;CmySRw*R*hRw*hRvXw>'k;CmvX'Ju0DRylRtuwD>
M.vDRIvXyw>CkxH.M>w>tylR<w>tHRwtd.zsg&SJ0J'.vX'Ju0DRvXtol0Jw>'k;CmtvHmeJ.usJtHRtd.ySJRbh.
vJ.M.b.I 'fyoh.ngb.tod; unDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRwtd.'D;w>yD;w>vD(w>td.,XR)tvXtySJRvXw>'k;
Cmt*D>'ftvD>td.0Jtod;M.b.I 'Ju0DRud;bh.'J; to;*H>bgvDRp>uGHm0JvX xH*kRuD>*R w>u&Xu&dwz.'D; zd;
oJp;w>rRtusdRtusJwz.vX b.C;w>ywHxD.vXw>uolw>'k;Cmt*D>M.vDRI rJ>v;'Ju0DR rh>unDb.uD
b.cJ'Ju0DRxJwbh.{dR vXttd.'D;w>'k;CmtyD;tvDvXtb.bsD;b.'g<'D;w>ol.xD.tHRb.w>qD.xGJrRpXR
tDRvX (IRC/LAC) M.vDRI (vXw>wX.yD.b.C;w>'k;Cmw>*h>w>usdRtvXtySJRt*D> uG>b.zJtqXzd(4.5)M.
wuh>
4.2.3(IRC/LAC) trlt'gvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtylR
(IRC/LAC) rh>xH*kRuD>*Rw>u&Xu&dxJwzk{dRvX trRw>vX'Ju0DRwz.tylR

vXtynd.w>vXw>u'd;M>b.
w>cGJ;w>,mvXpH.nD.yDwh'D;w>wDw>-w>tw>wdmusJRM.vDRIw>wdmusJRtHRb.w>rRvXxD.ySJRxD.tDRvXw>rR
21

oCJRCkmw>'D;b.uDb.cJurH;wHmcHzkvXtrh>unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHm'D;u&h.eH.b.uDb.cJurH;wHmwz.
M.vDRI
zJ(2013)eH.vg'H.pJbX.tylRunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRoXbh.Ckm'D;(IRC/LAC)t0JR'X;<zd;oJp;w>rRvD>'D;)tySR
rRw>zd<td.ol.vDRqDvDRto;vX
 rJ>v;'Ju0DRp;xD.vX(2005)eH.vHRvHRM.vDRI
 tlyF.'Ju0DRp;xD.vX(2011)eH.vHRvHRM.vDRI
 ed.zd'Ju0DRp;xD.to;vX(2011)eH.vHRvHRM.vDRI
'D;(MDRG)w>eJ.usJtHR b.w>rRuG>tDRvX'Ju0DRoXbh.vXmtylRM.vDRI uFD.wJ.ty'd.tHR wym*X>ymusXR'H;0J
vXw>urR'd.xD.vJ>xD. (IRC/LAC) w>wdmusJRtHRvX'Ju0DRud;bh.'J;tylRM.'H;b.I 'Ju0DRvGH>bh.vX (IRC/
LAC)wEkmvDR'H;0JvXtylRwz.'D;wrRuG>b.'H;w>usJRClusJRzd;w>obH.obk.w>eJ.usJwbh.tHR'H;b.wz.
rh>0JrJ>&Rrd>'Ju0DR<rJ>v;tl'Ju0DR<xgr[h.'Ju0DR<bg'd.,g'Ju0DRoh.wz.M.vDRI'Ju0DRoXbh.vX(IRC/LAC)
EkmvDR[l;*JR0Jwz.<t0Joh.[l;*JR0J'.vXvDRvDRqDqDvX'Ju0DRw>yXqSX&J.usJR b.C;'D;'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdR
wuyRM.vDRI w>tHRwtd.zsg0J&SJ&SJysDysDzsgzsg'H;b.vX (IRC/LAC) w>wdmusJRtHRtrlt'g< w>[h.pd[h.urDRtDR
wkRxJvJ.'D;b.w>[h.tDRvXrwRvJ.M.b.I
vX'Ju0DRoXbh.tylRCkm'D;(LAC)tySRrRw>zdwz.[h.zd;oJp;w>[h.ul.[h.z;wz.qlySRwl>b.uDG>rh.w
z.<'D;ursX>ySRvXtrRur.w>wz. wuwD>CD ySRvXtb.w>qdurd.tDRvXtrRur.w>wz.ttd.M.vDRI
t0Joh.[h.[h.ul.[h.z; ohb.C; 'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh'D; uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh wz.M.vDRI t0Joh.[l;*JR0J'.vX
w>rl;w>&>vXb.w>qSXcDtDRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhwz.'D; t0Joh.rh>ySRwz.vXteJ.usJ'D;qSXw>rl;w>&>tHR'D
wuwD>ngvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtylRvXySRwl>b.w>'D; ySRvXtb.w>qdurd.tDRvXtrh> ySRur.
w>cHzkvXmt*D>M.vDRIvXw>CkxH.M>w>ymzsgwbh.tHRtylRunDydmrk.u&Xw>CkxH.M.b.C;( LAC)w>rl;
w>&>w>xd.w>'G;teD.*H>eD.'G;wy.Ckm'H;eDwcg'H;b.M.vDRIvXunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRoXbh.tHRtylR<
(IRC/ LAC) w>wdmusJRySRrRw>zdwz.rRoud;Ckmw>'D; (UNHCR) vXu[h.w>qD.xGJrRpXRt*D>M.vDRI vX u
nDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRvGH>bh.tylRvX(IRC/LAC) wEkmvDRrRw>b.wz.tylR<(UNHCR)ySRrRw>zdwz.<[H;M>
rl'gvdRvdRvXySRb.uDb.cJwz.u'd;M>w>cGJ;w>,m vXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ'D; [h.w>qD.xJGrRpXRw
eDRvXw>rl;w>&>wz.vXtvJRcDzsdw>tusdRtusJwz.tHRM.vDRI
w>uDw>cJtd.0J'.tgrHRtguvkmvXySRb.uDb.cJwz.uqJ;vJRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJt*D>'ftrh>
<usdmphw>vXmbl.vXmphRwz.< w>vJRw>uhR'D; w>vJRw>uhRtvHmysJ vXu[JxD.b.ql0h>ylRt*D>< zd;oJp;tw>
uJxD.cX.p;vXuDG>bsD.tylRt*D>< usdmvXw>uusdm'D;w>qJ;w>vRvXw>ub.usdmxHtDR< w>td.w>qd;tvD>
'D;w>tD.w>tDwz. zJt0Joh.[JxD.0Jql0h>ylRtqXuwD><(vXw>wX.yD.b.C;'D;w>uDw>cJwz.tHRtvXt
ySJRt*D><uG>b.vXtqXzd(4.3.3)M.wuh>Irhwrh>b.vXw>qD.xGJrRpXR[JvX(LAC)rhwrh>(UNHCR) b.M.ySR
b.uDb.cJwz.'d;M>w>cGJ;w>,mvX uvJRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwohb.I(IRC/LAC)wz.[l;*JR
'D; td.0JvX 'Ju0DR oXbh.tHRtylRb.q.< w>tHR rh>trRoCJRw>'D; unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmvX w>rRvXtrh>
w>ol.xD.zd;oJp;tw>ohw>b.'D; w>rR*hRxD.uhRw>tusdRtusJwz.vX'Ju0DRud;bh.'J;tylRM.vDRI vXw>
M.tCd (IRC/LAC) w>wdmusJRtHR 'db.0Jw>'d.'d.rk>rk>vX b.C;'D;pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtw>zH;w>rR b.
w>rRtDRvXusJ'fvJ.vXunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DREGHbh.vXmtylRM.vDRI
4.2.4:w>ymvDRvXtrh>'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz.vXoHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.t

ylR
'fw>vDRCkxH.oh.ngb.C;'D;oHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkq.l cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.'D; w>wDw>-w>w>tpXvXt[J
xD.wz.tHRtod;< w>tHRuuJxD.w>bsK;w>zSd.wz.vXySRz;vHmzdwz.t*D> vXue>yX>b.C;oGH.xH;rk.cGg
w>pkql.cD.wu;t*h>tusdR'D;w>tusdRtusJwz.M.vDRI zJ (2013)eH.tylR w>&RvDR0JvHmwbh.vXtrh> ?w>
tusdRtusJvXt[h.w>pH;qXwbsDCD/(ARM/SOP)tHR vX b.w>usdmxHtDRvX unDusdmtHR vX unDb.uDb.
cJ'Ju0DRwz.tylRM.vDRI 'D;vX vHmwbh.tHRtylR ymzsgxD.0J'. w>tywD>wz.'D; rl'gwz. b.w>xXEkmCkmtDR
M.vDRI
22

w>tywD>wz.vXw>ymzsgxD.tDRtHR rh>w>wz.vX tnDEk>rRto;tgwuh>vX oHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;
w>rl;w>&>wz.vX'Ju0DRtgwuh>tylRM.vDRI
(1)Iw>vXtuJxD.to;wz.b.w>wD.zsgxD.tDRqlu0DR'htywD>M.vDRIw>tHRrh>w>wcgvXu0DR'hcd.e>wz.
ub.wl>vdm'D;rRxGJ0JM.vDRI wbsDwcD. ySRwl>b.w>wz. b.oh.oh. uvJRwD.zsgxD.tw>*h>w>usdRvdRvdR ql
'Ju0DRywD>M.vDRI rhrh>'fM.wcD w>*h>w>usdRvXtuJxD.to;tHR w>rh>xH.0JvXtrh>w>wcgvX t'd.trk>b. 'D;
w>qSXvDRu'guhRtDRqlu0DR'htywD>qlu0DR'hcd.ttd.M.vDRI
(2)I u0DR'hcd.e>'D;tySRu0DR'hurH;wHmwz. 'D;ySRrRw>zdwz. u[H;xD.zD.xD.w>rl;w>&>t0JtHRM.vDRI u0DR'h
cd.rh>pH;0JvXw>ub.orHord;w>'D;t0Joh.urRxGJ0J 'D;xXzSd.w>*h>w>usdRwz.< wX.yD.w>vXtvd.y.Ckm w
z.M.vDRIvXu0DR'hywD> t0Joh.uqXwJmw>*h>tHR<M>wkR0JzJw>Chw>tX.vDRtDvDRwcgcgvXySRwl>b.w>'D; ySR rR
ur.w>tbX.pXRM.vDRI
(3)I rhrh>w>rl;w>&>vXt'd.'d.rk>rk>'D; uJxD.w>uDw>cJz;'d.vXu0DR'ht*D> rhwrh> w>tHRw>qXwJmtDRvX w>[h.
w>tX.vDRtDvDRvXySRwl>b.w>'D; ySRrRur.w>tbX.pXRwohb.wcD u0DR'hcd.uqSXcDxD.w>rl;w>&>tHRql'J
u0DRywD>M.vDRI
(4)I w>rl;w>&>tHRuvJRxD.0Jql'Ju0DRywD>vXySR*h>0Dcd.ttd.'D; tqduwX> rhrh>w>vXtvd.eD>eD>wcD w>rl; w>
&>tHRub.w>qSXcDxD.tDRql'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtywD>M.vDRIw>tHRtcDynDrh>0Jw>rl;w>&>tHRub.w>[H;
xD.zD.xD.'D;bSg&SJtDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhySRb.rlb.'gwz.M.vDRI
(5)I'Ju0DR*h>0DM.wrh>'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhvXtu[H;xD.zD.xD.w>rl;w>&>tHRM.b.I
(6)Iw>rl;w>&>tHR rhrh>w>'d.'d.rk>rk>'D;(rhwrh>)ySRwl>b.w>CkxX0JvXtJ.'D;bSg&SJ0J<'D;w>rl;w>&>tHR ub.w>
qSXcDxD.tDRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhM.vDRI
(7)I wbsDwcD. uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtHR wwl>vdm(rhwrh>)wl>vdm0Jw>rl;w>&>tHRwohb.'D; t0Joh.qSXvDRu'g
uhRw>rl;w>&>tHRql'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhywD>M.vDRI
4.2.5 w>vDRqDwz.vX'Ju0DRwbh.'D;wbh.

'Ju0DRwbh.'D;wbh. turH;wHmwz. yXqSX w>vX t'Ju0DR wbh.b.wbh.pkmpkmtylR vDRqDvdmto;v X'Ju0DR
EHGbh.wz.tylRM.vDRI 'Ju0DRwbh.b.wbh.turH;wHmwz. tw>wDcd.&d.rJvX 'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ
vX'Ju0DRwz. td.'D;w>vDRqDvdmto; wtg'D;wpSRvX'Ju0DRwbh.'D;wbh.tbX.pXRM.vDRI 'Ju0DRurH;wHm w
z. xDbdvXoXeH.wbsDtwD>ylR< b.w>CkxXxD.ySR'D; w>CkxXxD.tDRwbsD (10)wkR (20)vXty.Ckm'D;ydmrk.
(10)wkR (20%) rs;u,Rv XurH;wHmtusgM.vDRI ySRvXtrh>'Ju0DRurH;wHmwz.cJvXm rh>ySRb.uDb.cJwz.< 'D;
b.w>CkxXxD.tDRvX tuzD.Cmtrlt'gwz.M.vDRI (IRC/LAC) td.*hRwtd.*hR< 'D; 'Ju0DRvX tolunDb.
uDb.cJurH;wHmtw>od.w>oD(39)xH.vXusJ'fvJ.'fvJ.tzDcd.M.<pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtHR rh>w>wcgvXt
'd;oMRxD.to;vXurH;wHmwz.tw>td.,XR vXttd.0Jwz.vX'Ju0DRwbh.'D;wbh.tylRpkmpkmM.vDRI w>
vDRqDwz.td.0J'.tgr; cDzsdw>ohw>b.tywD>wz.td.0JtywD>ywD> tuvkmuvkmvXurH;wHmwz.tbX.
pXRtCdM.vDRI'Ju0DRurH;wHmwz.'D;b.uDb.cJbH.bX 'D;pH.nD.yDwhtySRrRw>zdwz.tw>vJRcDzsd 'D;w>oh.
nge>yX> vDRqDvdmto;vX'Ju0DRwbh.'D;wbh.tylRM.vDRI 'Ju0DRwbh.'D;wbh.pkmpkm td.'.0J'D;w>&hvdmrkm
vdm'D;xHvD>uD>ylRuFD.wJ.b.rlb.'gwz.vX tvDRqDvdmto;'.0J'D; w>tHR'db.ph>uD;zd;oJp;vX w>u[H;
xD.zD.xD.w>rl;w>&>wz.vXusJ'fvJ.t*D>M.vDRI yxH.b.w>vDRqDwz.vX 'Ju0DRwbh.'D;wbh.pkmpkmtylR
'd;oMRxD.ph>uD;to;vX w>vX (UNHCR) tySRrRw>zdwz.'D; (IRC/LAC) tySRrRw>zdwz. rR0JohwohtzD cd.
M.vDRIyxH.b.ph>uD;w>vDRqDwz.vX'Ju0DRwz.tylR'd;oMRxD.ph>uD;to;vXw>vD>w>usJ w>ol.vDRqDvDR
tDR 'D;td.ol.vDRto;tzDcd.ph>uD;M.vDRI t'd= 'Ju0DRvXttd.ol.vDRto;vXttd.bl;'D;usJrk>usJbd rhwrh> 'J
u0DRvXttd.vDRzsD.vXtwbl;'D;cl0h>usJrk>ysJbdwz.<'D;t*RwrHRw>vD>vXw>qD.xGJrRpXRw>td.,XRwkRvDRxD.
b;M>'D;wM>wz.tzDcd.M.vDRIb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DREHGbh.tHRtd.ol.vDRto;&RvDRto; vXxHqXuD>qXtylR vX
tpDRpkRvdmto; tgM>'H;(3,000)uHvdrHxX. 'D;w>tHR 'k;td.xD.w>vXmbl.vXmphRtgtg*D>*D> < w>&J.oJuwDR w>
td.,XRtgtg*D>*D><'D;w>qJ;usd;rh>w>vXtwRw>z;'d.wcgM.vDRI

23

4.2.6 ySRvXtrRvd.xD.z;xD.pH.nD.yDwhtw>zH;w>rRwz.teD.*H>eD.'G;tw>qDwvJrh>w>vXttg
vX'Ju0DRtw>yXqSXtuh>t*DRtylR< 'Ju0DRwbh.b.wbh. u0DR'hwz. td.(10) wkR (20) u0DR'h'D; vX u 0DR 'hw

bh.'D;wbh.pkmpkm td.0J'.vXu0DR'hcd.'D;turH;wHmpSR*Rtw>yXqSXtzDvmM.vDRI u0DR'hcd.wz.rRtrlt'g
vXt&h'd.wz. vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtylR 'ftrh>ySRwz.vXtrRw>'fySRtqduwX>wzkvXtwD.zsg
xD. w>vXtuJxD.to;wrHR*hRwrHR*hRtzDcd.M.vDRI w>tHRw>ub.ymol.ymo;0JvX 'Ju0DRweDRvXtvJ> 'D;
'd.wz.wcDu0DR'hwz.w>ymzSd.tDRvXu0DR'd.wz.tylR'D;w>*h>w>usdRwz.b.w>wD.zsgxD.tDRql'Ju0DRu
rH;wHmwz.ttd.M.vDRI
w>CkxXwz.b.w>rRtDR weH.wbsD ud;eH.'J; vX w>uCkxXxD.uhRu0DR'hcd.e>wz.t*D> M.vDRI vXw>M.t
Cd ySRunDtw>qDwvJtd.xD.0Jtgtg*D>*D>ohM.vDRI u0DR'hcd.wz. td.'D;w>obVvXu'd;CkxXu'guhRt
o; ySRweDReDRtd.wh>u'guhR vXtrlt'gtylR vXteH.wz.teH. vXw>rh>CkxXxD.u'guhRtDRM.vDRI u0DR'hcd.
wz. td.0J'.vX'Ju0DRurH;wHmwz.tw>pdw>urDRtzDvmM.vDRI ySRvXtrh>'Ju0DRurH;wHmwz. rRtrlt'g
vXt&h'd.r;vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtw>zH;w>rRtylRM.vDRI'Ju0DRurH;wHmwz. b.w>CkxXxD.tDR(3)eH.wbsD
ud;0D'J;M.vDRI
w>rRvdvX w>uuwJmuwDRtDR b.bsD;b.'g vDRwH>vDRqJ; vXttd.'D; tusdRtusJvX tb. < vXttd.'D; w>*h>
w>usdRtvXtySJR vXw>u[h.tDRql'Ju0DRySRb.rlb.'gtoDwz. vXtw>yXw>qSX'Ju0DRvXtywD>ywD>wz.
td.b.I w>[h.t0Joh.vX w>eJ.usJwqH;wuh>vXtrh> w>uGJ;vDRymvDRw>*h>w>usdRwqH;wuh>< zDvpH.w z.<
w>uGJ;w>ymzsgvHmeJ.usJwz.<'D;t*kRt*Rwz.M.vDRI w>td.,XR'D;w>yD;w>vDrh>td.'.xJpSRudmemouh<zD
vpH.'D;w>tusdRtusJwz.vXw>uGJ;vDRymvDRtDR 'D;w>rRtgxD.w>od.vdwz.< rh>td.uGJ;to;xHxHq;q;
M.< urh>w>wcgvX urR*hRxD.ySRw*R'D;w*Rtw>ohw>b.< 'D;urR*hRxD.ySRw0Xw>wDw>-w>tuh>t*DRz;'d.
M.vDRI
4.2.7 w>vJRqluD>oXbhwbh.tw>'db.
p;xD.vX(2005)eH.vHRvHR<ySRb.uDb.cJw>ok;vD>ok;usJqluD>oXbh.wbh.vXb.w>yXqSX&J.usJRtDRvX
(UNHCR) td.xD.0J*D>rk>*D>yR M.vDRI (t'd= uD>oh.w>z.vX ySRb.uDb.cJwz. vJRtd.vJRqd;0J 'ftrh>uD>trJ

&uR<eD.0h< tD;p-xhv,.< cJe'R< uD>tJuvH;)wz.tHR rh>w>wcgvXt[H;xD.uGHmySRw0XySRb.rlb.'gwz.t
rlt'g'D; w>uJcd.uJe>vXySRw0XtylR vXtu[h.w>'Do'X'D; w>bH.w>bXvX w>cDqXvXtb.bsD;b.'gvXw>
wD w>-w> t*D>M.vDRI w>yXqSX&J.usJR t'dtwJm tHR b.w>oltDRvX 'Ju0DRud;bh.'J;tylR p;xD.vX w>'k;td.xD.
w>vD>w>usJwz.'D;ySRw0Xwz.vXw>yXw>qSX'D; w>uJcd.uJe>trlt'gylRvHRvHRM.vDRI w>tuh>t*DRt0JtHR
b.'db.xH;0J'd.'d.rk>rk> zJySRvXttd.'D;w>ohw>b.<w>tuH>tpDvXt*hRwz.<'D;ySRvXtd.'D;w>vJRcDzsdw
z.< ok;tvD>tusJ qlxH*kRuD>*Rwz.tqXuwD>M.vDRI (UNHCR) < ySRvXtqD.xGJusdmphw>rRpXRwz.< 'D;xH*kR
uD>*RursX>obVu&Xwz.<cJtHRxH.oh.nguhR0J'.vX t0Joh.wz.wymol.ymo;0J b.C;'D;w>*h>tHR vDR wH>
vDRqJ;CH;CD.'D.'D; wtd.'D;w>[H;M>rl'gvX b.C;'D;ySRw0Xtw>ol.xD.qDvDRtb.'db.xH;tHR zJt0Joh.
&J.usJR'D;rRvd.xD.z;xD.w>vJRqluD>oXbh.wbh.tHRtw>&J.w>usJRtuwD>M.b.vDRI ySRw0XtySRol.uh
o;yS>vXttd.'D;w>vJRcDzsdw>ohw>b.vXpH.nD.yDwhwz.[;xD.uGHm0JvX'Ju0DRylRtg'Htg*R'D;t0Joh.tw>
ohw>b.tHR w>rRySJRxD.uhRtDRwwkRxD.b;vXRb.I u0DR'hcd.wz.< vXtrh>ySRtqduwX>w*RvX w>rh>rRu
r.b.w>'D; w>wD.zsgxD.w>*h>w>usdRqlt0Joh.ttd.vXtcD.xH;tqduwX>wywD> vX'Ju0DRwz.tylR'D;'J
u0DRurH;wHm vXtrh>ySRoh.wz.vXtd.'D;w>pdw>urDRvXtxDvX'Ju0DRylRwz. rk>v>0JvXurRb.w>qXwJm
vXtwDt-w> v Xwtd.'D;w>uG>rJmb.'D;[h.xD.b.tw>ohw>b.vX pH.nD.yDwh cDzsd[h.w>rRvd 'D; w>vJR cD
zsd< w>td.,XRwz. wqH;wuh>'D; 'd;M>b.ph>uD; w>[h.ul.[h.z; vX ySRol.uho;yS>wz.tHRttd.t*D>M.vDRI
w>vXytJ.'d;pH;zJtHRwcD w>oh.wz.tHR rh>w>vDRzsJ.vDR[d z;'d.wcgvX ySRw0XvX 'Ju0DRtylRwz.b.uG>qX.
rJm0J'.vXrk>rqgweHRtHRM.vDRI

24

4.2.8 w>vDRzsJ.vDR[dvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz.tylR

vXw>ue>yX>w>*h>w>usdRtvXtySJRvXtb.C;'D;w>'d;M>pH.nD.yDwhvXySRb.uDb.cJwz.t*D>tHR< b.oh.
oh. w>tHR uuJxD.w>rRpXRz;'d.vXu'k;e>yX>&SJxD.w> b.C; w>oh.wz.vX w>wrRtDRv X'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh
tusdRtusJtzDvmb.wz.t*h>M.vDRI rh>vX'Ju0DRwz.tHR td.xD.vHvXtgM>teH.( 20)vH'D;nDEk>w>qdu
rd.0J'.vXpH.nD.yDwhtuh>t*DRtd.vXtd.ySJR0J'.M.vDRIb.q.w>eD>eD>wcD<yxH.b.vXw>td.,XRvXt
vd.0JeD>eD>wz.td.'D;w>vDRzsJ.vDR[dM.vDRIw>vXw>ymzsgxD.tDRzJtHRM.'ftrh>w>wz.vXyemvXtrh>w>w
cgvXtu*hR'd.xD.'D; b.*h>b.0DvXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz.tylR b.q.'D; w>oh.wz.tHR wtd.0JvX'J
u0DRtylRb.M.vDRI
 oJp;w>bsX'D;w>od.w>oDvXw>uGJ;tDRvXySRud;*Re>yX>tDRohvX'Ju0DRud;bh.'J;tylR<vXty.Ckm
'D;w>uwdRtcDynDwz.wtd.vDRwH>vDRqJ;b.I
 w>ymuDRw>*h>w>usdR<w>rl;w>&>wz.vXtusdRtusJb.(w>rl;w>&>ud;uvkm'J;t*D> w>vXtuJ
xD.to;wz. wtd.'D;w>ymvDRwrHRCDvX w>ub.ymuDRw><[H;M>w>*h>w>usdRwrHRCDvX 'Ju0DR
ud;bh.'J;t*D>b.I
 w>rRvdvXt-uX;rRto; b.C;'D;w>vXw>ue>yX>pH.nD.yDwht*h>tudsRu*hRxD.t*D>rh>*hR< vX
w>urRvd.xD.z;xD.w>zH;w>rRtwuDG>vXySRb.rlb.'gwz.t*D>rh>*hRw>rRvdwtd.'D;w>ydm
xGJxD.uhRw>uG‹>uG‹>wtd.b.I
 w>xXzSd.w>tk.uDRvXtusdRtusJb.b.'D; w>CdxHoh.ngw>tusdRtusJvDRwH>vDRqJ; vXtb.
bsD;b.'gwtd.b.I(w>eJ.usJvDRwH>vDRqJ;vXtuGJ;vDRymto;rhwrh>w>rRvdvDRwH>vDRqJ;wtd.
b.)
 w>eJ.usJvXb.C;'D;w>tusdRtusJvXw>qSXcDqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtudsRtusJtHRwtd.uGJ;vDR
to;&SJ&SJb.I
 w>tX.vDRwl>vdm'D;w>eJ.usJtvHm<vXb.w>uGJ;vDRtDRvXtb.C;'D;w>'k;oh.ngw>zH;w>rR<
w>rRoud;w> tw>&hvdmrkmvdmvXuFD.wJ.yXRuD>'D;'Ju0DRbH.bXwz.tbX.pXR w>yXqSX&J.usJR w>
rl;w>&>t*D>wtd.b.I
 w>td.,XRvDRwH>vDRqJ;b.bsD;b.'gvX'Ju0DRwz.uol0JvXw>yXqSX&J.usJRw>rl;w>&>t*D>'D;vX
w>yXqSX&J.usJRpH.nD.yDwhw>vJRw&H;o;t*D>wtd.b.I
 w>yD;w>vDvXbH.bXwz.t*D>wtd.b.I
 w>rR*hRxD.w>ol.xD.bSDxD.<usJ<w>qJ;usd;<w>vJRw>uhR<wz.wtd.b.I
 w>tvd.vXw>'k;Cmt*D>wz.'D;w>'k;Cmtw>yD;w>vDwz.wtd.b.I
 ySRrRw>zdteD.*H>tvXtySJRvXtzD.Cmtrlt'gvXxD.ySJRxD.wtd.b.I
 rk.cGgeD.*H>w>b.vdmzd;'hvXpH.nD.yDwhw>rRvdmxD.z;xD.tylRwtd.b.I
 w>tusdRtusJvX t,lmtuX vX w>urRvDRpSR w>v Xt'db.w>vX tw*hRwz. vXtrh> ySRrRw>zd t
w>qDwvJ'D;ySRvXtzD.Cmrl'gwz.tw>vDRzsJ.vDR[dt*D>w>wtd.eDwrHRb.I
w>td.,XRvX b.w>ymzsgxD.tDR wz. rh>w>wz.vX w>[h.vDRwh>vHo; vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh tylR vXtylRuGHm
cHpdRvH'D; w>tHR rh>w>vX t'k; vDRp>y*H>ybg 'd.r;M.vDRI ySRud;zk'J; vX y.Ckm0J'.vX w>rR*hRxD.w> vX pH.nD. yD
whvX'Ju0DRwz.tylR ub.td.'D;w>b.,d.vX w>tusdRtusJvXt&h'd.wz.'D; w>ylRzsJ;w>bH.w>bXwz.
tHRwtd.'H;0Jb.t*h>M.vDRI
4.3 uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtudsRtusJ

'f(UNHCR)'D;uFD.wJ.ty'd. td.'D;w>tX.vDRwl>vdmzJ(2003)eH.tylRtod;< uFD.wJ.ty'd.wz.CdxHoh.
ng'D;vdmbXvdmuDG>0JqlySRb.uDb.cJwz.vXtrh>ySRvXtrRur.w>'d.'d.rk>rk>wz.ttd.M.vDRIvXM.t
rJmng<(UNHCR)[H;CmuXRCmw>vDRwH>vDRqJ;vX w>qSXcDw>uJxD.to;vX'Ju0DRtylRwz. 'D;w>vXb.
w> rRur.xD'gtDRwz.qluDF.wJ.b.rlb.'gwz.ttd. vX u'd;M>zd;oJp; w>[H;xD.*h>0D vX w>rl; w>&> wcg
b.wcgtzDcd.M.vDRI
25

yrh>uG>v Xrk>qh.rk>*DRw>rRo;wcD< yuG>vX unDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRylR wz. w>rl;w>&>'d.'d.rk>rk> vX trRo;vX
ty.Ckmy.*D>'D;uFD.wJ.xHzduD>zdwz.M. xDbdb.w>qSXcDtDRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh vXw>u[H;xD.zD.xD.
w>*h>w>usdRt*D>M.vDRI yuG>ph>uD;vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtylR w>rl;w>&>vXb.w>rRur.tDR'd.'d.rk>rk>vXySR
b.uDb.uJwz.nDEk>qSXcDxD.0JqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhttd.M.vDRI t'd=w>rh>[h.w>uvk>vXb.'k;CmySR
rRur.w>vXtqXuwD>t,HmtxX< ySRrRur.w>tHR ol.*JR'D;vDRb.,d.< ySRrRur.w>rRysHRrRzk;ySRw0XvX'J
u0DRtylR< rhwrh> 'Ju0DRwl>b.0JvXw>rl;w>&>0JtHR [H;xD.zD.xD.0JvXtup>'.0Jw>td.o;tzDcd.wM>b.
wz.M.vDRI
vXyw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHRyxH.b.vXoHG.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;( 13%)b.w>wD.zsgxD.tDRvX'Ju0DR
b. rlb.'gwz.ttd.0HRtvD>cH w>qSXxD.u'guhRw>rl;w>&>wz.tHRql uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh ttd.M.vDRI vX
(IRC/LAC)'D;(UNHCR)tw>xXzSd.w>rl;w>&>teD.*H>eD.'G;'D;w>rl;w>&>tuvkmwz.vXb.w>[H;xD.zD.
xD.tDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhwz.wcD< wtd.vXunDydmrk.u&Xtw>rReD.rRCgtylRb.I vXw>M.tCd w>
rl;w>&>(13%)tHRb.xGJb.bs;vdmto;'D;pH.nD.yDwhzJvJ.wwDRvJ.t*h>M.ypH;wohb.I
4.3.1 uGD>rh.w>rl;w>&>vXw>usJRClusJRzd;tDRwoh

uFD.wJ.tvd.tyRy'd.[h.vDR0Jw>eJ.usJwz.vX w>rRur.uDG>rh.cDzsd w>[l;w>*JR 'fvJ.wuvkmvX ySRb.uD
b.cJwz. rh>rRur.0J'D; w>ub.qSXxD.tDRql uFD.wJ.b.rlb.'gttd.vJ.M.vDRI w>rRur.'ftHRwuvkm
b.w>qSXxD.tDR 'f ?uDG>rh.vXw>rRur.tDR'D; w>usJRClusJRzd;tDRwohb./tod; wz.M.vDRI(uG>b.vXvHm
bs;pJeD.*H>(1)vXw>*h>w>usdRtvXtySJRt*D>M.wuh>I w>ymvDRtd.ph>uD;0JvXw>rl;w>&>'ftHRwz. w>ub.
[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRxJ'.vX uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh{dR 'D; 'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh[H;xD.zD.xD.0Jwoh b.M.vDRI w>eJ.usJ
wtd.0JeDwrHRvXw>td.o;rh>td.xD.vXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhrh>wtJ.'d;rRwHmwmto;vXw>u[H;xD.zD.xD.
uGD>rh.vXw>usJRClusJRzd;tDRwohb. vXtrRto;vX'Ju0DRtylRwz.tHRt*D>M.b.I 'D;w>eJ.usJtd.'.xJw
qH;wuh> vXtrh>w>tusdRtusJvXw>pH.nD.yDwhv X'Ju0DRylR 'D; vX uFD.wJ.tusdRtusJ vX w>ub.rRtDR'fvJ.
t*D>'ftrh>w>qSXcD<w>ymzsg<w>[h.cD[h.eDR<vHmvJ>vXw>uGJ;vDRymvDRtDR<'D;w>rRoud;w>wz.M.vDRIw>
eJ.usJvXw>ub.rRtDR'fvJ.t*h>M.w>eJ.usJtd.wqH;wuh>M.vDRI
uDG>rh.vX w>ymzsgxD.tDRvXvmwz.tHR rh> uDG>rh.vX w>rRur.tDR'D; w>usJRClusJRzd;tDRwoh'D; b.w>ym yeD.
tDR'ftrh>oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;M.vDRI
(u)w>rRoHrR0D
(c)w>rRuRySRunD
(*)w>rRy,GJvXttd.'D;eD>cdw>b.'db.xH;'D;w>rRql;rRqg
(C)oHG.xH;w>rRur.xD'gqlzdo.
(i)w>rRw&Dwygtrl;vXw>usJRClusJRzd;wM>
4.3.2 w>rRw&Dwygtrl;vXw>usJRClusJRzd;tDRM>'D;wM>

uFD.wJ.oJp;uGJ;ymzsgxD.0J'.vXw>rRw&DwygcHuvkmtHRtbX.pXR vXtrh>w>rRw&Dwygtrl;vX w>usJRCl
usJRzd;tDRwM>'D;w>rRw&Dwygtrl;vXw>usJRClusJRzd;tDRM>t*h>M.vDRIyrh>uG>vXw>eJ.usJvXw>rl;w>&>vXw>
usJRClusJRzd;wohb.wz.tod; w>rRw&Dwygtrl;vXw>usJRClusJRzd;wM.b.tHR w>ub.[H;xD.zD.xD.tDR
xJ'.vXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh{dRM.vDRIrhrh>w>rRw&Dwygtrl;vXw>usJRClusJRzd;tDRM>wz.wcD w>ub.zD.xD.
tDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhM.vDRI
w>rRw&DwygvXw>usJRClusJRzd;tDRwM>b.tHR 'fuFD.wJ.oJp;ymzsgxD.0JvXt*h>tusdR'D; rh>w>wcgvXty.
Ckm'D;w>vXw>ymzsgxD.tDRtusgwcgM.vDRI
(u)ySRwl>b.w>b.w>rRw&DwygtDRvXw>vD>vXtrh>ursX>w>vD>(rhwrh>)
(c)ySRwl>b.w>to;eH.td.(15)eH.qltzDvm(rhwrh>)
(*)ySRwl>b.w>b.w>rRw&DwygtDRvXySRrRur.w>tgM>'H;w*R(rhwrh>)
26

(C)ySRwl>b.w>td.'D;w>b.'db.xH;cDzsdtb.w>rRw&DwygtDRtCd(rhwrh>)
(i)ySRwl>b.w>oHcDzsdw>rRw&DwygtDRtCd
(p)ySRw*R*RvXtrRw&Dwygw>'D;[H;M>w>cGJ;w>,mvXtw>pdw>urDRtzDcd. (rhwrh>) [H;w>pdw>urDRvXySR
wl>b.w>tzDcd.(rhwrh>)
(q)w>olw>pku0JRwrHRrHRvXtrRb.'db.xH; rhwrh> rRysHRrRzk;ySRwl>b.w> zJw>rRw&DwygtDRtqXuwD>(rh
wrh>)
(&S)w>olw>vXtyd>z;ohoh.wz.vXw>rRysHRrRzk; rhwrh> w>rRb.'db.xH;ySRwl>b.w> zJw>rRw&DwygtDRt
qXuwD>
w>rRw&Dwygtrl;v Xw>usJRClusJRzd;tDRM>tHRvX uFD.wJ.oJp;tylR b.w>uGJ;vDRymvDRtDR 'fttd.zsgvXvmt
od;M.vDRI
(u) ySRwl>b.w>b.w>rRw&DwygtDRvXw>vD>clol.<'D;
(c) ySRwl>b.w>to;eH.td.(15)eH.qltzDcd.
(*) ySRwl>b.w>b.w>rRw&DwygtDRvXySRrRur.w>xJw*R{dR<'D;
(C) ySRwl>b.w>wb.w>rRql;rRqgrRoHtDRzJw>rRw&DwygtDRuwD>b.<'D;
(i) ySRwl>b.w>wb.w>rRw&DwygtDRvXySRvXttd.'D;rl'gw>pdw>urDRb.I'D;
(p) w>wrRysHRrRzk;tDReDwrHRzJw>rRw&DwygtqXuwD>b.I
(q) w>wolw>vXtyd>z;ohoh.wz.vXw>rRw&DwygtqXuwD>b.I
vXuDF.wJ.oJp;tylR<uDG>rh.vXb.w>ymyeD.tDRvXtrh>w>vX?w>usJRClusJRzd;tDRM>/oh.wz.M.w>[h.0J t
cGJ;vXySRwl>b.w>'D;ySRrRur.w>cH*RtHR[h.w>tX.vDRtDvDRvdmo;wcgcgohvXw>wX.yD.wJoud;w>tqX
uwD>oh'D;ub.w>wDcd.&d.rJqSXtDRvXyXRuD>M.vDRI
w>qXwJmvXw>rRur.w>t*D>w>tusdRtusJ'ftHRw>rRtDRoh'.xJvXw>td.o;vXySRwl>b.w>rh>tX.vDRwl>
vdm0JvXurR0Jr;M.vDRI b.q.vX uDG>rh.vXb.w>ymyeD.tDR 'ftrh>uDG>rh.vXw>usJRClusJRzd;tDRwohb.w
z. w>w[h.tcGJ;vXw>usJRClusJRzd;'ftHRb.I vX[D.cd.'Dbh.vXxHuD>tgbh.tylR< w>usJRClusJRzd;'ftHR uJxD.
0Jwohb.'D; uD'd.r;vXw>u[h.w>qXwJmvXw>usJRClusJRzd;uDG>rh.w>qXwJm'ftHRwz.t*D>M.vDRI rhrh>w>w
cgvXnDEk>tuJxD.to;ohvXw>rl;w>&>vXtrh>w>qH;qH;zdwz.vXxHzduD>zdwz.tzDcd.b.q.w>qXwJm'f
tHR w>wrRtDRph>uD;b.M.vDRI vXuD>th&S.weDRtylR 'ftrh>uFD.wJ.uD>oJp;w>bsX[h.'H;'.w>cGJ;w>,mvXw>
[h.w>qXwJmvXw>usJRClusJRzd;vXw>rRw&DwygtzDcd.M.vDRI
4.3.3 w>}wDrRwHmwmwz.vXw>'d;M>uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwht*D>wz.

w>rRoud;w>'D;w>&hvdmrkmvdmvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh'D;uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhrh>w>vXtwRw>z;'d.wcgM.vDRI
ySRw0Xtw>pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtHR rhrh>w>td.,XRwcgvXtwvXwySJRb.'D; wb.bsD;b.'gb.q.< rh>w>
wcgvX ySRnDEk>'D;tDRtzDcd. ySRw0Xwz.CkxX0JvXuol0Jw>tusdRtusJt0JtHRt'd.uwX>M.vDRI w>t*kRt*R
vXtrh> w>vXmbl.vXmphR'D; w>}wDrRwHmwmvXt*Rwz. td.0JvXt'k;vDRp>uGHmySR vXttd.vX'Ju0DRylRwz.
to;o[D.vXuvJRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJt*D>M.vDRIw>vXt'k;vDRp>ySRo;o[D.wz.'ftrh>=
 w>vXmbl.vXmphRvDRvDRqDqDvX w>vXty.CkmvXw>vJRw>uhRtylRtqXuwD> zJw>uvJRqluFD.
wJ.uDG>bsD.uwD>t*D> w>oh.wz.M. y.Ckm'D;w>vJRw>uhR< w>td.w>qd;< 'D;w>tD.w>tDwz.
M.vDRI
 ySRb.uDb.cJwz. wtd.'D;w>cGJ;w>,mvXvXySJRySJR vXuok;to;qltHRqlEkRb.'D; tvD>td.vX u
b.'d;M>w>vJRw>uhRtvHmysJvXtu[;xD.vX'Ju0DRcsXt*D>M.vDRI
 ySRb.uDb.cJwz.vd.b.0Jzd;oJp; ySRvXtuuJxD.cX.p;vXt*D> vXuDG>bsD.tylR'D; ySR'Ju0DRzdw
z.tHR wrh>ySRoh.wz.vX tnDEk>'D;uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ'D; zd;oJp;w>cGJ;w>,mwz.M.
b.I
 ySRb.uDb.cJwz. nDEk>wuwdRuDF.wJ.usdmb.tCdw>uDw>cJtd.0J'.vXw>uvJR cDzsdusdm'D;w>
qJ;w>vRwz.tHRtzDcd.M.vDRI
27

uFD.wJ.uDG>bsD.tHRtd.ol.vDRto;vXw>vD>t,HR'D;tbl;M.<'d;oMRxD.to;vX'Ju0DRol.vDR
qDvDRo;tvD>tzDcd.M.vDRI
 ySRb.uDb.cJwz.ysHR0J'.'d.r;vXw>uuG>wvDRt0Joh.vXuFDmwJ.pH.nD.yDwhtylRM.vDRI
 ySRwl>b.w>zd;oJp;tw>*h>w>usdRwz.<b.wb.rh>w>vXw&SJvXt0Joh.t*D>b.I
vXw>M.tCd<uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ rhrh>w>vXtd.'D;tuh>t*DR<tw>td.,XRwz.'D;w>pdw>urDR w
z.vXu[H;xD.zD.xD.w>rl;w>&>vXt'd.'d.rk>rk>wz.b.q.<nDEk>zsgvXtrh>w>vXwtd.'D;w>'dol.'do;
b.<w>wnDEk>'D;tDRb.'D;w>tHRrRysHRrRzk;ySR'Ju0DRzdwz.M.vDRI
4.4. w>zH;w>rRrl'gwz.vXpH.nD.yDwhtudsRtusJtylR

yrh>uG>u'guhR0;0;M. pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ vX ySRb.uDb.cJwz.'d;M>0Johoh.wz. M. rh>w>oh.wz.vX ySR
eD>w*Rb.w*R'D;w>u&Xu&dwz.tuwJmuwDR0JvXb.w>ymvDRtDRvXw>cd.oh.vGH>uvkmtylRM.vDRI
(u)ySRvXtzD.Cmw>pdw>urDRwz.= uFD.wJ.ty'd.wz.<(UNHCR)(IRC/LAC)unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHm<
('D;u&h.eH.b.uDb.cJurH;wHm)
 ySRoh.wz.tHR rh>ySRoh.wz.vXtuGJ;zDvpH.< 'k;td.xD.w>od.w>oDwz.< rRw>qXwJmwz.< td. 'D;w>pd
w>urDRvX'k;td.xD.w>'D;ym*X>ymusXRw> 'D;bd;b.oh.ngw>od.w>oD< 'k;td.xD.vHmwdRChw>eJ.usJw
z.<'k;td.xD.w>ymuDRw>[H;M>w>*h>w>usdRwz.tusdRtusJ<[h.eDRvDRrhwrh>'k;oh.ngqdw><[h.w>rR
vd<[h.w>td.,XRwz.<cDqXuhRw>qlw>utkupGgvXb.w>wD.xD.tDRwz.<'k;td.xD.w>od.w>oDrl'g
vXySRrRw>zdwz.ub.rRxGJ0JvX'Ju0DRw>yXw>qSX'D;w>zD.CH;vXySR'Ju0DRwz.tzDcd.t*D><td.'D;w>pd
w>urDRvXuqDwvJ'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhw>qXwJmwz.<'D;t*kRt*Rwz.M.vDRI
(c) ySRvXtrRvd.xD.z;xD.w>wz. = 'Ju0DRurH;wHm<pH.nD.uGD>wz.<u0DR'hcd.wz.<bH.bXwz.<usJRClqX
wJmu&l>wz.<(LAC.)
 ySRoh.wz.tHR [H;xD.zD.xD.w>rl;w>&>wz.cJvXmvdRvdRM.vDRI t'd= 'd;M>w>ymzsg rhwrh>w>wD.xD.
w>utkupGgvXtrh>w>rRur.uDG>rh.< w>CdxHoh.ng< w>ChxD.w><w>'k;Cmw><w>qXwJm<w>qSXcDqlySR
*kRySR*Rttd.<w>usJRClusJRzd;<w>pH.nD.qXwJm<w>[h.w>uvk>oh.wz.M.vDRI
 zJySRvXttd.'D;w>pdw>urDRvXw>eJ.usJb.bsD;b.'gt*D> w>vDRzsJ.vDR[dtd.tuwD>< ySRwzktHR rh wrh>ySR
eD>w*RvXw>u&Xu&dwzktHRtylR'k;td.xD.w>od.w>oDrhwrh>'k;e>yX>w>od.w>oDwz.M.vDRI
(*)ySRvXtuwdRM>cJ;w>§ySRvXt[h.w>qD.xGJrRpXRw>wz. =unDydmrk.u&X<*H>cD.xH;w>u&Xu&d<xH*kRuD>
*RursX>obhsu&XweDR< w>bl.w>bgcd.e> rhwrh>ySRw0Xcd.e>wz.<ySRol.uho;yS>wz.<ySR[h.ul.[h.z;w>w
z.<[H.zdCDzdwz.M.vDRI
 ySRoh.wz.tHR rh>ySRoh.wz.vXtvk>bXw>tusdRtusJwz.tHRohb.q. wtd.'D;w>pdw>urDR vX u[h.
w>qXwJmvXw>rl;w>&>wcg'D;wcgtzDcd.M.b.I
 t0Joh.[h.w>[h.ul.[h.z;'D;w>*h>w>usdR<[h.w>zH;w>rR w>qD.xGJrRpXRvX ySRwl>b.w>wz. rhwrh> ySR
rRur.w>< xD.w>rl;w>&>wz.'D; uwdRM>cJ;w>vX 'fod;w>tpXvXt*hR vXu[JxD.vXySR wl>b.w> rhw rh>
ySRrRur.w>wz.t*D><'D;vJRpXRuhRpXRySRwl>b.w> rhwrh> ySRrRur.w>wz. zJt0Joh.CkxH.M>w>qD.xGJ
rRpXR'D;rh>ChxD.0JtuwD>M.vDRI
(C)IySRvXtcD;uG>w>§ySRvXtuG>xHorHord;w>wz.=ySRb.uDb.cJw0Xu&Xzdwz.<ursX>obhsu&Xwz.ySR
vXtqD.xGJusd.phw>qD.xGJrRpXRwz.
 ySRoh.wz.tHR[h.uds.phw>qD.xGJrRpXR'D;w>td.,XRoh.wz.M.vDRI
 t0Joh.rh>ySRwz.vXtvk>bXw>M>b.q.wtd.'D;w>pdw>urDRvXu[h. w>qX wJm vX w> rl; w> &> wz.
tzDcd.b.I
28

qXuwD>cJtHR w>pdw>urDR 'D; w>M>pdM>urDR tMqX. w>rRwuGD>vX ySRtqduwX> cHzk vXw>ymzsgxD.tDRwz.tHR
w>wuGJ;vDRto;&SJ&SJb.I u&l>weDR wrRySJRtrlt'g vDRwH>vDRqJ;*hR*hRb.trJmng rRwvXuGHmw>vX tb.rR0J
wz.'d.M>'H;w>vXw>ymyeD.M>tDR'H;M.wuh>vDRI'D;w>tHRwtd.zsg&SJ&SJph>uD;vXu&l>t*kRt*Rwz.tw>pdw>
urDRwtw>M>yXb.td.wkRxJvJ.xJvJ.t*h>M.vDRIrl'gw>zH;w>rRwz.'Du -xXvdmo;tgr;'D;cd.csXvdmt
o;M.vDRI pH.nD.yDwhvX wu&l>wu&l>tylR wtd.'D;w>ymvDRvXt&SJb.M.vDRI w>tHR uJxD.w>o;'h'Dv X
w>yXqSX&J.usJRpH.nD.yDwhtylR'D; w>pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXt[JxD.wz. uJxD.w>vXtw-uX;uXuD.b.vXySR
wl>b.w>wz.t*D>M.vDRI
4.5. w>*h>w>usdRb.C;w>'k;CmvX'Ju0DRtylR

xH*kRuD>*RoJp;*H>cD.xH;w>od.w>oDw>bsX<[JuJxD.to;vXw>*h>w>usdRwz. 'ftrh>[D.cd.'Dbh.ySR[D.cd. zd
cGJ;,mtw>bd;b.&RvDR(UDHR)<[h.xD.0J'.vXySRud;*R'J;td.'D;w>cGJ;w>,mvX w>wb.zD.wH>'k;CmtDR
vXtwtd.'D;w>*h>w>usdRtylRb. rhwrh> w>wb.'k;CmtDRvXw>'k;CmtylR vXw>[h.w>pH.nD.vXtw
zd;oJp;M.b.I vXxHuD>wbh.'D;wbh.pkmpkm xJ'.ySRvXw>[h.pd[h.urDRvDRqDtDRwz.{dR zD.uXRCmw>M>M.
vDRInDEk>ySRoh.wz.tHR rh>cX.p;wz.trRw>vXxHvD>uD>ylRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz.'D; ySRvXtrRw>vXzd;
oJp;tusdRtusJwz.<'D;vXw>td.o;vXw>uzD.'k;Cmw>t*D>M.vDRIw>t0JtHRuJxD.w>uDw>cJvDRqDwz.
vXb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRylRwylRv>v>'D; ySRvXttd.vX uD>uFD.wJ.wz.t*D>M.vDRI tg'.w>wuh> b.uDb.c J'J
u0DRwz.td.,HRvdmto;'D;uFD.wJ.yXRuD>'D; uFD.wJ.yXRuD>0JRvD>wz. 'D;CdmvXw>xXEkmySRrRur.w>wz.
t*D>M.vDRIzsgvDR*mvX rhrh>w>vXtuJxD.to;'D;ySR'Ju0DRzdwz. b.C;'D;ySRvXb.w>qdurd.tDRvX trR u
r.uDG>rh.<vXtrRur.0JvX'Ju0DRtylRwz.M. b.w>zD.'D;w>'k;CmtDRvXuFD.wJ.b.rlb.'gvX w>ymyeD.
tDRwz.M.vDRI b.q. xJ'.w>rl;w>&>vXuFD.wJ.wl>vdm0JvX uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtylRwz.{dRM.
vDRI vXw>rl;w>&>'d.'d.rk>rk>wz.cJvXmt*D> 'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtHR b.uG>qX.rJm0J'D;w>uDw>cJw
z.M.vDRI
w>eJ.usJvXtcd.csXxD'gvdmto;td.0Jtgr;b.C;w>olw>'k;CmvX'Ju0DRywD>vXb.w>[h.vDRtDRqlySRvX
trRvd.xD.z;xD.w>vX vX pH.nD.yDwhwz. cDzsd ySReD>w*R 'D; w>u&Xu&dvX ttd.'D; w>pdw>urDR wz.M.vDRI
vXw>bH.w>bXt*D> w>rl;w>&>vXtrh>w>pkql.cD.wu;wz. tgwuh>b.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvX 'Ju0DR pH.
nD.yDwh'D; pH.nD.yDwhySRvX rRvXxD.ySJRxD.w>wz. xH.0JvXw>tHRuJxD.w>rRpXRwcgvX zJt0Joh.rh>'k;CmySR
weDReDR vXtb.w>qdurd.tDRvXtrRur.w> rhwrh> w>xH.M>uhRtDRvXtub.td.'D;w>[H;M>rl'g vX w>vX
trR0JwrHRrHRtzDcd.<ySRvXtrRur.uGD>rh.vX'Ju0DRylRwz.M.vDRIb.q.(MDRG)tHR w[h.*H>[h.bgw>'k;
Cmw>vX'Ju0DRylRb.M.vDRI w>eJ.usJvXw>usJRClusJRzd;w>vXb.w>rRur.tDRwz.t*D>/wbh.tHR b.w>
rR*hRxD.uhRtDRvX (IRC)'D;unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmvX w>uoltDRvX'Ju0DRylR ymvDR0J&SJ&SJzdvX w>'k;Cm wrh>
w>CkxXwcg 'ftrh>w>pH.nD.vXcHuwX>wcgvX'Ju0DRtylRM.b.I vXusJt*Rwbd w>*h>w>usdRvXttd.xD.
wz. vXtrh>w>'k;Cmtw>eJ.usJtHR zsgvXtrh> w>vXw>ub.vJRuymuGHmtDR'D;xHvD>uD>ylRb.rlb.'gvX
tb.rlb.'gvX'Ju0DRwbh.b.wbh.pkmpkmtylRwz. wl>vdm0JvX w>*h>weDReDRtzDcd. w>'k;CmvX'Ju0DRylR
tHR tvD>td.0J< vDRqD'.w>vXySRrRur.w>vXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;< vDRb.,dmwz. rhwrh> ySRvXol w>uwdR
ql.ql.ud>ud> xD'grRysHRrRzk;w>qlySRt*kmt*Rwz. rhwrh> vXw>uyvD>qdo;vX ySRvXb.w>xH.M>tDRvX t
rRur.uGD>rh.'d.'d.rk>rk>okwCh>ylRzsJ;to;w*hRt*D>M.vDRI
tgwuh>vX'Ju0DRwz.tylR<w>u&Xu&dwtd.eDwzkvXu[h.usd.phw>qD.xGJrRpXR'D;w>td.,XRvXtvd.0J
wz.vXw>'k;Cmt*D>b.IySRb.uDb.cJbH.bXwz.w>w[h.tDRw>bH.w>bXw>yD;w>vDeDwrHRb.IphtD.
vd;wz.vXb.w>[h.tDRvX ySRvXtrRur.w>wz.tHR rh>w>vXt[JEkmvDRwcg'D; w>tHRrh>'.w>wqH; wuh>
vXtrRpXRw>zSD.w>,mwpJ;wrGJ;vX'Ju0DRwz.tylRM.vDRI w>'k;Cmw>td.o;vX'Ju0DRylRwz. vDRqDvdmt
o;vX'Ju0DRwbh.'D;wbh.pkmpkmM.vDRI b.q.yrh>uG>vXw>td.o;0;0; 'frk>qh.rk>*DRtod;M. w>tHR w>tX.
vDRwl>vdm0JvX w>tHRwrh>w>vXt-uX;0Jb.0JvX w>uymySRunDvXt,HmtxXvXw>'k;CmtylRM.b.I w>'k;
CmvX'Ju0DRCkbh.tylRb.w>bSDtDRvX0.'D;oh.wz.'D;vXunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRxJwbh.{dRvXtrh>rJ>v;
29

'Ju0DRwcD w>'k;CmtHR b.w>rRtDRvXoh.'D;bHv;rF‹. 'D;b.w>qD.xGJrRpXRtDRvX (IRC)M.vDRI (rhrh>u&h.eH.
b.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRcHbh.M.tw>'k;CmwcD rh>w>wuvkmCD'frJ>v;tod;M.vDRI) w>tHR w>woh.ngb.tDR
b.I b.rEkRtCdvXw>td.,XRvXw>'k;Cmt*D>wz. wb.w>rRpXRtDRvXxH*kRuD>*RursX>obhsu&Xwz.w
rHRCDvX'Ju0DRud;bh.'J;tylRb.vJ.M.vDRI w>ChxD.wy,lmCDvXtb.w>ChxD.tDRvX'Ju0DRurH;wHmwz.
vXw>uqD.xGJrRpXRw>'k;Cmw>td.,XRwz.'D; w>uol.xD.bSDxD.w>'k;Cmw>ol.xD.wz.vXtb.bsD;
b.'gvXtwkRxD.<xD.b;'fxH*kRuD>*RtywD>tod;b.q.<w>ChxD.tHRw>wwl>vdmtDRb.M.vDRI
vXw>yJmxHeDRz;uhRwuD>cgpH.nD.yDwhw>rRtwuDG>vXunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRwz.tylRt*D><zF.pdrdRySRvXt
vDRCkxH.oh.ngw>w*RvXtrh>(cX;pxX>rJ;cfcDeHcHm) (Kirsten Mc Connaichie) uGJ;w>b.C;'D;w>'k;Cmt
*h>tusdRvXtw>vDRCkxH.oh.ngw>tylR'D; tw>ymzsgvXtb.C;'D;pH.nD.yDwhtw>yXqSX&J.usJRvXb.uD
b.cJ'Ju0DRoXbh.tylRM.vDRI
?vXw>urRoDxD.rR*hRxD.w>qXwJmvXw>rRur.w>tusdRtusJt*D>'fod;urh>pH.nD.yDwhwcgvXtrR*hRxD.
w>t*D> ('f ?w>usJRClusJRzd;w>obH.bk.w>eJ.usJ/) usJ;pX;rR0Jtod;< b.oh.oh. uJxD.w>rRpXRz;'d.wcgvX
t[h.w>vXtrRylRzsJ;w><vXtvD>td.0Jtgr;<'D;qD.xGJrRpXRw>rRvd.xD.z;xD.w>M.vDRIb.q.oemuhw>
[h.w>qXwJmvXw>rRur.w>wz.t*D>tHR cDzsdw>xk;uGHmw>vXtrh> w>zD.CH;vXw>urR*hRrRb.xD.w>w
z.vX tuJxD.to;ohoh.wz.M.tCd wrh>w>vXtuJxD.w>rR*hRxD.pH.nD.yDwhb.I w>qSXEkmwz.tHR
b.w>oltDRvX 'Ju0DR cd.e>wz. 'D;cJtHR vXt0Joh.trJmng w>vXtvD>td.0Jwz.td.0Jtgr; vX tbl;xD.vX
w>rR*hRxD.pH.nD.yDwhtuh>t*DRM.vDRI ( w>oh.wz.M. 'ftrh> w>wrHR*hRwrHR*hR ub.td.'D;w>[h.xD.w>
[h.w>b.o;<w>y.CkmrRoud;w>'D;w>usJRClusJRzd;w>vXw>wcgcgtzDcd.wz.M.vDRI)b.q.w>tHR'd;o
MRxD.ph>uD;to;vX w>zD.CH; vX trh>w>'k;Cmw> tzDcd.M.vDRI vXw>orHord; vX ,rRtDRvX (2012) eH.tylR
'Ju0DRcd.e>wz.xH.b.0JvXw>tHRuD'd.r;vXw>ue>yX>0JvXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJurRto;wkRvDRwDRvDR
vXtrh>wy.Ckm'D;w>'k;CmtHRvXusJ'fvJ.t*h>M.vDRI/
w>'k;Cm rh>w>wcgvXuFD;rJmCJ;'D; w>tgrHRtguvkmcH.cl.vdmo; w>*h>w>usdRvXt'db.w>bH.w>bXvXySR
wl>b.w>t*D><ySRvXb.w>qdurd.tDRvXtrRur.w>t*D><ySRvXtrRur.w>eD>eD>t*D>'D; ySRw0X'Dwzkng t
*D>M.vDRI vXM.trJmng 'Ju0DRwz.tHR td.ol.vDRqDvDRto;vXteH.(20)bsJ.vHb.q. w>oh.wz.tHR w
b.w>rR*hRxD.tDRrlmrlmeD>eD>vDRwH>vDRqJ;'H;b.I

30

5. w>CkxH.w>tusdRtusJ
unDydmrk.u&Xtw>rk>v>uG>pdvXw>rR0Jw>CkxH.oh.ngwcgtHRtzDcd. rh>'fod;w>uxXzSd.w>tk.uDR 'fod;
uymzsgxD.pH.nD.yDwhtpXb.C;oGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;tMqX.'D;tw>vJRw&H;twuGD>t*D>M.
vDRIytJ.'d;uG>orHxHw>*h>w>usdRtrh>twDwz.'fod;urRpXRySRvXyuxH.M>w>td.o;eD>eD>t*D>M.vDRIvX
w>M.tCd yrRw>vDRCkxH.oh.ngb.C;oGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;tw>rl;w>&>wz.vX w>bSg&SJtDR
vX'Ju0DR'D;uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhoElvXusJ'fvJ.t*h>M.vDRIytJ.'d;[h.eDRvDRw>*h>w>usdRwz. vX w>u wX.yD.
wJoud; b.C;ySRb.uDb.cJtw>'d;M>b.w>wDw>-w>tusdRtusJ vDRqD'.w> rh>vXw>tHR[J'db.ydmrk. w
z.tCdM.vDRI
'fod;yrR0Jw>CkxH.oh.ngb.C;w>wDw>-w>tpXvXoGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.vXt
uJxD.to;vXunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRwz.tylRuM>t*D><vD>cX.o;unDydmrk.u&X'k;td.xD.w>CdxHw>rR
eD.rRCgb.C;oGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>vXtb.w>rReD.rRCgtDRvXunDySRb.uDb.cJ'J
u0DREGHbh.vXmtylRM.vDRIu&l>tHRvJR0JqlunDySRb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DREGHbh.tylRp;xD.vXvgtDuX;pfwkRvX vgpJ;
yxhbX.2013eH.tcgM.vDRIyCkxXw>rl;w>&>wz.vXunDydmrk.u&X'Ju0DRtw>rReD.rRCgwz.tylRp;xD.
vX(2011)eH.<wkR(2012)eH.'D;wkRvX(2013)eH.tuwX>(oXeH.)M.vDRIvXw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHRw>rl;w>&>cJ
vXmvXty.Ckmrh>0J(289)rl;M.vDRI
w>CkxH.oh.ngw>rRvdwcgtHRwy.CkmoGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.cJvXmvXtuJxD.
to;vX'Ju0DRwz.tylRvXqXuwD>cJtHRM.b.I'D;w>tHRwy.Ckmph>uD;'D;u,J>rh>w>rl;w>&>wz.vXw>ym
zsgxD.tDRql'Ju0DREGHbh.tpH.nD.yDwhoElvXoXeH.twD>ylRcJvXmM>b.Iw>tHRwy.Ckmph>uD;'D;w>rl;w>&>
wz.cJvXmvXtb.w>yXqSX&J.usJRrhwrh>qD.xGJrRpXRwh>tDRvXunDydmrk.u&XvXtuwD>zJM>tcgM.b.Iyw>
CkxXw>rl;w>&>wz.'fyw>ynd.tzDcd.rh>vXyymyeD.ymw>od.w>oDw>bsXoXxH.vXub.y.CkmzJyCkxX
w>rl;w>&>vXuzXEkmtDRvXyw>CdxHoh.ngvXw>CkxH.wbsDtHRt*D>'ftrh>=
 w>tHRrh>0JoGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>'D;
 unDydmrk.u&Xy.CkmrRoud;w>vXw>yXqSX&J.usJRw>rl;w>&>tylRrhwrh>[h.w>qD.xGJrRpXRcd.
oh.wz.'D;
 unDydmrk.u&Xtd.'D;w>rReD.rRCgvXw>'d;oMRxD.o;ohrhwrh>w>rReD.rRCgvXvXySJRySJRM.vDRI
unDydmrk.u&Xtd.'D;w>emM>vDRo;vX yzXEkmw>rl;w>&>wz.b.vXvXySJRySJRvX yw>CkxH.oh.ngvXw>Ck
xH.M>wbsDtHRt*D><'D;yw>rReD.rRCgwz. rh>w>vXw>'d;oMRxD.o;vXtzDcd.vXvXySJRySJRoh0JM.vDRI vXw>
oh.wz.tHRtzDcd. w>xk;xD.w>*h>uDcd.oh.wz.'D;[h.xD.w>[h.ul.[h.z;vXw>oltDRohvXu'k;eJ.ymzsg
xD.w>uJxD.vd.xD.'D; w>wuJxD.vd.xD.wz.weDRvX pH.nD.yDwhoElvXySRb.uDb.cJydmrk.'D;zdo.ydm
rk.wz.'d;M>b.0JohvX'Ju0DRwz.tylRM.vDRI
5.1. w>*h>w>usdRtuvkmwz.vXw>xXzSd.wh>wz.

w>rl;w>&>wcg'.0JpkmpkmtzDcd.yxXzSd.w>*h>w>usdRwz.'fvmtHRod;=

31

w>rl;w>&>teD.*H>
unDydmrk.u&Xw>rl;w>&>w>rReD. /w>rl;tuvkm
w>uJxD.o;rk>eHR
w>rl;w>&>tHRol0JpH.nD.yDwhtuvkmzJvJ.wuvkmt*h>=
 'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh
 uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhcDzsd(IRC/LAC)rhwrh>(UNHCR)
 eDwrHR
w>rl;w>&>tHRw>rh>ol0J'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhoElwcDM.(rh>wvJRcDzsd0JuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhoElb.M.)rh>tvJRcD
zsd0J'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhoElvXtywD>zJvJ.wywD>vJ.
 u0DR'hywD>
 u0DR'h<u0DR'd.'D;'Ju0DRywD>(oltywD>cJvXm)
rh>ySRwl>b.w>td.vXunDydmrk.u&Xt[H.td.u'krhwrh>teD>up>'.0Jt[H.zJw>bSg&SJM>tDRw>rl;w>&>t
cgM.vJ.?
pH.nD.yDwhtpX=rh>w>qXwJmrhwrh>w>pH.nD.wJmtd.xD.wcgcgvXw>rl;w>&>tHRt*D>ph>uD;{gI(td.<wtd.)
rh>td.wcD<rh>w>rEkRvJ.?
ySRrRur.w>/ySRvXtb.w>pGJw&gtDRw*R=w>rEkRuJxD.to;'D;ySRrRur.w>/ySRvXtb.w>pGJw&gtDRw
*RM.vJ.?
w>rReD.ymzsg0JvXuFD.wJ.oJp;w>bsX'k;td.xD.w>eDRz;w>t'l.tqXvX?w>rRw&Dwygtrl;vXw>usJRClusJR
zd ; woh / 'D ; ?w>rRw&D w ygtrl ; vXw>usJ R Cl u sJ R zd ; oh / tbX.pXRM.vD R Iw>rRw&D w ygcH u vk m vXmtH R
b.w>ymzsgtDRzsdzsdzsgzsgvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhw>ymzsgylRzJtqX'd.(4I3I2)tylRM.vDRIvXw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHRt
ylRywtd.'D;w>rReD.rRCgb.C;w>rRw&Dwygtrl;vXw>usJRClusJRzd;ohrhwrh>wohwz.M.wtd.uGJ;vDR
ymto;vDRvDRqDqDvXunDydmrk.u&Xw>rReD.rRCgvX'Ju0DRtylRb.IoJp;w>uwdRtzsX.vXt&SJyF;0Jw>rl;
w>&>vXw>usJRClusJRzd;oh'D;wohb.t*h>M.wtd.uGJ;to;vXvHmw>rReD.rRCgwz.vXw>oltDRvX'Ju0DR
pH.nD.yDwhoEltylRM.b.I
5.2. w>rl;w>&>wz.vXty.CkmvXw>ymzsgwbh.tHRtylR =

zJvXw>CkxXw>rl;w>&>wz.tuwD>yxH.b.vXw>rl;w>&>teD.*H>eD.'G;weDRvXunDydmrk.u&Xtd.'D;w>*h>
w>usdRvDRwH>vDRqJ;'D;vXvXySJRySJRb.q.ySRwl>b.w>wz.CkxX0J'.vXwymzsgxD.0Jtw>rl;w>&>qlpH.
nD.yDwhoElttd.b.Iyw>CkxH.oh.ngwbsDtHRtw>rk>v>uG>pdrhrh>'.xJvXw>uymzsgxD.pH.nD.yDwhtpX
b.C;oGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>tzDcd.b.q.yrRw>qXwJmvXuzXEkmCkmw>rl;w>&>
wz.tHR'fod;uymzsgxD.w>tk.uDRb.C; oGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>weDRw>wymzsg xD.tDR
b.td.0Jt*h>M.vDRI
vX'Ju0DRweDRtylR<w>rl;w>&>weDReDRM.'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh oEltd.'D;w>tpXvXttgM>'H; wcgvXw>rl;wrl; t
zDcd.td.0JM.vDRIt'd<ySRrRur.w>u'd;M.b.w>pH.nD.vXw>uzD.'k;CmtDR'D;rXtqJ;vDRtrHRtk.uDRto;
vXwrRur.w>toDwbsDvXRb.t*h> M.vDRI b.q.vX yw>Ck xH. oh. ng wbsDtHRtylRyxH.b.vX unDydm
rk.u&Xtw>rReD.rRCgvX'Ju0DRwz.tylRM.tgwuh>ymzsgxD.0J'.vX w>tpX td.xJ wcg {dRvXw>bSg&SJw>rl;
w>&>t*D>M.vDRIw>rl;w>&>vXyxH.M>b.w>rReD.rRCgtDRvXw>tpXtd.tgM>'H;wcgwz.yCkxXrReD.w>
tpXvXtCXrhwrh>t*H>ql.'d.xD.'fw>tpXwcgvXw>rl;w>&>t*D>M.vDRI
yuG>u'guhRw>rl;w>&>289rl;vXtb.w>rReD.rRCgwh>tDRoh.wz.'D;ymzsgxD.w>*h>cd.oh.z;'d.vGH>uvkm
'ftrh>=
32




oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;
eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;
oGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>t*kRt*Rwz.
oGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;tw>rl;w>&>wz.vXw>wqSXcDtDRqlpH.nD.yDwhoElb.wz.I
w>CkxH.M>bsD0JtHRw>ymzsgqd0J'.w>*h>w>usdRtrh>twDwz.vXng'D;ydmxGJxD.to;[h.ul.'D;
w>yJmxHeDRz;wz.weDRM.vDRI
5.3. w>vlRydmrRxGJw>tusdRtusJvXw>rRtDRM>'D;ohwz.=

y*kmusJ;pX;ymuDRyw>rReD.rRCgw>ymzsg'fw>tk.uDRwz.t*H>cD.xH;tod;M.vDRIyxXzSd.ymuDR'D;rRvde>yX>y
o;vXw>*h>w>usdRtrh>twDwz.b.C;pH.nD.yDwhtpXwz.vXvHmymzsgwbh.tHRtylR'D;[h.xD.yw>[h.
ul.[h.z;'D;yw>yJmxHeDRz;wz.weDR'd;oMRxD.to;vXw>*h>w>usdRvXy'd;M>b.wz.tzDcd.M.vDRIusdRusJ
tHR[h.ySRtcGJ;vXyuxd.xHpDRuG>pH.nD.yDwhtpXwz.'D;pH.nD.yDwhoElwz.vXusJ'fyw>ynd.td.ymtod;
M.vDRIw>tHRymzsgxD.w>tk.o;wz.vXpH.nD.yDwhoEltHRuJxD.vd.xD.'fvJ.'D;wvJRto;b.*h>b.0D<
vJRur.to;vX usJ'f vJ.t*h>M.vDRI vXtuwX>M. ymzsgxD.oElwcgvX tuJxD.vd.xD.oh0J 'fod; w>urR
vDRpSRoGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;usdRusJwcgvX'Ju0DRwz.tylRt*D>M.vDRI
yrRvDRwH>w>ymclol.w>*h>w>usdRCH;CD.'D.vXttd.'D;w>ymuJw>*h>w>usdRvXyxXzSd.tDRwz.tzDcd.vDR wH>
vDRqJ;M.vDRI 'fod;'D;uuXRCmySRwl>b.w>wz.teD>up>w>bH.w>bXt*D> ywzXEkmySRtrHRto.wz. rhw
rh>rk>eHRrk>oDrhwrh>w>*h>w>usdRvXuymzsgxD.ySRw*R*Rt*h>vXvHmymzsgwbh.tHRtylRM.b.I
5.4. w>CkxH.oh.ngtw>ymyeD.wz.=
w>rl;w>&>teD.*H>eD.'G;(289)rl;vXyoltDRvXw>CkxH.oh.ngwbsDtHRt*D>M.utd.zsg0JvXtqH;tpSR'd.r;

vXyrh>qdurd.vXw>qXuwD>oXeH.w>ymzsgt*D>M.vDRIb.q.w>CkxH.oh.ngw>tpXoh.wz.tHRrh>w>vX
y'd;oMRxD.yo;ohvDRwH>vDRqJ;M.vDRI
w>u&Xu&dt*kRt*Rwz.tw>rReD.rRCgb.C;pH.nD.yDwhw>zH;w>rRvXb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRz.tylR('Ju0DR
urH;wHm<unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHm <(IRC/LAC)<(UNHCR)wz.w>w[h.eDR[h.cDvdmo;'D;y0Joh.wz.b.
tCdyuwX.yD.'D;xd.o}wDRt0Joh.w>*h>w>usdR'D;yw>*h>w>usdRwz.wohb.IAtCdyrRvDRwH>w>*h>w>usdR
'D;w>tpXwz.vXyCkxH.M.'D;t0Joh.tw>*h>w>usdRwohb.I
w>ymzsgwbh.tHRrh>xJ'.unDydmrk.u&Xtw>CkxH.M>wz.<yw>yJmxHeDRz;'D;yw>xH.w>qdurd.wz.{dR
M.vDRIunDydmrk.u&Xwtd.'D;w>yD;w>vDwz.vXurRw>wX.yD.wJoud;'D;'Ju0DRurH;wHmwz.vdRvdR'D;qJ;
usd;t0Joh.xDbdb.C;w>yJmxHeDRz;w>CkxH.M>w>*h>w>usdRoh.wz.vXw>Ckoh.ngwbsDtHRtzDcd.M.
b.Iw>CdxHoh.ngqlrJmngwz.rhwrh>w>[l;w>*JRvXw>ub.rRtDRvXcgqlrJmngwz.vXt'd;oMRxD.t
o;vXw>CkxH.wcgtHRtzDcd.M.ub.y.Ckm'D;'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhcX.p;wz.vXtrRuJxD.vd.xD.w>u
b.y.CkmvXvXySJRySJRM.vDRI
cDzsdvXw>u&Xu&dt*kRt*Rwz.vXtrRw>vXySRb.uDb.cJpH.nD.yDwhoEltylRwz.ywxH.vXtrR0Jrhwrh>
xk;xD.&RvDR0Jw>CkxH.oh.ngb.C;w>*h>rd>yS>wcgtHRtzDcd.eDwbsDb.tCd<yw>CdxHoh.ngtHRwrh>w>
vXtb.bsK;b.zSd.vXt0Joh.tw>[h.ul.[h.z;<w>vJRcDzsd'D;w>xH.wz.tzDcd.M.b.I
5.5. w>ymzsgqdzk.udm(*H>cD.xH;w>ymzsg)=
unDydmrk.u&XtHRzJ2013eH.tcgyxk;xD.0Jw>ymzsgvXvXySJRySJRwM>b.tzDcd.y'k;td.xD.w>ymzsgtqdzk.

udm 'fod;u[h.cD[h.eDRw>*h>cd.oh.wz.weDRvXyxH.M>Ckm'D;w>yXqSX&J.usJR'Ju0DRw>rRoud;w>u&l>vX w>
td.zSd.vXw>rRnDEk>tDRvX0h>rk>,l>tylRoXvgwbsDtw>td.zSd.tylRM.vDRIw>ymzsgqdzk.udmtHRypJ;usH;eDRvDR
tDRweDRvX(CMWG)w>td.zSd.zJvXw>rRtDRvXvged.0hbX.19oD<2013eH.tcgM.vDRI zJ(2014)eH.tcgyrR0Jy
w>ymzsgvXtvXtySJR0HR0Jb.q.cDzsdvXuD>uFD.wJ.txH&l>uD>oJ;w>td.o;w*X>wusXR(u'Hu'g)tzDcd.yw
xk;xD.&RvDRyvHmymzsgtHRzJqXuwD>0JM.tcgb.IunDydmrk.u&X'k;td.xD.w>ymzsgzk.udmzdwcgvXunD
usdm'D;udRvR0gusdm'D;pJ;usH;eDRvDRtDRql(CMWG)w>td.zSd.zJw>rRtDRzJvged.0hbX.18oD<2014eH.tcgM.vDRI
33

vXyw>ymzsg'D;[h.eDRvDRyw>ymzsgqdzk.udmwz.tzDcd.unDydmrk.u&Xw'd;M>b.uhRw>orHord;<w>oHuG>
oH'd;wz.w>qJ;usd;cDzsdw>u&Xu&dt*kRt*Rwz.vXyw>ymzsgxD.yw>CkxH.oh.ngwz.tzDcd.M.b.Iw>
u&Xu&drhwrh>u&l>vXtrRw>vXpH.nD.yDwhw>zH;w>rRtylRwz.w[JymzsgxD.to;eDwzkvXtJ.'d;rRoud;
w>'D;ySRcDzsd[h.eDRvDRw>*h>w>usdRvXtd.'D;t0Joh.wz.b.C;'D;'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwht*h>'fod;yuxd.o}wDR
uG>xHorHord;tDRt*D>M.b.Iw>tHRrh>w>vXtvDRo;pJ'D;vDRurXur.'d.r;vXySRvXttd.'D;w>pdw>urDRw
z.wqJ;usd;'D;ySRb.C;w>b.ud>b.*DRwz.vXyymzsgxD.vXw>td.zSd.cHcgvXmtylRb.C;w>CkxH.oh.
ngw>*h>tHRtzDcd.b.I
5.6.w>*h>w>usdRvXw>ub.z;qdtDRwz.=

'fod;'D;urRpXRySRvXyue>yX>tgxD.'D;yJmxHeDRz;w>*h>w>usdRwz.vXw>CkxH.oh.ngtHRuM>uoht*D>yu
b.z;qdvHm'D;w>ymzsgweDRvXtb.xGJ'D;w>*h>tHRM.vDRIyuGJ;ymvDRvHmbs;pJeD.*H>(3)tylRb.C;vHmvXt
b.xGJvXw>-uX;z;qd'fod;urRtgxD.w>e>yX>t*D>M.vDRI

34

w>CkxH.M>wz.
6. w>rl;w>&>wz.cJvXmtw>td.o;wz.
w>rl;w>&>cJvXm(289)cgvXtrh>oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;trl;t&>wz.b.w>CkxH.oh.ngb.tDRvX
tgwuh>vX'Ju0DRud;zsX.'J;tylRvDRIySRwl>b.w>( 84µ)vXtrh>w>rl;w>&>(425)rl;tHRM.CkxX0JvXtuymzsg
wD.xD.0JqlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJM.vDRIvXw>CkxH.oh.ngb.w>rl;w>&>wz.tHRtw>yJmxHeDRz;tHR'd;o
MRxD.to;vXw>rl;w>&>(242)rl;tHRtw>wDw>-w>wz.tw>tpX[JxD.t*h>'fvJ.tzDcd.M.vDRIvXw>rl;
w>&>(289)rl;tHRtusg(16%)vXtrh>w>rl;w>&>(47)rl;tHRySRwl>b.w>wz.CkxX0JvXtwwD.zsgxD.tw>rl;
w>&>qlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJb.M.vDRI
vXw>rl;w>&>cJvXm(289)rl;tusg<(72µ)M.rh>eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.<( 21µ)rh>oGH.xH;w>pk
ql.cD.wu;wz.'D;(7µ)M.rh>oHG.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;tuh>t*DRvXt*kmt*Rwz.M.vDRIvXw>rl;
w>&>(242)rl;vXw>wD.xD.tDRqlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtusgyxH.M>b.tDRvXw>rl;w>&>tuvkmvXtb.
w>wD.xD.tDRwz.trs;u,RxJod;vdmto;'fw>rl;w>&>vXtuJxD.to;tod;C.C.M.vDRI(73µ)rh>eD>cd
w>pkql.cD.wu;<(21µ)rh>oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;<'D;(6µ)rh>oHG.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;vXt*kmt*Rwz.M.
vDRI
'Ju0DRvXw>rl;w>&>teD.*H>tguwX>wzsX.rh>0JrJ>v;'Ju0DR 'D;w>rl;w>&>teD.*H>wcDrh>0J (83) rl;M.vDRI 'fM. t
od;ph>uD;'Ju0DRwzsX.tHRrh>'Ju0DRvXySReD.*H>tguwX>vXunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DREGHbh.vXmtusgM.vDRI'Ju0DR
vXw>rl;w>&>tguwX>cHbh.wbh.vXunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRcGHbh.tusgrh>0Jtl;yF.'Ju0DR<w>rl;w>&>cJvXm
(73)cgM.vDRI'Ju0DRvXw>rl;w>&>td.pSRuwX>rh>0Jed.zd'Ju0DRM.vDRI
vHmwdRCheD.*H>(6): w>rl;w>&>cJvXmvXw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHR
'Ju0DR

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

rJ>v;tl;
rJ>&Rrd>
rJ>v;
tlyF.
ed.zd
bg'd.,g
xgr[h.
cJvXm
rs;u,Rwz.

w>rl;w>&>cJ
vXm

oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;
w>&>uvkmwz.

b.w>wD.zsgxD.tDRql
pH.nD.yDwh

oGH.xH;w>pk
ql.cD.wu;

eD>cdw>pk
ql.cD.wu;

oGH.xH;w>pk
ql.cD.w
u;t*kmt
*Rwz.

w>rl;w>&>w
z.vXb.w>
wD.zsgxD.tDR

w>rl;w>&>
wz.
vXwb.
w>wD.
zsgxD.tDR

24

13

8

3

21

3

30

11

15

4

18

12

83

16

64

3

59

24

73

3

70

0

73

0

19

3

13

3

17

2

34

7

20

7

31

3

26

7

18

1

23

3

289

60

208

21

242

47

100%

21%

72%

7%

84%

16%

6.1 w>rl;w>&>tpXvXtuJxD.to;ohoh.wz.

w>pH.nD.wJm tpXtvXtySJRvXt[JxD. 'D;b.w>xH.M>tDRwz.vXw>rl;w>&> vX'Ju0DREGHbh.vXm tzDcd.< w>
pH.nD.wJmtpXtvXtySJRvXt[JxD.'D;b.w>xH.M>tDRwz.td.zsg'ftzDvmtod;tHRvDRI
'Ju0DRuD;bh.'J;w>rl;w>&>tpXvXt[JxD.wz.;
1Iw>xXEkmtDRvXw>'k;CmtylR
2IqJ;pkrk>usX>'D;[h.w>tX.vDRtDvDRvXwrRur.0JvXRb.I
35

3IySRrRur.w>pH.zsd;
4Iw>w[H;M>*h>0Db.
5It*kmt*Rwz.(w>[h.phtD.vd;qlpH.nD.yDwhrhwrh>w>[h.vHmvDRzS.)wz.M.vDRI
6Iw>*h>w>usdRqJ;vJR'H;'.to;tzXrk>
pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXtywD>xD.b;t-uX;'D;uXuD.
y[h.ul.[h.z;vXytd.'D;w>tX.vDRwl>vdmwz.vXyySRw0XtylR 'D; v XySRw0X tgzk tylR b.C;pH.nD.yDw ht
w>rRtw>tpX[JxD.rEkRwz.vXtrh>w>vXtb.bsD;b.'gvXt-uX;0Jb.0JvXySRvXrRw>pkql.cD.wu;xD
'gqlySRt*Rt*D>vJ.t*h>M.vDRI
6.2.

vXteH.(30)twD>ylR<unDydmrk.u&X'due.w>qlunDb.uDb.cJydmrk.ydmrXRwz.vXtuJxD.b.ySRwl>b.
w>vX twl>b.w>pkql.cD.wu;wz.M.vDRI ydmrk.wz.pH;0JvXzJw>xH.M> ydm cGgwz.vXtrRur.w>vXtrh>
w>olw>pkql.cD.wu;M.'D;w>ub.pH.nD.tDRM.vDRI w>pH.nD.ub.pH;b.tDRvXtw>ouJ;y0;vXtrh>
w>olw>pkql.cD.wu;vXtrR0JvXySRw0X'DwzkngtylRtHR wrh>w>vXw>wl>vdmtDRohM.b.I w>yXw>qSXvX
w>[h.w>pH.nD.tHRub.rh>w>vXt&SJ'D;w>wb.ym'h.ymur.ydmrk.wz.cDzsdvXw>rRur.wz.tHRtCd'f
vJ.'fvJ.t*h>M.b.I vXw>[h.w>pH.nD.M.trJmng w>tusdRtusJub.rh>w>wcgvXtywkmuGHmtDRvXt
okwrRur.tgxD.w>pkql.cD.wu;qlrJmngw*hRt*D>M.vDRI rh>ohrh>b.w cD zJw>vD>wylRv>v> vXtuJxD.
o;oh0JtvD>M. w>tHR w>ub.rRvXxD.ySJRxD.tDR cDzsdw>rR*hRxD.'D;w>ulpg,gbsg tw>ouJ;y0;tHRM.vDRI
b.q. w>tHRrh>wnDwbSgb.wcD w>uolusJ vX trh> < cDzsd zd;oJp; w>zD.uXRu,m'ftrh>w>}wDtDRvXtokw
[Jbl;qlydmrk.ttd.'D; td.pDRpkR'D;ydmrk.rhwrh>tokw[Jqlydmrk.t[H.tCDylRw*hRM.vDRI w>pH.nD.yDwhtpX
vXt[JxD.tHRub.rh>w>wcgvXtrRpXRydmrk.vXurRbsguhRw>vXtwl>b.cD.b.0Jwz.vXeD>cdrh>*hR<eD>o;
rh>*hR t'd=ySRrRur.w>tvD>td.vXub.tX.vDRtDvDRuhRto;vXtrR ur.w>'D; Chun;uhRw>vXySRb.rl
b.'gwz.trJmng<rhwrh>t0Jub.[;'D;vJRtd.vJRqd;uhR0JvXw>vD>t*RwwDRM.vDRI
vXydmrk.ydmrXR 'D;ySRw0X'Dwzkng uwl>b.0JvXylRylRzsJ;zsJ;t*D> w>tHRwrh>w>vXw>ySJR vX'd;M>b. w>pH.nD.yDwh
tpX{dRM.b.Irhrh>wcDvXu'd;M.b.w>pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXtb.bsD;b.'gvXtusdRtusJb.b.M.vDRIw>
pH.nD.yDwhvXtusdRtusJb.'D;b.bsD;b.'gub.rh>w>wcgvXw>[h.tDRxDbd<'D;ySRud;*R'J;uG>tDRoh<w,m
'D;e>yX> 0Jv X w>pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXt[JxD.0J tHR w>rRtDRwkRxD.xD.b;vX usJ'fvJ.t*h>M.vDRI pH.nD.yDwh tpX
vXt[JxD.b.bsD;b.'gvXw>rRur.uDG>rh.wcg*hRwcg*hRt*D>ub.rh>w>vXttd.'D;w>[h.yvD>'D;w>u
wdRtDRvXt*h>tusdR'D;w>[h.w>pH.nD.vXySRrRur.w>t*D>M.vDRIw>tpXvXt[JxD.t0JtHRub.rh>w>vX
b.*D>vXtwtd.'D;w>uG>rJmb.M.vDRItcDynDw>tpXvXt[JxD.tHRub.rh>w>vXw>qXwJmtDRCH;CD.
'D;<w>ur.'d.*hRqH;*hRw>ub.[h.w>pH.nD.'ftrRur.0Jtod;vXt-uX;uXuD.'D;tDRvXtwtd.'D;w>uG>
rJmeDwrHRb.M.vDRIw>pH.nD.wz.ub.rh>w>vXttd.'D;tywD> 'D;wb.rh>w>wcgvX ttd.'D;w>uG>wvDR
rhwrh>eD>w*Rtw>uG>rJmM.b.Iw>oh.wz.M.ub.rh>w>vXttd.'D;t*h>tusdRvDRwH>vDRqJ;'D;rh>w>eD>eD>
M.vDRIpH.nD.yDwhtpXvXt[JxD.tHRub.rh>w>wcgvXttd.'D;w>ydmxGJxD.vXt&SJwz.w>vXw>rh>wrR
vXxD.ySJRxD.tDRb.'D;w>uwD.zsgxD.u'guhRtDRt*D>M.vDRIt'd=w>tX.vDRwl>vdmtd.0J'.vXw>ub.
[h.0Jw>ydmxGJb.q. w>rh>wrR'fw>qXwJmtd.tod;b.'D; w>ydmxGJurh>w>'fvJ.t*h>M.vDRI vXM.trJmng
pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXty.Ckm'D;w>pH.nD.'D; w>bSDrR*hRxD.w>&J.w>usJRtHR w>ub.[H;M>w>rReD.rRCgtvX
tySJR'D; w>ub.[h.ul.[h.z;[H;pkeJ.usJuhRbl;bl;wH>wH> 'fod;w>urRvDRwH>uhR0JvX w>tHRw>rRvXxD.ySJR
xD.tDR*hR*hRt*D>M.vDRI
6.3 w>vXb.w>wD.zsgxD.tDRqlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ
vX w>ymzsgwbh.tHRtylR w>rl;w>&> (289)rl; tusg w>rl;w>&> (242) rl; vXtrh> (84%) b.w>wD.zsgxD.tDRvX

pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJM.vDRIw>rl;w>&>vXtrh>eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;rh>*hR<eD>o;w>pkql.cD.wu;rh>*hR<cHrHR
vXmrh>w>wz.vXteD.*H>tg0J'd.r;vXw>wD.xD.zsgxD.tDR(85-87%)'D;oGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;vX
36

t*kRt*Rwz.b.w>wD.xD.tDRqlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJxJpSRcgvXteD.*H>eD.'G;td.0J(67%)M.vDRI w>rl;w>
&>wz.tgwuh>w>wD.zsgxD.tDRql'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh'D;teD.*H>eD.'G;td.0J( 87%)M.vDRIw>rl;w>&>pSRudmcg
vXb.w>wD.xD.tDRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtd.ph>uD;0J'D;teD.*H>eD.'G;td.0J(13%)M.vDRI
Table 6.3: w>rl;w>&>cJvXmvXb.w>wD.xD.tDRqlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ

1
2
3

w>rl;w>&>tuvkm

w>rl;w>&>cJ
vXmvXw>wD.
xD.tDR

'Ju0DRpH.nD.
yDwh

uFD.wJ.pH.nD.
yDwh

w>rl;w>&>
cJvXmvXw>
xH.M>tDRwz.
teD.*H>

w>rl;w>&>trs;u,R
vXw>wD.xD.tDR
wz.

Sexual Violence
Physical Violence
Other SGBV
Totals
Percentages

52
176
14
242

27
171
13
211
87%

25
5
1
31
13%

60
208
21
289

87%
85%
67%
84%

6.4. w>rl;w>&>vXb.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh

vX'Ju0DREGHbh.vXmtylR w>rl;w>&>vXb.w>wD.xD.tDRqlpH.nD.yDwhttd.cJvXm(242)cg< vXtrh>w>rl;w>
&> (87%)w>rl;w>&>vXb.w>wD.xD.tDR tusgvXtrh>(211)cgtHR b.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.'D;bSg&SJtDRxJ'.vX'J
u0DRpH.nD.yDwhM.vDRIyxH.b.vX=
 u0DR'hywD>[H;xD.zD.xD.w>rl;w>&>40%.
 vXu0DR'd.ywD>[H;xD.zD.xD.w>rl;w>&>60%.
 w>rl;w>&>(44%)vX'Ju0DREGHbh.vXmtylRw>pH.nD.tpX[JxD.0J'.vXySRrRur.w>'d;M>b.w>
pH.nD.qXwJmvXub.td.0JvXw>'k;CmtylR
 w>rl;w>&> (36%)vX'Ju0DRud;bh.'J;tylR w>pH.nD.tpXxD.0J'.vXySRrRur.w>b.[h.w>tX.
vDRtDvDRqJ;vDRtrHRvXw>tX.vDRtDvDRtvHmylR< 'D;b.tX.vDR0JvX twrRur.u'D;0JvXRb.M.
vDRI
 w>rl;w>&>vXttd.wh>(20%)wcD vXw>CkxH.M>tylR ySRrRur.w>pH.zsd;uGHm<'D;w>w[H;M>*h>0D
b.<'D;b.[h.phtD;vd;<rhwrh>w>[h.tDRvHmvDRzS.M.vDRI
 zJyxXzSd.w>rl;w>&>oh.wz.tHRteD.*H>eD.'G;tqXuwD><w>rl;w>&>vXtvJRto;tzXrk>wtd.0J
vHmwdRCh 6.4: w>rl;w>&>wz.cJvXm'D;'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh
w>rl;w>&>tu
vkmwz.

1
2
3

oGH.xH;w>pkql.
cD.wu;
eD>cdw>pkql.cD.
wu;
oGH.xH;w>pkql.
cD.wu;t*Rwz.
cJvXm
trs;u,RcJvXm

w>rl;
w>&>
cJvXm

'Ju0DRpH.nD.
yDwhtywD>
'Ju0DR xJu0DR u0DR'h
pH.nD. 'hywD> <u0DR
yDwh
'd.<
teD.*H>
'Ju0DR
cJvXm

w>vXtpX[JxD.wz.

cJvXm

u=
w>'k;
CmvX
'Ju0DR
ylR

c=
pJw>
tX.
vDRtD
vDR

*=
ySRrR
ur.
w>pH.
zsd;

C=
w>w
[H;*h>
0Db.

i=
t*km
t*R

60

27

8

19

10

7

2

6

2

27

208

171

69

102

80

61

10

7

13

171

21

13

7

6

2

7

1

0

3

13

289

211

84

127

92

75

13

13

18

211

100%

40%

60%

44%

36%

6%

6%

8%

100
%

37

vXw>rl;w>&>t'dtwJmvXw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHRtylR yxH.b.vXtlyF.'Ju0DR rh>'Ju0DR wbh.vXt
xXEkmySRrRur.w>wz.qlw>'k;CmtylRteD.*H>tguwX>M.vDRI yrh>ymvDRqDtlyF.'Ju0DReD.*H>eD.
'G;vXw>rRM>tDRwz. 'D;'Ju0DRt*RCkbh.vX txXEkmySRrRur.w>qlw>'k;CmtylR teD.*H>eD.'G;
M.'D; yuxH.b.vXeD.*H>eD.'G;vXw>xXEkmySRrRur.w>qlw>'k;CmtylR uzsgxD.0JpSRudmzd'D;eD.
*H>eD.'G;eD>eD>vXtlyF.'Ju0DRwcD rh>w>vXteD.*H>tg'd.M>'H;w>vXtzsgxD.vXvHmwdRCheD.*H>(6.4) 'f
ttd.zsgvXx;tod;M.vDRIvXw>uxd.o}wDRuG>w>tpXvXt[JxD.vXtl;yF.'Ju0DRwz.'D; 'Ju
0DRt*RCkbh. w>pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXt[JxD.wz.t*D> uG>b.vXvHmwdRCheD.*H> (6.7) 'fttd.zsg
vXvmtod;M.wuh>I

6.5. w>rl;w>&>wz.vXb.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh
w>rl;w>&>t*R(242)cgvXb.w>wD.xD.tDRqlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz.M.<( 13%)M.b.w>[H;xD.zD.
xD.'D;bSg&SJtDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhM.vDRIw>rl;w>&>( 25)vXtrh>oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;<eD.cdw>pk
ql.cD.wu;(5)cg'D;oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;t*kmt*Rwz.(1)cg<w>rl;w>&>cJvXmtd.0J(31)cgM.vDRI

yxH.M>b.vX=
 tgwuh>w>rl;w>&>vXb.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhwz. rh>oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.
wu; w>rl;w>&>wz.M.vDRI ( w>rl;w>&>cJvXmtusgvXtvJRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusg (80%)
M.vDRI)
 eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;teD.*H>xJpSRudmb.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvXuDF.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhM.vDRI
 w>rl;w>&>vXb.w>bSg&SJtDRvXuDF.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh(58%)M.w>[h.ySRrRur.w><w>pH.nD.vXu
b.td.vXw>'k;CmtylRvXuD>uDF.wJ.tCdmylRM.vDRI
 zJyxXzSd.w>rl;w>&>teD.*H>eD.'G;tqXuwD> w>rl;w>&>vXtqJ;rR'H;to;tzXrk> utd.0J(19%)
C.C.M.vDRI
 w>rl;w>&>vXttd.wh>(23%)wcD<pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXtxD.tusgy.Ckmph>uD;'D;ySRrRur.w>b.
w>xk;uGHmtrlt'gvXy'd.w>rRtylR rhwrh> pH.zsd;uGHm rhwrh> w>w[h.tDRw>pH.nD.eDwrHRb.I rhw
rh>w>woh.ngw>pH.nD.tpXb.wz.M.vDRI
vHmwdRCheD.*H>6.5: w>rl;w>&>cJvXm'D;uDF.wJmpH.nD.yDwh
w>tpXvXt[JxD.wz.
'Ju0DR

1
2
3

oGH.xH;w>pk
ql.cD.wu;
eD>cdw>pkql.
cD.wu;
oGH.xH;w>pk
ql.cD.w
u;t*Rwz.
cJvXm
trs;u,RcJ
vXm

w>rl;
w>&>cJ
vXm

uDF.wJ.
pH.nD.
yDwhcJvXm

u=w>'k;
CmvX
uFD.wJm
CdmylR

c=xJ *=ySRrRu C=ySR
'.[h. r.w>b. rRu
phtD.
w>xk;
r.w>
vd;
uGHmrl'g pH.zsd;
vXy'd.
uGHm
w>rRtylR

i=w>
w[h.
w>pH.
nD.

p=w>
rl;w>
&>qJ;
vJRt
o;

q=w>
rl;w>&>
w>w
oh.ng
b.tpX

60

25

15

0

2

3

1

4

0

208

5

2

0

0

0

0

2

1

21

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

289

31

18

0

2

3

1

6

1

100%

58%

0%

7%

10%

3%

19%

3%

38

6.6. w>[h.xD.w>xH.'D;w>yJmxHedRcDwz.

(u)IoHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;tuvkmwz.trs;u,RvXw>xH.M>tDRvXw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHRM.rh>w>
wz.vX tvDR*mvdmto;'D; w>rl;w>&> trs;u,RteD.*H>eD.'G;vXunDydmrk.u&XxXzSd.0JvX[H.td.u'k'D;
oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;tw>wdmusJR tylRvXw>qXuwD>twuDG>wuwD>CDvdmo;M.vDRI(w>qXuwD>
zJ (2011-13)eH.M.vDRI vXw>rl;w>&>(600)cgC.C. vX ySRwl>b.w>td.0Jqd;0JvXunDydmrk.u&X[H.td.u
'kylR rhwrh>vXt[H.'.0Jwz.M. yxH.M.b.tDRvXeD.*H>eD.'G;trs;u,Rwz. w>vDR*mvdmo;td.0J'd.'d.rk>
rk>vXw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHRM.vDRI(73%)rh>eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.<(21%)rh>oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.
wu;wz.<(6%)rh>oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;vXt*Rwz.M.vDRI w>CkxH.M>teD.*H>eD.'G;vXtzsgxD.0Jwz.
'D; rh>w>vXtvDR*mvdmo;'ftHRtzDcd. rh>w>wcgvXtymzsgxD.w>tpXvXt[JxD.wz.tHRrh>w>wz.vXtrh>
w>rh>w>wD'D;w>eD>eD>M.vDRI
(c)Iydmrk.wz.td.'D;w>ol.yd>o;0;'D;o;rkm0JvXuCkxX0JvXuwD.zsgxD.b.w>pkql.cD.wu;tuDG>rh.w
z.ql'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh (87%)vXw>CkxH.M>tylR)M.vDRIrh>vXoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.tgwuh>
b.w>[H;M>rl'gvX 'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhwz. 'D; w>tHR uJxD.w>*h>w>usdRwcgvX w>u[H;M>rl'gvX w>uywkm qd
oHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;tw>rR[;*lm[;*DRtHRvXunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRtylR'D;urh>w>wcgvXtrR
ql.xD.w>cDzsdw>urRtgxD.w>td.,XRwz.vXttd.ympXRwz.vXurR*hR'd.xD.'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRt
usJt*D>M.vDRI
(*)I pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXt[JxD.wz.tw>CkxX rh>w>wz.vXttH.0J'd.r;vXoHG.xH;rk.cGGgw>pkql.cD.wu;
w>rl;w>&>wz.t*D> vXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh'D;'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhcHrHRvXmtylRM.vDRI usdRusJvXw>uCkxX tDRt
*D> wtd.tgv>uJ.qd;b.'D; tg'.w>wuh> rh>w>wz.vXtrh>pH.nD.yDwhtw>cDqX vXtwb.bsD;b.'gb.
vXw>pkql.cD.wu;t*D>M.vDRIvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJrhrh>w>CkxXusJwbdvXtrh>w>wqH;wuh>
wcgvX b.w>rRtDRohtod;'.vJmM.< vX'Ju0DRylRph>uD; vXw>urRtgxD.usJvXw>CkxXtDRuohoh.wz.
td.0JtgrHRM.vDRI
(C) Iw>rl;w>&>wz.td.0Jtgr; vX b.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDR vX 'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh 'D; w>[H;xD. zD.xD. w>tHR
w>olusdRusJvXwb.bsD;b.'g<t*H>p><'D;wtd.zsg&SJb.'ftrh>w>pJrHRvXw>tX.vDRtDvDRtvHmylRvXwrRu
r.0JvXRb.M.vDRI(vXw>rl;w>&>(36%)tylRw>rl;w>&> (75)cgtHRxJ'.ySRrRur.w>b.tX.vDRtDvDRto;<
vXcHwrR0JvXRb.{dRM.vDRIw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHR'k;uJxD.w>pH.nD.vXcHuwX>wcgvXySRrRur.w>t*D>xJ
'.vXttX.vDRtDvDRto; 'D; 0HR0J'fM>od; tCd ySRrRur.w>tHR wtd.'D;w>[H; M>rl'g eDwpJ; vX tw> o uJ;y0;
tzDcd.b.'D;w>tHRw[h.w>bH.w>bXw>ylRzsJ;vXySRwl>b.w>'D;ySRw0Xt*D>b.M.vDRIvXw>uwX.yD.wJu
oud;b.C;'D;w>*h>w>udsRb.<w>[H;w>tX.vDRtDvDRwcgtHRt*h>M.<uG>b.vXtqXzd( 8.7)vXttd.zsg'f
vXvmtod;M.wuh>I
(i)I ySRrRur.w>[;xD.b.vXuFD.wJ.tCdmylR0HR rhwrh> [;xD.b.vX'Ju0DRw>'k;CmtylR0HR [JuhREkmvDR
u'guhRql'Ju0DRtylRrhwrh>td.qd;0JvX'Ju0DRylRwz. <t0Joh.tw>td.vX'Ju0DRylRrh>w>wcgvXtuJxD.w>
'Do'X t*h>tusdRz;'d.wcgvXySRwl>b.w> t*D>'D;ySRw0Xwz. t*D>M.vDRI pH.nD.yDwhtpX vX t[JxD.wz.w
[h.w>eJ.usJeDwrHRvX w>ub.rRvDRwH>w>bH.w>bXvXySRwl>b.w>wz.t*D> vXusJ'fvJ.t*h>M.b.I 'D; w>
rh>uJxD.to;vXySRrRur.w>rh>rRur.u'guhRw>tXw>oDwcgcg rhwrh> wkRrh>ySRrRur.w>[JuhREkmvDRu'g
uhRql'Ju0DRylRvXutd.uqd;0J 'D;usJutd.'fvJ.wbdvX w>uqD.xGJrRpXRtDR vXurR*hRxD.uhRtouJ;y0; 'f
vJ.M.w>eJ.usJwtd.eDwrHRb.I
(p)IoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>( 13%)vXb.w>qSXxD.tDRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhttd.M.uJ
xD.w>wcgvXw>xd.o}wDR'd.'d.rk>rk>wrHRvX tylRuGHmteH.(20) zJvXoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>'db.
'H; b.uDb.cJ'Ju0DR'D; w>wwD.xD.tDRvX ySReDwzkttd.b. 'D; w>w[H;xD.zD.xD.tDR vX uFD.wJ. pH.nD. yDwh
'H;b.tuwD>M.vDRI
39

(q)I w>td.wh>'H;0Jtgr;v X ydmrk.ydmrXR b.uG>qX.rJm0J zsg-wX>uvm < t[H.zDCDzd 'D; 'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh ySRvX
trRvd.xD.z;xD.w>wz.<rh>tJ.'d;vXw>rl;w>&>wz.tHR w>ub.e>[ltDRvXuFD.wJ.uDG>bsD.M.'D; w>oh.
wz.tusgweDR rh>w>wcgvX w>xH.M>tDRzsg-wX>uvm 'D; w>tHR b.w>ymzsgxD.tDR zJ tqXzd (4.3.3) 'ftzsgvX
x;tod;M.vDRI b.q. w>}wDrRwHmwmvXt*kmt*Rwz. td.0JvXySRwl>b.w>vXtrh> ydmrk.wz.vXtwl>
b.oGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.vXtw>rl;w>&> b.w>rRubSXvDRtDR rhwrh> b.w>rRp>vDRuhRtDR
vXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ'ftrh>=
 w>qD.xGJrRpXRwtd.vX ySRwl>b.w>t*D>b.'D; ySRxH.xGJw>zJySRwl>b.w>[;xD.vX'Ju0DRcsX'D; vJRqluDF.
wJ.0h>ylRwz.( v Xql.cVw>rRuFG>t*D>< pH.nD.yDwh tusdRtusJ< eD>w*Rw>bH.w>bX) t0Jydmrk.,HR'D;t[H.
zdCDzd'D;ySmbs;pJvXuqD.xGJrRpXRtDRwz.M.vDRI
 w>ymclol.w>*h>w>usdRrh>w>vXtuDtcJz;'d.wcgvXw>uuXRCmtDRt*D>M.vDRI
 w>[h.w>pH.nD.vXuDFd.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh tusdRtusJwcDrh>w>vXtCX'd.wuh>tod;< ydmrk.wz.< t[H.zd
CDzd'D;ySRw0Xwz.rh>ySRoh.wz.vXttd.vXw>vDRb.,d.tylRvXw>urRtXuhRtDR<rRysHRrRzk;tDR'D;[h.
u.uhRw>qlttd.'D;w>rRysHRrRzk;vXt[JvXySRrRur.w>ttd.rhwrh>ySRrRur.w>t[H.zdCDzdttd.oh
M.vDRIw>tHRrh>w>uDw>cJ'd.r;vX'Ju0DRwz.t*D>vXu[h.w>bH.w>bXvXw>td.o;'ftHRtzDcd.t*D>
M.vDRI
 ySRrRur.w>rhrh>ySRw*RvX b.w>oh.ngt*h>tusdR*hR*hRrhwrh>rh>ySRw*RvX trh>ydmrk. tHR tbl;twH>M.'D;
w>tHRurh>w>*h>wcgvXtuJw>wHmwmcH.cl.vXtuDtcJvXySRtg*Rt*D>M.vDRI t0Jrh>b.w>ymz;uGHmtDR
'D;t'l.zdxXzd 'D; tySRw0X 'D; xXEkm vDRuGHm tDRql CdmylR vXw>qXuwD> z;,Hm twD>ylR M.'D; t0Jydmrk.uo; w
rkmz;'d.vXtCdM.vDRIw>tHRu'k;uJxD.t0Jydmrk.utd.'D;w>o;CXvXuqSXxD.w>rl;w>&>tHRqluFD.
wJ.pH.nD.yDwhttd.M.vDRIvXM.trJmngySRrRur.w>w*RtHRrhrh>ySRw*RvXtCkusd.Ckph'D;[h.w>bH.
w>bXvXt'l.zdxXzdt*D>M.'D;t0Jydmrk.utd.'D;w>b.,d.vXt0JqXxX.uhR0JvXteD>up>'.0JxJw*R
vXt'l.zdxXzdt*D>wM.b.M.vDRI
 w>pkql.cD.wu;xD'gydmrk.tHRrh>w>xJ'.wcgvXcJtHRb.w>ymyeD.tDR'ftrh> w>rRur.uGGD>rh.z;'d.wcg
vXuD>uFD.wJ.tylRM.vDRInDEk>M.<uFD.wJ.yXRuD>wz.zH;w>rRw>vXtphwdmusJRtzDcd.'D;tySRrRw>zdwz.
w>ymvDRtDRtzDcd.tCd'D;<t0Joh.tg'HtgrHR,HmrReD>'D;o;CX'd.r;vXtb.[h.xD.tw>td.,XRwz.
vXw>vDRCdxHorHord;w>pkql.cD.wu;xD'gydmrk.tw>rl;w>&>wz.M.vDRI'D;w>xk;,HRrR,HmrReD>w>
o;CXtHR tgxD.0JzJw>rl;w>&>vXttd.'D;w>uDw>cJ vXtb.C;'D;ySRb.uDb.cJwz.'D;w>*h> t*kmt*R
wz. t'd=vXw>vD>vXcdcd.upX>usg< w>vD>'ftHRwz. rh>w>vXtvXmusd.vXmph'd.r;vXuFD.wJ.yXRuD>w
z.uvJRw>uhRw>ql'Ju0DRylRt*D>vXtw>qXuwD>u,Hm0JvXoXe.&H.C.C.vXuyHmusgM.vDRI
 w>rh>wtX.vDRvXtrRur.0Jb.<rhwrh> w>tk.uDR rh>wvXySJR rhwrh> w>vX t&h'd.b.< rhwrh> ySRxH. csK; w>
wtd.b.M.'D; w>rl;w>&>tHR w>qJ;wD.xD.tDRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwohb.I w>qSXcDvDRu
'guhRtDRql'Ju0DRylR vXw>u[H;xD.zD.xD.uhRtDRt*D>M.vDRI rhrh>w>rl;w>&>wcgvXt'd.trk>'D;rh>uGD>rh.
wcgvXw>usJRClusJRzdwM>b.wcD'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtd.'D;w>eJ.usJwqH;wuh>vX t0Joh.ub.rRw>rEkR
vJ.M.vDRI vXw>eJ.usJvXtd.ymvXt0Joh.wz.t*D>M. w>w[h.tcGJ;vXtuqJ;[H;xD.zD.xD.0J'.
b.I b.q. w>oh.wz.tHR rh>uDG>rh.vXt'd.trk>wz.'D; 'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhySRrRvd.xD.z;xD.w>wz.
wl>b.0JvX w>tHRtd.'D;tbsK;tzSd.vXt0Joh.u[H;xD.zD.xD.*h>0DvXySRursX>tw>bH.w>bX w> ylR zsJ; t
*D>M.vDRI
 vXyw>CkxH.M>w>wbsDtHRyxH.b.vXw>rl;w>&>( 19%)vXb.w>qSXxD.tDRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh'D;
w>rl;w>&>wz.tHRrRto;tzXrk>tpXwxD.'H;0Jb.'D;zJM.tqXuwD>rhrh>vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhwcDw>rl;
w>&>vXtqJ;vJRto;tzXrk>'fM.wtd.eDwrl;b.M.vDRIpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJvXtCX'ftHRwz.uJxD.
w>*h>uDt*RwcgvX ydmrk.rhwrh> ySRvXtxH.xGJw>wz. wD.xD.0JvXuvJRqluD>oXbh.wz.vXw>ok;vD>
ok;usJt*D><rhwrh>td.'D;w>'Do'Xt*h>tusdRw>*h>uDwz.<( UNHCR)rh>ySRwzkvXtyXqSX&J.usJRM>0JvX
w>rR chsxD. tw>ok;vD>ok;usJ tw>&J.w>usJR vXySRwl>b.w>wz.t*D>'D; w>td.o;'ftHR 'k;uJxD.uhRw>
rl;w>&>wz.vX b.w>rRvDRwJmuGHmtDRM.vDRI 'Ju0DRwz. ymzsgxD.0J'.vX t0Joh.xH.b.0J'.vX ySR xH.
csK;w>vXySRwl>b.w>t*D><'D;ySRwl>b.w>tw>[;xD.qluD>oXbh.wbh.vXtwrh>tw>qXuwD>
40

vXub.[;xD.0JtuwD>b.tHRw>tHR'k;td.xD.w>rl;w>&>wz.vXb.w>-wLmuGHmtDRM.vDRIySRrRur.w>
[JuhRu 'guhRvX'Ju0DRylRvXySRw0Xtusg vXtw>rl;w>&>wb.w>bSg&SJtDRb.'D; w>tHR 'k;td.xD.w>vDRb.
,d.vXw>'Do'Xt*D>vXydmrk.ydmrXR'D;zdo.ydmrk.wz.t*D>vXySRw0XtylRM.vDRI
(&S)Iw>pkql.cD.wu;uDG>rh.cd.oh.tuvkmvXw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHRvXb.w>wD.xD.tDRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yD
whwz.rh>0J oHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>(31)cgvXtrh>(80%)tusg(25)cgM.vDRI 'D;w>tuh>t
*DRt0JtHR uzsgvDR*mvX w>ub. y.Ckm'D;ySRwl>b.w>vXtwD.xD.oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;'D; 'Ju0DR
pH.nD.yDwhvXtrh>ySRvXtbSg&SJM>w>rR[;*DRt0JtHRvXtoh.ngvDRto;'.0JvXw>*H>p>w>wvXwySJRtd.0JeD>
eD>vXw>ubSg&SJoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;vX trh>w>rRur.uGD>rh.tHRt*D> vX'Ju0DRwz.tylR'D; w>tHR
t0Joh.b.CkxX0JvXu'd;M>b.w>td.,XR*hRxD.'D;ywD>xDxD.vXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtudsRtusJvXw>[H;
xD.zD.xD.w>td.o;'ftHRwz.t*D>M.vDRI
(n)IvXyw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHRyrk>v>vXeD.*H>eD.'G;wz.uymzsg&SJxD.w>vDRqDwz.'D;vDRqD'.w>uymzsg
&SJxD.pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXttd.'D;tywD>vXtxDxD.<td.'D;tuH>tpDvXw>rh>xd.o}wDRuG>'D;'Ju0DRt*Rw
z.'D;ydmrk.wl>b.w>pkql.cD.wu;vXrJ>v;tylRwz.t*D>M.vDRIyw,mvX'fw>td.o;td.0Jtod;w>td.
,XRvXb.w>qD.xGJrRpXRtDR*hR*hRvXtrh>( IRC/LAC)w>wdmusJRtHR[l;*JR0J'.zJM.vXCd;eH.twD>ylRp;xD.vX
(2005)eH.vHRvHR'D;y-uX;xH.b.w>*hRxD.<&SJxD.<w>b.vD>b.p;tgxD.<vXpH.nD.yDwhtw>pX[JxD.vX
oHG.xH;rk.cGGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.tzDcd.vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh'D;uDF.wJmpH.nD.yDwhcHcgvXmtylR
M.vDRIw>tHRrh>w>vXtvDRxk;M>ol.vDRxk;M>o;'d.r;vXy0JvXtrh>ySRCkxH.M>w>u*l>wz.vX u Ck xH.oh.
ngb.w>oh.wz.tHR vXwrh>w>vXub.rRto;'fM.b.t*h>M.vDRI b.q.< vXw>eJ.usJtgcgtzDcd. pH.
nD.yDwhtpXvXoGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>vXrJ>v;'Ju0DRwz. td.zsgxD.0J'.vXw>td.o;
vXtw*hRb.vXydmrk.ydmrXRwz.t*D>vXu'd;M>w>wDw>-w> 'd.M>'H;'Ju0DRt*RCkbh.M.vDRIw>rl;w>&>vXrJ>
v;'Ju0DRylRteD.*H>eD.'G;pSRudmzdb.w>wD.xD.tDRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh'D;w>rl;w>&>teD.*H>eD.'G;td.zsg0J
tg'd.r;vX wb.w>wD.xD.tDRqlpH.nD.yDwhttd.b.'D; w>vXw>wD.xD.tDRwz. 'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhw>pH.
nD.tpXrh>w>vXwb.bsD;b.'g0Jb.M.vDRI
6.7 w>vXb.w>xH.M>tDRvXtlyF.'Ju0DRylR

'Ju0DRtlyF.ySReD.*H> rh>w>vXt'H;od;vdmto;'D; ed.zd'Ju0DR< rJ>&Rrd>'Ju0DR'D;rJ>v;tl'Ju0DRwz.M.vDRI b.
q. w>rl;w>&>tw,X>vXtlyF.'Ju0DRylR vXw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHR rh>w>vXttgM>'Ju0DRt*Rwz.cHp;'H;M.
vDRI tlyF.'Ju0DRtw>rl;w>&>teD.*H>eD.'G;tw,X>uJxD.to;vX w>ymzsgxD.vXvmwz.tHRtusg 'ftzD vm
tod;M.vDRI
 oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.b.w>wD.zsgxD.tDRtgvXtlyF.'Ju0DRylR(qlunD
ydmrk.u&X<'Ju0DRurH;wHm<rhwrh>qlpH.nD.yDwhttd.M.vDRI)
 w>[H;M>w>uGJ;eD.uGJ;Cg<w>rReD.wz.b.w>ymtDR*hR*hRb.b.vXunDydmrk.u&Xwz.tCd w>
rl;w>&>wz.w>xXEkmb.tDRvXw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHRtylRM.vDRI
 oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>trl;w>&>wz.uJxD.o;tgr;vXtlyF.'Ju0DRtylRM.vDRI
vXM.trJmng w>CkxH.M> wz.vX 'Ju0DRt*RCkbh. td.'D;tw>vDR*m vdmo;ph>uD;M.vDRI b.q.< w>CkxH.
M>vXtlyF.'Ju0DRt*D> rh>w>wcgvXw>rReD.rRCgtDR ohvXtrh>w>vDRqDM.vDRI 'fw>yJmxHeDRcDtusdRtusJtod;
yymvDRqDuGHmtlyF.'Ju0DRtw>rl;w>&>teD.*H>eD.'G;'D; 'Ju0DRt*RCkbh.teD.*H>eD.'G; 'D;y'k;td.xD.vHmwdRCh
(6.7)'fttd.zsgvXvmtod;M.vDRI

w>rl;w>&>(90%)vXtlyF.'Ju0DRtylR(73)cgtusg (65)cg ySRrRur.w> 'd;M>w>pH.nD.vX b.td.
vXw>'k;CmylR'fpH.nD.yDwhtw>tpXtod;M.vDRI
vX'Ju0DRt*RCkbh. cJvXmymzSd.w>rl;w>&>teD.*H>eD.'G; pSR0JvXt'd;M>b.w>pH.nD.tpXvX w>xX
EkmvDRqlw>'k;CmylRtd.'.xJ(20%)(216)cgtusgxJ'.(44 )cg{dRM.vDRI
41


vXtlyF.'Ju0DRylR w>pkql.cD.wu;trl;cJvXmb.w>wD.zsgxD.tDRqlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJcJvXm
M.vDRI
vX'Ju0DRt*RCkbh.ymzSd.cJvXm ySRwl>b.w>(22%)CkxX0JvX wwD.xD.tw>rl;w>&>wz. qlpH.
nD.yDwhtusdRtusJb.M.vDRIvXw>rl;w>&>(216)cgtusg(47)cg CkxXvX wwD.xD.0Jql pH.nD.
yDwhtusdRtusJb.I
vXtlyF.'Ju0DRylRw>rl;w>&>( 7%)vXtrh>w>rl;w>&>(5)cgb.w>[h.tDRw>pH.nD.tpXvXw>
[h. w>t X. vDRtDvDRvXtokwrRur.vXRw>ur.0JtHRvXRw*hRM.vDRI b.q. vX'Ju0DRt*R Ck
bh.tylR<pH.nD.whtpX'ftHR uJxD.to;vXw>rl;w>&>(33%)vXtrh>w>rl;w>&>(216)cgtusg
w>rl;w>&>tcg(70)'d;M>w>pH.nD.tpXvXb.[h.w>tX.vDRtDvDRtHRM.vDRI
vX'Ju0DRt*RCkbh.tylR pH.nD.yDwhtpXvX w>rl;w>&>tuvkm vXttd.wh>wz.rh>0J ySRrRur.
w>pH.zsd;< w>w[h.tDRw>pH.nD.b.<w>w[H;xD.*h>0Db.<w>[h.tDRvHmvDRzS.< rhwrh> w>ywkm
uGHm tDRvX y'd.w> rRtylR'D; t*kmt*Rwz.M.vDRI w>rl;w>&>tpX'ftHR b.w>xH.M>tDR teD.*H>
eD.'G;td.0J(25%)vXtrh>w>rl;w>&>(55)cgtzDcd.M.vDRIrhrh>vXtlyF.'Ju0DRylRwcDw>pH.nD.tpX
'ftHRtd.'.xJ(3%){dRvXtrh>w>rl;w>&>xJ(2)cg{dRM.vDRI
vHmwdRCheD.*H>6.7: w>rl;w>&>cJvXmvX'Ju0DRCkbh.tylRw>xd.o}wDRtDR'D;tlyF.'Ju0DR
'D;uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtw>ymzSd.teD.*H>eD.'G;wz.

w>rl;w>&>tuvkm
oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.
wu;(60)cg

eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;

(208)cg

oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.
wu;vX
t*kmt*Rwz.
21 cg
w>rl;w>&>cJvXm'D;
trs;u,RcJvXm

pH.nD.yDwhtpX

'Ju0DR6 bh.

'Ju0DR 7bh.

(216 cg)

tl;yF.'Ju0DR
(73 cg)

w>xXEkmqlw>'k;CmylR
[h.w>tX.vDRvXwrRur.
vXR0JvXRb.
w>tpXvXt*kmt*RcJvXm
w>wwD.xD.tDRb.

24

1

25

7

0

7

18

2

20

8

0

8

w>xXEkmqlw>'k;CmylR
[h.w>tX.vDRvXwrRur.
vXR0JvXRb.
w>tpXvXt*kmt*RcJvXm
w>wwD.xD.tDRb.

17

65

82

56

5

61

33

0

33

32

0

32

w>xXEkmqlw>'k;CmylR
[h.w>tX.vDRvXwrRur.
vXR0JvXRb.
w>tpXvXt*kmt*RcJvXm
w>wwD.xD.tDRb.

3

0

3

7

0

7

4

0

4

7

0

7

w>xXEkmvXw>'k;CmylRcJvXm

44 =

65 =

110 =

[h.w>tX.vDRvXwrRur.
vXR0JvXRb.tpXxD.cJvXm
w>tpXvXt*kmt*RcJvXm

70 =

5=

75 =

33%
55 =

7%
2=

26%
57 =

w>wwD.xD.tDRb.tpXcJvXm

47 =

0=

47 =

22%

0%

16%

42

(289 )cg

y[h.ul.zJ tqXzd (6.2) vX ttd.zsg0JvX x; tod;w>tX.vDRwl>vdm td.0J'.v XyySRw0XtylR'D; ySRw0Xtgzk b.
C;w>pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXtb.bsD;b.'g-uX;b.rh>w>'fvJ.vXw>rh>rRw>pkql.cD.wu;xD'gySRw*R*Rt*D>
M.vDRIvX'Ju0DRwz.tylR<w>*h>cd.oh.wcgvXzJw>rh>[H;xD.zD.xD.w>b.C;oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;
M.w>[h.w>qXwJmwcgvXw>rXySRrRur.w>[h.w>tX.vDRtDvDRvXw>ur.0JtHRvXcHwrR0JvXRb.M.vDRI
cDzsdw>rRnDEk>w>'ftHRtod;vXw>rRy}wDmw>t*D>'D;uJxD.w>vk>w>v>w>[h.w>pH.nD.tpXvXw>[h.w>
tX.vDRtDvDRtHRw>wX.yD.0JvXt*h>tusdRzJtqXzd(8.7)M.vDRIyemvXw>oh.wz.tHRrh>pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXw
b.bsD;b.'gb.vXySRwl>b.w>vXtwl>b.w>pkql.cD.wu;wz.t*D>b.M.vDRI'd;oMRxD.to;vXw>e>
yX>wcgtHRtzDcd.y[h.ul.ymzsgxD.vX( 80%)oHG.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>vX'Ju0DRt*RCk
bh.tylR'd;M>b.w>pH.nD.tpXvXwb.bsD;b.'gb.(vXw>rl;w>&>(216)cgtusg(172)cgM.vDRIvXtl;yF.
'Ju0DRtylR w>rl;w>&> xJ '.( 10%){dR 'd;M.b. pH.nD.yDwh tpX vX wb.bsD;b.'gb.vX trh > w>rl;w>&> (73)
cgtusgxJ(7)cg{dR'd;M>w>pH.nD.tpXwb.bsD;b.'gb.M.vDRI'D;w>rl;w>&>( 73)cgtusgxJ(7)cgtHRw>[h.
tDRw>pH.nD.vXb.[h.w>tX.vDRtDvDRvX< vXcHwrRur.0JvXRb.M.vDRIw>tHRxJ'.wq;Hwuh>vX pH. nD.
yDwhtpXxD.wz.tusg(7%)rhwrh>(5)vXw>rl;w>&>(73)cgtusgM.vDRIw>'k;Cmrhwrh>w>wcgvXtrRvXySJR
xD.w>ol.rHo;rkmvXpH.nD.yDwhtw>vd.b.vXySRwl>b.w>vXtwl>b.w>pkql.cD.wu;wz.t*D>b.
q.tpSRuwX>tl;yF.'Ju0DRrR0HRrRwJm&SJuGHmw>'D;ySRrRur.w>wz.'D;ySRw0Xtg*RvXtrRw>pkql.cD.wu;
xD'gydmrk.wz.vXtrh>uGD>rh.z;'d. vXw>wl>vdmtDRwoh<'D;w>tHRuJxD.w>'Do'XvXydmrk.vXtwl>b.w>pk
ql.cD.wu;wz.t*D>'D;ySRvXtrRur.w>wz.b.w>[h.tDRvXw>pH.nD.tCdM.vDRIw>CkxH.M>rRvdM>
w>tgrHRtguvkmvXxHuD>tgbh.ymzsgxD.0J'.vXw>vXyb.ymol.ymo;tusgwcgvXtb.w>ymzsgxD.
tDRcDzsdydmrk.ydmrXR'D;zdo.ydmrk.wz.vXt0Joh.wtJ.'d;CkxX0JvXuqJ;wD.xD.tw>*h>w>usdRvXtrh>oHG.
xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>tHRqlpH.nD.yDwhttd.b.M.cDzsdvXtw>pH.nD.yDwhtpXwz.wrh>
w>vX twkRvDRwDRvDR xD.b; vX pHnD.yDwh tusdRtusJ [h.qXuhRt0Joh.b.tCdM.vDRI w>tHR rRto;wrHRCD
'D;ySRvXyw>td.w>qd;y[D.u0DRw>td.o;wrHRCDtylRph>uD;M.vDRI
6.8 w>uG>u'guhRpH.nD.yDwhtw>zH;w>rRtwuDG>

vXw>CkxH.M>w>wbsDtHR[h.ul.ymzsgxD.0JvXw>vDRzsJ.vDR[d'd.'d.rk>rk>wz.td.0J<w>vXw>ub.rRtDR
wrHRCDwz.w>wrRtDRb.(t'd=w>ub.[h.w>tpX<w>qXwJmwrHRCD'fw>ymvDRtod;vXw>ur.wrHRCD
vX b.w>rRu.tDR tzDcd. b.q.w>wrRtDR'fM.b.I w>vD> wwDR 'D;wwDRb.w>rRtDR vDRqDvdmo;M.vDRI )
w>vX tcd.csXto; wz.td.0Jtgr;< 'D;w>vX wb.bsD;b.'gwz. vX pH.nD.yDwh tw>rRwuGD.ylR td.0J'.vX
'Ju0DRwz. tylRM.vDRI w>CkxH.M>w> vX w>qXuwD>zk.udmzdtylR tHR 'k;eJ.zsgxD.ySR< pH.nD.yDwh tpXwz.vX
t*H>p>bgp>0J'D;w>tHRy.Ckmph>uD;'D;w>pkql.cD.wu;'d.'d.rk>rk>wz.vXb.w>rRxD'gtDRqlydmrk.ydmrXRw
z.cDzsdySRrRur.w>wz.vX'Ju0DRud;bh.'J;C.C.M.vDRIy[h.ul.vX*h>*DRtlw>vd.eD>eD>td.0JvXw>ub.
uG>u'guhRwuD>cgw>zH;w>rRtwuGD.vDRwH>vDRqJ;wkRvDRwDRvDRM.vDRIwuD>cgw>rRwuDG.tHRvX'Ju0DREGH
bh.vXmt*D>(w>&J.usJRtX.vDRwl>vdmunDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmtw>od.w>oD( 39)xH.'D;w>vXw>ymyeD.
vXtrh>/w>rRur.uDG>rh.vXw>usJRClusJRzd;woh/vX'Ju0DRvGH>bh.tylR 'D; ?(“MDRG”) w>usJRClusJRzd; w>eJ.
usJvX w>vXb.w>rRur.tDRwz.t*D>/ w>eJ.usJvX w>'k;Cmt*D> vX 'Ju0DRoXbh.tylR) wrRto;*hR*hR 'D;
vJRto;b.bsD;b.'gb.Iw>eJ.usJtd.0JwqH;wuh>vX twvXwySJRb.td.0JvXw>ub.olw>eJ.usJwz.
tHRwylRCD'D; w>xH.0JvXw>oh.wz.tHR uuJxD.vdmxD.vX'Ju0DRud;bh.'J;tylRM.vDRI b.q. w>wz.tHR
[h.xD.w>tpXtgr;vXtcd.csXvdmo;'D;w>*h>w>usdRwqH;wuh> b.C;w>ub.rRzSd.b.vD>b.p;uhRw>
vXtw'fod;vdmto;wz.tHRwrHRCDvXusJ'fvJ.M.vDRI vXM.trJmng t0Joh.w[h.w>eJ.usJeDwrHRvX w>u
r.wz. vXtnDEk>w>rRur.tDRwz.t*D>'D; pH.nD.yDwhw>*h>w>usdRwz.t*D>b.I w>tHR'k;td.xD.uhRw>
o;'h'Dwz.'D;ySRvXtrRvd.xD.z;xD.w>wz.rRuhRw>wohwb.vXRb.M.vDRI
vXyw>vDRCkxH.M>w>tHRw>vDRzsJ.vDR[dwz.'D;w>vXtcd.csXvdmo;wz.uJxD.w>td.zsg -wX>uvmM.vDRI
vXw>u[h.w>t'dwcgt*D>?w>rRw&DwygvXw>usJRClusJRzd;tDRM>/w>rl;w>&>'ftHRwz.b.w>ymtDR'ft
rh>w>rl;w>&>vXwrh>w>'d.'d.rk>rk>b.vXuFD.wJ.tvdmtyRy'd.wz.t*D>'D;w>rl;w>&>'ftHRwrh>w>vX
43

w>usJRClusJRzd;wM>wrh>ph>uD;b.tCd uFD.wJ.tvd.tyRy'd.tHR [h.w>ysJql'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh vXu[H;xD.
zD.xD.0JM.vDRI rhrh>w>rrw&DwygvXw>usJRClusJRzd;tDRwM>oh.wz.wcD rh>w>wcgvXtrh>w>nDEk>rRto;
vXw>rRw&DwygtylR vXyxH.b.tDRvXyySRw0XtylR'D; yymyeD.tDRvXtrh> uDG>rh.z;'d.M.vDRI w>rRw&Dwyg
vXw>usJRClusJRzd;tDRM>M. rh>w>wcgvXtb.w>rRw&DwygtDR xJ'.vXySRw*R{dR'D; nDEk>uJxD.0JzJw>vD>vX
w>clol.tvD>'D; wtd.'D;w>olw>pku0JR'ftrh>usdb.< b.q. olw>yD;w>vDt*RvXw>rRysHRrRzk;w>t*D>M.
vDRI (MDRG) ymzsg'D;ymyeD.0J'.w>rRw&DwygvX w>usJRClusJRzd;tDRM>'fw>urRur.w>wqH;wuh>'D; vXw>
M.tCd 'd;M>w>pH.nD.wqH;wuh>vX'Ju0DRylRM.vDRI 'D;w>tHR wvd.w>'k;CmySRrRur.w>vX w>'k;CmtylR
b.I vXusJt*Rwbd unDb.uDb.cJtw>od.w>oD(39)xH. [h.w>eJ.usJxJ'.vXoGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.
cD.wu;cJvXm 'D;eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz. w>ub.qSXxD.tDRql uFD.wJ.b.rlb.'gwz.ttd.
M.vDR/
pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJvX'Ju0DRoh.wz.tylRtw>w'H;od;vdmto;wz.'D;w>vDRzsJ.vDR[dwz.<w>cd.csX
vdmo;wz. tcDynDrh>0Jw>vXtub.rh>w>wrHRCD'D;w>b.bsD;b.'gb.vD>b.p;wz.M.w>wymyeD.tDR
'D;w>[h.w>tk.uDRwtd.0Jb.M.vDRIvXw>M.tCdySRwl>b.w>wz.b.td.vDRwJmuGHm0JvXwtd.'D;w>
bH.w>bXvXt-uX;uXuD.'D;t0Joh.vXu[h.t0Joh.vXw>o;uvXRvXtu'd;M>w>wrHRCD'fw>ymvDRtd.0J
tod;vXuwD.xD.tw>rl;w>&>t*D>M.b.I'D;w>tHRurh>w>yeD.wcgqlySRw0Xttd.vXw>pkql.cD.wu; xD
'gydmrk.'ftHRtod;wz.rh>w>vXt'd.trk>'D;w>wl>vdmtDRwohb.M.wtd.zsg0J'fM.b.M.vDRIvXySRvXt
wl>b.oHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.t*D>w>vXtub.'d;M.b.0JwrHRCD'foJp;w>ymvDRtd.0Jtod;
vXpH.nD.yDwhtpXvXt[JxD.wz.tylRrh>w>vXttXtoDvXt0Joh.wz.t*D>M.vDRI(wrh>w>vXtb.bsD;
b.'g'D;-uX;uXuD.vdmto;b.M.vDRI)

44

7. oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;
vXw>rl;w>&>(289)cgtusg vXw>CkxH.M>w>tpXtHRtzDcd.<oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.w u;w>rl;w>&>td.0JA
(60)cgM.vDRIw>rl;w>&>wz.b.w>eDRz;vDRtDR(3)uvkmM.vDRI
 w>rRw&Dwyg(w>rHCkmql.) (72%)vXw>rl;w>&>tcg(60)tusg
 w>usJ;pX;rRw&Dwyg(w>usJ;pX;rHCkmql.)(20%)
 oGH.xH;w>rRy,GJ(8%)
7.1. w>*h>w>usdRtvXtySJRw>uGJ;zk.A
vXoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>rl;w>&>wz.tylR(92%)

rh>w>rRw&Dwyg'D;w>usJ;pX;rRw&Dwygw>rl;w>&>wz.M.vDRI rJ>
v;<rJ>&>rd><rJ>v;tl<'Ju0DRwz.rh>'Ju0DRwz.vX w>rl;w>&>tguwX>vX'Ju0DREGHzsX.tusgM.vDRIA(w>rl;w>
&>(16)cg,(13)cg,(11)cgydmxGJxD.to;uG‹>uG‹>vDRI) w>usJ;pX;rRw&Dwygw>rl;w>&>teD.*H>tgu wX>vX bg'd.
,g'Ju0DRtylRM.vDRItlyF.'Ju0DR'D;ed.zd'Ju0DRcHbh.vXmw>rl;w>&>0JtHRteD.*H>pSRuwX>M.vDRI
vHmwdRCh7.1: oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.
'Ju0DR

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

rJ>v;tl
rJ>&Rrd>
rJ>v;
tlyF.
ed.zd
bg'd.,g
xgr[h.
cJvXm
rs;u,R

oGH.xH;rk.cGg
w>pkql.cD.wu;
w>rl;w>&>AeD.*H>
cJvXm

w>rl;w>&>tuvkmwz.
w>rRw&Dwyg w>usJ;pX;rRw&Dwyg oGH.xH;w>rRy,GJ

cJvXm

13

12

0

1

13

11

8

1

2

11

16

14

2

0

16

3

3

0

0

3

3

3

0

0

3

7

1

6

0

7

7

2

3

2

7

60

43

12

5

60

100%

72%

20%

8%

100%

w>ymzsgxD.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ
w>rl; w>&>tcg(60)tusgw>rl; w>&>(52)cgvXtrh>87%tHR ySR wl > b.w>Ck x X0J v XwD . zsg0Jq lp H . nD. yD
whtusdRtusJM.vDRI'D;w>rl;w>&>(8)cgvXtrh>(13%)M.w>wwD.xD.tDRvXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJb.IvX
w>rl;w>&>(52)cgtusgw>rl;w>&>tgM>'H;w0m( 52%)b.w>bSg&SJtDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh'D;pSRM>'H;w0mA
(48%)b.w>bSg&SJtDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhM.vDRIvX'Ju0DR,J>bh.tylRoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;
w> &>wz.b.w>bSg&SJtDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh'D;uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh<ohcHcgvXmM.vDRIb.q.oemuhvX'Ju
0DRt*RcHbh.(xgr[h.'D;bg'dR,g'Ju0DR)tylRw>rl;w>&>wz.cJvXmb.w>bSg&SJtDRxJ'.vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh
'D;oHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.w>wbSg&SJtDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwheDwcgb.M.vDRIAA
7.2.

rJ>v;tl'D;rJ>&Rrd>'Ju0DRcHbh.tHR w>wD.xD.w>rl;w>&>qluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh teD.*H>eD.'G;tguwXX>vX'Ju0DR
t*Rwz.tusgM.vDRI rhrh>vXrJ>v;'Ju0DRM. oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>( 16)cgtusg(38%)<A
(6)cgb.w>wD.xD.tDRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhM.vDRIA

45

vHmwdRCh7.2: oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;Aw>rl;w>&>wz.
'D;pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJA
'Ju0DR

rJ>v;tl
rJ>&Rrd>
rJ>v;
tlzF.
ed.zd
bg'd.,g
xgr[h.
cJvXm
trs;u,Rµ

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

oGH.xH;rk.cGg
w>pkql.cD.w
u;teD.*H>cJvXm
vXw>xH.M>tDRA

'Ju0DR
pH.nD.yDwhA

AuFD.wJ.
pH.nD.yDwh

w>rl;w>&>
vXw>wD.ZsgxD.
tDRteD.*H>cJvXm

w>rl;w>&>
vXw>wwD.
zsgxD.tDRteD
.*H>cJvXm

13

2

10

12

1

11

2

5

7

4

16

8

6

14

2

3

1

2

3

0

3

1

2

3

0

7

6

0

6

1

7

7

0

7

0

60

27

25

52

8

52%

48%

87%

13%

7.3 w>rl;w>&>vXw>bSg&SJtDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh
oHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>(60)cgtusg(27)cgb.w>bSg&SJtDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhM.vDRIyxH.

b.vX=



w>rl;w>&>(70%)b.w>qSXcDtDRqlu0DR'hywD>0HR'D;b.w>bSg&SJtDRvX'Ju0DRrhwrh>u0DR'd.tywD>
M.vDRIA
w>rl;w>&>b.w>bSg&SJtDRxJ'.vXu0DR'hywD>'D;w>wqSXcDtDRql'Ju0DRywD>b.M.vDRI
w>rl;w>&>(63%)vXw>rl;w>&>cJvXmtzDcd. w>rl;w>&>tcgw>w[H;M>*h>0D'D; w>[H;M>*h>0DwqH;
wuh>vXySRrRur.w>t*D>M.vDRIA
w>rl;w>&>tusgw>rl;w>&>tcg<ySRrRur.w>b.w>pH.nD.tDRvXw>xXEkmtDRql'Ju0DRw>uXR
CmtylRAvXttd.'D;w>ymyeD.M>tDRw>qXuwD>'D; w>pH.nD.'ftHRtod; tgwuh> uJxD.to;vX
xgr[h.'Ju0DRtylRM.vDRIvXw>rl;w>&>tcg(10)tusg(7)cgM. b.w>pH.nD.tDRvX b.td.vX'J
u0DRw>uXRCmtylRM.vDRIA
oHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>(10)cgvXt'd;M>w>pH.nD.vXb.td.vX'Ju0DRw>uXR
CmtylRtHRtgwuh>b.td.vXw>uXRCmtylRvXwvgwkRoXvgtwD>ylRM.vDRI

oHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;pH.nD.yDwhtpXvX'Ju0DRwz.tylRw'fod;vdmto;b.Ixgr[h.'Ju0DRxXEkmySR
rRur.w>vXw>'k;CmtylR vXttd.'D;w>ymyeD.w>qXuwD>M.vDRI bg'd.,g'Ju0DR[H;xD.*h>0DeDwrHR vXw>
rl;w>&>vGH>cgtzDcd.vXw>rl;w>&>CkcgtusgM.vDRI 'D;w>rl;w>&>t*RcHcgM.Ch0JySRrRur.w>vXutX.vDR t
w>ur.'D;qJ;vDRtrHRvX<vXcHwrRur.0JvXRb.M.vDRIvXrJ>v;'Ju0DRylR pH.nD.yDwhtpX rh>w>vXt*H>p>bg
p>vXw>rl;w>&>cJvXmtzDcd.'D;w[h.w>pH.nD.vXw>'k;CmySRrRur.w>vXw>'k;CmtylRb.( 8)cgM.vDRI
yuG>u'guhRw>rl;w>&>tpXvXt[JxD.wz.tHR0;0;'D;yxH.b.vXoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>
vX b.w>bSg&SJtDRvX'Ju0DRylRwz.rh>w>oh.wz. vXtwb.bsD;b.'g'D;-uX;uXuD.vXuDG>rh.t*D>b.M.
vDRIAA

46

vHmwdRChA7.3: oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>'D;'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhA
cJ
vXm

'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtywD>pH.nD.yDwhtpXwz.A
oGH.xH;
rk.cGgw>pk
ql.cD.w
u;eD.*H>cJ
vXmvX
wxH.M>
tDRA
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

rJ>v;tl
rJ>&Rrd>
3rJ>v;
tlyF.
ed.zd
bg'd.,g
xgr[h.
cJvXm
rs;u,Rµ

'Ju0DR
pH.nD.
yDwh
teD.*H>
cJvXm

xJ'.
vXu
0DR'h
ywD>

=u0DR'h
=u0DR
'd.
='Ju0DR

u]xX
EkmvX
w>'k;
CmylR

c]qJ;
vDRrHRA
td.'D;
w>tX.
vDR

*]ySR
rRu
r.w>
pH.zsd;

C]w>
w[H;
*h>0D

i] t
*kmt*R

13

2

0

2

1

0

0

0

1

2

11

2

0

2

1

1

0

0

0

2

16

8

3

5

0

4

1

2

1

8

3

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

3

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

7

6

5

1

0

2

0

4

0

6

7

7

0

7

7

0

0

0

0

7

60

27

8

19

10

7

2

6

2*

27

100%

30%

70%

37%

17 cases
63%

100%

u]Aw>xXEkmtDRvX'Ju0DRw>uXRCmtylR'D;zJySRurRur.w>[;xD.vXw>'k;CmylR0HR'D;td.uhR0J'Ju0DRylRM.
vDRI
c]AySRrRur.w>qJ;vDRtrHRtd.'D;w>tX.vDRtDvDRvXwrRvXRw>pkql.cD.wu;vXRb.'D;w>[h.tDRvXw>
[h.ql.xD.o;*H>bgtvHmwdRChM.vDRIw>tHRrh>0J'Ju0DRw>rRw>tX.vDRtDvDR'D;b.C;'D;w>tX.vDRtDvDR
tHRw>uwJ&SJtgxD.uhRtDRvXw>ymzsgtylRM.vDRIw>tHRwrh>(CSO)b.I
7.4. w>rl;w>&>vXb.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh
w>rl;w>&>cJvXm(60)cgtusg(25)cgb.w>bSg&SJtDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhM.vDRIA

yxH.M>b.vX=
 w>rl;w>&>(60%)rs;u,Rtusg(15)cgtpXxD.0J'.vX w>xXEkmvDRySRrRur.w>qluFD.wJ.Cdmt
ylR< 'D;w>rl;w>&>teD.*H>w0mvXtb.w>xXEkmySRrRur.w>qlCdmylR(8)cgM.[JxD.0J'.vX rJ>v;
tl'Ju0DRM.vDRI
 w>rl;w>&>wcgvXw>[h.w>pH.nD. vXw>xXEkmvDRySRrRur.w>qlCdmylRtHRM. ySRrRur.w>vX t
eH.wySJR wqHCd;eH.wz.t*D>b.td.vXCd.ylR(2)vgtwD>ylR vXw>urR*hRxD.uhRvk>v>ouJ;y0;
t*D>'D; rhrh>ySRvXto;eH.ySJR'd.wkmcd.ySJRwz. vXtrRur.uDG>rh.ttcgwz.t*D>wcD b.td.vX
CdmylR(26)eH.M.vDRItg'.w>wuh>w>ur.vDRCdmylRM.weH.wkRvGH>eH.ttguwX>M.vDRIA
 w>rl;w>&>vXttd.wh>'H;(10)cgwz.

w>rl;w>&>tpX(3)cgtpXxD.rh>w>vXt*H>p>A

w>rl;w>&>(3)cgtpXxD.0J'.vXySRrRur.w>b.w>qdurd.tDRvXtCh>zsd;wcsK;vXtw>
rl;w>&>0HRwJm'H;tcgM.vDRI

w>rl;w>&>(4)cgM.zJvDRCkxH.oh.ngw>tqXuwD>tpXw>wqXwJmtDR'H;b.M.vDRI
 vXrJ>v;'Ju0DRylR w>rl;w>&>(16)cgtusg (6)cg b.w>qSXxD.tDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhM.vDRI w>
rl;w>&>oXcgtylR ySRrRur.w>oX*RvXw>rl;w>&>oXcgtylR vDRb.vXCdmylR'D;w>rl;w>&>t*RoX
cgM.t*H>p>0JM.vDRIA
47

vXxgr[h.'D;bg'd.,g'Ju0DRcHbh.M. oGH.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz. w>wqSX cD
tDRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhb.IA
vHmwdRCh7.4: oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>'D;uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhA

'Ju0DR

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

rJ>v;tl;
rJ>&Rrd>
rJ>v;
tlyF.
ed.zd
bg'd.,g
xgr[h.
cJvXm
trs;u,R

oGH.xH;rk. uFD.wJ.
u]
c]
cGgw>pkql. pH.nD.yDwh td.vX xJ'.A
cD.wu; eD.*H>cJvXm uFD.wJ. [h.ph
teD.*H>cJ
CdmylRA tD.vd;
.
vXm

w>tpXvXt[JxD.wz.
*]
C]
ySRrRur. ySRrRu
w>b.
r.w>
w>ywkm pH.zsd;
uGHmtDRvX uGHm
tw>rR
tylR

i]
w>w
[h.w>
pH.nD.
eDwrHR

p]
w>bSg
&SJtzX
rk>A

cJ
vXm

13

10

8

0

1

1

0

0

10

11

5

1

0

1

0

0

3

5

16

6

3

0

0

1

1

1

6

3

2

1

0

0

1

0

0

2

3

2

2

0

0

0

0

0

2

7

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

7

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

60

25

15

0

2

3

1

4

25

100%

60%

u] b.w>uXRCmtDRvXuFD.wJ.CdmylR'D;zJt';xD.b.vXCdmylR0HRySRrRur.w>tHRuhRtd.u'guhRvX'Ju0DR
ylR
c]b.[h.phtD.vD;xJwrHR{dR
*]ySRrRur.w><rRw>vXuFD.wJ.y'd.w>rR'D;b.w>ywkmuGHmtDRvXtw>rRtylR
C]ySRrRur.w>pH.zsd;wcsK;w>rl;w>&>0HRwJm'H;tcg
i] w>vDRCdxHoh.ngw>0HRtvD>cH yXRuD>w'd;M>w>tk.uDRtvXtySJRvX w>u&Sd;xD.ySRrRur.w>qly'd.yD>&D
ttd.b.tCdw>w[h.w>pH.nD.w>uvk>eDwrHRqlySRrRur.w>ttzDcd.b.I
p] zJw>qXuwD>vX w>vDRCkxH.oh.ngw>twD>w>rl;w>&>weDRw>bSg&SJtDRtzXrk>tCdw>rl;w>&>weDRtpXw
xD.'H;0J'.b.IA

48

vHmwdRCh7.5:oHG.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>vX'Ju0DR(6)bh.tylR'D;
w>xd.o}wDRtDR'D;tlyF.'Ju0DRA
oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>
ql.cD.wu;
60 cg

w>rl;w>&>(60)cg'D;
rs;u,Rwz.

pH.nD.yDwhtpX

(6)bh.

td.vXw>uXRCmtylRvXttd.'D;
w>ymyeD.w>qXuwD>
tX.vDRvXwrRw>ur.vXRb.
w>tpXxD.vXt*kmt*Rwz.
w>wwD.xD.tDRb.
w>uXRCmteD.*H>cJvXm
tX.vDRvXwrRur.w>vXRb.
teD.*H>cJvXm
w>tpXt*kmt*Rwz.

(57)cg

tlyF.
(3)cg

7bh.
(60)cg

24

1

25

7

0

7

18

2

20

8

0

8

24
42%

1
33%

25
42%

7
12%

0
0%

7
12%

18
32%
8
14%

2
66%
0
0%

20
33%
8
13%

'Ju0DR(6)bh.
57 =cg

'Ju0DRl
UM =3

'Ju0DRcJvXm(7)
bh.=60cg

24 = 42%

1 = 33%

25 = 42%

33 = 59%

2 = 66%

35 = 58%

w>rl;w>&>vXw>wwD.xD.tDRw
z.teD.*H>cJvXm

w>rl;w>&>vXtvDRb.vXw>uXR
CmtylRvXttd.'D;w>ymyeD.
w>qXuwD>
w>rl;w>&>tpXvXb.bsD;b.'g
(vXtrh>t*kmt*RcJvXm)
7.5. w>[h.xD.w>xH.'D;w>qdurd.<'D;w>yJRxHedRcDwz.I

(u)nDEk>oHG.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;vXb.w>xD'goltDRqlunDydmrk.ydmrXRwz.M.rh>0Jw>rRw&Dwyg 'D;
w>usJ;pX;rRw&DwygM.vDRIw>rRw&DwygvXtrh>w>pkql.cD.wu;wcgtHRrh>w>wcgvXydmcGg'D;ydmrk.tg'Htg
*Rwe>yX>0JvXt*h>vDRwH>vDRqJ;b.Iw>urlRur.vXt*kmt*Rwz.vXtw'H;od;'D;w>rRw&Dwygwz.'ft
rh> t'd= w>[k.w> bs.wz.< w>rRw&Dwyg tuGD>rh.rh>w>wcgvX t[JpdmM>w>vDRrJmqS;z;'d.vX txD'gydmrk.
vXtrh>ydmrk.vXtwl>b.w>'D;w>tHRvk.bXuGHmt[H.zdCDzdw>tohw>b.vXuymzsgxD.pH.nD.yDwhtusdR
tusJtw>ohw>b.vXub.[h.w>cDqXvXtb.*D>zd;rHvdmo;t*D>rh>*hR<w>ohw>b.vXtrh>t[H.zdCDzd<
ySRw0Xwz.vXuqD.xGJrRpXRtDRt*D>'D;ySRrRur.w>tw>ohw>b.vXub.wl>vdm0JvXtrh>ySRw*RvXtrR
ur.w>uGD>rh.'d.'d.rk>rk>w*Rt*D>rh>*hRM.vDRItcDynDw>tHRcDzsdtw>wl>b.'D;uG>qX.rJmb.w>tzDcd.w>
rJmqS;vk>bXuGHmtDRwkR'.vJmw>vXub.wJxD.0JvXu'd;M>b.w>wDw>-w>'D;w>vXt-uX;uXuD.'D;tDRvX
uwJzsgxD.0Jwbl.vXRb.ohM.vDRI
(c)pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXt[JxD.wz.rh>w>wz.vXtwb.bsD;b.'gz;'d.ngvXydmrk.wz.vXtwD.zsgxD.
ydmcGgvXtrRur.xD'goGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.t*D>M.vDRIw>tHRw>uGJ;vDRt*h>tusdRvDRwH>vDR
qJ;vXpH.nD.yDwhtpXeD>eD>vXw>[h.tDRqlySRrRur.w>wz.ttd.rh>w>vXttd.'D;w>uG>uymuGHmySRrRu
r.w>tw>ur.'ft-uX;uXuD.'D;tDRtod;M.vDRIpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJt*H>p>tHRod.vdydmcGgvXtrRur.
xD'goGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.vX trRw&Dwygw>oh vXtwtd.'D;w>ydmxGJxD.tcHvXw>eDwrHRb.
'D;w>tHR[h.oq.xD.t0Joh.vXuqJ;rRu'guhRw>ur.vXtrR0JtHRwbsDb.wbsDu'D;M.vDRI
(*)w>[h.uGD>rh.w>ur.vXw>zD.ql.rRw&Dwyg'D;oHG.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;wz.tHRwrh>w>vXw>e>yX>tDR
49

vDRwH>vDRqJ;b.'D;w>tHRwrh>w>vDRurXur.vXw>od.w>oD'D;w>[h.pH.nD.wz.vXw>rRw&Dwyg'D;oGH.
xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;wz.tHRrh>w>vXt*H>p>'D;wtd.zsg&SJb.M.vDRIw>rRtwuDG.'D;w>eJ.usJwtd.0JeDwcg
vXu[h.w>eJ.usJvXt&SJ'D;w>cDqXvXt&SJvXySRvXtrRvXxD.ySJRxD.w>vXpH.nD.yDwhwz.vX'Ju0DRtylRrh>
*hR'D;w[h.ph>uD;w>eJ.usJvXt&SJvXu[h.w>'Do'XvXydmrk.ydmrXR'D;ydmrk.zdo.wz.vX'Ju0DRtylRb.M.
vDRI
(C)vXoHG.xH;'D;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>(58%)M.'d;M>b.w>cDqXvXtwb.bsD;b.'gvX'Ju0DR'D;
uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz.M.vDRI uG>b.vXvHmwdRCheD.*H>(7.6)wuh>Iw>olw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.
tvD>td.vX w>ub.[h.cDqXuhRvXw>cDqXtuvkmuvkm vXtywD>'D;ywD> vXpH.nD.yDwhtudsRtusJ vX ySR
w0XtylRM.vDRI yymzsgxD.tDR tvXtySJR vXtqXzd(6.2)vXttd.zsg'fvXx;tod;M.vDRIb.q.w>eD>eD>wcDy
tJ.'d;pH;vXtpSRuwX> w>ub.zD.CH;CmySRrRur.w>vXusJwbdbd<'Do'XySRwl>b.w><ySRvXtuydmuyRw
z. 'D;rRp>vDRt*H>tbgvXokwqJ;rRur.w>pkql.cD.wu;tHRw*hR0HR'D;cgqlngvXu[J<[h.w>upD.ql ySR w
0Xwz.ttd.<vXw>pkql.cD.wu;rh>w>ouJ;y0;wcg vXw>wl>vdmtDRwohb.'D;w>tHR rh>uDG>rh.tusgwcg
M.wuh>I w>xXEkmw>qlw>'k;CmtylR wrh>w>tpXwcgvXt*hRuwX>b. b.q. zsgvXtrh>w>wcgvX trRvX
xD.ySJRxD.w>,J>rHRvX w>ub.rRtDRoh.wz.tHR vXusJwbdbdtylRM.vDRI pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXt*Rwz.vXy
td.'D;w>rReD.rRCgvXyw>CkxH.M>tylR vXt[h.w>pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXoGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>
tzDcd.tHRwb.vD>b.p;b.'D; wrRvXxD.ySJRxD.w>vXub.rR0Jwz.M.b.I w>oh.wz.tHR b.oh.oh.
urh>w>vXtwkRvDRwDRvDRwpd>wvD> xJ'.w>rh>rRvXxD.ySJRxD.tDR Ckm'D;w>td.o;vXtql.xD.wz.{dRM.
vDRI
(i) w>olpH.nD.yDwh tpXvX wb.bsD;b.'g v X'Ju0DR pH.nD.yDwh tylR (w>rl;w>&> (27)cg tusg (17)cg )tcDy
nDrh>0JySRrRur.w>vXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;tHRwtd.'D;w>[H;M>rl'geDwrHRvXtw>rRur.w>tzDcd.b.M.
vDRIxJ'.w>rl;w>&>(27)cgtusg(10)cgb.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh'D;'d;M.b.w>pH.nD.
CH;CD.'D.(vXb.w>xXEkmtDRvXw>'k;CmtylR)M.vDRIb.q.w>rl;w>&>'ftHRwz.tgwuh>uJxD.to;vX
xgr[h.'Ju0DR(7cg)M.vDRIxgr[h.'Ju0DRwwD.xD.w>rl;w>&>qluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhttd.eDwcgb.I'Ju0DR
oXbh.[h.w>pH.nD.CH;CD.'D.vXw>rl;w>&>t*RoXcgM.vDRIvDRqD'd.r;vXrJ>v;'Ju0DRrh>'Ju0DRxJwzsX.{dR
vXttd.'D;w>'k;CmvXt*hR'D;tyD;tvDtvXtySJRb.q.wxXEkmySRrRur.w>vXw>'k;CmtylReDw*Rb.I
vXw>M.tCd rJ>v;'Ju0DRtHR rh>w>vD>t-uX;uwX>vX u[h.w>pH.nD.vXw>'k;Cm ySRrRur.w>vXtrRw&D
wygw>wz.vXtw>'k;CmylRM.vDRIvXw>rl;w>&>(25)cgtusg(15)cgb.w>qSXcDtDRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh'D;
ySRrRur.w>'d;M>w>pH.nD.CH;CD.'D.CXCXM.vDRI (w>pH.nD.rh>0Jw>xXEkmvDRtDRqlCdmylR)b.q.tgM>'H;
w>wz.tHRtusgw0mvX'Ju0DRwbh.tylRrJ>v;tl'Ju0DRw>rl;w>&>( 8)cg)<w>tHR[h.ul.ymzsgxD.0J'.vX
w>w'H;od;vdmto;b.tHRtd.0J'.vX'Ju0DRud;bh.'J;tylRM.vDRI
(p) vXw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHR vXoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu; (13%) tHR wb.w>wD.xD.tDRvX pH.nD.yDwh t
td.eDwcgb.M.vDRIw>tHRtcDynDrh>0J'fvJ.'fvJ.*hRM.ySRvXtrRur.w>wz.tHRwtd.'D;w>[H;M>rl'geDw
rHRb.<w>wymyeD.tDRvXtrh>ySRrRur.w>b.<'D;w>wpH.nD.tDRph>uD;b.IySRwl>b.w>wxH.b.w>pH.
nD.qXwJmeDwrHRb.Iw>CkxH.M>w>tHRymzsgxD.0J'.vXySRrRur.w>vXtoloGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;
wz.t0Joh.rh>w>wl>b.0Jw>ydmxGJeDwrHRvXtw>ur.tzDcd.b.M.zsg'd.wuh>vXw>[h.u'guhRtDRw>cGJ;
w>,mvXurRb.uhR0Jw>ur.vXtrR0JtHRM.vDRI
(q)w>CkxXtusdRtusJvXttd.vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtylRwz.vXw>[h.w>pH.nD.vXoHG.xH;w>pkql.cD.w
u;t*D>rh>w>vXtqH;0JpSR0JM.vDRI
(&S) oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.tgcgb.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvX u0DR'htylR M.vDRI nDEk>u0DR'hy
wD>ySRvXttd.'D;rl'gwz.tw>vJRcDzsdpSR'D;w>w[h.b.tDRw>rRvdvXvXySJRySJRb.Iw>rRw&Dwygtrl;wz.cJ
vXmw>ub.qSXxD.tDRql'Ju0DRywD>vXtwvd.CdxHvXtrh>w>rRw&DwygvDRwH>vDRqJ;<wrh>vDRwH>vDRqJ;
50

t*h>M.vXu0DR'hywD>M.b.IvX'Ju0DRcHbh.tylRoGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>(6)cgvXw>w[H; xD.*h>
0DeDwrHRb.M.vDRI'Ju0DRcHbh.tHRrh>0Jbg'd.,g'Ju0DR'D;rJ>v;'Ju0DR'D;vXw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHR'J0DRcHbh.tHRrh>'J
u0DRcHbh.vXtbSg&SJoGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>vXu0DR'hywD>M.vDRI
(n)w>tk.uDRwz.vXw>CkxH.M>wbsDngtHRzsgxD.0J'.vXvX'Ju0DRud;bh.'J;tylRvXw>yXqSX&J.usJRw>rl;
w>&>tw>ohw>b.tylR<w>w'H;od;vdmto;b.zJw>qSXcDw>rl;w>&>wz.vXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhttd.M.
vDRIt'd=w>rl;w>&>w0mvXtvJRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh'D;'d;M>w>tpXvXt*hRwz.<y.Ckm0J'D;w>xXEkmvDRySR
rRur.w>qlCdmtylR<'D;vXrJ>v;tl'Ju0DRwcDw>rl;w>&>(15)cgtusg(8)cg'd;M>w>pH.nD.vXw>td.vXCdmylR
M.vDRI
w>rl;w>&>tpX'ftHRxJ'.w>rl;w>&>pSRcgvX'Ju0DRt*kmt*Rwz.'d;M>pH.nD.yDwhtpX'ftHRM.vDRI w>tHR w>uD
'd.r;vX ub.wJe>yX>tgxD.b.C;oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;vX'Ju0DRt*RCkbh.vdmuDG>vXuFD.wJ.pH.nD. yD
whtusdRtusJwzsgvXtuJxD.w>vXtvDRo;rHb.vJ.t*h>M.vDRI
(w)'Ju0DRcHbh.vXtd.bl;vdmo;'D;rJ;p&H,gvXtrh>0h>rk>,l>vXtrh>(rJ>&>rd>'D;rJ>v;tl)rh>'Ju0DRcHbh.vXt
w>rl;w>&>teD.*H>eD.'G;xD.tguwX>tqSXcDw>rl;w>&>wz.qluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh'D;w>rl;w>&>vXtwD.xD.
0Jwz. b.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhvXt'd;M>w>pH.nD.tpXvXt-uX;uXuD. 'D;rh>w>vXw>
wl>vdmtDRohM.vDRIw>rl;w>&>teD.*H>vXb.w>qSXxD.tDRqluFD.wJ.teD.*H>eD.'G;xD.tgM>'Ju0DRvXySRunD
eD.*H>eD.'G;td.tgwz.wuh>vDRIyrh>xd.o}wDRuG>'D;'Ju0DRvXt*Rwz.b.oh.oh.urh> vX'Ju0DRcHbh.tHR 'd;
M>b.(UNHCR) w>qD.xGJrRpXR'D;tw>u[ku,mqlySRwl>b.w>wz.vXtvJRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdR
tusJ vX rk>,l>wz. *hR'd.wuh> tCd rhwrh> < cDzsd vX (UNHCR) ySRrRw>zd zJ M.oh.wz. td.'D;w>&hvdmrkmvdmvX
t*hRvXuFD.wJ.b.rlb.'gzJM.oh.wz.tCdM.vDRI
(x) ySRwl>b.w> vX tvJRql uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh tusdRtusJwz. td.'D;w>cGJ;w>,m vX uwD.xD. w>b.ph vX
trh>(cDzsdtwl>b.w>'D;w>b.'db.xH;tDRtzDcd.phvXw>qD.xJGrRpXRuhRtDR)vXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhttd.oh0J
M.vDRI vX w>CkxH.M>w>wbsDtHR tylR ySRrR ur.w> rh>b.w>vdmbX vdmuDG>tDR vX uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh tylR v X
tb.bsD;b.'gcDzsdtoloHG.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;tCdb.q.yxH.b.vXw>tk.uDRwtd.0JeDwrHRvXySRw
*R*hRw*hRuChxD.w>b.phvXydmrk.ydmrXRwz.t*D>b.Iydmrk.wz.vd.b.pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXurRpXRt0Joh.
vXu'd;M>uhRw>ol.rHo;rkmvXtw>b.uG>qX.rJm'D; w>wl>b.cD.b.tzDcd.'D;'d;M>uhRw>b.phvXrRpXRtDR
uohvXu'd;M>w>tusdRtusJw>qD.xGJrRpXRwz.'D;w>CkxXvXurRb.vD>b.p;uhRtDRt*D>M.vDRI
(')vXrJ>v;'Ju0DRtylRoGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;trl;(16)cgvXtrh>(38%)tHR b.w>qSXxD.tDRqluFD.wJ.pH.
nD.yDwhttd.M.vDRI w>tHRzsgvDR*mvXw>xd.o}wDRw>tHRohvX(IRC/LAC)tHR rRwh>vHw>vXrJ>v;'Ju0DRylR
vX (2005)eH. vHRvHR v Xttd.'D; w>ynd. vDRwH>vDRqJ;xJwrHR{dR vX ySRb.uDb.cJwz.t*D> v Xu eJ.usJ vX ySR
b.uDb.cJwz.u'd;M>b.w>cGJ;w>,mvXuvJRb.qluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwht*D>b.q.w>rl;w>&>teD.*H>zsg
xD.'.xJpSRudmzdvXtvJRxd.qluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhttd.M.vDRI
(e)w>rl;w>&>wz.td.'D;w>rReXRrhwrh>wtd.'D;w>rReXRb.b.*hR*hRM.ySRrRur.w>wz.td.wh>vXySRu
rsX>usg<rhwrh>[JuhRtd.EkmvDRu'guhRqlySRw0XylR< 'D;w>[H;pkeJ.usJ[h.ul.[h.z;w>&J.w>usJRwtd.eDwrHRvX
uyXqSX&J.usJR w>td.o; 0JtHR eDwrHRb.I w>tHR 'k;td.xD. w>'Do'X tw>vDRb.,d.v XySRwl>b.w> 'D; ySRw0X
wz.cJvXmt*D>M.vDRI'Ju0DRwz.rh>w>vXtqH;<ySRw0Xwz.td.bl;td.wH>vdmo;vDRI'D;w>td.w>qd;wz.
rh>w>vXb.td.uwHmuwlmM.vDRIvXw>M.tCdydmrk.'D;ySRrRur.w>wz.w>rRo;vXub.o*X>vdmto;
vXusJ ud;qXuwD>'J; ohM.vDRI ydmrk.wz.td.rlvXw>ysHRw>zk;tylR v XySRvX urRtXrRoDtDRwz.tusg 'D;w>tHR
'db.tDRtXtXoDoDohvXw>wrHRv>v>tzDcd.ohM.vDRIydmrk.wz.ymzsgxD.0J'.vXt0Joh.t[H.zdCdzd'D;t
eD>up>'.0Jb.w>rRysHRrRzk;tDRM.vDRI
51

(y) w>rl;w>&>weDRvX b.w>wD.xD.tDRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhwz.weDR w>rRtDRw0HRwwJm cDzsd ySRwl>b. w>
ok;vD>ok;usJqluD>oXbh.wbh. wcsK;vXtw>rl;w>&>b.w>qXwJmtDR0HR0Jwpk'H;b.tCd< tw>rl;w>&>b.
vDRwJmuGHmM.vDRI w>tHRtcDynDrh>0J ySRrRur.w>tHRylRzsJ;uGHm0JvXySRw0XtylRvXwtd.'D;w>ydmxGJeDwcgb.
M.vDRI
(z) vXw>rl;w>&> tgcgtzDcd. vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh'D; uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh cHcgvXm tylR <ySRrRur.w> Ch>ylRzsJ;t
o;M.vDRIw>[H;xD.zD.xD.vXw>bH.w>bXwuyRCX0J'd.r;rhwrh>ySRwl>b.w>wz.wD.zsgxD.w>CX'd.r;
(eD>'d.r;)tzDcd.tCdM.vDRI'Do'Xqdt0JydmcGgtw>ymol.ymo;wz.rh>w>vXtuDrh>vXw>'k;CmrlmrlmeD>eD>
wtd.vXw>u'k;CmtDRwkRvDRwDRvDRt*D>b.<w>yD;w>vDvXttd.ymvX'Ju0DRylRwz.wcDw>wym*X>ymusXR
tDRb.<rhwrh>t0Jxl.zJs;xD.uGHmvXw>tHRcDzsd[h.phtD.vD;M.vDRIw>tHRzsgvXw>ub.rR*hRxD.w>tudsRt
usJwz.'fod;u'Do'Xqd w>Ch>ylRo;tHRvXydmcGgvXb.w>vdmbXvdmuSGD>tDRwz.t*D>rhwrh>ySRrRur.w><'D;
w>u'k;td.xD.w>tusdRtusJvXtbVtqSD'D;w>uG>xHorHord;ydmcGg'ftHRoh.wz.wuwD>CDw>[H;*h>0DvX
ubsDt0Joh.t*D>M.vDRIySRrRur.w>vXtrh>ySRvXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.pH.ylRzsJ;xD.uGHmvXtySRw0X
'.0JM.uJxD.w>'Do'Xw>vDRb.,d.qlySRw0XtoDwz.t*D>zJtok;vD>ok;usJwbsDv>v>M.vDRI
(b)unDydmrk.u&X'd;M>b.w>ymzsgwz.vXunDrk.wz.wl>b.w>rRw&DwygtDRrhwrh>wl>b.oGH.xH;w>pk
ql.cD.wu;0HRtvD>cHrRoHvDRuhRto;M.vDRIw>ymzsgwz. [J0J'.vX'Ju0DRud;bh.'J;ylRvXw>rRoHvDRo;rh>
w>tpXwcgvXttXtoD'd.uwX>'D; 'db.ydmrk.t*kmt*Rwz.e;e;usHRusHR wrh>xJvXw>rRw&DwygtCdb. <
cDzsdpH.nD.yDwhvX'Ju0DR'D;uFD.wJ.tusdRtusJcHrHRvXmtw>cDqXtzDcd.tCdph>uD;vDRIw>vDRrJmqS;z;'d.vXySR
w0Xwl>vdm0JwM>b.wcgtHR vJRbs;pJvdmto;'D;ydmrk.wz.vXtwl>b.oGH.xH; w>pkql.cD.wu; 'D;w>tHRt
cDynDrh>0JoGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;tHRw>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvXusJw'H;od;vdmto;b.tylR'D;w>wymvXtrh>
w>t&h'd.CH;CD.'D.'d.M>'H;w>rl;w>&>vXt*Rwz.b.M.vDRIw>tHRvDRqD'.w>zJw>wD.zsgxD.w>tqXu
wD>'D;w>CdxHoh.ngvDRwH>w>tqXuwD>tywD>tqXuwD>M.vDRIwuD>cgcJtHR w>tusdRtusJ&SJ&SJvXw>urR
vDRwH>tDRwtd.'H;0JvXw>uyXqSX&J.usJRw>rl;w>&>wz.vXtrh> w>rRw&Dwyg'D;oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;w>
rl;w>&>vXt*kmt*Rwz.vXw>ymol.ymo;vDRwH>vDRqJ;tylR vXySRvXt-uX;tb.'D;td.'D;w>ohw>b.t
uH>tpD'D;td.'D;w>[H;CmuXRCmw>ymclol.w>*h>w>usdRvDRwH>vDRqJ;tylRt*D>M.'H;b.I
(r)vXoHG.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>oXcgtzDcd.uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhqSXvDRu'guhR0Jql'Ju0DRpH.nD.yD wh
ttd.M.vDRI vXw>*h>'ftHRwz.tzDcd. 'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhb.[H;xD.zD.xD.uhR0J'.M.vDRI w>ymzsgwz.[J
xD.0J'.qlunDydmrk.u&Xwz.ttd. vXw>rl;w>&>vX'Ju0DRylRwz. tgwuh>uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhqSXvDRu'g
uhR0Jql 'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhM.vDRIw>qSXvDRu'guhRw>rl;w>&>wz.tHRw>*h>w>usdRrh>0J=
 w>tk.uDRwtd.vXvXySJRySJRvXy'd.yD>&Dtw>vdmbXvdmuDG>vXw>utX.vDRw>ur.t*D>b.<vX
w>M.tCdw>w[H;M>w>*h>w>0DvXw>tHRt*D>b.M.vDRI
 yXRuD>wrRw>CdxHorHord;w>b.
 ySRwemtD.ySRwl>b.w>eDw*Rb.
 ySRrRur.w>pH.zds;uGHm
'd;M.b.w>ymzsg'ftHRtod;wz.vXw>wwl>vdmw>wD.xD.vXw>uCdxHurHord;w>t*D>rhwrh>w>vdmbX
vdmuDG>tHRtd.'D;w>'db.z;'d.wcgvXydmrk.wz.t*D>M.vDRI ydmrk.wz.zsgvDR*m'd.wuh>vXb.w>ym'h.ym
ur.tDR'D;rRrJmqS;tDRvX ySRw0Xwz.M.vDRIwkR'.vJmvX t[H.zdCDzdvX tbl;'D; tDRwz. 'ftrh> w> u'ku,D>
vXtrh>w>'k;td.xD.w>o;'h'DvXw>rl;w>&>tHRtzDcd.M.vDRIw>tHRrh>w>t&h'd.'d.r;vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtHR
[h.w>cDqXohvXt0Jydmrk.w>td.o;tHRtzDcd.'D;rh>td.'D;w>ymo;vXuqJ;vJR0Jtw>rl;w>&>t*D>M.vDRI
b.q.oemuh < tw>rl;w>&>tHR rhrh> uDG>rh.vX w>usJRClusJRzd;tDRwM.b.wcD 'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh tHR w-uX;v X
ub.[H;xD.zD.xD.0Jb.<'D;w>rh>qSXcd.cHu'guhRql'Ju0DRtylR'.vJmwb.[H;xD.zD.xD.0Jb.IzJ'Ju 0DRpH.
nD.yDwh[H;xD.zD.xD.w>rl;w>&>'ftHRwz.w>[h.t0Joh.w>eJ.usJwqH;wuh>'D;w>rRvd.xD.z;xD.w>t
w>qD.xGJrRpXRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD>yDwhwz.rh>w>vXtuDtcJM.vDRIt0Joh.rh>w[H;xD.zD.xD.w>*h>tHRb.'D;
52

uJxD.u'D;vXt0Joh.ysJydmrk.ydmrXRwz.vXtuwl>b.'.0Jw>vXtwtd.'D;pH.nD.yDwhtpXeDwrHRb.'D;ySR
rRur.w>tHRw>ysJuvDtDR'D;w>wpH.nD.tDRb.M.vDRItg'.w>wuh>M.ySRrRur.w>wz.b.w>oh.ng
tDRvXydmrk.wz.'D;b.oh.oh.rh>'.ySRw0Xwz.rhwrh>rh>ySRvXttd.'D;w>pdw>urDRvXtrh>uFD.wJ.xHzduD>zd
wz.M.vDRIt0Joh.rh>[H;xD.*h>0D'D;t0Joh.w>td.,XRtd.'.wqH;wuh>'D;wrh>w>vXw>ySJRb.'D;w>tHRnD
Ek>uJxD.uhRto;ohvX pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXw>wb.bsD;b.'gb.'D;bd;u'guhRw>rl;w>&>tHRqlw>'d.'d.rk>rk>
M.vDRIvXw>rl;w>&>vXySRrRur.ur.w>wtd.'D;w>[H;M>rl'g vXtw>ol w>pkql.cD.wu;tzDcd.b.'D; w>
rl;w>&>vXySRrRur.w>rh>uFD.wJ.xHzduD>zd'D;w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tw>rl;w>&>vXw>td.,XRwvXwySJR'D;uJ
xD.uhRw>'d.'d.rk>rk>wkR'.vJmpH.nD.yDwhtpXvXwb.bsD;b.'gb.cHrHRvdmtHR ydmrk.wz.b.td.0JvXw>ysHR
w>zk;tylR'D;w>rRw&DwygtHRrh>w>wcgvXw>b.wl>b.cD.b.tDRvXw>yXRol.yXRo;tylRvXySRw0XtylRM.
vDRI
(,)vXw>tJ.bXvdmo;w>rl;w>&>wcgtylRvXw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHRyxH.b.vXydmcGgt0JtHR'Ju0DRpH.nD.yD
wh[h.tDRw>pH.nD>vXub.td.vXw>'k;CmtylRvX(7)vgtwD>ylRySJRySJRM.vDRIvXySRunDw0XylRwuG>uym
uGHmb.C;w>tJ.bXwcgtHRb.<'D;rh>Sw>wcgvXySRunDwz.ymol.ymo;0JCHmCD.'D.wcgtod;yxH.b.
vXw>pH.nD.t0JtHRCXwvXvXw>tHRt*D>vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhwz.[h.tDRM.vDRIw>pH.nD.vXw>rl;w>&>
vDRvDRqDqD'ftHRwz.t*D>'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh[h.tDRw>pH.nD.tw,X>CXM>'H;w>rRw&Dwygw>rl;w>&>tw>
pH.nD.M.vDRIw>tJ.bXtHRrh>w>wcgvXw>ymyeD.tDR 'ftrh>w>rRysHRrRzk;ql[H.zdCDzdwz.'D;w>tHRw>wl>vdm
tDRwohvXySRunDw0XylR'D;w>qJ;w>vRtylRb.M.vDRI'fvJ.'fvJ.*hRM.w>tJ.bXwcgtHRrh>ySR[D.cd.zdtw>
&hvdmrkmvdmwcgvXySR'd.wkRcd.ySJRcH*Rw>[h.w>b.o;tbX.pXR'D;w>tHRrh>zd;oJp;wcgvXuFD.wJ.oJp;trJm
ngM.vDRIvX usJt*RwbdwcD w>rRw&Dwyg rh>uGD>rh. < 'D; b.w>rRxD'gtDRql ySRwl>b.w> tw> b. o; M.vDRI
w>pH.nD.vXySRrRur.w>vXtrRw&Dwygw>wz.'D;oloGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;wz.w>ub.[h.tDRw>
pH.nD.tw,X>CXM>'H;ySRvXttJ.bXw>wz.M.vDRI
(7)xJ'.oHG.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>oXcgvXty.CkmvXw>CkxH.M>w>tylRtHRvXtl;yF.'Ju0DRM.
vDRI w>tHRzsg'fod;vXw>rl;w>&>pSRcg vDRqD'.w>yrh>xd.o}wDRuG>'D;eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu; vXty.CkmvXtl;
yF.'Ju0DRtylRM.vDRIw>rl;w>&>teD.*H>xD.pSR'fod;tHRb.oh.oh.urh>vXoGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;uJxD.t
o;xJpSRudmzd rhwrh> w>wD.xD.tDR ql tl;yF.unDydmrk.u&X ttd.'D; w>w[H;Cmw>ymuDR vXvX ySJRySJR tCdb.
{g<rhwrh>oHG.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;tHRw>wwD.xD.tDRteD.*H>tgtCd{gM.vDRI
(v)vXyw>CkxH.wbsDtHRwzsgxD.0JeDwrHRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhrhwrh>uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhrh>*hRcHrHRvXmtHRw
usJ;pX;[H;Cmw>*h>wz.'D;uG>xH<vDRorHord;ySRvXtrRoGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;wz.vXw>ubSD*hRxD.uhR
tDRt*D>rhwrh>touJ;y0;uqDwvJt*D>M.b.Iw>tHRrh>*h>*D>tlw>vd.vXt&h'd.wcgvXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRt
usJwz.ub.[H;xD.w>*h>w>0DtHRb.C;'D;w>tHRt*h>M.vDRI
7.6 oHG.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;tw>pH.nD.yDwhtpXcJvXmvX'Ju0DR(7)bh.tylR

vXw>CkxH.M>w>wbsDtHR ySRvXtrRur.oHG.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;(60%)C.C. vXunDb.uDb.cJEGHbh.
tylR'd;M>pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXwb.bsD;b.'gb.rhwrh>w'd;M>0JeDwpJ;b.td.ph>uD;0JM.vDRI w>oh.wz.tHRrh>
pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtw>cDqXw>ohw>b.*H>p>tw>tk.uDRwz.vXw>rl;w>&>'d.'d.rk>rk>vXtrh>oGH.xH;
w>pkql.cD.wu;wz.tzDcd.M.vDRI

53

Table 7.6:oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;wz.vX'Ju0DR(7)bh.tylR

'Ju0DR'D;uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtpXcJvXm
oGH.xH;w>pkql.
cD.wu;

w>tpXvXt[JxD.wz.

'Ju0DR(7)bh.
w>rl;w>&>
(60) cg

%

w>rRw&Dwyg
w>usJ;pX;rRw&Dwyg'D;
oGH.xH;w>rRy,GJ
trl;t&>cJvXm
(60) cg

w>xXEkmqlCdmylR
[h.w>tX.vDRvXwrRur.0JvXRb.I
w>tpXvXt*kmt*Rwz.
wwD.xD.qlpH.nD.yDwhb.
cJvXm
w>rl;w>&>vXw>xXEkmqlCdmylR
w>rl;w>&>tpXcJvXmvXwb.bsD;b.'gvXtrh>
w>rl;w>&>t*kmt*Rwz.cJvXm

25

42%

7

12%

20

33%

8

13%

60

100%

25

42%

35

58%

w>[h.ul.[h.z;v Xwb.bsD;b.'g'D;cd.csXvdmo;wz.v Xzd;oJp;w>rRtusdRtusJtylR vX t[h.xD.uhRw>
tpXqlpH.nD.yDwhtpX vX wb.bsD;b.'gb.M.vDRI unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHm tw>od.w>oD ( 39)xH.tHR }wD
0J'.xJvXw>pkql.cD.wu;'D;oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;M.vDRI?w>rRur.uGD>rh.vXw>ub.qSXvDRtDRqluFD.
wJ.b.rlb.'gwz.ttd. ? M.vDRI (MDRG) w>eJ.usJ wbh.M. ymvDR0J'.vX w>rh>rRw&Dwyg w> 'D; /w>x X
EkmtDRqlCdmylRrhwrh>w>'k;CmtylRtHRM.wrh>w>tpXvXt[JxD.tusgwcgvXw>rRur.w>vX'Ju0DRylRt
w>qXwJmtusdRtusJ{dRb.I?(and makes plain)?ySRwl>b.w>rh>tJ.'d;0JvXySRrRur.w>tHRw>ub.pH.
nD.tDR cDzsdw>xXEkmvDRtDRqlw>'k;CmtylRwcD(w>rh>xH.M>vXtrRur.w>)t0Jydmrk.rhwrh>ydmcGgub.CkxX
0JvXub.vJR0JqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJM.vDRIw>rl;w>&>'ftHRtod;wz.ub.rh>w>wcgvX?t
td.vXtd.ySJR'D;w>tk.uDR/M.vDRI
cDzsdw>'k;td.xD.oGH.xH;rk.cGGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.'d;oMRxD.to;vXySRwl>b.w>tw>qXwJm
v XuqJ;wD.xD.tw>rl;w>&>wz.rh>*hR< td.'D;tw>CkxXv Xw>vD>w>usJwz.tzDcd.rh>*hR< ('fw>rl;w>&>vX
trh>w>rl;w>&>vXw>usJRClusJRzd;wM.b.wz.tod;<rhwrh>ySRwl>b.w>tJ.'d;xH.ySRrRur.w>vXb.w>
xXEkmtDRvXCdmylR<)wuD>cgw>td.o;cJtHRtd.zsgxD.0J'.vXw>ub.CkxXxD.ySRvDRvDRqDqDw*RvXu0HxD.
w>0Ht0JtHR vXtvDRb.vXoJp; tw>ymvDR tzDcd.vXub.CkxXxD.ymvDRcX.p;vXw>tHRt*D>M.vDRIw>tHR
wuJxD.w>tpXvXtb.vdmto;'D;ySR[D.cd.zdtcGJ;,m tw>rRwuDG> vX b.w>qD.xGJrRpXRtDRql ySR'J u0DR zd
vXttd.vX'Ju0DRylR wz.tw>td.o;M.b.Iydmrk.ydmrXR'D;zdo.ydmrk.wz.td.'D;*H>cD.xH;ySR [D.cd.zd
tcGJ;t,mvXtub.ylRzsJ;'D;w>pkql.cD.wu;vXtymCkm'D;oGH.rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.xJttd.0JwylR
v>v>M.vDRI xHuD>vXtwl>vdm tDRwz.'D; xH*kmuD>*R cX.p; vX b.w>CkxXxD.tDR wz. td.'D; trlt'gvX u
b.td.'D; w>[H;M>rl'gvX tub.ymuJ < 'Do'X< 'D;rRvXySJR xD. w>cGJ;w>,mw z.tHR M.vDRI t0Joh. rh>uJcX.p;
vXw>[H;M>rl'gvX'Ju0DRwz.t*D>vDRwH>vDRqJ; 'D;t0Joh. td.'D;rl'gvX ub.rRvDRwH>vXw>zH;w>rRwz.tHR
ub.w>rRtDR*hR*hRb.b.'D;ub.vJRto;b.bsD;b.'gM.vDRI

54

8. eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;
eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>teD.*H>cJvXmtd.0J( 289)cgvXw>CkxH.oh.ngwbsDtHRtylRM.vDRIeD>cdw>pk
ql.cD.wu;tHR rh>w>wcgvXtnDEk>rRto;thuwX>vXoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;vXydmrk.wz.wl>bl.0J
vX'Ju0DR(7)bh.tylR(72%)vXw>rl;w>&>cJvXmtusg)'D;vXeD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;tylR [H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.
wu;rh>w>wcgvXtnDEk>uJxD.to;tguwX>M.vDRI
vXw>vDRCkxH.oh.ngwbsDtHReD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;td.0J(4)uvkmM.vDRI
1. [H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;A][H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;b.w>rRtDRvX[H.zdCDzdwz.(nDEk>
b.w>rRtDRvX0R<rhwrh>y>M.vDRI)w>rl;w>&>(92%)
2. eD>cdw>rRy,GJ]eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;b.w>rRtDRvX[H.zdCDzd(4%)
3. w>oHqSK.rJmuJRrJmA]w>rRoH'D;w>oHvXttd.'D;w>qdurd.vXtuJxD.to;vXw>wcgcgvX w>
wrHRrHRtzDcd.<w>xH.M>tDRvXw>rl;w>&>(3)cgtylR<(1%)
4. w>pkql.cD.wu;vXttd.'D;w>rRysHRrRzk;]w>rRysHRrRzk;vX w>uolw>pk ql.cD.wu;'d.'d.rk>rk>xD
'gySR<vXw>td.'D;w>emoyS>wX>vXuuJxD.<'k;td.xD.w>ysHRw>zk;'d.'d.(3%)
8.1.eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rRo;cJvXmteD.*H>eD.'G;
[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;<eD.*H>e.'G;cJvXm(92%)w>rl;w>&>(192)cgrs;u,R'D;w>pkkql.cD.wu;tHR

rh>w>
wcgvXtnDEk>uJxD.to;vX'Ju0DRud;zsX.'J;tylRM.vDRI 'Ju0DRcHbh. vXtrh>tl;yF.'Ju0DR'D; rJ>v;'Ju0DR eD>cd
w>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>teD.*H>tguwX>vX'Ju0DRcJvXmtusgM.vDRI(w>rl;w>&>tcg( 70)'D;(64)cg
vX'Ju0DRt*RvGH>bh.w>pkql.cD.wu;teD.*H>td.0JvX(8)cgwkR(20)cgvX'Ju0DRwbh.tHRpkmpkmM.vDRI
 [H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;vXtlyF.'Ju0DRylRteD.*H>td.tguwX>vX'Ju0DRcJvXmwz.tusgM.
vDRI(69cg
 rJ>v;'Ju0DR rh>'Ju0DRwzsX.vXeD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;teD.*H>tguwX>cHbh.wbh.vX'Ju0DRcJvXm t
usg<A'D;eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;t*kmt*RcJvXm teD.*H>tguwX>vX ty.Ckm'D;w>oHw>rl;w>&>(2)
cgM.vDRI
 w>pkql.cD.wu;vXttd.'D;w>rRysHRrRzk;tw>rReD.rRCgw>ymuDRb.w>xH.M>tDRtguwX>vXrJ>
v;'Ju0DtRylRM.vDRI vX'Ju0DRt*Rwz.tylR w>pkql.cD.wu;vXttd.'D;w>rRysHRrRzk; w>wxH.
M>tDRb.I
 eD>cdw>rRy,GJw>rl;w>&> (vXtrh>eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu; b.w>rRtDRvXySRvXtwrh>t[H.zdCDzd)
tgwuh>uJxD.to;vXrJ>v;'Ju0DRtylRM.vDRI
vHmwdRChA8.1: eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;Aw>rl;w>&>wz.
'Ju0DR

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

rJ>v;tl;
rJ>&Rrd>
rJ>v;
tlyF.
ed.zd
bg'd.,g
xgr[h.
cJvXm
rs;u,R

w>rl;w>&>tuvkmwz.
eD>cdw>rRy,GJ w>oHq+.rJm
uJRrJm

eD>cdw>pkql.cD.w
u;w>rl;w>&>

[H.ylRCDylR
w>pkql.cD.
wu;

w>pkql.cD.wu;
vXttd.'D;
w>rRysHRrRzk;

cJvXm

8

8

0

0

0

8

15

14

1

0

0

15

64

51

6

2

5

64

70

69

1

0

0

70

13

13

0

0

0

13

20

20

0

0

0

20

18

17

0

1

0

18

208

192

8

3

5

208

100%

92%

4%

1%

3%

100%

55

8.2 . w>rl;w>&>wz.vXw>wD.xD.tDRqlApH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ
eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&> 85%rs;u,R(176)cgb.w>wD.xD.tDRvXpH.nD.yDwhM.vDRIw>rl;w>&>w

z.tHRtg'.w>wuh>b.w>bSg&SJtDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhM.vDRI
 w>rl;w>&>pSRcg(15%=32)cgw>Ck0JvXwwD.xD.0JvXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJeDwcgb.I w>rl;w>&>oh.w
z.tHRvXw>wwD.xD.tDRwz.tgwuh>rh>0J'.vXrJ>v;'Ju0DR(19)cg'D;w>pkql.cD.wu; w> rl;w>&>cJvXm
tusgw0mrJ>&Rrd>'Ju0DRwwD.xD.ph>uD;0JvXpH.nD.yDwheDwcgb.M.vDRIA
 w>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>(97%)wz.vX b.w>wD.xD.tDRvXpH.nD.yDwhwz. b.w>bSg&SJtDRvX'Ju
0DRpH.nD.yDwhtudsRtusJM.vDRI(w>rl;w>&>(176)cgtusg(171)cgw>bSg&SJtDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh)
 w>rl;w>&>xJ'.(3%)rs;u,RvXtrh>w>rl;w>&>(5)cg b.w>bSg&SJtDRvX uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ
M.vDRI
 tl;yF.'Ju0DR<ed.zd'Ju0DR'D;bg'd.,g'Ju0DRwD.xD.eD.cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>qlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRt
usJtguwX>M.vDRI(98-100%)tgwuh>vXw>rl;w>&>wz.tHR b.w>bSg&SJtDRvX 'Ju0DR pH. nD.yDwhtusdR
tusJM.vDRI
 rJ>v;tl'D;xgr[h.ph>uD;rh>'Ju0DRoh.wz.vXw>xD.zsgxD.w>rl;w>&>qlpH.nD.yDwhteD.*H>tgM.vDRIA
(87%)vXrJ>v;tl'D;(83%)vXxgr[h.I
 'Ju0DR(2)bh.vXtrh>rJ>v;'D;rJ>&Rrd>cHbh.tHRrh>'Ju0DRcHbh.vXw>wD.xD.eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;qlpH.nD.yD
whteD.*H>pSR0JM.vDRI(70%)vXrJ>v;<'D;vX(46%)rJ>&Rrd>A
vHmwdRCh 8.2: eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.A'D;ApH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz.
'Ju0DR
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

rJ>v;tl
rJ>&Rrd>
rJ>v;
tlyF.
ed.zd
bg'd.,g
xgr[h.
cJvXm
rs;u,R

eD>cdw>pkql.cD.
wu;w>rl;w>&>
cJvXm

'Ju0DR
pH.nD.yDwh

uFD.wJ.
pH.nD.yDwh

w>rl;w>&>vXw>
wD.xD.tDRcJvXm
teD.*H>cJvXm

w>rl;w>&>vXw>
wwD.xD.tDRcJvXm
teD.*H>cJvXm

8

7

0

7

1

15

7

0

7

8

64

42

3

45

19

70

69

1

70

0

13

13

0

13

0

20

19

0

19

1

18

14

1

15

3

208

171

5

176

32

100%

97%

3%

85%

15%

8.3. w>rl;w>&>wz.vXw>bSg&SJtDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh
eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;(171)cg(82%)b.w>bSg&SJtDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhMvDRIeD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;eD.*H>eD.'G;
cJvXmvXw>wD.xD.tDRvXpH.nD.yDwhtd.0J(97%)M.vDRIw>rl;w>&>wz.vX'Ju0DR(7)bh.vXmb.w>bSg&SJtDR
vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhywD>'D;(40%)b.w>bSg&SJtDRvXu0DR'hywD>'D;( 60%)b.w>qSXcDtDRqlu0DR'd.rhwrh>'Ju

0DRywD>M.vDRI yoh.ngb.vXzJyuG>u'guhReD.*H>eD.'G;wz. vXyw>CkxH.oh.ngtHRtylR tlyF.'Ju0DR bSg&SJ eD>
cdw>pkql.cD.wu;vXtvDRqD'd.M>'H;'Ju0DRt*R(6)bh.M.vDRIvXw>xH.M>w>tpXtHRtzDcd.w>tHRrh>w>tpX
wcgvXtzsgvDRwH>vDRqJ;vXyub.ymzsgtDRvXvHmzsgwbh.tHRtylRwwDRwDRM.vDRI vXw>M.tCdyqXwJmvX
b.C;'D;ytlyF.'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtpX uzsgxD.tDRvDRqD'D;'Ju0DRt*RCkbh.M.vDRI 'Ju0DR(6)bh. w>tpXym
zSd.w>rl;w>&>tgM>'H;wm(52%)vXtrh>w>rl;w>&>(53)cgb.w>bSg&SJtDRvXu0DR'hywD>'D;w>rl;w>&>wz.tHR
w>wqSXcD'k;oh.ng'Ju0DRb.M.vDRI rhrh>tlyF.'Ju0DRw>rl;w>&>qH;qH;zd'.vJmzJtoh'D;M>uwX>M.(23%)b.
w>bSg&SJtDRvXu0DR'hywD>'D;tg'.w>wuh>w>rl;w>&>wz.b.w>qSXxD.tDRql'Ju0DRywD>M.vDRI
w>xXEkmvDRySRrRur.w>qlw>uXRCmtylR'ftrh>eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXteD.*H>
eD.'G;xD.tpSRuwX>vX'Ju0DRtgwuh>tylRb.q.rh>w>wcgvXteD.*H>eD.'G;[JxD.tguwX>vXtl;yF.'Ju0DR
56

ylRM.vDRIw>rl;w>&>vXtl;yF.'Ju0DRylRteD.*H>eD.'G;cJvXm( 93%)rh>w>uXRCmySRrRur.w>vXw>uXRCmtylRA
M.vDRIw>rl;w>&>(69)cgtzDcd.M.(64)cgb.w>uXRCmtDRvXw>'k;CmylRM.vDRIw>rl;w>&>wz.b.w>bSg &SSJ
tDRvXu0DR'hywD>'D;'Ju0DRywD>cHywD>vXmM.vDRIb.q.oemuhvX'Ju0DRt*RCkbh.wz.tylRw>rl;w>&>vX
b.w>xXEkmvXw>uXRCmtylRtd.'.xJ(16%){dRvXtrh>vX'Ju0DR(6)bh.tylRw>rl;w>&>(102)cgtusg(16)
cgw>xXEkmvXw>uXRCmtylRM.vDRI'D;w>rl;w>&>teD.*H>eD.'G;vXw>xXEkmvDRqlw>uXRCmtylRw0mtd.0JvX
xgr[h.'Ju0DRylRM.vDRIw>rl;w>&>(8)cgM.vDRIvX'Ju0DRCkbh.tylRw>pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXtnDEk>[JxD.w z.
rh>0Jw>Ch0JvXySRrRur.w>upJvDRtrHRvXw>tX.vDRtDvDRtvHmylRvXtwrRur.0JvXRb.M.vDRI(w>rl;w>
&>(55%)(102)cgM.(56)cgw>pH.nD.tpXxD.vXySRrRur.w>pJtrHRvXw>tX.vDRtDvDRtvHmylRvXwrRvXR
0Jb.M.vDRIxJ'.vXtl;zF.'Ju0DRwbh.{dRw>rl;w>&>( 69)cgxJ'.(75)cgw>pH.nD.tpXxD.vXySRrRur.w>
b.qJ;rHRvXw>tX.vDRtDvDRtvHmylRvXwrRur.0JvXRb.M.vDRI
vX'Ju0DRCkbh.tylRpH.nD.yDwhtpXxD.vXyxXzSd.tDRM>t*Rwz.rh>0JySRrRur.w>pH.zsd;<w>w[H;*h>0Db.< rh
wrh>w>[h.vHmvDRzS.wz.M.vDRIw>oh.wz.tHRyxH.M>tDRvXtuJxD.to;vXw>rl;w>&>( 17%)tylRM.
vDRIw>tpX'H;tHRwz.w>wxH.M>tDRvXtl;yF.'Ju0DRtylRb.I
pH.nD.yDwhtpXw>[h.vHmvDRzS.vXw>pkql,cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>teD.*H>eD.'G;tpXxD.tguwX>vX rJ>v;'Ju
0DRtylRM.vDRIw>tHRtcDynDrh>0Jw>pH.nD.t*kmt*RvXySRrRur.w>vXtolw>p kql.cD.wu;t*D>wtd.b.I
td.'.xJw>wrHRtHRM.vDRI
vHmwdRCh8.3: eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>'D;'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh

eD>cdw>pk
ql.cD.
wu;
cJvXm
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

rJ>v;tl
rJ>&Rrd>
rJ>v;
tlyF.
ed.zd
bg'd.,g
xgr[h.
cJvXm
rs;u,R

'Ju0DR
pH.nD.
yDwh
cJvXm

'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh
ywD>
xJ'. u0DR'h
u]
u0DR'h u0DR'd. w>uXR
'Ju0DR Cmv'J
u0DRylR

w>tpXvXt[JxD.wz.
c]
pJvDRvX
vHmw>
tX.vDR
tDvDR

*]
ySRrRu
r.w>
pH.Zsd;

cJvXm

C]
w>w
[H;*h>
0D

i]
t*km
t*R

8

7

2

5

2

4

0

1

0

7

15

7

2

5

3

3

1

0

0

7

64

42

22

20

1

20

7

3

11

42

70

69

16

53

64

5

0

0

0

69

13

13

4

9

1

9

1

0

2

13

20

19

19

0

0

16

0

3

0

19

18

14

4

10

9

4

1

0

0

14

208

171

69

102

80

61

10

7

13

171

100%

40%

60%

47%

36%

30

100%

17%

u]w>uXRCmvX'Ju0DRylR'D;zJ[;xD.b.vXw>uXRCmtylR0HRuhRtd.u'guhRvX'Ju0DRylR
c]pJvDRvXvHmw>tX.vDRtDvDRvXwrRur.w>vXRb.<wolw>pkql.cD.wu;vXRb.<'D;'d;M>b.w>[h.
ql.xD.o;*H>bg<w>tHRrhw>tX.vDRtDvDRvXb.w>rRtDRvX'Ju0DRylRywD>M.vDRIw>uuGJ;&SJymzsgtgxD.uhR
tDR'fvXtzDvmtHRtod;M.vDRIw>tHRrh>(CSO)b.I
*]ySRrRur.w>pH.zsd;uGHmvX'Ju0DRtylRwcsK;'H;vXw>[H;xD.*h>0D'H;b.tcg
C]'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhe>[lb.C;w>rl;w>&>tHRb.q.qXwJm0JvXw[H;xD.*h>0Db.

57

vX'Ju0DRCkbh.tylRpH.nD.yDwhtpXw>[H;xD.zD.xD.eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.wb.bsD;b.'gA
b.*h>b.0DvXw>cDqXuhRw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.t*D>b.IeD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>( 84%)M.<ySRrRu
r.w>w>w[h.tDRw>ur.eDwrHRb.Itg'.w>wuh>vXw>rl;w>&>wz.tzDcd.vXw>ub.[h.w>ur.t
vD>w>[h.ySRrRur.w>vXub.pJw>tX.vDRtDvDR'D;tX.vDRto;vXwrRur.0JvXRb.M.vDRI'D;vX us Jt*R
wbdwcDt0JpH.zsd;oh<rhwrh>w>qXwJmvXw>w[H;tDR*h>0DeDwrHRb.M.vDRI'D;vXw>rl;w>&>weDReDRtzDcd.w>
[h.tDRvHmvDRzS.M.vDRIw>rh>olw>tusdRtusJtHRvXw>u'Do'XySRwl>b.w>vXcgqlngw>rRtXrRoDtHRokw
td.xD.vXRw*hRt*D>oemuhw>[h.w>pH.nD.wz.tHRwrh>w>vXtzd;rHb.*D>vdmo;'D;w>vXySRrRu r.w> rR
ur.0JuDG>rh.wz.tHRM.b.IvXtl;zF.'Ju0DRw>rl;w>&>'d;M>pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXtwb.bsD;b.'g'D;w-uX;
uXuD.b.teD.*H>td.0J(7%)M.vDRI
8.4. w>rl;w>&>vXw>bSg&SJtDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh

eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>teD.*H>cJvXmvX'Ju0DRcJvXmtylR(5)cgvXtrh>eD.*H>pSRcgtHRb.w>bSg&SJtDRvX
uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJM.vDRIw>rl;w>&>t*kmt*RweDRb.w>wD.xD.tDRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhb.
q.w>qSXvDRu'guhRtDRql'Ju0DRylRvXw>ubSg&SJuhRtDRt*D>M.vDRI
[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;(2)cgvXb. w>bSg&SJtDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh'D; ySRrRur.w> b.w>xXEkmtDRql
w>uXRCmtylReD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w> rl;w>&>oh.wz.tHR rhw>rl;w>&>oh.wz.vX ySRwl>b.w>oH'D; w>rl;
w>&>'ftHRwz. w>wD.xD.tDRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhttd.xDbdM.vDRIw>rl;w>&>'ftHRtd.(3)cg vXw>vDRCk
xH.M>w>tylRM.vDRIvXw>rl;w>&>oXcgvXmtHRtzDcd. zsg0J'.vXw>rl;w>&>wz.tHR rh>w>oh.wz.vXttd.
'D;w>qdurd.vXw>oHw>yS>vXtb.uJxD.to;tHR urh>vXoGH.xH;rk.cGGgw>pkql.cD.wu;uJxD.to;vHt
Cdw>oHw>yS>tHRb.uJxD.to;M.vDRI
 vXw>rl;w>&>wcgtylRM.yxH.b.vXySRwl>b.w>rh>ySRvXto;yS>'D;vD>r>uGHm0JvX( 2)EGHtwD>ylR<
'D;zJw>xH.M>uhRySRwl>b.w>tpd.yXRuD>pH;0JvXySRwl>b.w>tHRoH'fMqX.w>uJxD.to;tod;M.
vDRIySRwl>b.w>t[H.zdCDzdwz.qXwJmvDRto;vXwqJ;wD.xD.tw>*h>tHRqlpH.nD.yDwhvXR
b.IA
 vXw>rl;w>&>wcgtylRySRwl>b.w>tpd.b.w>xH.M>tDRvX'Ju0DRtcsXvXtvD>r>wh>vHvXpSRoD
twD>ylRA'D;w>rl;w>&>tHRwu;wH>'H;to;b.b.q.w>rl;w>&>tHRw>wvlRxGJtDRb.bsD;b.'g
'D;td.*X>wyX>M.vDRI
 vXw>rl;w>&>wcgtylRySRrRur.w>b.w>zD.tDR'D;xXEkmtDRqluFD.wJ.CdmylR<b.q.w>rl;w>&>
tHRqJ;vJRto;zJw>vDRCkoh.ngpH.nD.yDwhtpXtuwD>M.
vHmwdRCh8.4: eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>'D;uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh
'Ju0DR

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

rJ>v;tl
rJ>&Rrd>
rJ>v;
tlyF.
ed.zd
bg'd.,g
xgr[h.
cJvXm

eD>cdw>pk uFD.wJ.
u]
ql.cD. pH.nD. w>xXEkm
wu;
yDwh
tDRvX
uFD.wJ.
cJvXm.
CdmylR

c]
[h.ph
tD.vd;
xJwrHR
{dR

w>tpXvXt[JxD.wz.
*]
C]
i]
ySRrRur. ySRrRu w>w
w><b.w r.w> [h.w>
ywkmuGHm pH.zsd; ur.eD
tw>rRvX
wrHR
y'd.tw>
rRtylR

p]
w>rl;
w>&>
qJ;vJR
to;
tzXrk>

q]
w
oh.
ng

cJ
vXm

8

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

15

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

64

3

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

3

70

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

13

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

20

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

18

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

208

5

2

0

0

0

0

2

1

5

58

u]eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;(2)cg<ySRrRur.w>b.w>pH.nD.tDRvXw>xXEkmtDRqlCdmylR
c]pH.nD.yDwhtpXwxD.'H;0JzJw>vDRCkxH.w>tqXuwD>A
*]w>tpXvXw>woh.ngtDReD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wcg<unDydmrk.u&X[h.w>qD.xGJrRpXRqlySR
wl>b.w>'D;yXqSX&J.usJR[H;rl'g'fod;w>rl;w>&>tHRu'd;M>uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ
8.5. eD.cdw>pkql.cD.wu;tpXcJvXm

pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXeD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.vX tkl;yF.'Ju0DR'D;'Ju0DRt*R Ckbh.w>td.o;b.w>
ymzsgxD.tDRtvXtySJRzJvHmwdRCheD.*H>(8.5)'ftzsgvXvmtHRtod;M.vDRIyrh>uG>w>tpXwz.yxH.b.tDRoh
&SJ&SJzdvXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJvX'Ju0DRt*RCkbh.tylRvDRwlmvDRum0JvXw>cDqXuhRw>vXtb.bsD;b.'gql
w>pkql.cD.wu;xD'gydmrk.wz.M.vDRIeD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;vXw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHRrh>[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.
cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>tguwX>'D;b.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhM.vDRI(xJ'.eD>cdw>pkql.cD.w
u;(208)cgtusg(5)cgb.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhM.vDRI)
 pH.nD.yDwh tpXvX wb.vD>b.p;b. td.zsgxD.0J(88%) eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu; w>rl;w>&> wz. vX'Ju0DR
(6)bh.tylRvX tysJySRwl>b.w>vXtwtd.'D;w>'Do'XeDwrHRb.'D; wpH.nD.ySRrRur. w>w z. b.M.
vDRI
 w>tpXvXwb.bsD;b.'gtHRw>ymzsgxD.tDRvXvHmwdRCheD.*H>( 8.5)vXty.Ckm0J'D;w>pJvDRw>tX.vDRtD
vDRvX<vXcHwrRur.0JvXRb.<ySRrRur.w>xd.vDRr>uGHmto;w[JymzsgvXRto;b.<w>[H;xD.b.
w>*h>w>0Db.<w>[h.vHmvDRzS.<w>wwD.xD.w>rl;w>&>qlpH.nD.yDwhwz.ttd.b.I
 vXtl;yF.'Ju0DRylR<pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXwb.bsD;b.'g'ftHRoh.wz.wnDEk>rRto;b.rhwrh>w>wrR0J
b.M.vDRI w>rl;w>&>vXw>[h.w>tX.vDRtDvDR'D; w>pJvDRrHRvX< vXcH wrRur.0JvXRb.tHR b.w>pJtDR
xJ(7%)'D;w>tpXvXt*Rwz.wb.w>olw>tHRvXpH.nD.yDwhtpXtcd.oh.eDwpJ;b.M.vDRI
 vXusJt*RwbdwcD vX'Ju0DRt*RCkbh.tylR w>[h.w>tX.vDRtDvDR'D; pJrHR'ftHRtd.( 40%)< w>Ck xXvX
wwD.xD.tw>rl;w>&>td.0J(23%)< 'D;w>rl;w>&>wz. b.w>bSg&SJtDRvXu0DR'hywD>vXtpXxD.wb.
bsD;b.'gb.M.vDRI'D;w>rl;w>&>( 24%)b.w>[h.vDRtDRqlu0DR'hywD>'D;bSg&SJ0J'D;tpX[JxD.vXwb.
bsD;b.'gM.vDRI
 vXtlyF.'Ju0DRylR w>rl;w>&> (93%)vXtrh> w>rl;w>&>(65)cg 'd;M>w>pH.nD.vX b.td.vXw> 'k;CmtylR 'f
pH.nD.yDwhtpXtod;M.vDRI 'D;vX'Ju0DRt*RCkbh.wcD w>[h.w>pH.nD.vXw>vDRb.vXw>'k;CmtylRcJ
vXmtd.0J(12%)(138)cgtusg(17)cgM.vDRI
Table 8.5:eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;vX'Ju0DRt*R(6)bh.pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXb.w>xd.o}wDRtDR'D;

tlyF.'Ju0DR<'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh'D;uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhcHcgvXmtzDcd.
eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;
eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;
(208)cg

w>rl;w>&>cJvXm'D;
trs;u,Rwz.

pH.nD.yDwhtpX

(138)cg

(6)bh.

tl;yF.'Ju0DR
(70) cg

'Ju0DR
(7)bh.vXm
(208) cg

w>xXEkmqlw>'k;CmtylR

17

65

82

[h.w>tX.vDRvX
vXcHwrRur.vXRb.
w>tpXvXt*kmt*RcJvXm
w>wwD.zsgxD.tDRb.
w>xXEkmqlw>'k;CmtylR
cJvXm
[h.w>tX.vDRvX
vXcHwrRur.vXRb.cJvXm

56

5

61

33

0

33

32

0

32

17 =
12%

65 =
93%

82 =
39%

56 =
41%

5=
7%

61 =
29%

59

w>tpXvXt*kmt*RcJvXm

33 =
24%

0=
0%

33 =
16%

w>wwD.xD.tDRvXpH.nD.
yDwhb.cJvXm

32 =
23%

0=
0%

32=
15%

cJvXmvX'Ju0DR
( 6)bh.vXm=
(138)cg

cJvXmvXtl
yF.UM=
(70)cg

cJvXm'Ju0DR(7)bh.
vXm= (208) cg

17 = 12%

65 = 93%

82 = 39%

121 = 88%

5 = 7%

126 = 60%

w>xXEkmqlw>'k;CmtylR
cJvm
w>[h.w>cDqXvX
wb.bsD;b.'gvX'Ju0DR
ud;bh.'J;tylRcJvXm

tl;yF.'Ju0DR rh>'Ju0DRxJwbh.{dRvXt[h. pH.nD.yDwhtpXvX eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu; tusdRtusJb.bsD;b.'g 'D;
zsgvDR*mvXw>tHR w>tk.uDRwz. td.zsgxD.0JvXw>[h.w>pH.nD.wkRvDRwDRvDR 'D; rRvDRpSRw>pkql.cD.wu; w
z.qlydmrk.ydmrXRwz.vXySRw0XtylRM.vDRIvXtlyF.w>ymzsgvXt[JvXtl;yF.'k;eJ.zsgxD.0JvX[H.ylRCDylRw>
pkql.cD.wu;tHRpSRvDR0Jp;xD.vX'Ju0DRtHRp;xD.'D;w>[h.w>pH.nD.vXw>'k;CmySRrRur.w>wz.vXtrR
ur.eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.p;xD.vX(2009)eH.vHRvHRM.vDRIySRb.rlb.'gw*Rxd.w,m0JvX?nDEk>M.
w>uJxD.to;toDwcgrhwrh>cHcgud;eHR'J;M.vDRIb.q.cJtHRyxH.b.vXw>rRto;toDwcgM.yxHb.
uhRtDRv XwEGH wbsDtwD>ylRM.vDRI ? tlyF.'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ[h.ySRw>upD.&SJ&SJzdqlySRw0Xttd.vX
eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;<w>rRql.rRpd;qlzdrgwz.ttd.M.rh>w>wcgvXw>wl>vdmtDRwohb.M.vDRI
8.6. w>[h.xD.w>xH.'D;w>yJmxHedRcD

(u)IeD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;'D;[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.rh>uGD>rh.z;'d.wz.M.vDRIw>oh.wz.tHRrh>
uGD>rh.vXuFD.wJ.oJp;tylR'D;unDb.uDb.cJw>od.w>oD( 39)xH.tylRcHrHRvXmM.vDRIb.q.vX'Ju0DRt
*RCkbh.tHRwzsgvDR*mvXtymeD>cd.w>pkql.cD.wu;vXtrh>w>rl;w>&>z;'d.wz.b.M.vDRI
(c) IyxH.M.b.tDRvX yw>CkxH.wbsDtHRtylR w>[H;M>w>*h>w>usdR 'D; w>ymuDR tusdRtusJwz.w>wrRtDR
rl>rl>eD>eD>vDRwH>vDRqJ;b.Iw>[H;M>w>rReD.w>ymuDRwz.cJvXmtzDcd.w'k;eJ.w>pkql.cD.wu;tMqX.
vDRwH>vDRqJ; vXw>rh>olw>pku0JR 'D;w>tHR rh>ty.CkmvXoGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;{g rhwrh>w>rRw&DwygvX'D
rg0RtbX.pXR{gM.b.Iw>rRur.w>tHRrh>qJ;rR'.to;cJtHRcJtHR'D;w>tHR rh>trRuhRto; ySJRbsDvHvJ. M. w>
*h>w>udsR'ftHRwuvkmrh>w>vXt&h'd.vXw>rl;w>&>cJvXmtylRM.vDRIvDRqD'.w>vX[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.
wu; t*D>wcD rh>w>vXt&h'd.r; vX ySR b.rlb.'gwz. u[h. w>pH.nD.qXwJmvXtb.'D;-uX;vdmto;t*D>
M.vDRI w>eJ.usJ rhwrh>w>tusdRtusJvX tywD>ywD>wz. vX w>u [H;M>w>rReD.rRCg w>ymuDR wz. t*D> b.
'D;w>[h.w>pH.nD. vX 'Ju0DRylR vXw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.tHR tzDcd.t*D> M.b.I rhrh>wcD w>[H;M>w>rReD.t
vXtySJRwtd.b.tzDcd.yxXzSd.w>*h>w>usdRwz.oh0JvXytJ.'D;[h.ul.vXw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>z;
'd.vXtywD>vDRvDRqDqDvDRwH>vDRqJ;vXtxD'gydmrk.ydmrXRwz.td.0JvX'Ju0DRwz.tylR M.vDRI vXw> CkxH.
M>wbsDtHRunDydmrk.u&XxXzSd.eD.*H>eD.'G;wz.vXtwvDRemb.<w>tk.uDRwz.vXwrh>w>ymyeD.tDRvDR
wH>vDqJ;vXtrh>w>wrHRCDvX'Ju0DRuD;bh.'J;tylRM.vDRIyrh>b.wJvXrk>qh.rk>*DRtw>uwdRM.yxH.M.b.
vXw>rl;w>&>wz.vXw>wD.xD.tDRqlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJvXvDRwH>vDRqJ;wz.rh>w>wz.vXtvDR*m
'd.wuh>vXtrh>w>t'd.trk>rhwrh>w>pkql.cD.wu;wcgvXw>rRtDRwbsD0HRwbsD<wz.M.vDRIunDydmrk.u
&Xymol.ymo;0JvXw>vXtuJxD.to;wvD>vD>vXtg'.w>wuh>w>pkql.cD.wu;wqH;wuh>vXtuJxD.
to;wz.M.w>wwD.xD.tDRb.IvDRqD'.w>ySRrRur.w>rhrh>ySRvX[H.zdCDzdtylR( [H.ylRCDylR w>pk ql. cD.
wu;)wz.M.vDRIvXw>M.tCdz Jy dmrk. wz.rh>Ck xX0JvXurXySR w0Xcd. e>wz.vXuEk mvDRrRpXRtDR vX
tw>'Do'Xt*D>cDzsdwD.xD.tw>*h>ql unDydmrk.u&Xrhwrh>qlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJM.t0JzsgvDR*mvXt0J
td.'D;w>pkql.cD.wu;w>vJRcDzsdvXt'd.trk>wuh>vDRIvXtylRuGHmoXeH.vXw>CkxH.M>w>*h>w>usdRwz.
60

tHR < yxH.b.vX ydmrk.(53%)v XtvJRcDzsdb. [H.ylRCDtylR w>pkql.cD.wu;wz.'D;rh>ySRwz.vX tvd.b.
w>rRpXRvXunDydmrk.u&Xwz.ttd.'D;ChxD.0JvXutd.b.vXunDydmrk.u&Xt[H.td.u'ktylRt*D>M.
vDRIydmrk.wz.w>rh>rXql.tDRvXub.ymwh>uGHmt[H.tCDrhwrh>tzdtvHRM.ydmrk.t0JtHRrh>ydmrk.vXt
b.vJRcDzsdw>pkql.cD.wu;tywD>z;xDvHM.vDRIvXM.trJmngvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtylR<w>rl;w>&>rhrh>w>
t'd.trk>'D; ySRvXty.CkmvX w>rl;w>&>tylRwz. rh>wtd.'D;w>o;rHvX u0DR'htywD> tzDcd.b.'D; w>rl; w>
&>tHRw>qSXcDxD.tDRqlu0DR'd.'D;ql'Ju0DRuwD>M.vDRI[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.v Xw> Ck
xH.M>tDR (50%) 'D; (80%) tbX.pXR b.w> [H;xD.zD.xD. tDRvXySRb.rlb.'gvX ttd.'D;w>pdw>urDRxD M>'H;
u0DR'hywD>vX'Ju0DRwbh.b.wbh.pkmpkmtylR'D;w>tHRzsgxD.0J'.vXw>rl;w>&>w>tHRrh>w>vX'd.'d.rk>rk>w
z.'D;w>obH.obk.z;'d.wz.M.vDRI
(* )I[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;rh>w>rk>qh.rk>*DRwcgvX ydmcGgwz.vXtolw>pkql.cD.wu; xD'gydmrk.rhwrh>
zdo. wz. v Xt[H.zdCDzd tylR t*D>M.vDRI [H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu; tHR nDEk> b.w>wl>vdm0JvX ydmcGg 'D; ydm
rk.wz.tg'Htg*RvX twrh>w> 'd.'d.rk>rk>'D;t&h'd.wcgb.'D; rh>ySRwl>b.w>tw>ur.wcgM.vDRIw>pl>w>
em0JtHR 'db.u'guhRw>qlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJvXtqXwJmw>vXw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>tzDcd.'fw>
wcgvXtrh>w>rRur.w>wqH;wuh>'D;w>vJRylRuGHmtDRohtod;M.vDRIemouhw>'ftHRtod;nDEk>vXw>vD>t
wDRuJxD.to;'ftHRwkRrk>rqgweHRtHRM.vDRIw>'ftHRtod;w>qDwvJtd.xD.0JvXteH.( 20th),RzSd.eH.vXxH
uD>tgbh.tylR M.vDRIcJtHRw>vXtrh>[H.ylRCDylR w>pkql.cD.wu; tHRrh>w> oh.wz.vX trR[; *DR ySR[D.cd. zd
tw>cGJ;w>,mvXtb.C;'D;ydmrk.wz.t*h>M.b.w>wl>vdmtDR vX[D.cd.wbh.tHRoukRC.C.M.vDRI 'D;
pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJph>uD;qDwvJuGHmto;vXuqD.xGJrRpXRtgxD.w>'Do'XvXtb.bsD;b.'gvXw>cDqX
vXydmrk.wz.t*D>M.vDRI b.q. vXw>o;tk;'D;w>bl.w*hRwD>w*hRb.tylRw>tHRwrh>'H;w>rh>w>wDwcgvX
unDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRtylRwz.'H;b.M.vDRI
(C)Iw>tk.uDRwz. vX w>CkxH.M>wbsDtHRtylR ymzsgxD.0J'.vX pH.nDD.yDwh tusdRtusJ vXunDb.uDb.cJ
'Ju0DRwz.tylR vDRwlmvDRumvX u[H;xD. *h>0DvDRwH>vDRqJ;vX ydmcGgvXtxD.yS>vHoh.wz.vX trRur. w>
pkql.cD.wu;xD'gtzdtrgwz.M.vDRI[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;rh>w>wcgvXtnDEk>uJxD.to;vXoGH.
xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu; tylR vX yySRw0X tylRM.vDRI ySRrRur.w>v Xtol [H.ylRCDylR w>pkql.cD.wu; v Xy
ySRw0XylRwz.rh>0Rwz.<y>wz.<zgwH>wz.<'Dyk>0J>cGGgwz.<zdcGgwz.<'D;wHRoud;wz.M.vDRIySRwl>b.w>
wz.wcDrh>0Jyrd>wz.<yyk>'hrk.wz.<yzdrk.wz.<yrk>*>wz.<yzHwz.<'D;youd;wz.M.vDRIvXw>M.tCd
yoh.ngb.y0Jud;*R'J;vXyeD>up>'.0J vX ySRw*R*RvX trh>ySRwl>b.w>w*R*Rrh>*hRySRrRur.ur.w>w*R*R
rh>*hRM.vDRIw>tk.uDRvXw>ymzsgwbh.tHRtylRymzsgxD.0J'.vXtpSRuwX>ydmcGGg( 192)*Ryoh.ngb.vXtrR
ur.b.w>pkql.cD.wu;xD'gydmrk.'d.'d.rk>rk>vXt'l.zdxXzdtusgM.vDRIy0Jud;*R 'J; ytd. 'D; *H>cD. xH; [D.
cd.zdtcGJ;t,mvXyub.ylRzsJ;'D;w>pkql.cD.wu;wz.M.vDRIzJytd.yqd;wylRv>v>'D;yrk>v>vXyutd.'D;
w>cGJ;w>,mvXw>ub.ymuJySRvXt[H.ylRCDylRM.vDRIw>qXuwD>[JwkRCDRvH<y0Jud;*R'J;ydmrk.wz.'D;ydm
cGgwz.ub.rRoud;w>wylRCDoyS>uwX>vXw>uywkmuGHmw>pkql.cD.wu;vXy[H.ylRCDylRt*D>M.vDRI
(i )Iydmrk.wz.tg'Htg*R vXtwl>b. w>pkql.cD.wu; wwD.xD.ySRrRur.w>vXtrh>t[H.zdCDzdwz. t*h>
b.IvXusJwrHRtzDcd.M.w>tHRrh>w>rJmqS;y.Ckmph>uD;tCdM.vDRIySRwl>b.w>wl>b.0JvXtb.w>ym'h.
ymur.tDR'D;rRrJmqS;tDRvXt[H.zdCDzd <ySRw0X 'D; pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz.M.vDRIvXM.trJmng<t0Joh.
td.'D;w>tX.vDRtDvDRwh>to;'D;nDEk>tJ.b.ydmcGgvXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;xD'gt0Joh.tHRM.vDRIydmcGgtHR
b.wb.urh>ySRcd.oh.w*RvXtqD.xGJrRpXRw>vXt[H.zdCDzdt*D>'D;w>[h.w>pH.nD.vXt*D>urh>w>o.
0HRvDR'dvXt0Jydmrk.'D;tzdtvHRwz.t*D>M.vDRIpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJub.rh>w>vXt*H>ql.'D;wkRvDRwDR
vDRvXydmrk.ydmrXRwz.vXutd.'D;w>emM>vDRto;vXuwD.xD.[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;t*D>M.vDRI
rJ>v;'Ju0DRrh>'Ju0DRwbh.vXt'd. 'D;ySReD.*H>eD.'G;td.0J(43,255)*R zJyCkxH.M>w>tqXuwD>tHRM.vDRI'D;rh>
ph>uD;'Ju0DRwbh.vXt'd;M>w>qD.xGJrRpXRtguwX>wbh.vX(IRC/LAC)w>wdmusJRwz.(p;xD.vX(2005)
61

eH. vHR vHR'D;yrk>v>wh>vXw>wD.xD.w>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.urh>w>wcgvXutd.0Jtgtg*D>*DD>vX'J
u0DR0JtHRtylRM.vDRIb.q.oemuhrJ>v;'Ju0DRw>wD.xD.eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.teD.*H>
td.zsgpSRuwX>vX'Ju0DREGHbh.vXmtusgM.vDRIeD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>cJvXmrJ>v;'Ju0DRylRvXw>w
wD.xD.tDR ql pH.nD.yDwh b. cJvXmtd.0J (30%)M.vDRIw>rl;w>&>vXb.w>wD.xD.tDRwz.tgwuh>b.w>
[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh'D;xJ'.ySRrRur.w>xJw*R{dR'd;M.b.w>pH.nD.tpXvXw>vDRb.w>
'k;CmM.vDRIvXusJt*Rwbdtl;yF.'Ju0DRrh>'Ju0DRwbh.vXtttd.zJw>bX.pXRvXwrh>ySReD.*H>tg'D;pSRph>uD;
b.Irh>'Ju0DR*D>r;wbh.vXySReD.*H>td.(13,154)*RM.vDRIyxH.M.b.tDRvXw>rl;w>&>vXtl;yF.wz.w>wD.
zsgxD.tDR(100%)ySJRySJRqlpH.nD.yDwhttd. M.vDRI'D;w>rl;w>&>(93%)vXtrh>w>rl;w>&>(69)cgb.w>[H;
xD.zD.xD.tDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh'D;ySRrRw>ur.'d;M>w>oh.w>ur.vXw>vDRb.vXw>'k;CmtylR'fw>pH.
nD.tod;M.vDRIzJtHRyxH.b.vXw>*H>ql.w>b.xGJwcgvXpH.nD.yDwhtpXxD.tuvkmvXb.w>[H;xD.
zD.xD.tDRqlySRrRur.w>'D;w>wD.zsgxD.w>teD.*H>eD.'G;vXb.w>wD.xD.tDRvXySRwl>b.w>cHcgtbX.pXR
tHRM.vDRIzJydmrk.wz.oh.ngb.0JvXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJurRw>wcgcgvXu'Do'Xt0Joh.vDR<'D;urRvDR
wH>w>'D;ySRvXtrRql;rRqgtDRwz.M.'D;ydmrk.tHRto;utd.0JvXuwD.xD.w>vXw>rRur.xD'gtDRtHRM.
vDRI
(p)IywxH.M.b.w>tk.uDReDwrHRvX yw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHRvX uymzsgxD.0J'.vX'Ju0DRrhwrh>uFD.wJ.tpH.
nD.yDwhtusdRtusJcHcgvXmtHRuusJ;pX;0J'fod; uuG>xHorHxHySRvXtrRur.0HRur.uhRw>wz.vXurR*hR
xD.uhR0JvXw>pkql.cD.wu;tw>vJRw&H;wcgtHRtylReDwrHRb.M.vDRIw>tHRrh>*h>*D>tlw>vd.b.qdvXpH.
nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz.u[H;xD.zD.xD.b.C;'D;w>*h>tHR<vDRqD'.w>vX[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;w>
rl;w>&>wz.t*D>M.vDRI w>zH;w>rRw>qD.xGJrRpXRtusdRtusJvXySRw0XtylR td.0J pSR zk vX ty nd. w> vX w> u
rR*hRxD.uhRySRrRur.w>wz.M.vDRI (DARE)w>&J.w>usJRrh>w>wcgvX t*hR vX b.w>*H>CkmtDR 'D; qD.xGJ rR
pXRw>ulpg,gbsgvXttd.'D;w>rReXRvX'Ju0DR,J>bh.vXunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DREGHbh.tusgvXydmcGGgvXtol
w>okql.cD.wu;wz.vXtol w>rlRw>bSD; 'D; xk;uGHmto;vX oH;{dR*m{dRwM.b. wz. t*D>M.vDRI w>'k; td.
xD.w>tusdRtusJvXt*RtgxD.vXw>CkxX0JuM>t*D>vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtpXt*D>urh>w>wcgvXurR*hR
xD.w>'Do'XvXydmrk.ydmrXRwz.'D;w>tHRurR*hRtgxD.ydmcGgvXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.tvk>tv>ouJ;
y0;vXuqDwvJuhR0Jt*D>M.vDRI
(q)IwuD>cgcJtHR usJtcd.oh.td.0JcHrHRvXw>ol0JvXeD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.t*D> M.vDRIusJcHrHR
M.rh>0J=w>xXEkmvDRqlw>'k;CmylR<(nDEk>w>oltDRxJvX'Ju0DRwbh.{dRtylR)rhwrh>[h.w>tX.vDRtDvDRvXw
rRur.0JvXRb.(tg'.w>wuh>'Ju0DRt*R (6)bh.ol0J)M.vDRIusJt*kmt*RvXtwkRvDRwDRvDRvXw>CkxX0J
uoht*D> -uX;td.0JM.vDRI w>xXEkmvDRw>qlw>'k;CmtylRb.oh.oh. urh>w>vXtql.wvXvXw>rl;w>&>
weDReDRt*D><'D;w>[h.w>tX.vDRtDvDRvXvXcHwrRur.vXRb.urh>w>vXtp>wvXvXw>pkql.cD.wu;w>
rl;w>&>ud;uvkm'J;t*D>M.vDRIpH.nD.yDwhtpXvXtwkRvDRwDRvDRurRvDRwH>ySRrRur.w>tw>ur.'D;u
[h.w>'Do'XqlySRwl>b.w>'D;uqD.xGJrRpXRw>qDwvJySRrRur.w>wz.vXvk>v>ouJ;y0;vXtw*hRvXt
rh>w>olw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.M.vDRI
(&S)Iw>tk.uDRvXw>ymzsgwbh.tHRtylR[h.ul.0JvXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJvXySRb.uDb.cJwz.'d;M>0JM.
vDRwlmvDRum0J'd.r;vXw>qDwvJw>pkql.cD.wu;touJ;y0;vX( 100%)ySJRySJRvXw>rl;w>&>wz.tylRt*D>
M.vDRI
(n)I'Ju0DRwz. tgwuh> wol w>'k;Cm xDbd 'f oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu; tw>rl; w>&> tw> pH.nD.tod;
b.I rJ>v;'Ju0DRvXtrh>'Ju0DRwbh.vXttd.'D;w>'k;CmvXt*hR'D;vXySJR'D;w>td.,XRwz.'.vJ.wqd;ug0J
w>td.,XRwz.tHRb.M.vDRI
(w)IeD>cdw>rRy,GJw>rl;w>&>qlydmrk.'D;ydmrk.zdo.wz.vXb.w>rRtDRvXwrh>t[H.zdCDzdb.td.0JpSRcg <
'D;td.0JxJ(8)cgcJvXmcJqhvXyw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHRtylRM.vDRI'D;tg'.w>wuh>w>rl;w>&>'ftHRwz.uJxD.
to;vXrJ;v;'Ju0DRtylR(6)cgM.vDRIw>tHRtcDynDrh>0JeD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;xD'gydmrk.wz.tgwuh>ySRrRu
r.w>wz.rh>0JySRw*R*RvXtbl;'D;t0Joh.<ySRw*R*RvXt'l.zdxXzdwz.tylR<nDEk>rh>t0R<'D;wrh>ySRw>csX<rJm
oDegoDwz.b.M.vDRI
62

(x)I?w>oHw>yS>vXttd.xD.'D;w>qdurd.vXySRto;ylRvXw>tHRurh>vXw>wrHRrHRtCd/(cDynDwrh>'fM
qX.tod;b.)wz.tHRrh>w>rl;w>&>wcgvXw>usJRClusJRzd;tDRwM>b.'D;w>ub.[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvXuFD.
wJ.pH.nD.yDwhM.vDRIw>oHw>yS>w>rl;w>&>wz. rh>w>wz.vXw>ub.rRw>CdxHvXttd.'D;w>vXw>ySJR'D;
w>td.,XRvXtb.bsD;b.'gwz.M.vDRIw>CdxH'ftHRwuvkmrh>w>wcgvXtwvXuHGm'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwht
usdRtusJtw>ohw>b.M.vDRIb.q.oemuhvXw>oHw>yS>trl;oXcgtusgcHcgvXtrh>ydmrk.ydmrXRtw>oH
vXw>xXEkmCkmtDRvXw>ymzsgwbh.tHRtylR'd;M>b.w>cDqXt*H>p>vXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtylRM.vDRIw>
oHw>yS>trl;t&>cHcgtHRw>rRtDRw0HRwwJm0Jb.M.vDRIw>rl;w>&>td.'D;0Jtgr;vXtrh>ydmrk.ydmrXRtw>o
Hw>yS>vXwzd;oJp;wz. vXywxXEkmvDRtDRvXyw>ymzsgwbh.tHRtylRb.I b.q. yoh.ngb.vXw>oh.w
z.M.ph>uD;'d;M>pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtw>cDqXvXt*H>p>M.vDRI
(')IyxH.b.vXb.C; w>pkql.cD.wu;vXtrh> w>rRysHRrRzk; wz.< unDydmrk.u&X ymol.ymo; 0JvXtrh> w>
wcgvXtuJxD.to;wvD>vD>b.q.<w>wD.zsgxD.teD.*H>td.'.xJpSRudmzdM.vDRIvXyw>CkxH.M>wbsD
tHRw>rl;w>&>'ftHRwz.b.w>wD.zsgxD.tDRcJvXmvXrJ>v;'Ju0DRtylRM.vDRI
(e)IvHmwz.vXub.[h.zd;oJp;w>eJ.usJtvXtySJRb.bsD;b.'gwz.rh>w>wz.vXtvDRol.tk;o;tk;w
cgvXtwb.bsD;b.'g'ft-uX;uXuD.0Jtod;b.Irhrh>wcD( MDRG)'ftrh>w>eJ.usJwbh.vXtcsK;qXcsK;u
wD>wbh.tod;tHRzD.CH;u'guhRw>pl>w>emvXtrh>w>vD>vHRvXtylRuGHmwz.'D;w[h.w>b.vD>b.p;vX
ydmrk.ydmrXRvXtwl>b.[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;'db.tDRwz.t*D>b.I( MDRG)w>eJ.usJwbh.tHRtd.
ymvDRto;vX ? eD>cd w>rRy,GJw>rRql;rRqgv Xb.w>rRtDRvX 0R /([H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;)v Xtw y.
Ckm'D;w>pku0JR<'D;w>b.'db.xH;tHRb.wl>0JwkRtoDwqHtwD>ylRvXw>ulpg,gbsguhRt*D>tHRrh>w>wcgvX
t-uX;0Jb.0JvXtrh>w>rRur.wqH;wuh>vX(CSO)t*D>rhwrh>vXySRw0Xtw>zH;w>rRt*D>M.vDRI( CSO)
td. 'D;w>wX.yD. tgxD. tvXtySJR vX wqXzd (8.7)v Xttd.zsg 'fvm tod;vXtrh>w>wcgvXySRrXySRrRur.w>
xJ'.[h.tw>qXuwD>vXtzH;w>rRw>vXySRw0XtylR'ftrh>w>tuhRt*DRwcgvXw>[h.qXuhRw>cDzsdw>vX
trRur.0JtzDcd.tCdM.vDRI(MDRG)w>eJ.usJ[h.ul.0J'.vXw>rl;w>&>wz.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRohph>
uD;vXw>[h.w>tX.vDRtDvDRtvHmrhwrh>[h.w>b.ph<rhwrh>w>[h.vHmvDRzS.wz.ohM.vDRIunDb.uD
b.cJurH;wHmtw>od.w>oD(39)xH. [h.w>eJ.usJwqH;wuh>qly SRvXtrRvXxD.ySJRxD.'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh
b.C;[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.t*D>M.vDRIw>rRur.wz.w>ymvDRtDRb.'D;xJ'.w>cDqXvXw>
rRtDRohqlw>pkql.cD.wu;t*D>M.rh>0Jw>qSXql?uFD.wJ.b.rlb.'gttd.M.vDRI/
(y)Iw>tk.uDRwz.vXb.w>ymzsgxD.tDRvXw>CkxH.wbsDtHRtylRcJvXmM.rh>pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJw>cDqX
wz.vXwb.bsD;b.'gb.'D;w'fod;vdm0Jto;b.vXeD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.t*D>M.vDRIw>
vXtw'H;od;vdmto;b.vXpH.nD.yDwhtpXvXb.w>xd.o}wDRtDRvXtlyF.'D;'Ju0DRt*RCkbh.wz.t
bX.pXRrh>w>cgvXtvDRymol.ymo;z;'d.wcg'D;'fM.tod;w>vXtw'H;od;vdmto;vX'Ju0DREHGbh.vXmt
bX.pXRvXw>[H;xD.zD.xD.w>pkql.cD.wu;vXusJ'fvJ.t*h>M.td.0J'.M.vDRIpH.nD.yDwhtw>cDqXvXw
b.bsD;b.'g'D;w'H;od;vdmto;tHR'k;uJxD.w>wl>cD.ymo;wcgvXtuG>rJmyS R rRur.w>vXtol w >pql .
cD.wu;wz.'D;w>tHRuJxD.u'guhR0JvXw>qD.xGJw>wcgvXw>uolw>pkql.cD.wu;tgxD.vXySRw0Xt
ylRM.vDRIyemvXpH.nD.yDwht*H>p>tHRcDzsdvXw>tcd.oh.cHrHRtHRtCdM.vDRI
(u)w>[H;pkeJ.usJt*H>p><'D;
(c)w>td.,XRw>qD.xGJrRpXRt*H>p>wvXwySJRql'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh
ySRrRvd.xD.z;xD.w>wz.t*D>tCdM.vDRI
(z)Iw>*H>p>td.zsg -wX>uvmb.b.q.oemuhydmrk.vXtwl>b.eD>cdw>pkql.cD. wu;( 99%)vXw>Ck
xH.M>wbsDtHRCkxX0J'.vXtwD.xD.tw>*h>tHRxJ'.ql'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhrhwrh>CkxH.M>w>rRpXRtusdtusJ
xJ'.vX'Ju0DRtylRM.vDRIw>rl;w>&>(208cgtusg203cg)M.vDRIw>rh>rRtgxD.w>td.,XR'D;w>'k;td.xD.usJ
vXw>[h.w>qXwJmtw>'Hod;od;wrHRCDvXtqdtcVwbsDCDM.urh>w>rR*hRxD.'D;w>qD.xGJrRpXR'Ju0DRpH.
nD.yDwhtusdRtusJvXt*hRxD.vXw>'Do'Xydmrk.ydmrXRwz.'D;wbsDCDurRpSRvDRoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.w
u;M.vDRI
63

8.7w>tX.vDRwl>vdmwz.

vX'Ju0DRCkbh.wz.tylR(vXtwymCkm'D;tlyF.'Ju0DRb.)pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXeD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>
&>tguwX><'D;oHG.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;teD.*H>trs;u,RvXtpSRvDRwpJ;zdtb.w>wD.xD.tDRql'Ju0DRpH.
nD.yDwhwz.b.w>nDEk>[h.w>tpXvXw>tcd.oh.t0JtHRvXtrh>w>rXySRrRur.w>pJtrHRvXw>tX.vDRtD
vDRtvHmylR'D;tX.vDRto;vXwrRur.0JvDRb.M.vDRI(w>[h.w>tpX'ftHR vXeD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;
w>&>(40%)'D;oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;(27%)M.vDRIyrh>uG>vX'Ju0DREGHzsX.vXmtpXwcDw>pkql.cD.wu;w>
rl;w>&>(36%)b.w>wD.xD.tDRql'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh'D;'d;M>w>tpXvXw>b.tX.vDRtDvDRo;vXwrR0JvXR
b.M. teD.*H> cJvXmtd.0J (211cgtusg75cg) M.vDRI w>tX.vDRtDvDR'ftHR wuvkm b.w>oltDRcJtHRcJtHR 'ft
rh>w>tyD;tvDwcgvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJol0JvXuzD.*X>Cmw>rhwrh>[h.w>cDqXqlw>pkql.cD.
Wwu;vXtxD'gydmrk.wz.t*D>M.vDRIvXw>M.tCdye>yX>'D;ycHuG>pDRuG>oh0JvXw>oh.wz.tHRwkRvDRwDRvDR
qH;tgvJ.M.vDRI
yuG>vXw>tX.vDRtDvDRtgrHRwz.vX'Ju0DR(4)bh.tylR'D;yxH.b.vX=
 w>oh.wz.M.wrh>w>vXtd.'D;twDRywD>wrHRCDvX'Ju0DRvGH>bh.vXmtylRwrHRCDb.I unDb.
uDb.cJurH;wHmrhwrh>u%l>vXt*kmt*Rwz.vHmwdRChwz.wtd.vXu[h.vDR0J'D; ub.w>ol
tDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtudsRtusJvX'Ju0DRud;bh.'J;t*D>M.b.I vXw>M.tCd w>tX.vDRtDvDR
tvHmwdRChwz.[J'.vX'Ju0DRwbh.b.wbh.tw>'.0JM.vDRI
 w>tX.vDRwl>vdmoh.wz.tHRwrh>vHmwdRChwz.vXrhwrh>w>tX.vDRwl>vdmwz.vXb.w>,XR
xD.tDRvX (MDRG) w>eJ.usJwz.tylRvXb.w>oltDRvXrJ>v;'Ju0DRylRtod;rh>*hRb.'D; w>tHR 'f
w>qd;ug0JvXtlyF.'D;ed.zdvXtol(MDRG)w>eJ.usJwqH;wuh>tHRtod;M.ph>uD;b.M.vDRIt'd
=t0Joh.wz.wrh>(CSO)b.rhwrh>wrh>w>tX.vDRtDvDRtvHmb.M.vDRI
 vX'Ju0DRwbh.tCDtylR<w>tX.vDRtDvDRwz.rhw>wrHRCDvXw>oltDRvXu0DR'hrh>*hR'D;'Ju0DRy
wD>'D;u0DR'd.ywD>rh>*hRM.vDRI
 w>tX.vDRtDvDRtvHm'dvX'Ju0DRwbh.'D;wbh.tylRwz.b.w>'k;td.xD.tDRvX'Ju0DRt?pH.
nD.yDwhurH;wHm/wz.M.vDRI
 w>tX.vDRtDvDRwz.vXyxXzSd.tDRvX'Ju0DRvGH>bh.vXmtylRtd.'D;w>vDR*mvdmto;wz.M.
vDRI t0Joh.wz. rh>w>vXty.Ckm'D;w>*h>w>usdReD.*H>eD.'G;vXtnD vXtb.C;'D; w>rl;w>&> w
z.M.vDRIw>oh.wz.M.b.w>&J.vDRtDR'fvmtod;tHRM.vDRI
rk>eHR
w>rl;w>&>w>clol.eD.*H>(uG>b.vXw>zDvmM.wuh>)
w>vD>vXtd.qd;0JtvD>
w>tX.vDRtDvDR tw>tk.uDRwz.(b.q. wrh> w>xH.csK;w>pkql.cD.wu; w>uJxD.o;
b.I)
w>pH.nD.wrHRv>v>vXb.w>[h.tDRt*h>tusdR
w>vXySRrRur.w>tX.vDR0JvXtokwrRur.vXR0Jwz.
ySRrRur.w>trHRpJ

w>rl;w>&>w>clol.eD.*H>=w>oh.wz.tHRw>rRb.xGJtDR'D;?w>od.w>oD(39)xH. vXtrh>unD
b.uDb.cJurH;wHmw>od.w>oDwz./teD.*H>vXw>rRur.b.tDRwzsX.M.vDRIt'd=vXw>
tX.vDRtDvDRtylR yuG>u'guhRwh>tDRwz. w>rl;w>&>vGH>cgteD.*H>clol.vXb.w>oltDRwz.=
19, 23, 31 'D; 33 vXttd.zsg'ftzDvmtod;M.vDRI

64

19

23

31
33

unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmtw>od.w.oDwz.vXtb.xGJvdmo;'D;
?vHmw>tX.vDRwl>vdm/tylRwz.
w>[;w>*JR wrHRv>v>vX txD'g ySRol.bD.o;p> 1I[h.w>oh.nge>yX>
vXto;td.(7-18)tbX.pXRwz.w>wb.[H; *h>0D 2I[h.'k;yvD>
wrHRCD 'fw>[l;w>*JR vXtxD'gySR'd.wkmcd.ySJRwrHR 3I[H;xD.*h>0D'ft-uX;0Jb.0J
CDtod;b.M.vDRI(w>od.w>oD)
ySR*h>0D.'D;w>qJ;w>v>wz.w>wb.rR[;*DRtDR 1I[h.'k;yvD>
b.Iw>rR[;*DRwz.'ftrh>
2I[JtX.vDRtDvDRto;vXySRb.rlb.'gtrJmng
1Iw>tJ.bXvdmo;
3Iw>u[H;*h>0DwrHRCD'fySRw0Xw>ymvDRtd.0Jt
2Iw>td.Ckmqd;Ckm<w>rHCkmvXwzd;oJp;
od;
3IEkmvDRy.CkmvXoGH.xH;w>zH;w>rRwz.(xHzduD>
zdursX>oJp;)
w>pkql.cD.wu;'D;oHG.xH;w>rR[;*lm[;*DRw>w 1IqSXcDqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'gttd.
[h.tcGJ;vhRwuhRb.I(uDG>rh.)
wb.rRqgySRt*Rwz.vXeD>cdrh>*hReD>o;rh>*hR
1IqSXcDqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'gttd.
M.b.I(uDG>rh.)

w>rl ; w>&>w>cl o l . eD . *H > wz.vXvH m w>tX.vD R wl > vd m tyl R vXrJ > v;'J u 0D R ph > uD ; yd m xG J 0 J ' f
(MDRG)w>usJRClusJRzd;w>obH.bk.tw>eJ.usJtod; #9vXtymvDRw>pkql.cD.wu;t*h>M.
vDRI
vX(MDRG)w>eJ.usJtylR td.'D;vHmt'dtuvkmvX<vHmwdRChtgrHRwz. vXtvd.0JvXw>usJRClusJRzd; w>t
*D>rh>*hR< u&l>w>wX.yD.xH.vdmo;t*D>rh>*hR< w>[h.w>qXwJmtusdRtusJ< w>uwdRzk.vXw>tusdRtusJt*D>
rh>*hR<?w>tX.vDRtDvDRtvHm/rh>*hRM. b.w>,XRxD.tDRcJtHRcJtHR 'fusJwbdvXpH.nD.yDwhtpX vXt[JxD.0J
ohtod;M.vDRIb.q. w>tX.vDRtDvDRtvHm'dtHR wb.w>[h.vDRtDRvX w>uoltDRvXw>[h.w>tX.vDR tD
vDRt*D>b.I(vXw>bl.w*hRwD>w*hRb.tylR<(MDRG)w>eJ.usJwbh.tHR wtd.'D;tvHmubsH;yRteD.*H>
b.<vXw>M.tCd y[h.w>b.xGJvXvXySJRySJRvXubsH;yRtzDcd.wohb.I w>eJ.usJwz.vXyxH.b.tDRvX
(MDRG)w>eJ.usJtylRrh>'fvmtHRtod;M.vDRI

?w>[h.w>tX.vDRtDvDRtvHm(xJ'.ySRvXtrRur.uDG>rh.wz.)/
?,tX.vDRvX,wrRur.vXRw>tHRu'D;toDwbsDeDwbsDvXRb.I,e>yX>vX<,u'd;M>w>pH.nD.vX
ttX'd.xD.vXcgqlngM.vDRI/
(MDRG)vHmeJ.usJ0JtHRCh0JvX(CSO)urh>w>wcgvXurh>pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXtuJxD.to;ohvX'Ju0DRpH.
nD.yDwhtylRtod;M.vDRI (CSO)ymvDR0JvX ySRrRur.w>ub.[h.xD.tw>zH;w>rR'D;w>qXuwD> vXurR
w>vXySRw0Xt*D> 'ftrh>w>tuh>t*DRwcgvX w>[h.qXuhRw>'ftrRur.0Jwcgtod;t*D>M.vDRI( CSO)tHR
wzsgvDR*mvXw>oltDR'fpH.nD.yDwhtpXwcgvX oHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;tylRb.I yqXrk>v>xH.b.vX
(CSO)weDR utd.vXw>rReD.rRCgtylR vX'Ju0DRoXbh.tylRvX(IRC/LAC)0JR'X;wz.td.0JtvD>< b.q.vX
unDydmrk.u&Xw>[H;M>w>rReD.tylR wxH.M>0JvX'Ju0DRoXbh. vXw>,XRxD.0JvX (CSO)tHR b.w>oltDRzJ
M.oh.wz.w>woltDRvXoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;tpXtod;b.Iw>tHRw&SJ0JvX(CSO)tHR ub.w>ol
tDRvXb.C;'D;w>rEkRwz.t*D>vJ.M.b.I
w>vDRzsJ.vDR[dwz.vXyxH.M>tDRvXw>tX.vDRtDvDRcJvXmwz.tylRrh>0J=
 w>vXt*H>cD.xH;vXt'k;td.xD.w>uJxD.o;tw>rReD.rRCgwtd.b.Iw>tX.vDRtDvDRwz.tg'.w>
wuh>b.w>,XRxD.tDRxJ'.vXw>rh>rR[;*DRunDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmtw>od.w>oDwz.tHRM.'D;{dR
M.vDRIb.q.w>tX.vDRtDvDRtHRtywD>vDRwH>vDRqJ;vXw>vXtbs;pJ'D;w>rEkReD>eD>vJ.M.w>[H;M>w>
rReD.rRCgb.I
65






w>rReD.rRCgwtd.ph>uD;0JvXySRvXtrRur.w>rh>rR[;*DRw>tX.vDRtDvDRtHR'D;w>ydmxGJrEkRuydmxGJxD.
tcHvJ.t*D>M.b.I
w>rReD.rRCgwtd.ph>uD;0JvXySRrRur.w>w*RtHRrh>ySRrRur.w>w*RvXtqJ;rRur.w>tbsDwz.t
bsD{g<rRurR0JySJRbsDvHvJ.<'D;w>vXtrRur.0JtHRuJxD.vHto;ySJRbsDu'D;vHvJ.<rhwrh> w>tXxD.oDxD.
'd.xD.tw>vDRqDvXtvk>v>ouJ;y0;tzDcd.tw>ydmxGJxD.to;qJ;rRto;rh>*hRM.w>rReD.rRCgw
td.b.I
w>rReD.rRCgwtd.ph>uD;0JvXw>[h.b.phqlySRwl>b.w>{gw[h.b.{gM.b.
ySRwl>b.w>trHRpJwtd.b.Iw>ud;0JvX/w>tX.vDRwl>vdm/b.q.w>vD>w>usJwtd.0JvXySRvXtb.
'db.xH;u&l>wz.vXw>uymyeD.tDRt*D>b.I
w>tywD>vXtxD.b.'D;w>eJ.usJvXtb.C;rwR-uX;wX.yD.wJoud;w>vJ.<ub.uGJ;w>tX.vDRwl>
vdmtHRvXusJ'fvJ.<rhwrh>rwR-uX;td.zJM.tqXuwD>M.vJ.I(zJw>rRw>tX.vDRtDvDRtqXuwD>)
w>ymvDRwtd.vXb.C;'D;rwR-uX;rh>ySRxH.xGJw>vJ.<rhwrh>rwRM>pdM>urDRvXw>tX.vDRtDvDRwbh.
tHRtzDcd.vJ.<vXw>M.tCdw>tX.vDRtDvDRwbh.tHRtd.'D;w>pdw>urDRrEkRvJ.M.wtd.zsg&SJ&SJb.I
w>w,XRxD.ph>uD;vXw>uzD.CH;uhRw>tX.vDRtDvDRwbh.tHRvXusJ'fvJ.t*h>M.b.I

w>ymvDRvDRwH>vDRqJ;vXttd.'D;tywD>b.C;'D;rwR-uX;rh>ySRxH.xGJw>rh>*hR<rwRvXw>[h.pd[h.urDRtDR
rh>*hR<w>td.0Jtgr;vXw>ub.rR*hRxD.uhRtDRvXw>uGJ;y}wDmw>t*D>rh>*hR<w>olw>tzDcd.rh>*hR<'D;w>rRvX
xD.ySJRxD.w>tX.vDRwl>vdmtHRtzDcd.M.vDRIw>oh.wz.tHRb.w>oltDRvXunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRCkbh.w
z.tylR<vDRqD'.w>vX[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.t*D>'D;nDEk>zsgvXtrh>pH.nD.yDwhtpXxJ
wcg{dRtod;M.vDRI'fw>[h.w>pH.nD.'D;w>cDqlw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.tod;w>oh.wz.tHRrh>w>
wcgvXwb.bsD;b.'g'd.'d.rk>rk>wcgM.vDRIw>vd.qdeD>eD>vXw>ub.uG>u'guhR'D;uG>xHrRvD>wH>uhRw>
oh.wz.tHRrh>twkRvDRwDRvDRvXusJ'fvJ. vXw>u[h.w>pH.nD.rhwrh>zD.CH;uhRw>pkql.cD.wu;vXyySRw0X
tylRt*D>M.vDRI

66

9. oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;vXt*kmt*Rwz.
vXw>CkxH.M>w>wbsDtHRtylRoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>cJvXm( 289)cgtylRyxXEkmCkmw>rl;
w>&>(21)cgvXyud;tDRvXoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>t*kmt*Rwz.M.vDRIw>*h>w>usdRtulm
t0JtHRy.Ckm0J'D;w>pkq.l cD.wu;xD'gydmrk.t*h>cd.oh.(2)uvkmA
1.w>rRuRySRunD('D;w>usJ;pX;rRuRySRunD);(43%)vXw>rl;w>&>oh.wz.tHRtusg
2.w>tJ.bXvdmo;(57%)vXw>rl;w>&>oh.wz.tHRtusg
9.1. uG>u'guhRw>*h>cJvXmt*h>tusdRtwuGD>

w>rRuRySRunD rh>oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;tuh>t*DRwcg'D; w>rRuRySRunDw>rl;w>&>td.0J(9)cgA'D;
w>usJ;pX;rRuRySRunDw>rl;w>&>td.0J(5)cgvX w>rl;w>&>vXtuJxD.to;(9)cgtusg vXbg'd.,g'Ju0DRt
ylRM.vDRIw>rl;w>&>wz.tg'.w>wuh>rh>?w>usJ;pX;rRuRySRunD/tgM>'H;?w>rRuRySRunD/M.vDRIA
w>tJ.bXvXusJt*RwbdM. tg'.w>wuh> bDrk>pXzSd.u&Xw>u&Xu&dwz. wymyeD.tDR'ftrh>oGH.xH;rk.cGg
w>pkql.cD.wu;b.I b.q.oemuh vXunDb.uDb.cJtw>td.o;'D;w>ymyeD.wcD ydmrk.wz.tg'.w>
wuh>ym0J'ftrh>w>pkql.cD.wu;tuh>t*DRwcgrh>vXw>tHR'k;uJxD.w>wl>b.cD.b.tgr;vXydmrk.'D;tzdw
z.t*D>tCdM.vDRI w>tJ.bXw>rl;w>&>(12)cgtHRymCkmzJw>CkxH.oh.ngtusgtHRM.vDRI w>*h>'ftHR b. w>
xH.M>tDRvX'Ju0DRt*Rwz.wzsX.pkmpkmwpJ;b.q. unDydmrk.u&XwxH.M>w>rl;w>&>'ftHRvXtlyF.'Ju0DR
tylRb.M.vDRI
vHmwdRCh9.1: oHG.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;vXt*kmt*Rwz.
Type of case

'Ju0DR
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

rJ>v;tl
rJ>&Rrd>
rJ>v;
tlyF.
ed.zd
bg'd.,g
xgr[h.
cJvXm
rs;u,R

oHG.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;
vXt*kmt*Rwz.cJvXm

w>tJ.bX

w>usJ;pX;rRuR
ySRunD

w>rRuRySRunD

cJvXm

3

2

1

0

3

4

4

0

0

4

3

2

1

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

3

1

2

0

3

7

2

4

1

7

1

1

0

0

1

21

12

8

1

21

100%

57%

38%

5%

100%

9.2 w>wD.zsgxD.qlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ

vXw>rl;w>&>u0DR'hylR(21)cgtusg(67%)b.w>wD.zsgxD.tDRqlpH.nD.yDwhM.vDRIw>rl;w>&>cJvXm( 14)cg
w>wD.xD.zsgxD.tDR
 w>oh.wz.tHRtg'.w>wuh>b.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.bSg&SJtDRvX 'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhM.vDRI w>rl; w>
&>(13)cg
 w>rl;w>&>xJwcg{dRb.w>bSg&SJtDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhM.vDRI
 w>rl;w>&>(33%)w>wwD.xD.tDRqlpH.nD.yDwheDwcgb.Iw>rl;w>&>( 7)cgw>rl;w>&>EGHcgtHRtg
wuh>rh>w>tJ.bXw>rl;w>&>M.vDRI

67

vHmwdRCh9.2:oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;t*kmt*Rwz.'D;pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ
'Ju0DR
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.
cD.wu;t*kmt*Rwz.

A'Ju0DR
pH.nD.yDwh

uFD.wJ.
pH.nD.yDwh

Aw>rl;w>&>vXw>wwD.
zsgxD.tDRwz.

3

1

1

1

4

4

0

0

3

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

3

1

0

2

7

6

0

1

1

1

0

0

21

13

1

7

100%

62%

5%

33%

rJ>v;tl
rJ>&Rrd>
rJ>v;
tlyF.
ed.zd
bg'd.,g
xgr[h.
cJvXm
rs;u,R

9.3 w>rl;w>&>wz.vXb.w>bSg&SJtDRvXA'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh
w>rl;w>&>(13)cgb.w>bSg&SJtDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhM.vDRIw>rl;w>&>w0mC.C.b.w>bSg&SJtDRvX'Ju0DR

ywD>'D;w0mC.C. b.w>bSg&SJtDRvXu0DR'hywD>M.vDRI bg'd.,g'Ju0DR rh>'Ju0DRcJvXmtusgwbh.vXtbSg&SJ
w>rl;w>&>vXu0DR'hywD>ttguwX>M.vDRI
 w>rl;w>&>cJvXmtusgw0mC.C.tzDcd.w>rXySRrRur.w>pJrHRvXvHmw>tX.vDRtDvDRtylRvX
tokwrRur.vXRw>w*hR(w>tJ.bXCgCkmto;'D;w>rRuRySRunD)
 vXw>rl;w>&>t*kmt*Rusgw0m yxH.b.vXySRrRur.w> 'd;M>w>pH.nD.vX b.td.vXw>'k;Cm
tylRrhwrh>b.[h.phtD.vd;<rhwrh>pH.zsd;uGHmrhwrh>w>[h.tDRvHmvDRzS.M.vDRI
vHmwdRCh9.3: oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>rl;w>&>t*kmt*Rwz.'D;'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtpXwz.
'Ju0DRpH.nD.
yDwhtywDwz.
'Ju0DR

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

rJ>v;tl
rJ>&Rrd>
rJ>v;
tlyF.
ed.zd
bg'd.,g
xgr[h.
cJvXm

oGH.xH;rk. 'Ju0DR
cGgw>rl; pH.nD.
w>&>t
yDwh
*kmt*Rw cJvXm
z.cJvXm

w>tpXvXt[JxD.wz.

xJ'. u0DR'hA u=w>
u0DR u0DR'd. 'k;Cm
'h
'Ju0DR tDRvX'J
u0DRylR

c=pJvDR
rHRvXvHm
w>tX.
vDRtylR

*=ySR
rRu
r.w>
pH.zsd;

C=w>
w[H;
t&h

i=t
*kmt
*Rw
z.

cJvXm

3

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

4

4

0

4

0

1

0

0

3

4

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

7

6

6

0

0

5

1

0

0

6

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

21

13

7

6

2

7

1

0

3

13

i=w>rl;w>&>t*kmt*R(2)cgb.[h.phtD.vd;(3,500)b;wcg'D;w>[h.tDRvHmvDRzS.wcgM.vDRI
9.4 w>rl;w>&>wz.vXb.w>bSg&SJtDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh

w>rl;w>&>xJwcg{dRb.w>bSg&SJtDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh(w>usJ;pX;rRuRySRunDw>rl;w>&>)'D;pH.nD.yDwht
pXvXb.w>xXEkmtDRqlw>'k;CmvXuFD.wJ.CdmylR<rJ>v;tl'Ju0DRw>rl;w>&>wz.'Ju0DRI
68

vHmwdRCh9.4:oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>t*kmt*Rwz.'D;AuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwh

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

w>tpXvXt[JxD.wz.
u=w> c=b. *=ySRrRu C=ySR i= w>w
'k;Cm
[h.xJ r.w> b. rRur. [h.w>
tDRvX
phtD.
w>ywkm w>pH. pH.nD.
uFD.wJ. vd;
uGHmtw> zsd;
b.
CdmylR
rRvXy'd.
w>rRtylR

'Ju0DR

oGH.xH;rk.
cGgw>pkql.
cD.wu;
w>rl;w>&>
t*kmt*R
wz.cJvXm

uFD.wJ.
pH.nD.
yDwh
cJvXm

p= w>rl; cJvXm
w>&>vJR
to;t
zXrk>

rJ>v;tl
rJ>&Rrd>
rJ>v;
tlyF.
ed.zd
bg'd.,g
xgr[h.
cJvXm

3

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

7

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

21

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

9.5 w>[h.xD.w>xH.w>qdurd.'D;w>yJmxHeDRz;

(u)I'Ju0DRvXtqH;'fbg'dR,g 'Ju0DR vXySReD.*H>td.'.xJ(3,251)*R tHR<yrh>b.xd.o}wDRuG>'D;'Ju0DR t*RCk
bh.vXtrh>'Ju0DRvXt'd.M>tDRtHR<wzsgvDRem'D;wvDRqdurd.vXw>rl;w>&>vXtrh>w>rRuRySRunDtHRteD.
*H>utg0J'ftHRb.Iw>tHRurh>vXw>w&SJwvJb.C;w>vX?w>rRuRySRunD/tHRtcDynDtvXtySJRrh>w>rEkR
vJ.t*h>M.tcDynD t*h>tusdRw&SJ<wvDRwH>vDRqJ;wu;b. w>wuGJ;vDRymvDR tDR vX ySRvX trRvXxD.ySJRxD.
w>vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz.t*D>b.IvXw>M.tCdb.oh.oh.vXbg'dR,g'Ju0DRM.<w>e>yX>u
r.tDR'D;w>[H;M>tcDynDur.'D;vX'Ju0DRt*RCkbh.ph>uD;b.oh.oh.<w>[H;M>tcDynDwb.ph>uD;b.M.
vDRIw>tHRw&SJ0J'.vXb.rEkRtCdvX'Ju0DRt*Rwz.w>wD.xD.w>rl;w>&>vXtrh>w>rRuRySRunDtHRpSR'd.
M>'H;bg'dR,g'Ju0DRvXySReD.*H>td.'.xJpSRpSRzdtHRM.vJ.Iw>rRuRySRunDtHRrh>w>*h>uDwcgvXtbHbl'D;nD
Ek>rh>w>wcgvXtrR'h'DySRvXtcDuD>wz.vXuzH;w>rRw>t*D>M.vDRIw>t*h>tusdR<w>tcDynDwz.vXw>u
b.oltDRvXw>zH;w>rRtylRwvD>vD>wz.tcDynDuGJ;vDRymvDRymto;&SJxD.<'D;w>eJ.usJvXtvD>td.oyS>
uwX>vXub.uGJ;to;vX'Ju0DRud;bh.'J;t*D>vXudsmvXw>e>yX>tDRohub.td.0JvX'Ju0DRud;bh.'J;t*D>
M.vDRI
(c)IpH.nD.yDwhtpXvXt[JxD.vXw>ud;uyR'J;wz.M.rh>w>vXt*H>p>bgp>'D;vDRwlmvDRu>0JM.vDRIvDRqD
'.w>< yrh>b.uG>tDRvDRwH>vDRqJ;M. vXw>rl;w>&>(13)cgvXb.w>wD.zsgxD.tDRtusgM. (8)cg rh>w>rRuR ySR
unD'D;w>usJ;pX;rRuRySRunDw>rl;w>&>vXtrh> w>rl;w>&>wcgvX w>ymyeD.tDR vXtrh> uDG>rh.vXw>usJRCl
usJRzd;tDRwohb.'D; w>ub.qSXcDtDRqluFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJM.vDRI b.q. w>rl;w>&>tHRcJvXm cGHcg
tusgxJwcg{dRb.w>[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhttd.M.vDRI
(*)Iw>tJ.bXw>rl;w>&>vXyw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHRtd.0JcJvXm (12)cgM.vDRIvXunDvk>v>xloEl'D;w>qJ;w>
vRtylRwkRrh>ydmrk.w*RM.'d;wh'd;zsDto;0HRvHM.'D;nDEk>t0Joh.rh>ySRoh.wz.vX'd;oMRxD.to;vXt0RvX
usd.phtw>[JEkm<[H.ylRCDylRw>vd.wz.<'D;w>bH.w>bXt*D>M.vDRIvXuFD.wJ.uD>ylRw>tJ.bXw>tHRwrh>
w>wcgvXtxD'goJp;b.I zJxH*kRuD>*RursX>obhsu&Xwz. [h.w>rRvdwz.vXb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRylR'D; ySRw
0XtylRM. t0Joh.wxXEkmCkmw>tJ.bXw>tHR 'ftrh>oHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;tod;b.I b.q.oemuh
w>vX w>tJ.bXw>tHR rh>w>wcgvX txD'gunDvk>v>xloEltoJp;M.vDRIw>tHRw>ymyeD.tDR 'ftrh>w>wcg
vXtrRysHRrRzk;w>ql[H.zdCDzdwz.t*D>M.vDRI 'D;w>tHR b.bs;ph>uD;0J'D; unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmtw>od.
w>oD (39)xH.tusgwxH. vXtb.w>,XRxD.tDRzJw>od.w>oDeD.*H>(23)'ftrh>w>ur.wcgvX w>ub.
[;qSJ;tDR'ftrh>w>rRur.w>wcgvXw>[h.w>pH.nD.ohM.vDRIvXunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRtylRySRw0Xwz.
69

tw>xH.w>e>yX>td.0J'.vX wkRrh>0Rw*RtJ.bXb.w>vHM. w>tHR'k;td.xD.w>uDw>cJ'd.'d.rk>rk>vXydmrk.
wz.t*D>'D;zdwz.t*D> vXty.Ckmph>uD;'D;w>}wDrRwHmwmtDRwz.<rRtgxD.w>zSD.w>,m<rRtgxD.eD>up>
w>bH.w>bXw>*h>uD'D; eD>o;w>b.wHmwmwz.M.vDRI unDrk.wz.'D;ydmrk.o;p>wz. 'D;unDydmrk.u&X w
z. ymw>tJ.bXwcgtHR 'ftrh>w>tuh>t*DRwcgvXoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;tod;M.vDRI w>tJ.bXtw>
rl;w>&>vXw>ymzsgwbh.tHRtylR rh>w>wcgvXtrh>twD vXttd.'D;w>rReD.wz.'D;cDzsdw>[H;Cm'D;xXEkmCm
w>rReD.rRCgwz.vXtrh>w>pkql.cD.wu;tuvkmwz.tHRcDzsdt[JEkmvDR0Jqlydmrk.wz.tw>td.rltylR'D;
b.uG>qX.rJm0JtCdM.vDRI
(C)IvXzd;oJp;w>rRtusdRtusJqlySRvXtrRvXxD.ySJRxD.w>vXpH.nD.yDwhvX'Ju0DRylRwz.t*D>w>*h>w>usdR
tvXtySJR'D;t&SJ b.C;w>ub.[H;xD.zD.xD.w>tJ.bXw>rl;w>&>wcgtHRt*D>wtd.ymvDRto;b.'D; uJ
xD.w>uDw>cJz;'d.wcg'D;w>yXqSXb.w>rl;w>&>tHRvXusJwb.tylRM.vDRIw>t*h>tusdRtcDynDvXtrh>w>
tJ.bXwcgtHR wtd.ymvDRto;vXunDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmw>od.w>oD(39)xH.M.tylRb.I w>t*h>t usdR
tcDynDvXtrh>w>tJ.bXwcgtHRvXMDRGw>eJ.usJtylRtd.0J'.vX?w>tJ.bXuJxD.to;zJySRvXt'd;wh'd;
zsDwh>vHto;w*R rh>td.'D;w>&hvdmrkmvdmto; cDzsdrHCkmvdmto;'D;ySRt*Rw*R vXtwrh>trg rhwrh>t0Rb.
M.vDRI?(MDRG)w>eJ.usJtw>ymvDRw>tcDynDw>t*h>tusdRtHR o;yhReD.xXEkmCkm0Jw>tcDynDtcd.oh.w
cgvX ?w>tJ.bXuJxD.to; zJySRvXt'd;wh'd;zsDwh>vHto;w*R rh>td.'D;w>&hvdmrkmvdmto; cDzsdrHCkmvdmt
o;'D;ySRt*Rw*RvXub.td.'D;cH*Rw>o;vDRyvdmtylRvXtwrh>trgrhwrh>t0Rb.M.vDRI
(i)Iw>tJ.bXvdmo;w>rl;w>&>wz.vXw>ymzsgwbh.tHRtylR tgwuh> rh>w>rl;w>&>wz.vX 0Rwz.tJ.bX
w>'D; rgwz.b.wl>b.w>pkql.cD.wu;tuh>t*DRweDR 'fw>tpXwcgtod;M.vDRI vXw>rl;w>&>t*Rwz.
tylR< yymol.ymo;vX ydmrk.wz. b.oh.oh.utJ.bXb.w>M.vDRI b.q.unDydmrk.u&Xtd.'D; w>b.
,d.w>ud>w>*DRz;'d.vX w>rR&SJrR*hRxD.b.C;ySR*h>0D'D;pH.nD.yDwhw>*h>uDtHRM.vDRI y'd;M>b.w>ymzsgwz.
vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtylR vXtrh>w>rRw&Dwyg w>uJxD.to;w>rl;w>&>wz. b.w>pH.nD.tDR
'f/w>tJ.bXw>/tod;M.vDRIydmrk.rhwrh>ydmrk.zdo.vXb.w>rRw&DwygtDRvXySRydmcGgw*RvXtxD.yS>vHw
*R rhw rh> ydmrk.teD>up>'.0JxD.yS>vHph>uD;'D; b.w>rRw&DwygtDRvXySRydmcGgw*R vXwrh>t0Rb.< 'D;w> uJ
xD.to; 0JtHR b.w>ud;tDRvX?w>tJ.bX? 'D;w>tHRb.wl>b.'D;uG>qX.rJmb.0J 'fw>tJ.bXtw>qXwJmt
od;M.vDRI vXw>ub.u[ku,mydmrk.vXtwl>b.w>wz.vXw>tJ.w>uGH< w>ol.td.o;td.tylR vXt
b.uG>qX.rJmw> 'fySRwl>b.w>wz.tod; w>wrRb.trJmng w>[h.tDRw>pH.nD.cDzsdtrRur.w>M.vDRI
w>tHR rh>w>vDRwlmvDRumwcgvX w>wtd.'D;w>ymvDRvXt&SJ vXw>wb.ym'h.ymur.ydmrk.'ftHRwz.b.
'D; vXusJ'ftHRtzD cd. 'fvJ.'fvJ.*hRM.< w>wymyeD.'D;[H;*h>0DvX w>vXydmcGgwz.ol0JoHG.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;
tHRM.b.I

70

10. w>rl;w>&>vXw>wwD.zsgxD.tDRqlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz.
vXw>vDRCkxH.M>w>tylRAw>rl; w>&>cJvXmtd. 0J (289)cg'D; w>rl; w>&>oh. wz.tHR tzDc d.ySR wl>b.w>
(16%)wwD.xD.tw>rl;w>&>qlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJeDwrHRb.IAw>rl;w>&>(47)cgAw>w wD.xD.tDR ql pH.
nD.yDwhb.M.vDRI
10.1. w>rl;w>&>t*h>tusdRtwuGD.

w>rl;w>&>wz.vX w>wwD.xD.qlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz.b.M. tgwuh> rh>eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;
w>&>oh.wz.M.vDRIAeD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>cJvXm vXw>wwD.xD.tDRql pH.nD.yDwhttd.b.t
eD.*H>rh>0J(68%=32cg)M.vDRIoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>(17)vXtrh>w>rl;w>&>(8)cg'D;oGH.xH;
rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>t*kmt*R( 15%)vXtrh>w>tJ.bXvdmo;'D;w>rRuRySRunDw>rl;w>&>( 7)
cgM.vDRI
 w>rl;w>&>cJvXm 47cg vXw>wwD.zsgxD.tDRb.tusgw0mM.rh>w>rl; w>&>vX tuJxD.to;vX
rJ>v;'Ju0DRtylRM.vDRI
 rJ>v;'Ju0DR'D;rJ>&Rrd>'Ju0DRcHbh.tHR rh>'Ju0DRcHbh.vX w>wwD.zsgxD. w>rl; w>&>teD.*H>eD.'G; tg
uwX>M.vDRIA(29%) vXrJ>v;'D;vXrJ>&Rrd>(40%)M.vDRI
 vXrJ>v;'D;'Ju0DRt*R,J>bh.wcDAw>rl;w>&>vXw>wwD.xD.zsgxD.tDRb.teD.*H>eD.'G;td.pSR0J
M.vDRI tcDynDrh>0Jtg'.w>wuh>w>rl;w>&>vX'Ju0DRt*R,J>bh.tylR b.w>wD.zsg xD.tDRql pH.
nD.yDwhM.vDRI
 tlyF.'Ju0DR rh>'Ju0DRxJwbh.{dRvX yxH.M>b.tDRvX u,J>w>rl;w>&>uJxD.o;wz. b.w>wD.
zsgxD.tDRqlpH.nD.yDwhM.vDRI
vHmwdRCh10.1: w>rl;w>&>vXw>wwD.xD.zsgxD.tDRqlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ
'Ju0DR

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

rJ>v;tl
rJ>&Rrd>
rJ>v;
tlyF.
ed.zd
bg'd.,g
xgr[h.
cJvXm
rs;u,R
w>rl;w>&>
(47)cgvX rs;
u,RtzDcd.

w>rl;w>&>
w>rl;w>&>eD.*H>
teD.*H>eD.'G;cJvXm
eD.'G;cJvXm
vXw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHR vXw>wwD.zsgxD.tDR
qlpH.nD.yDwh

w>rl;w>&>tuvkm
oGH.xH;
w>pkql.
cD.wu;

eD>cdw>pk
ql.cD.

oGH.xH;w>pk
ql.cD.wu;
t*kmt*R

wu;

24

3

1

1

1

30

12

4

8

0

83

24

2

19

3

73

0

0

0

0

19

2

0

0

2

34

3

1

1

1

26

3

0

3

0

289

47

8

32

7

100%

16%
17%

68%

15%

100%

71

10.2. w>[h.xD.w>xH.w>qdurd.'D;w>yJmxHedRcD

(u) IyymzsgxD.vXtylRuGHmvXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJvXt*hR'D;b.bsD;b.'gM.rh>w>vXt&h'd.vXusJ'fvJ.vX
ydmrk.wz. uymzsgxD.tw>rl;w>&> 'D; tw>wl>b.cD.b.t*D>t*h>M.vDRI 'fod;'D;ySRw0XvXt*Rwz.tod; <
ymuJ 0J ydmrk. tw>cGJ;w>,mwz.< vXu[h.xD.b. tw>CkxX vXtb.qXb.uwD> b.C; t0Ju qJ;vJR vX
pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz.t*D>M.vDRI ytd.'D;w>[h.vDRyo;vXyuqD.xGJrRpXRydmrk.wz.vXw>o;vJ>vJ><
&SJ&SJtylR 'D;w>wDw>vdRtylRM.vDRI yw>ymuJvXydmrk.wz. vXtwtJ.'d;ymzsgxD.tw>rl;w>&>b.wz.M.
wrRvDRpSRyw>b.,d.b.bSD'd.'d.rk>rk> zJw>t0JM.uJxD.to;b.'D; yemvX w>rR*hRxD. pH.nD.yDwh tusdR t
usJuqDwvJw>qlw>uwD.zsgxD.w>rl;w>&>wz.tgxD.vXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJttd.M.vDRI
(c)Iw>CkxH.M.w>vXbsDt0JM. rh>0JySRwl>b.w>wz.vXtwD.xD.tw>*h>w>usdRvXySRw0X tw>rRtusdRt
usJwz.tusg vX'Ju0DREGHbh.vXmtylR<(16%) M. wCkxX0JvX uwD.xD.0JvXpH.nD.yDwhtylRb.I ( w>rh>wxX
Ckm'D; tl;yF. 'Ju0DRb.M.< w>M.eD>eD>wcD tgM>'H;vX'Ju0DRt*RCkbh.tylR w>rl;w>&>trs;u,R vXttd.0J 2
(22%)M.vDRIeD.*H>eD.'G;wz.vXtzsgxD.tHR rh>cD.wCmwcgeD.*H>eD.'G;vDRwH>vDRqJ;wcgvX yub.rRtDRt
*D>M.vDRI ytJ.'d;xH.w>qDwvJrRto;vXydmrk.ydmrXRwz.t*D> vXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtylR< vXyuxH.
b.w>rl;w>&>teD.*H>eD.'G;w>wD.zsgxD.tDRtgxD.vX wb.td.'D;w>'k;uJxD.ydmrk.ydmrXRwz.vX w>qD.o
eH;vXt0Joh.wb.ol.b.o;0Jb.tylRb.M.vDRI
(*)IeD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu; 'D;oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu; rh>w>wcgvX teD.*H>eD.'G; vX w>wwD.xD.tDR qlpH.nD.
yDwhttd.xJod;vdmto;C.C.(15%'D;13%)M.vDRIb.q.w>tJ.bXvdmo;'D;w>rRuRySRunDteD.*H>eD.
'G;M.tg'd.r;(33%)M.vDRI
(C)Iyrh>xk;uGHm'Ju0DRcHbh. vXtwwD.xD.w>rl;w>&>wz. vXtrh>'Ju0DRcHbh. vXteD.*H>tguwX>tHR vXt
rh>(rJ>v; 29%'D; rJ>&>rd>40% )tHRM. 'Ju0DRt*R ,J>bh. vX twwD.xD.w>rl;w>&> teD.*H>eD.'G; td.0J (8%'D;
13%. tbX.pXRM.vDRI)
(i)Iw>wwD.xD.w>rl;w>&>teD.*H>tg'd.r; bl;utd.cJvXmvX(30%)ng vXrJ>v;'Ju0DRtylR 'D; w>tHRuD'd.
r;vX yub.&SJyF; b.C; 'D;'Ju0DRtHR td.0J'.vXunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRtylRzJIRC/LAC w>wdmusJR[l;*JRrR
w>vXtylRz;,HmvH'D;rRoCJRCkmw>'D;unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmvXuol.xD.zd;oJp;w>ohw>b.vXw>yXw>
qSXtylR'D;u[H;xD.zD.xD.w>vXb.w>rRur.tDRvXySRw0XtylRwz.t*D>M.vDRI(p;xD.vX 2005eH.vHRvHR)
M.vDRI rJ>&Rrd> 'Ju0DRph>uD; w>wwD.xD.w>rl;w>&> teD.*H> tg0J 'D; teD.*H> td.0J( vXw>rl;w>&> teD.*H> td.0J
40%vXw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHRM.vDR)I KRC rh>td.vXrJ>&Rrd>'Ju0DRylRb.q.< IRC/LAC w>wdmusJRtHRwtd.0J
vXrJ>&Rrd>tylRb.I
(p)IzJyrh>xd.o}wDRuG>'D;tl;yF.'Ju0DRvXw>wwD.w>rl;w>&>teD.*H>(0%)zJySRrRur.w>wz.vXtoloGH.
xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.b.w>xXEkmvDRtDRqlw>'k;CmtylRcJvXmC.C.M.'D;w>tHR[h.ul.xD.0J'.
vXydmrk.wz.rh>xH.b.0JvXySRb.rlb.'gvXt[D.u0DRylRwz.rh>[H;xD.zD.xD.*h>0DvXydmcGgwz.vXrh>ySRvX
trRql;rRqgw>qlydmrk.wz.ttd. cDzsd[h.0Jw>ur.'D;[h.w>'Do'Xqlydmrk.wz.vXw>td.o;'ftHRtod;
wz.tzDcd.M.'D;b.oh.oh.zsgvXt0Joh.uwD.xD.tw>*h>w>usdRwz.qlpH.nD.yDwhttd.M.vDRI
(q)I'd;oMRxD.to;vX unDydmrk.u&X w>uwdRw>'D;ydmrk.wz. vXteH.wz.teH.twD>ylRtod;< w>*h> cd.
oh.t*h>tusdR td.0J vGH>cg vX ySRwl>b.w> vXtrh> ySRvXtwl>b. oHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;wz. wtJ.'d;
wD.zsgxD.tw>rl;w>&>wz.b.qlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJb.t*h>M.vDRI
(u)It0Jrh>wtd.'D;w>emvXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtHRu[h.tDRw>tpX rhwrh> u'Do'X tDRb.M. t0J
wwD.xD.tw>*h>w>usdRb.I
(c)It0Jrh>ysHRw>'d.'d.rk>rk>vX ySRrRur.w>u[h.u.uhRw>qlttd.M. t0JwwD.xD.tw> *h> w> usdR
b.I
72

(*)It0Jrh>ysHRvXurh>w>rJmqS;xD'gtDRvXySRw0XM.'D;t0JwwD.xD.tw>*h>w>usdRb.I
(C)IySRrRur.w>rhrh>t0R'D;ySRwl>b.w> rh>'d;M>w>rRysHRrRzk;wz. vXttd.'D;w>}wDrRwHmwmtDRvX
t0Jrh>wD.xD.tw>*h>M.'D;t0Jydmrk.wwD.xD.vXmtw>*h>M.b.I
(&S)ItpSRuwX> ySRrRur.w>vXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;(47)*R vXw>CkxH.M.wbsDtDR wb.w>[h.tDRw>pH.
nD.'D;[H;xD.zD.xD.tw>*h>w>usdReDwrHRb.IvXw>rl;w>&>(47)cgtusgweDRrh>w>rl;w>&>wz.vXt'd.trk>
M.vDRI zJw>rl;w>&>wz. wb.w>wD.xD.tDRqlpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJM.b.'D; w>tHRtcDynDrh>0J w>w ym y
eD.ySRrRur.w>wz.tw>ur.b.'D; w>wpH.nD.qXwJmeDwrHRb.M.vDRI 'D;'fM.tod; w'd;M>w>[h.ql.
xD.o;*H>bg rhwrh> w>wrHRv>v>vXuqD.xGJrRpXRtDRvXtu*hRxD.uhRt*D>eDwrHRph>uD;b.I ySRrRur.w>
'ftHRoh.wz. w>cGJ;w>,m td.'H;vXturRur.w> u[h.w>vDRysHRvDRzk;'D; w>vDRb.,d.wz.qlydmrk.wz.
ttd.<qlySRw0Xttd.'D;qlteD>up>'.0Jttd.M.vDRI
(w)Iydmrk.(47)*R vXw>CkxH.M>wbsDtHRvX tCkxX0JvXtwwD.xD. tw>rl;w>&>qlpH.nD.yDwhttd.b.
M. b.oh.oh. urh>vX td.rlvXw>td.o; vXtrh>w>pkql.cD.wu;'D; w>vDRb.,d.tylRtHR urh>w>wcgvX
w>ub.rR*hRrRql.xD.'H;pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ'H;tCdM.vDRI

73

11. w>[h.ul.[h.z;weDRqlIIIIIIII
11.1 w>[h.ul.[h.z;cd.oh.wz.
(1).rR*hRxD.'D;rR'd.xD.vJ>xD.

unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmw>od.w>oDw>bsXwz.'fod; ?w>od.w>oDzd;oJp;
vXb.w>e>yX>tDR/tHRutd.0JvX'Ju0DREGHbh.vXmtylRvXw>oltDRuoht*D>vX ub.w>rRtDR0HR0JwJm0JvXCk
vgtwD>ylRM.wuh>Iw>tusdRtusJ0JtHRunDb.uDb.cJ urH;wHmub.uwJmuwDR'D; wDcd.&dRrJ0JwkRvDRwDR
vDRvXttd.'D;w>tuH>tpDvXvXySJRySJRtylRM.vDRI 'D;w>&J.w>usJRt0JtHRub.td.'D; w>rRoud;w>u&l>cX.
p;'ftrh>'Ju0DRurH;wHmcX.p;vX 'Ju0DRud;zsX.'J;ub.td.'D; w>rRoud;w>bl;bl;wH>wH>'D; unDb.uDb.cJ
urH;wHmwz.<wuwD>CDCkm'D;'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhySRvXtrRvd.xD.z;xD.w>wz.<unDydmrk.u&X<'D;*H>cD.
xH; w>u&Xu&dcX.p;wz.<ySRw0XcX.p;wz.<'D;ySRwl>b.w>wz.< Ckm'D;ySRvXtqD.xGJrRpXR'D;[h.ul.[h.z;
w>tusdRtusJwz.<'fw>ChxD.wh>0Jtod;M.vDRI
(2).&J.usJRw>uG>u'guhRwuD>cg pH.nD.yDwhw>rRtwuGD.tusdRtusJwz.(unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmw>od.
w>oDwz.<w>usJRClusJRzd;'D;w>bSg&SJw>obH.obk.tw>eJ.usJ<w>rRur.uGD>rh>vXw>usJRClusJRzd;tDRwM><
w>eJ.usJvXw>'k;Cmt*D>)vXw>uCkxH.M>uhRw>vDRzsJ.vDR[dwz.t*D><w>vXtw*X>wusXRw'H;od;vdmo;
wz.< w>vXtcd.csXvdmo;wz.< 'k;td.xD.uhR'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhw>rRoud;w>u&l> 'fod;uymol.ymo;vX
w>CkxH.M>w>oh.wz.tzDcd.'D;[H;xD.*h>0D'D;ymyeD.w>uDw>cJwz.vXCkvgtwD>ylRI
(3).rRvDRwH>vX w>od.w>oD'D; w>eJ.usJwz.b.w>uG>u'guhRtDR'D; b.w>ym*X>ymusXRuhRtDR 'fod;u
[h.w>'Do'XvDRwH>vDRqJ;qlydmrk.wz.vXtwl>b.oHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.t*D>M>wuh>I
(4).rR*hRxD.uhR'D;rRvXxD.ySJRxD.uhRpH.nD.yDwhtpXvXtusdRtusJb.bsD;b.'gvXw>pH.nD.ySRrRur.w>w
z.t*D>'D;'fod;u[h.ySRwl>b.w>'D;ySRw0Xwz.tw>bH.w>bXw>ylRzsJ;vXySRvXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.
ttd.<'D;ymzsgxD.vXuGD>rh.'d.'d.rk>rk>vXb.w>oltDRwz.w>wwl>vdmtDR'D;wl>upktDRb.M.vDRI
(5).rR&SJxD.ySRvXtzD.Cmw>pdw>urDRwz.'D; ySRvXtrRvXxD.ySJRxD.w>wz. ?pH.nD.yDwhtMqX.< tw>pd
w>urDR<tw>rRtusdRtusJtwuGD>wz./M.wuh>IrRvDRwH>vXw>[h.w>pdw>urDRvXw>vXttd.zsgzsdzsdzsg
zsgvXw>ymuJtylRqlu&l>wzk'D;wzktylRvXw>od.w>oD'D;pH.nD.yDwhw>rRwuGD.ylRM.wuh>Iw>oh.wz.tHR
tzDcd.[h.w>*h>w>usdR'D;bd;b.oh.ngtDRqlySRursX>wz.wuh>I
(6).[h.w>td.,XRtvXtySJR'D;rRtgxD.tDR<rR*hRxD.tywD>wz.ql'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhoElwz.tylRM.wuh>I
(t'd=usd.phw>qD.xGJrRpXR<w>yD;w>vD<ySRrRw>zdwz.<w>tusdRtusJwz.<vHmwdRChwz.<w>rRvdwz.<)
(7).'k;td.xD.w>tusdRtusJvXttd.'D;tywD>vXw>u[H;M>w>ymuDRwz.vXw>rl;w>&>cJvXmt*D><wu
wD> CDtd.'D;w>'dol.'do;vXtb.C;'D;rk.cGgw>b.vD>b.p;vXw>uxXzSd.w>tk.uDRwz.t*D>vXttd.'D;
w>tusdRtusJwqDb.wqDM.wuh>I
11.2 w>[h.ul.[h.z;wz.qlySRvXttd.'D;rl'gcd.oh.wz.t*D>
1.ql'Ju0DRurH;wHmwz.<u0DR'hurH;wHm<'D;'Ju0DRbH.bXwz.

vXunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DREGHbh.tylRw>vXtvDRqDvdmto;wz.td.0Jtod;w>vXtvDR*mvdmto;td.ph>
uD;0JM.vDRIySRvXtue>yX>w>'d.M>tgM>okb.C;'D;pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJoElwz.tw>*H>ql.w>*H>p>w
z.td.'fvJ.'D;td.0JzJvJ.t*h>M.b.I
okrh>=?ySRoh.wz.vXtrRvd.xD.z;xD.pH.nD.yDwh/M.vDRIokrRwh>vHw>vXw>rRwcgtHRvXttd.'D;w>vX
twRw>wz.tHRtzDvm,Hmwh>r;vHvXtwtd.'D;w>td.,XR<w>qD.xGJrRpXRvXtb.bsD;b.'gvXySRvXt
zD.Cmw>pdw>urDRwz.ttd.b.M.vDRIy[h.ul.vXoku[H;xD.zD.xD.w>*h>w>0DvXw>urRql.xD.uhR
pH.nD.yDwhvX'Ju0DRwz.tylR'D;ChxD. w>[H;M>*h>0DvX?ySRvXttd.'D;w>pdw>urDRvXtpkylRwz./ttd.vX
uqD.xGJrRpXRw>vXw>CkxH.M>tDRvXw>ymzsgwbh.tHRtylRb.w>[h.xD.0JtgpktgbsD<vXw>eJ.usJu*hR
xD.t*D>'D;w>td.,XRwz.utgxD.vXw>urRySJRxD.uhRtDRvXpH.nD.yDwhtwuGD.ylRt*D>tod;M.vDRIyCh
vXokurh>cd.e>wz.vXtok;xDxD.<'k;td.xD.w>qDwvJM.vDRI
74

2.qklb.uDb.cJurH;wHmwz.(KRC)

y[h.ul.vXw>uG>u'guhRw>od.w>oD( 39)xH.tHRrfurh>w>od.w>oDvXtvXtvD>vXtgwuh>w>rRur.
uGD>rh>wz.t*D>'D; ySRvXtrRur.w>vX'Ju0DRylRwz.t*D>M.vDRI 'fod;w>uwdRtzsX.< 0D>}oJtzsX.tcDynDt
vXtySJR< w>[h.w>pH.nD.vXtb.bsD;b.'gvXt-uX;uXuD.vdmto;< w>eJ.usJvXt&SJtvXtySJRvDRwH>vDR
qJ;vXpH.nD.yDwhySRvX trRvd.xD.z;xD.w>wz.u[H;xD.zD.xD.w>*h>w>usdRuoht*D>M.vDRI unDb.uD
b.cJurH;wHmtHRtd.'D;trlt'gvXw>oh.wz.tHRtzDcd.'ft0Joh.rh>ySRwz.vXb.w>CkxXxD.tDRvX'Ju0DR
cX.p;wz.tod;M.vDRI unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmutd.'D; w>[H;M>rl'gvX'Ju0DRw>uJcd.uJe>wz.'D; ySRw0X
w>ChxD.wz.tzDcd.'D;uuwdRM>cJ;w>vX'Ju0DRwz.tw>vd.b.wz.t*D>M.vDRInDb.uDb.cJurH;wHm
u[h.w>qD.xGJrRpXRqlw>zH;w>rRvX twRw>'d.'d.rk>rk>wz.vXtrh>'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhoEl< 'D;u'Do'XySRw
0Xtw>zH;w>rRtusdRtusJtoElvXtyXqSX&J.usJRw>pH.nD.yDwhM.vDRI
3.ql,lRtJefthRpH.t.&.(UNHCR)
(UNHCR )td.'D; xH*kR uD> *R t rl'g vXub.[h.w>u[ku,m 'D;rRvDRwH>vX pH. nD. yD wh 'D;w>'Do'X td. 0J'.
vXySR b.uD b.cJ'J u0DRw z.tylR M.vDRI'f (UNHCR)-uX; rR vDRwH>vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhoEltHR vJRto; b.*h>

b.0D<vXyb.uG>xHorHord;'D;qD.xGJrRpXRw>tusdRtusJ'D;oEltHR'D;[h.w>yD;w>vDwz.'D;w>td.,XRwz.
vXt*H>p>vX'Ju0DRtylRwz. 'fod;utd.'D;w>tusdRtusJvXt*H>ql.xD.t*D>'D; rRvDRwH>vXw>twkRxD.<
xD.b;tHRtpSRu wX>w> rRtDR uM>t *D>M.vDRI (UNHCR) -uX;[h. w> qD.xGJrRpXRqlunDb.uDb.cJ urH; wHm
'D;'Ju0DRurH;wHmpH.nD.yDwhw>zH;w>rRwz.vX 'Ju0DRud;zsX.'J;tylRvXtwtd.'D; w>rRqH;vDRpSRvDRw>pdw>
urDR'D;zD.CH;tDRvXw>'ftHR'fEkRtzDcd.M.vDRI
4. qltRt.&.pH.(IRC)vXtJvfthRpHR(LAC)w>wdmusJRt*D>

cDzsdvXw>qXuwD>wz.tw>vJRw&H;to;'D;w>*h>w>usdRwz.tw>td.o;wz.tzDcd.w>tk.uDRwz.vDR
wlmvDRuR0JvX w>vXtub.wkRxD.<xD.b;qlzDwX. 'fw>ynd.tod;tzDcd.rh>*hR< w>bH.w>bXwtd.vX ySR
vXtrRvXxD.ySJRxD.w>wz.t*D>'D;ySRvXtrRvXxD.ySJRxD.w>wdmusJRwz.t*D>rh>*hRM.b.tCdy[h.ul.vX
(LAC) w>wdmusJRtw>[l;w>*JRwz. td.'D;w>&J.w>usJRvX w>urR'd.xD.vJ>xD.tDRtHR w>uzD.*X>y wkm Cm
tDRwpd>wvD><wkRvXw>od.w>oDw>bsXvXw>e>yX>tDRohvDRwH>vDRqJ;tvXtySJRvX'Ju0DRud;bh.'J;t*D><w>rR
tDR0HR0Jwpk<w>uG>u'guhRpH.nD.yDwhw>rRtusdRtusJwz.b.w>rRtDR0HR0JwJm0Jwpk<'D;w>uG>u'guhR( LAC)
w> wdm usJR w>zH; w> rR tHR b. w>uG> xHorHord; uhRtDR vX(LAC)w> wdm usJR ySRvX t qD. xGJ rRpXR usd.ph w>qD. xGJ
rRpXRwz.0HR0JwpkM.vDRI wkR rh>w>oh.wz.vX b.w>uG>u'guhRtDRrh>*hR<w>uGJ;uhRtDRvDRwH>vDRqJ;rh>*hR<0HR 0J
wJm0J0HRtvD>cH< w>tpXvXw>'d;M>tDRwz. b.w>[h.cD[h.eDRvDRtDR'D; wkRrh>ySRvXtqD.xGJrRpXR usd.phw>qD.
xGJrRpXRwz.<ySRw0X'D;ySRb.uDb.cJcd.e>wz. [h.w>ym*X>ymusXR0HRtvD>cH 'D;w>tywD>vXw>uqJ;rR*hRrR
'd.xD.vJ>xD.uhRw>wdmusJRtHRw>uqJ;vJRuhRto;M.vDRI
5. qlxH.bH.pH.(TBC) vXtrh>xHqXuD>qXw>qD.xGJrRpXR
y[h.ul.vX(TBC)'k;uJxD.w>ol.xD.vXtusXRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhoElt*D>vXtrh>w>wcg vX tb.xGJvdm

o;'D;'Ju0DRw>yXqSX&J.usJRw>t0JRusdRwcgtod;< vXw>rRoCJRCkmw>'D; 'Ju0DRurH;wHm'D; b.uDb.cJurH;
wHmtod;tzDcd.M.vDRI (TBC)rh>ursX>obVu&XwzkvX trRoCJRw>'D;'Ju0DRurH;wHm'D; unDb.uDb.cJu
rH;wHmvXt,HmtxXuwX>wzkM.vDRI vXw>rRoCJRCkmw>tylR t0Joh.'k;td.xD.0Jw>eDRvDRw>tD.tusdRt
usJvXttd.'D;w>tywD>vXtxD.b;'D;vJRto;b.*h>b.0D'D;qD.xGJrRpXR'Ju0DR w>yXqSX&J.usJRvXttd.0JvX
t0Joh.w>eJ.usJ'D;w>bH.w>bXtzDvmbl;bl;wH>wH>cDzsdySRvXtqD.xGJrRpXRusd.phw>qD.xGJrRpXRwz.M. vDRI
pH.nD.yDwhrh>w>wcgvXt&h'd.r;vX 'Ju0DRw>yXqSX&J.usJRtusgwcg'D; w>tHRrh>vDRwlmvDRum'D; w>rRtDR rh>w
vXxD.ySJRxD.b.'D;wrh>ph>uD;w>yXw>qSXvXt*hRb.M.vDRI
6.qlpH.pH.tJ.pf'.zH.xH.(CCSDPT)
y[h.ul.vX(CCSDPT)rRw>vXw>zH;w>rRtwuGD.wz.tylRvXuqD.xGJrRpXR'D;rRql.xD.pH.nD.yDwhoEl

75

vX'Ju0DRylRwz.'D; [l;*JR0J'fw>wcgvXtvd.0JeD>eD>oyS>uwX>wcgtod; 'D;rh>*h>*DRtlw>vd.eD>eD>vX ( CCSDPT)
tw>uwJmuwDRto; vXw>uuhRu'guhRw>&J.w>usJRwcgt*D>tod;M.vDRI cDzsdw>qD.xGJrRpXRySRw0Xtw>
yXw>qSXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwkRvDRwDRvDRtzDcd. urh>w>wcgvXw>e>yX>'D;w>rRvd.xD.z;xD.pH.nD.yDwh
vXtusdRtusJb.v Xttd.'D;w>ydmxGJw>od.w>oDtcd.oh.vX tb.bsD;b.'gvXySRb.uDb.cJwz.tusg
'D;w>tHR urh>ph>uD;w>wcgvX w>ol.xD.bSD xD.M>ySRw 0Xt w>yX w>qSX vXt*hR vXw> uuhRu'guhRt*D> ph> uD;
M.vDRIyrh>b.[h.xD.b.C;wuD>cgxH&l>uD>oJ;w>td.o;tzDcd.<w>tHRub.rh>*h>*D>tlw>*h>wcgvX
(CCSDPT)ub.ymol.ymo;0Jt*D>M.vDRI
7.qlpH.nD.yDwh'D;oHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;0JRusdR

usd.phw>qD.xGJrRpXRySRrRpXRw>wz.t*D>y[h.ul.vX w>u rR w> uG>xHorHord;vDRwH>uhR (LAC)w>wdm usJR< cD
zsdw>u&Xu&drh>wrh>ySRwzkzkvXobVvXuCkxH.oh.nguhRusd.phw>qD.xGJrRpXRvXw>[h.vDRqlw>wdmusJR
tHRt*D>t'db.tvXtySJR<tbsK;tzSd.tvXtySJRwkRrk>rqgweHRtHRtwD>ylRM.wuh>IySRvXtCdxHorHord;uG>
vDRwH>uhRw>vXw>obVtylR u rR w>uG>xHorHord; vX pH.nD.yDwh tpX vXt[JxD.wz. weH.wbsD vX'Ju 0DR
ud;bh.'J;tylR'fod;urRvDRwH>vXw>ymvDRw>tusdRtusJ<w>tywD>wz.<w>eJ.usJwz.w>vlRydmxGJtd.w
td.'D;tpSRuwX>w>'Do'XtywD>wz.w>rRwrRtDRt*D>M.vDRIw>uG>xHvDRwH>orHord;uhRw>tHRub.rR
vDRwH>vXw>eJ.usJwz.ub.rh>w>wz.vXtbH.tbX'D;ylRzsJ;vXySRvXtymCkmym*D>vXySRw0XtylRwz.'D;
pH.nD.yDwhySRvXrRvd.xD.z;xD.w>wz.<unDydmrk.u&X<ySRwl>b.w>wz.<ySRrRur.w>wz.<*H>cD.xH;w>
u&Xu&dwz.<ydmrk.ydmrXRwz.<ySRol.bD.o;p>wz.'D;zd'Hzdo.wz.t*D>M.vDRIusd.phySRqD.xGJrRpXRw>w
z.ph>uD;ub.rRvDRwH>0JvXw>td.,XRwz.ub.td.b.bsD;b.'g'D;ub.td.0JvXw>uoltDRzJw>vd.
td.xD.wbsDv>v>vXySRvXt[H;xD.zD.xD.pH.nD.yDwhw>zH;w>rRvXtuDtcJvX'Ju0DRtylRwz.tHRt*D>M.
vDRIusd.phw>qD.xGJrRpXRw>ub.[h.tDRvdRvdRql'Ju0DRurH;wHmwz.ttd.vXw>yXqSXw>zH;w>rRwz.t
*D><w>yD;w>vDwz.t*D><ySRunDw>td.,XRwz.t*D>'D;w>qD.xGJrRpXRtySRwl>b.w>wz.t*D>M.vDRI
8. qlydmcGgwz.cJvXmvX'Ju0DtylR

ydmcGgtg'Htg*Rwrh>ySRvXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;b.'D;ydmcGgtg'Htg*Rwwl>vdmw>olw>pkql.cD.wu;xD'gql
tzdtrg'D;< tzdrk.zdrXRwz.'D;trd>wz.< 'D;trk>*>wz.ttd.M.b.I y[h.ul.vXydmcGgcJvXmu[l;*JR<[h.
w>qD.oeH;'D;qXxX.vXw>pkql.cD.wu;xD'gydmrk.vXyySRw0XtylRt*D>M.vDRIoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.w
u;rh>w>uDw>cJ'd.'d.rk>rk>wcgvXyySRw0XtylR'D;yvd.b.vXydmcGgwz.uuwdRxD.w>'D;xD'guhRw>tHR'fod;
ySRvXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;tHR ub.w>ym'h.ymur.tDR'D;ub.rJmqS;0JvX txD'gydmrk.ydmrXRwz. tCd'D;
w>uymtDR'ftrh>ySR rRur.w>w*R tod;t*D>M.vDRI w>tHRwrh>w>*hReDwpJ;vXw>ub.uwdRvDReHR vDRthw>
b.C;w>pkql.cD.wu;xD'gydmrk.'D;w>td.upk'kvXw>tHRtzDcd.eDwpJ;b.M.vDRIytJ.'d;vXydmcGgwz.u
ChxD.pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXt-uX;uXuD.vdmto;vXt[h.w>pH.nD.qlySRrRur.w>wz.t*D><'D;'Do'Xydmrk.
ydmrXRwz.'D;ySRw0Xwz.vX ydmcGgvXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.tpkylR 'D;wJw>ysDysD&SJ&SJvXw>vXw>pkql.cD.w
u;M.wrh>w>wcgvXw>wl>vdmtDRM>b.M.vDRI
9. qlyySRw0Xwz.

ydmrk.vXtwl>b.oHG.xH;rhwrh>eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.vd.b.okw>rRpXRwz.M.vDRIt0Joh.wz.vd.
b.w>rRpXRvXuxH.M>w>zH;w>rRtusdRtusJvXurRpXRt0Joh.w>wl>b.cD.b.wz.t*D>'fod;u[h.*H>
[h.bgqD.xGJt0Joh.vXtuwD.xD.w>vXb.w>rRur.tDRtHRt*D>M.vDRIy[h.ul.vXySRud;*R'J;vXySRw0X
tylRoku[h.okw>qD.xGJrRpXRqlySRwl>b.w>wz.vXtwl>b.w>pkql.cD.wu;wz.ttd.'D;pH.nD.yDwht
pXvXtxD.wz.rh>wb.bsD;b.'g-uX;uXuD.b.wcDoku'Do'Xoud;ySRwl>b.w>wz.tHRcDzsdw>ub.[h.
w>pH.nD.qlySRvXtrRur.w>wz.tHR'D;[h.xD.w>u tk upGgqlySRvXtrRvXxD.ySJRxD.pH.nD.yDwh w>zH; w>
rRwz.ttd. 'D;ySR vXw> pdw>u rDR td. vXt pkylRwz.t td.M. wuh>I vXyySRw0Xt ylRy vd.b. vX w>u ymzsg
xD.0JvXb.C;w>pkql.cD.wu;tHRvhRwuhRw>wwl>vdm'D;wl>upktDRvhRwuhRb.M.vDRI
76

11.3.w>[h.ul.[h.z;vDRvDRqDvX ySRvXtzD.Cmrl'gwz. vXtb.C;'D;'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhw z.

t*D>
td.'D;w>CkxH.M>'D;ymyeD.w>vDRzsJ.vDR[dwz.'D;w>*H>p>bgp>wz.vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhoEltylR< vDRqD'.
w>vXoHG.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.vXb.w>rRur.tDRqlb.uDb.cJydmrk.ydmrXRwz.ttd.M.y[h.
ul.vXw>urRw>qDwvJvXw>oh.wz.tHRtzDcd.vXurRql.xD.w>cDqXwz.'D;rRtgxD.w>'Do'XvXySR
ud;*R'J;t*D>M.vDRI
1.w>od.w>oD'D;w>[h.w>pH.nD.wz.
(1).unDb.b.cJurH;wHmw>od.w>oD'D;w>[h.w>pH.nD.wz.w>-uX;rRvJ>xD.twuGD.'fod;w>[H;xD.

zD.xD.*h>0DvXw>rRur.uDG>rh.t*kmt*Rwz.vX'Ju0DRtylRvXcJtHRw>wymyeD.'H;tDRvXw>eJ.usJtylR'H;b.
wz.t*D>M.vDRI
(2).0D>}oJtcDynDt*h>tusdRwz.-uX;rR*hRxD.tDR<'fod;w>od.w>oDwz.'D;w>[h.w>pH.nD.wz.w>e>yX>
tDRuoh'D;w>oltDRuohvXttd.'D;tywD>vXusJcJvXmtylRt*D>M.vDRI(t'd=ymyeD.w>tcDynDvXtrh>w>rR
uRySRunDM.tcDynDt*h>tusdRvDRwH>vDRqJ;'D;&SJ)
(3).w>[h.w>ur.'D;pH.nD.yDwhtpXwz.w>ub.rR*hRxD.'D;rR'd.xD.vJ>xD.uhRtwuDG.'D;rRvDRwH>vX
w>'Do'Xtd.vXvXySJRySJR'D;-uX;uXuD.vdmto; vXySRwl>b.w>t*D>'D; w>uzD.CH;Cmw>pkql.cD.wu;t*D>
M.vDRI
(4).ymzsgxD.rl'gwz.< w>pdw>urDRwz.< w>M>yXb.w>wz.<vXrl'gvD>vRwz.pkmpkmtylR td.zsg0J&SJ&SJzd'D;
b.w>wDcd.&dRrJtDRb.*h>b.0DvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtylRM.wuh>I
(5).w>od.w>oDw>bsX'D;w>[h.w>pH.nD.wz.w>ub.uGJ;vDRtDRvXvXySJRySJR'd.xD.M.vDRI
(6).rR*hRxD.w>tusdRtusJwz.'D;w>qSXcDtusdRtusJwz.vXt&SJ
(7).w>od.w>oD'D;vHmvJ>w>eJ.usJwz.w>ub.uG>u'guhRtDR'fod;ubs;pJvdmto;bVbV&SD&SDwcg'D;wcg
t*D>'D;urh>w>wcgvXttd.'D;tywD>vX'Ju0DRcJvXmwz.tylRvXu'k;td.xD.w>xJod;wkRod;'D;w>td.zdszsd
zsgzsg'D;urh>w>vXtvDR*mvdmo;wrHRCDt*D>M.vDRI
(8).w>od.w>oDwz.w>ub.uG>orHord;uhR< rR*hRxD.uhR'D;rRoDxD.uhRtDR'fod;w>oh.wz.M.urh>w>w
z.vXtbs;pJvdmto;'D;*H>cD.xH;ySR[D.cd.zdtcGJ;t,mwz.'D;ydmrk.tcGJ;t,mwz.'D;ySRwl>b.tcGJ;t,m
wz.M.vDRI
(9).w>od.w>oDwz.w>ub.qD.xGJrRpXRtDRvXw>tusdRtusJwz.< vHmwdRChwz.< 'D;w>ymuDRw>tusdRt
usJwz.'ftzsgtvXtySJRvXtzDvmtHRtod;M.vDRI
(10).vX'Ju0DRoXbh.tylRvX(LAC)w>wdmusJRtd.0JvXtylRwz.< w>ub.rR&SJxD.tw>M>pdM>urDRvX 'Ju 0DR
pH.nD.yDwhtylRM.vDRI
(11).vX'Ju0DREGHbh.t*D><rR&SJxD.(UNHCR)tw>pdw>urDRwz.vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhoElwz.tylRM.wuh>I
(12).w>od.w>oDwz.w>ub.&RvDRtDR'D; [h.cD[h.eDRtDRvXySRtg'Htg*Rttd.vX ttd.'D;pH.nD.yDwhqlySR
vXtrRvXxD.ySJRxD.w>wz.ttd.'D;vXySRw0XtusgvXw>[h.w>oh.nge>yX>'D;w>[h.w>ul.b.ul.ohvX
ySRw0Xwz.tylRM.vDRI
(13).[h.w>eJ.usJvXt&SJ'D;b.bsD;b.'g vXtb.C;'D; w>ub. olw>td. ,XR vX t rh>zd;oJp;w>eJ.usJwz.
vXtqXuwD>zJvJ.'D;w>ub.oltDRvXusJ'fvJ.t*D>M.wuh>I(w>usJRClusJRzd;w>bSg&SJw>obH.bk.tw>eJ.
usJ(MDRG)<unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmw>od.w>oD'D; w>rRur.uDG>rh.wz. vXw>usJR ClusJRzd;tDRwM><w>'k;
Cmw>eJ.usJwz.)'D;vXySRrRvXxD. ySJRxD. pH.nD.yDwh<w>tusdRtusJtgcg wz.tbX.pXR(uFD.wJ. pH.nD.yDwh
'D;'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh)
(14).rRw>rRvdvX oXEGHtwD>ylR vXw>vD>w>usJvXytd.qd;tylR vXttd.'D;ySRw0X tw>ym Ckmt vXtySJR ('Ju
0DRurH;wHmcX.p;< u0DR'hcd.cX.p;< bH.bXcX.p;<unDydmrk.u&XcX.p;<*H>cD.xH;w>u&Xu&dcX.p;< o;p>'D; zd'H zd
o.wz.)vXw>uuG>u'guhR'D;'k;td.xD.y}wDmuhRw>od.w>oDwz.'D;w>[h.w>pH.nD.vXySRw0Xw>pH.
nD.yDwht*D>M.vDRI
77

(15).uGJrkmySReD>w*Rb.w*RvXttd.'D;w>vJRcDzdsvXw>zH;w>rRwuGD.tHRtylR<vXuqD.xGJrRpXR'D;[h.ul.

[h.z;w>uG>u'guhRw>tusdRtusJM.wuh>I
(16).rRvXxD.ySJRxD.uhRw>uG>u'guhRw>od.w>oDwz.'D;w>[h.w>pH.nD.wz.vXCkvgtwD>ylRM.wuh>I
rRvXxD.ySJRxD.uhRw>uG>u'guhRw>od.w>oDwz.'D;w>[h.w>pH.nD.wz.vXCkvgtwD>ylRM.wuh>I
2.w>yXw>qSX(tusdRtusJwz.<ySRrRw>zd'D;t*kmt*Rwz.)
(1.) rRvXxD.ySJRxD.w>tusdRtusJvXtrh>w>ymuDRCmw>vXttd.'D;tywD>vXtxD.b;vXw>yXqSX&J.w>rl;

w>&>vXusJRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJ'D;w>vDRuG>orHord;'D;w>uG>xHvDRwH>vDRqJ;uhRw>t*D>M>wuh>Iw>tHRw>
ub.rRvXxD.ySJRxD.tDRvXttd.'D;ySRtg*Rtw>ymCkm(u0DR'hcd.<'Ju0DRurH;wHmbH.bXcX.p;<( ,LAC)xH*kR
uD>*RursX>obVu&Xwz.<(UNHCR)'D;t*kmt*Rwz.M.vDRI
(2). vXw>qD.xGJrRpXRpH.nD.yDwhtpXvXtb.bsD;b.'g'D;-uX;uXuD.vdmto;t*D>< w>tusdRtusJvX tvX
tySJR'D;w>zH;w>rRrl'gwz.w>ub.ymvDRtDRvXttd.zsgvXvXySJRySJRvDRwH>vDRqJ;<w>pdw>urDRywD>wz.vX
t&SJ< w>oh.wz.M. w>ub.rR*hRxD.uhRtDR'D; w>ub.uGJ;vDRymvDRtDRvDRwH>vDRqJ;0HR [h.w>rRvdqlySRrR
w>zdud;*Rttd.Ckm'D;ySRvXttd.'D;w>pdw>urDRvXtpkylRwz.vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtylRweH.wbsDM.vDRI
(3).vXw>urRpSRvDRw>pkql.cD.wu;'D;w>yXqSX&J.usJRydmcGgvXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.<ub.td.ph>uD;
'D;w>yXqSX&J.usJRw>rl;w>&>tvHmwdRChwz.<w>oh.wz.tHRw>ub.xXEkmCkmtDRvXttd.'D;w>*h>w>usdR
'D;tywD>b.C;w>uJxD.o;t*h>tusdRvXw>ub.xXzSd.tDRwz.t*D><w>pkql.cD.wu;tuvkmvXb.
w>oltDR<w>b.'db.xH;td.xD.tywD>wkRxJvJ.<w>vXySRrRur.w>w*RrRur.wh>0JySJRbsDvHvJ.wz.M.
vDRI
(4).'k;td.xD.w>tX.vDRwl>vdmtvHmwz.'D;w>tusdRtusJvXySRvXt[H;rl'gvXpH.nD.yDwhwz.tylRvXw>
td.o;'ftHRtzDcd.'fod;w>*h>w>usdRwz.w>[h.cD[h.eDRtDRvXw>ylRzsJ;tylRuoh'D;wkRvDRwDRvDRt*D>M.w
uh>I
(5).w>vXw>ub.rRtgxD.tDRvXw>*hRxD.uM>t*D>'fod;w>vJRcDzsdw>rRtDRuuJxD.vd.xD.0Jt*D><usd. w>
*h>uDtHRw>ub.bSg&SJtDRcDzsdusdRusJwbdbdvXw>e>yX>tDRuM>uohM.vDRIvHmvJ>vXw>xk;xD.tDRwz.<vHm
wdRChvXb.w>uwJmuwDRtDR<w>*h>w>usdRvXw>u[h.cD[h.eDRtDRM.w>ub.uwJmuwDRtDRvXusdmvGH>
udsmvXtrh>unD<y,DR<tJuvH;'D;uFD.wJmtusdmvXw>uxd.o}wDRuhRw>'D;b.w>e>yX>tDR*hR*hRxJvJ.t*D>'D;
vXw>u[h.eDRvDRuhRw>oh.wz.tHRvXturh>w>wcgvXuJbsK;'D;w>qd;ugtDRohwkRvDRwDRvDRt*D>M.vDRI
(6).'k;td.xD.vHmvJ>w>eJ.usJ<w>qSXcDtusdRtusJvXt&SJvXw>rl;w>&>vXw>ub.qSXcDtDRvX'Ju0DRpH.nD. yD
whqluFD.wJmpH.nD.yDwhttd.t*D>M.wuh>I'D;vXw>rh>qSXcd.cHu'guhRw>rl;w>&>tHRt*D>ph>uD;w>ub.u
wJmuwDRqdCmw>eJ.usJoh.wz.vXpH.nD.yDwhvX'Ju0DRwz.ub.[H;xD.zD.xD.uhR0Jt*D>M.vDRI
(7).rR*hRxD.uhR'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtw>ol.xD.qDvDRtusdRtusJwz.t'd='k;td.xD.ySRvXt[H;rl'gvXpH.
nD.yDwhwz.'D;CktgxD.ySRrRw>zdwz.vXw>yXqSX&J.usJRpH.nD.yDwhvX'Ju0DRtylRM.wuh>I
(8).rR*hRxD.'D;'k;td.xD.w>tusdRtusJvXt,lmtuXvXurRvDRpSRuGHmw>w*hRw0gwz.vXtu'db.w>oh.
wz.vXtu'k;td.xD.ySRrRw>zdtw>qDwvJ<'D;ySRvXtzD.Cmrl'gwz.tw>qDwvJvX'Ju0DRtylRM.wuh>I
t'd='k;td.xD.vHmvJ>vXw>uGJ;vDRymvDRCmtDR'ftrh>zDvpH.<'D;w>tusdRtusJwz.vXuzD.*X>Cmw><'f
od;ySRrRw>zdvXtzD.Cmrl'gwz.rh>tJ.'d;qDwvJ'.vJmt*D>M.vDRI
(9).rRvDRwH>vXydmrk.(30%)ub.td.vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtylR'D;zD.Cmrl'gM.wuh>I 'D;vXbH.bXySRrR w>zd w
z.vX'Ju0DRylRtusgydmrk.oXqHrs;u,Rub.ymCkmM.wuh>I
3.w>td.,XRwz.vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwht*D>
(1).rRtgxD.w>td.,XRwz.wbsDCD'D;[h.vDRtDRql'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJttd.M.wuh>I(w>td.,XR

wz. 'ftrh>usd.phw>qD.xGJrRpXR< w>yD;w>vDwz.< 0JR'X;wz.< w>'k;Cmw>yD;w>vDwz.< w>eJ.usJwz.< 'f
w>,XRxD.wh>tDRvXx;tod;<ySRrRw>zdwz.)
(2).[h.w>od.vdweH.wbsDvXtb.C;'D;w>od.w>oD< 'D;w>[h.w>ur.tzDcd.< w>tusdRtusJwz.qlySR
vXtrh>ySRrRw>zdtoDwz.'D;ySRvXtrRvXxD.ySJRxD.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJwz.ttd.M.wuh>I'D;vDRqD'.
78

w>ySRvX'd;M>w>CkxXvXtoDwz.t*D><w>ub.[h.tDRw>od.vdzJt0Joh.'d;M>w>CkxX0HRtvD>cHweH.w
bsDzJ'Ju0DRrRw>CkxX0HRtqXuwD>M.vDRIw>[h.w>rRvdt0JtHRub.rh>w>rRvdwcgvXw>ub.rRxGJtDRw
eH.wbsD'D;w>wrRtDRwohb.M.vDRI'D;w>qXuwD>0JM.urh>w>qXuwD>*hRvXw>uuG>u'guhRw>pdw>urDR
vXpH.nD.yDwhoEltusdRtusJwz.tylRw>[l;*JRtDRwkRxJvJ.wwkRxJvJ.'D;w>zH;w>rRwz.w>rRtDRxD.b;
wxD.b;t*h><'D;w>uuG>u'guhRw>eJ.usJ<vHmwdRChvXw>u b.oltDR wz.w> rRtDRtd.xD.wtd.xD.< w>
uDw>cJvXw>xH.M>tDRvXw>rRtylRwz.w>ub.&J.usJRuhRtusdRtusJ'fvJ.t*D>M.vDRIrh>ph>uD;w>qXuwD>
*hRvXw>uuG>u'guhRoGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>w>ymuDRwz.b.w>rRtDRvXusJ'fw>eJ.usJtd.t
od;ph>uD;{g'D;w>qSXcDtusdRtusJwz.ph>uD;b.w>vlRydmxGJtDR 'fw>eJ.usJtod;M.ph>{gM.vDRIw>od.vdtHRw>
ub.[h.ph>uD;zJu0DR'hwz.rRw>CkxX0HRtvD>cHxDbdph>uD;vXweH.oXbsDM.vDRI
(3).'k;td.xD.ySRvXtzD.Cmrl'gwz.tgxD.'D; rRySJRxD.uhRySRrRw>zdvXtoDwz.vXttd.xDbdvX'Ju0DRpH.
nD.yDwh w>zH;w>rRt usdRtusJoElylR t*D>'fod; w> oh. nge>yX>vXtvd>0JeD>eD> vXw>od.w>oD w>bsXwz.t*D>
tHRtokwvDRr>uGHmvXw>CkxXtoDwbsDb.wbsDt*D>M.w*hRM.wuh>I
4. w>'k;CmtvD>
(1).w>'k;CmtvD>w>yD;w>vDwz.rh>w>vXtvd>0JeD>eD>'D;usd.phw>qD.xGJrRpXRtHRvd.0JoyS>uwX>vXw>u

b.rRvDRwH>vXw>oh.wz.tHR w>rRtDRM>'D; tywD>wkRvXxH*kRuD>*RtywD>tpSRuwX>M.vDRI rJ>v;'Ju0DRw>
'k;CmtvD>tHR b.w>bSDxD.tDRvXbHv;rFh.< oh.< x;[dChwz.M.vDRI 'Ju0DRwbh.b.wbh.pkmpkm -uX;td.
'D;w>'k;CmvXtb.bsD;b.'gvXw>uymySRrRur.w>vXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.rhwrh>ySRvXb.w>qd
urd.tDRvXtrRur.w>wz.vXw>wl>b.vXtrh>w>vXtvDRysHRvDRb.,dmwz.vXw>qXuwD>zk.udmtylR
uoht*D>M.vDRI
(2).ol?w>'k;Cmtw>eJ.usJ/vXttd.Cmwz.tHR 'D;uG>u'grRoDxD.uhRtDR 'D;rR*hRxD.uhRtDR zJtvD>td. w
bsDv>v>M.wuh>I
(3).rR&SJxD.uhRw>'k;Cmw>eJ.usJwz.vXw>oltDRuoht*D>rRoDxD.uhRtDR'D;rRvDRr>uGHmw>[h.ul.vXtw
b.bsD;b.'gwz.M.wuh>I
(4).[h.w>ysJ'D;qD.xGJrRpXRw>'k;CmvX'Ju0DRwz.tylRvXw>u'k;Cmw>vXw>qXuwD>zk.udmt*D>vXCkvg
twD>ylRuM>t*D>M.wuh>I
(5).&J.usJRM>w>[;uok.uoDvXw>csXvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwh ySRvXt[H;rl'g wz. t*D>vXw>qXuwD>zk.udmt
ylRvXw>uvJRuG>rJ>v;'Ju0DRw>'k;Cmw>yD;w>vDwz.'D;tl;yF.'Ju0DR<vDRqD'.w>ySRvXtrRuJxD.vd.xD.
w>uG>xHorHord;u'guhRw>zH;w>rRwz.t*D>M.wuh>I
(6).w>[h.w>pH.nD.wbsDCDqlySRrRur.w>w*Rv>v> vXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;wrHR*hRwrHR*hRwz.t*D> t
pSRuwX>xXEkmvDRtDRvXw>'k;CmtylRtpSRuwX>oXoDwkRcHEGHM.wuh>I
(7).vXw>u'k;CmySRvXtb.w>qdurd.tDRvXtrRur.w>'D;ySRvXb.w>xH.M>tDRvXtrRur.oGH.xH;rk.
cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.t*D>uG>b.vXtqX'd.(6)'fttd.zsgvXvmtod;M.wuh>I
(8).'k;td.xD.w>eJ.usJtvXtySJRvXbH.bXySRrRw>zdwz.t*D>'D;ySRt*kmt*RvXtrh>'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhySRrRvX
xD.ySJRxD.w>wz.t*D>vXtuolw>'k;Cmt*D>M.wuh>I
5.pH.nD.yDwhtpXwz.
(1).vXw>urRpSRvDRw>pkql.cD.wu;w>uJxD.o;wz.t*D><'D;w>wD.zsgxD.w>*h>w>usdRwz.tHRtgxD.cDzsd

ySRwl>b.w>wz.t*D><unDydmrk.u&X[h.ul.0J'l'lvXw>uxXEkmvDRySRrRur.w>vXtoleD>cdw>pkql.cD.w
u;vX'Ju0DRylRwz.vXw>'k;CmtylRwbsDCDvX( 3-14)oDtwD>ylR('D;w>b.'db.xH;'d.'d.rk>rk>rh>td.wcDw>
uxXEkmtDR,HmxD.)M.vDR
(2).rR'd.xD.vJ>xD.pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXtuvkmwz.tgxD.<tokwrh>w>xJwcg{dRw*hR'D;rhrh>wcDw>u'k;
td.xD.tDRtgcg'fod;uuJxD.w>vX-uX;uXuD.'D;'Do'XySRwl>b.w><ySRw0X<'D;ySRb.rRur.wz.vXw>
pH.nD.tDR<'D;[h.*H>[h.bgydmcGgvXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.tvk>v>ouJ;y0;vXtw*hRtHRuqDwvJuhR0J
uoht*D>M.vDRI
79

(3).p;xD.'k;oh.ngrhwrh>olw>tusdRtusJwcgvXpH.nD.yDwhtw>uvk>wcgvXtrh>?w>td.pDRpkRvdmo;/

M.wuh>IuGJrkmySRw*R*RvXttd.'D;w>vJRcDzsdvXu'k;eJ.b.C;w>rRtusdRtusJwcgtHR'D;rRpXR0J'fod;ySRw0X
vXttd. vXySR w0Xtusgwz.ue>yX>0Jw>tHRM.wuh>I(vXuD>tD;p-xhv,RtylR w>tHR ud;0JvX? AVOs/
'D;w>tHR rh>w>wcgvXtuJxD.vd.xD.'D; rh>w>rReXRz;'d.wcgvX w>uzD.CH;CmydmcGgvXtolw>pkql.cD.w
u;wz.t*D>M.vDRI)
(4).rRpSRvDRb.C;w>olw>[h.?w>tX.vDRtDvDR/wcgtHR'ftrh>pH.nD.yDwhtpXwcgtod;vXtrh>w>rRur.
uGD>rh.vXw>olw>pkql.cD.wu;t*D>M.wuh>I
(5).rRvDRwH>vXw>[h.w>pH.nD.qlw>rRur.uDG>wz.ub.rh>w>vXtb.vdmzd;'hvdmo;<-uX;uXuD.vdm
o;'D;w>ur.t'd.tqH;tzDcd.M.wuh>I(t'd=w>zD.ql.rHCkmM.w>ub.[h.w>pH.nD.CX'd.M>'H;w>tJ.
bXvdmo;rhwrh>w>[k.w>bs.wuh>vDRI)
(6).rRpSRvDRw>vXtw'H; od;vdmo;wz.vXtrh>w>pH.nD.yDwhtpXvX'Ju0DRud;bh.'J;wz.tylR M.wuh>I
(w>pH.nD.tpXvXw>ub.pH.nD.tDRwrHRCDvXw>ur.vXw>ymyeD.tDRtzDcd.<vXtub.rh>w>pH.nD.w
cgCDvX'Ju0DRud;bh.'J;t*D>tHR<w>ub.rRxGJtDRM.vDRIwb.rh>'Ju0DRwbh.pH.nD.0JvDRqDvdmto;b.M.
b.<tCdw>ub.rRpSRvDRuhRw>vXtw'H;od;wz.M.tJ.'d;pH;0J'fw>ymzsg&SJxD.tHRtod;M.vDRI)
(7).w>rl;w>&>wcgv>v>vXtrh>w>rlRw>bSD;rhwrh>oH;{dR*m{dRwz.rh>w>pkql.cD.wu;trd>yS>wcg<'D;w>tHR
w>qSXcDtDRohvX(DARE)w>&J.w>usJR'D;t0Joh.xDbd[h.ul.[h.z;'D;rRpXRw>uDw>cJtHRM.vDRI'D;w>tHRw>
e>yX>0JvXwrh>w>[h.w>pH.nD.b.rhrh>wcDrh>eD>up>'.0Jw>CkxX'.0JM.vDRI'Ju0DRcHbh.vX( DARE)w>&J.
w>usJRwtd.vXtylRwz.<w>&J.w>usJRtd.0JvXySRvXto;td.vJRqlw>&J.w>usJRtHRttd.wz.ttd.M.w
>&J.usJRM>tDRvXuvJREkmvDRb.0JvX'Ju0DRwbh.bh.tusgwbh.bh.vX( DARE)td.tvD>vXw>[h.w>ul
pg,gbsg'D;w>rR*hRxD.uhRw>t*D>M.vDRI
(8).[h.w>qD.xGJrRpXRvXw>rR*hRxD.uhR'D;w>rRudn>xD. uhRySRwl>b.w>tw>wl>b.cD.b.wz.cDzsdusd.ph
w>qD.xGJrRpXRvXtrh>cDzsdtw>wl>b.tzDcd.w>'dol.'do;tph(w>b.ph)cDzsdySRb.rlb.'gwz.M.wuh>I
(t'd=phymuDRwcgcgvXw>ymyeD.tDRvXw>urRpXRySRwl>b.w>)<w>yD;w>vDw>qD.xGJrRpXR<w>rR*hRxD.uhR
vk>v>ouJ;y0mw>qD.xGJrRpXR(w>zdw>vHR<uoH.uoD<eD>o;'D;*h>0Dw>rRpXR)w>ol.rHo;rkm(w>ymyeD.<ym
vk>ymyShRwcgcg<w>Chun;uhRw>vXursX>trJmng)'D;w>[h.w>tk.uDRwz.vXw>wb.rRto;u'D;vXR
b.I
6. oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;vXtymCkm'D;(w>zD.ql.rHCkm<w>rRw&Dwyg)
(1).w>rRw&Dwyg(w>zD.ql.rHCkm)'D;w>usJ;pX;rRw&Dwyg(w>usJ;pX;zD.ql.rHCkm)wrHR*hRwrHR*hRw>ub.pH.

nD.tDR'ftrh>uGD>rh.z;'d.wcgvXttd.'D;w>pH.nD.vXtCX'D;CH;CD.'D.vXySRrRur.w>wz.t*D>M.vDRI
(2).rR*hRxD.uhR'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtpXvXtoDvXcJtHRwrh>w>vXt-uX;uXuD.eDwcgb.< vDRqD'.w>w>rl;w>
&>wz.vXtrh>oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.t*D>M.wuh>I
(3).xXEkmvDRySRrRur.w>vXw>qdurd.tDRvXtrRur.w>wz.vX'Ju0DRw>'k;CmtylRwbsDCDvX( 24)e.&H.
twD>ylR<wkRvX w>CdxHqdw>*h>w>usdRb.w>rRtDRwpk< 'D; w>ymvDRw>pH.nD.qXwJm <rhwrh>w>rl;w> &>b. w>
ywkmuGHmtDRwpkM.wuh>I
(4).rR*hRxD.uhRw>tusdRtusJtoDvXtvDRqDwz.vXw>u[H;xD.zD.xD.oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>
rl; w>&>wz.t*D>< 'D;w>rl;w>&>wz.vXtrh> w>'Do'Xzdo.t*D>M.wuh>I w>rl;w>&>'ftHRwz.w>wb.[H;
xD.zD.xD.tDRvDR*m'D;w>rl;w>&>t*kmt*Rwz.M.b.Iw>ub.[H;xD.zD.xD.tDRvDRvDRqDqDM.vDRI
(5).w>rRw&D wyg'D; w>qdurd. vXtrh> w>rRw&D wyg<'D; w>usJ; pX;rRw&D wygtrl; wz.M.w>[H; xD. zD.
xD.tDRvXu0DR'htylRwohb.M.vDRIwkRrh>ySRwl>b.w>[JwD.xD.w>rRw&Dwygtw>*h>w>usdRwbsDCDM.'D;
w>ub.qSXcDtDRql'Ju0DRywD>wbsDCDM.vDRI u0DR'hywD> wvd>vXtub.0HxD.w>0Hw>,d;CXwcgtHR vXu
b.qXwJm0JvX w>tHR rh>trh>w>rRw&Dwyg'D; wrh>w>rRw&Dwyg{gt*h>M.b.I ub.qSXcD0Jql'Ju0DRywD>M.
vDRI
(6).oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.w>wb.bSg&SJtDRcDzsd?w>usJRClusJRzd;/tudsRtusJrhwrh>ySR'Dwzk
tw>td.zSd.qXwJm'D;rRw>bSg&SJw>rl;w>&>tHRM.b.I
80

(7).pH.nD.yDwhySRrRvXxD.ySJRxD.w>wz.uvd>b.0Jw>rRvdvDRqDvXt0Joh.u[H;xD.zD.xD.oGH.xH;rk.cGg

w>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>vXtrh>w>uFD;rJmCJ;wz.t*D>'D;ySRwl>b.w>tokwb.w>ym'h.ymur.tDR
w*hRt*D>M.vDRI
7.eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;(vXtymCkm'D;[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;)

(1).vXw>urRpSRvDRw>pkql.cD.wu;w>uJxD.o;wz.t*D><'D;'fod;w>u'Do'Xydmrk.ydmrXRwz.t*D><'fod;

w>uzD.CH;ydmcGgvXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.t*D><'fod;ySRwl>b.w>wz.uwD.zsgxD.tw>rl;w>&>wz.
qlpH.nD.yDwhttd.tgxD.<unDydmrk.u&X[h.ul.0J'l'lvXw>uxXEkmySRrRur.w>wz.vXtol[H.ylRCDylR
w>pkql.cD.wu;tHR<w>u'k;CmtDRvX'Ju0DRw>'k;CmtylRwbsDCDvXoXoDwkRwqHvGH>oDwD>ylR(w>b.'db.
xH;'d.'d.rk>rk>rh>td.wcDw>uok;xDxD.w>qXuwD>)M.vDRI
(2).w>rl;w>&>cJvXmvXtrh>eD>cdw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.cJvXm<vXtymCkm'D;[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;w
z.w>ub.pH.nD.tDR'fw>rl;w>&>vXt'd.'D;CH;CD.'D.M.vDRI
(3).qSXcDw>rl;w>&>wz.cJvXmvX'Ju0DRywD>M.wuh>It0Joh.wz.w-uX;[H;xD.zD.xD.w>rl;w>&>wz.vX
u0DR'htywD>b.M.vDRI
(4).bH.bXb.rlb.'gwz.-uX;EkmvDR'D;ywkmw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.vXtuJxD.o;M.vDRI
(5).ySRw*R*hRw*R*hR wD.zsgxD.[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.oh'D; bH.bXwz.td.'D;rl'gvXub.CdxH o
rHord;w>rl;w>&>wz.tHRM.vDRIzJ[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.wu;uJxD.;w>rl;'D;w>&>vXtrh>eD>cdw>rRrJmqS;t
rl;wz.M. w>tHRuJxD.0Jw>rRur.uGD>rh.M.vDRI vXw>u'Do'XySRwl>b.w>t*D>< bH.bXwz.tvD>wtd.
vX ub.td.cd;0JwkRvXw>rl;w>&>tHRw>wD.zsgxD.tDRvXySRwl>b.w>wpkr;'D; [H;xD.trlt'gM.b.I ub.
EkmvDRrRpXR0JwbsDCDM.vDRI
(6).rR*hRxD.uhRw>eJ.usJwz.wylRCDCkm'D;bH.bXySRrRw>zdwz.'fod;uEkmvDRrRpXR[H.ylRCDylRw>pkql.cD.w
u;wz.uM>'D; 'fod;zD.CH;zD.uXRCmw>utd.'D;tywD><b.bsD;b.'g<-uX;uXuD.vXttd.'D;w>vXw>xH.
tDRzsdzsdzsgzsgoht*D>M.vDRI
(7).'k;td.xD.w>&J.w>usJRwcgvXt[h.*H>[h.bgw>qDwvJuhRySRrRur.w>wz.tvk>v>ouJ;y0;M.w
uh>I
(8).[h.w>pH.nD.vXtCX'd.xD.vXySRrRur.w>vXtrR0HRrRuhRw>ur.vXtwb.rR0JwcgtHRt*D> 'fod;ySR
rRur.w>vXtrR0HRrRuhRw>ur.wz.tHRw>rReD.tDRuM>nD'd.xD.t*D>M.wuh>I
(9).[h.ul.[h.z;ySRrRur.w>vXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.bl;bl;wH>wH>M.wuh>I
(10).ySRrRur.w>vXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.w>rh>ympDRpkRtDR'D;tzdtrgwz.rh>*hR<td.vDRz;'D;tzdtrgw
z.rh>*hR<[H;vHmvDRzS.rh>*hR<ySRrRur.w>tHRrhrh>ySRvXtd.'D;tzdM.'D;(tzdtd.)ub.[h.cDzsdw>qD.xGJrRpXRw
vgwbsDqltzdvXwvgwbsDt*D>ql'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhySRb.rlb.'gwz.ttd.0HR'D;'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhySRb.rl
b.'gwz.u[h.u'guhRpht0JtHRqlySRwl>b.w>ttd.b.qXb.uwD>vXtd.'D;w>emtvXtySJR(vDRr>w
ohb.)M.vDRI
(11).cHcD,>b;rh>o;vDRyvdmvXu[H;vHmvDRzS.<'D;utd.vDRz;cDzsd0Rolw>pkql.cD.wu;tzDcd.tCd<ySRvXt
ub.[;xD.vX[H.ylRw*RM.urh>0J0R'D;wb.rh>rg'D;zdwz.M.b.I'Ju0DRbH.bXub.[h.w>'Do'XvXt
b.vD>b.p;qlydmrk.'D;tzdwz.vXt[H.tCDM.vDRI
8.ySRwl>b.w>'D;(ySRvXtxH.xGJw>wz.)
(1).w>od.w>oDwz.cJvXm<w>pH.nD.wz.cJvXmub.rh>w>wz.vXttd.'D;w>'dol.'do;vXySRwl>b.w>

wz.t*D>M.vDRIw>ub.rRvDRwH>ph>uD;vXySRwl>b.w>tw>bH.w>bX'D;w>ylRzsJ;'D;tol;oh.vRuyDRt*D>
ud;uwD>'J;M.vDRI
(2).ursX>obVu&XySRrRw>zdwz.'D;w>u&Xu&dz;'d.wz.vXtqD.xJGrRpXRydmrk.ydmrXRvXuFD.wJmpH.nD.yDwh
tusdRtusJwz.tylRub.wJcJ;pXR'D;ChxD.M>0JphvXw>'dol.'do;tph(w>b.ph)vXySRwl>b.w>t*D>vXy'd.
uDG>bsD.tylRM.vDRI
81

(3).usd.phw>qD.xGJrRpXR'D;w>yD;w>vDwz.w>ub.[h.vDR'D;qD.xGJrRpXRySRwl>b.w>wz.'fod;urRrkmxD.

uhRt0Joh.t*D>M.vDRI
(4).rRvDRwH>vXw>[h.w>td.,XRtvXtySJRqlySRwl>b.w>wz.t*D>zJt0Joh.tw>rl;w>&>wz.b.w>wD.
xD.tDRqluFD.wJmpH.nD.yDwhttd.M.wuh>Iw>ub.ymol.ymo;ph>uD;vX'fod;w>wDrRwHmwmwz.vX
b.w>&J.vDRymzsgxD.tDRvXtqX'd.(4.3.3)tylR'D;cDzsdw>[h.w>yXqSX&J.usJRw>rl;w>&> vXtb.bsD;b.'g<'D;
-uX;uXuD.vdmo;vXttd.'D;w>'dol.'do;vXrk.cGgw>b.vD>b.p;tzDcd.M.vDRIw>tHRymCkm0J'D;w>ub.
rRvDRwH>ymol.ymo;vXySRvXtxH.xGJw>wz.t*D>'D; ySRvXtb.xGJb.bs;'D;w>rl;w>&>wz. ub.td.vX
tu[h.w>tk.o;t*D>M.vDRI
(5).rR*hR xD. w>[l; w>*JR wz.vXtu'Do'XySR wl>b.w>wz.'D;ySR xH. xGJw>wz.<'D; 'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhy SR
vXtrRvXxD.ySJRxD.w>wz.<vDRqD'.w><w>rh>uJxD.to;vXySRrRur.w>wz.rh>uFD.wJmxHzduD>zd< rhwrh>
zJw>rl;w>&>wz.w>rh>qSXxD.tDRqluFD.wJmpH.nD.yDwhuDG>bsD.tuwD>M.wuh>I
9. ySRrRur.w>wz.
(1).'k;td.xD.w>&J.w>usJRvX'Ju0DRwz.tylRvXuqD.xGJrRpXRydmcGgvXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.tvk>v>

ouJ;y0;M.wuh>I
(2).'k;td.xD.w>tusdRtusJwz.'D;w>ymuDRw>'fod;w>uzD.*X>Cmw>t*D><w>uvDRorHord;uhRw>t*D><
'D;w>u[h.ul.[h.z;uhRySRrRur.w>wz.vXtolw>pkql.cD.wu;wz.t*D>M.vDRI
(3).[h.w>qD.oeH;ql.xD.vXySRrRur.w>t*D>vXtb.xGJb.C;'D;zd;oJp;w>eJ.usJ'D;w>tX.vDRwl>vdmw
z.M.vDRIt'd=[h.w>ydmxGJvXtb.bsD;b.'g'D;rRvDRwH>vXySRrRur.w>tokwpH.zsd;w*hRt*D>M.wuh>I qJ;
rRw>vDRuG>xHorHord;w>vDRwH>vDRqJ;<ySRrRur.w>u'd;M>w>cGJ;w>,mvXw>ub.rR*hRxD.uhR'D;w>ul
pg,gbsguhRvk>v>ouJ;y0;vXtw*hRwz.t*D><'D;w>[h.ql.xD.o;*H>bgvXtusdRtusJb.'fod; w>qDwvJ
utd.t*D>M.wuh>I
10. w>tX.vDRwl>vdm

(1)Iw>tusdRtusJw>td.o;cJtHRvXtrh>?w>tX.vDRwl>vdm/wcgtHRtvD>td.oyS>uwX>vX w>ub.xk;
uGHm'D; rR*hRxD.bSDb.uhRtDR 'ftrh>oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>t*D> vXwb.bsD;b.'gb.wcg
M.vDRI
(2)I vXw>ub.rR*hRxD.rR'd.xD.vJ>xD.w>tX.vDRtDvDRwz.tHRvX w>uqJ;oltDRt*D>< w>ub.rR*hRxD.
y}wDmtDR< w>ub.oltDR< 'D;rRvXxD.ySJRxD.w>rRuJxD.vdmxD.wz. vXtymCkm'D; w>ub.'k;td.xD.w>
pH.nD.tusdRtusJwz.vXt&SJvXySRvXtw*h>vdmbSDvdmw>wz.t*D>M.vDRI
(3)I?vHmw>tX.vDRwl>vdm/b.oh.oh.urh>w>vXtwkRvDRwDRvDRzJw>uGJ;vDRymvDRtgrHRvXw>ub.rRxGJ
tDR rh>td.vXvXySJRySJRM.vDRItcDynDwrh>xJw>[h.w>tX.vDRxJwcg{dRvXw>wrRur.vXRw>b.xJwrHR{dRM.
b.Iub.td.'D;w>ydmxGJtvXtySJRM.r;'D;w>tX.vDRwbh.tHRurh>w>vXtwkRvDRwDRvDRM.vDRI
(4)Iw>tX.vDRtDvDRtvHmvXurh>w>vXtwkRvDRwDRvDRtgxD.wuh>M.ub.rh>w>wcgvXtpSRuwX>ub.
y.,km'D;w>vXttd.zsgvXtzDvmwz.tHRM.vDRI

w>[h.w>ymyeD.vXySRwl>b.w>'D;tw>xH.tw>qdurd.<tw>b.,dmwz.'D;tw>qJ;pkrk><w>pJrHR
ub.y.Ckm

w>ymyeD.w>rl;w>&>vXtuJxD.to;tHRrh>w>trh>twD(w>vXuJxD.o;'D;tDRwz. ymyeD.vXtrh>
w>rh>w>wD)

rRrkmxD.rRb.vD>b.p;uhRySRwl>b.w>tw>wl>b.cD.b.wz.

[h.w>tk.uDRvXySRrRur.w>rRur.0JtHRwb.uJxD.vXRto;vXySRrRur.w>w*RtHRvXRb.I
[h.w>tusdRtusJwcgvXw>'k;td.pDRpkRySRrRur.w>'D;t[H.zdCDzdvXw>qXuwD>w>ymyeD.tDRtylRM.w
uh>I qD.xGJrRpXRw>vX'Ju0DRw>qDwvJutd.t*D><w>[h.ul.[h.z;<'D;w>vDRuG>xHorHord;w><w>vJRpXRuhR
pXRySRrRur.w>cDzsdySRw0Xb.rlb.'gwz.<ySRrRur.w>rh>tX.vDRwl>vdmvXutJ.'d;ulpg,gbsguhRtvk>v>
ouJ;y0;wcDqSXcDtDRql(DARE)w>&J.w>usJRttd.M.wuh>I
82

(5)Iw>ydmxGJwz.'D;w>}wDwHmCmw>wz.vXtymCkm'D;w>rh>wymuJw>tX.vDRwl>vdmwbh.tHR(vXt
y.Ckm'D;w>'k;Cm)w>vDRuG>xHorHord;w><'D;w>wymuJySRb.rlb.'gtw>eJ.vDRwz.
(6)I w>tusdRtusJvXt&SJ<td.'D;w>wJe>yX>vXt&SJ'D;w>e>yX>tDRoh< b.C;w>rh>rR[;*DRw>tX.vDRtDvDRvX
b.w>tX.vDRtDRwbh.tHR<'D;w>[l;w>*JR'fvJ.wuvkmvXw>ub.ymyeD.tDRvXw>rR[;*DRw>tX.vDRtD
vDRtHRM.vJ.M.vDRI
(7)IrRb.*D>uhRw>tywD>wz.vX'Ju0DRwz.tylR
(8)IvXw>tX.vDRwl>vdmwbh.tHRtylR w>tusdRtusJvXt*kmt*RwrHRv>v>vXw>oltDR< w>pH.nD.vXb.
w>[h.qlySRrRur.w>wz.ttd.w>ub.xXEkmCkmvXw>tX.vDRtDvDRwbh.tHRtylRM.vDRI
(9)IvHmw>tX.vDRtDvDRtHR w>uoltDR'ftrh>xHzduD>zdw>ymyeD.wcg 'D;w>bd;b.oh.ngwcg 'ftrh>ySRw*R
vXtrh>ySRrRur.w>w*Rtod;<vXtrRur.uGD>rh.M.vDRI
(10)Iw>ub.ymvDRtDR&SJ&SJzdvX w>ur.'fvJ.wuvkmvX w>[h.w>tX.vDRtDvDRoh'D; w>ur.'fvJ.wu
vkmvXw>[h.w>tX.vDRtDvDRwohwz.M.vDRI
(11)I vHmwdRChvDRvDRqDqD w>ub.rRvDRqDtDR 'fod;w>u'k;eJ.u'guhR ySRrRur.w>wz.vX t0Joh.rRvX
xD.ySJRxD.uhRw>pH.nD.vXb.w>[h.tDRwz.ySJRxD.0JvHuwD>M.vDRI
11.rk.cGgw>wDRwkRod;xJod;

(1)I rRtgxD.ydmrk.w>ymCkmvX pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJoEltylRM.wuh>I 'k;td.xD.(cdx.) 'fod;ydmrk. (30%)
u'd;M>b.vD>qh.eDRvX'Ju0DRurH;wHmtylR<vXunDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmtylR<'D;w>zH;w>rRvXtrh>w>uJcd.
uJe>vXb.xGJwz.tylR'D;vXw>'k;td.xD.zDvfpH.wz.tylRt*D>M.wuh>I
(2)I zDvpH.vXuymyeD.rk.cGgw>wDRwwkRod;xJod;wz. vXpH.nD.yDwhySRrRw>zdvX'Ju0DRwz.tylR tvD>td.
vXw>ub.rRySJRxD.uhRtDRM.vDRIcDzsdvXySRw0Xwz.tw>wwl>vdmySRwl>b.w>vXtwl>b.oHG.xH;w>pkql.
cD.wu;wcgtHR vXtrh>w>CH;CD.'D.b.'D; ym0J'ftrh>w>rJmqS;wcgvXySRw0XtylR<'D;xH.0JvX rh>w>vk>v> o
uJ;y0;w*hRwcg vXttd.zsgxD.< vDRqD'.w>vXydmwH>ydmcGgw0XylR t0Joh.ym0JvXwrh>w>rRur.z;'d.wcg
b.M.vDRI w>tHR tvD>td.0JeD>eD>vX w>ub.uwdRymzsgxD. b.C;'D;w>*h>w>usdRt0JtHR cDzsdySRw0X ydmrk.ydm
rXRwz.tgtgvX ySRw0X'Dwzknguoh.ng0Jt*D>M.vDRI w>tHRvd>0JoyS>uwX>vX vDRqD'.w> <oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>
pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.t*D> w>ub.rRuJxD.vd.xD.tDRvX pH.nD.yDwhtw>yXqSX&J.usJRwz.tylR
M.vDRIb.rEkRtCdvJ.M.vX'Ju0DRylRM.ydmrk.ydmrXRteD.*H>td.tgM>'H;w0mngtCdM.vDR
(3)I[h.w>rRvdb.C;?w>uymol.ymo;b.C;rk.cGgw>rRvd/uGh>u>Ghqlydmrk.'D;ydmcGgwz.ttd.M.wuh>I
(4)I rR*hRxD.rk.cGgw>wDRxJod;wkRod;vX vHmvJ>w>uGJ;vDRymvDRtDRwz.tylR'D;w>zH;w>rRtuh>t*DRwz.tylR
M.wuh>I
12. w>td.zsgzsdzsdzsgzsg'D;w>td.'D;w>[H;M>rl'g

?wrh>xJ'.w>wcgvXpH.nD.yDwhub.rR0HRrRwJmw>tHRb.I'D;w>tHRw>ub.xH.0Jzsdzsdzsgzsgph>uD;vXb.
w>rRtDR0HR0JwJm0JM.vDRI/
(1). w>tHRtvD>td.0JoyS>uwX>vXpH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJoElub.rh>w>wcgvXw>ub.xH.tDRzsdzsdzsgzsg'D;

td.'D;w>[H;M>rl'gM.vDRIrhrh>'fM.wcDw>od.w>oD<w>eJ.usJ'D;w>[h.w>pH.nD.tusdRtusJvX'Ju0DRylRw>u
b.[h.cD[h.eDRtDRqlySRw0X'DwzkngtylRcDzsdw>[h.vDRtDRvHmvJ>w>tusdRtusJvXb.w>pJ;usH;CmtDR<w>
oh.wz.M.ub.rh>w>vXtnDvXw>rRtDRoh<'D;w>wz.tHRub.rh>ph>uD;w>wz.vXw>ynd.tDRvXw>[h.
w>ul.b.ul.ohtylRph>uD;M.vDRI

83

(2).ySRw0XpH.nD.yDwhySRrRoud;w>u&l>-uX;b.w>'k;td.xD.tDRvX'Ju0DRud;bh.'J;tylRM.vDRIrl'g'D;w>zH;

w>rR<w>pdw>urDRwz.w>ub.ymvDRtDR&SJ&SJvXtrh>?w>zH;w>rRvXw>ub.rRtDRwz.tusdRtusJI/y[h.
ul.vXw>wz.tHRub.ymCkm'D;ySRw0XcX.p;wz.<'Ju0DRurH;wHm<u0DR'hurH;wHm<bH.bX<'D;unDydmrk.u
&X<ySRw0Xcd.e>t*kRt*RCkm'D;*H>cD.xH;w>u&Xu&dcX.p;wz.M.vDRIw>rRoud;w>u&l>ub.rRvDRwH>0JvX
w>tHRub.td.'D;ySRw0Xw>ymCkmrRoud;w><'D;[h.w>wX.yD.wJoud;vXttd.'D;w>td.zsgzsdzsdzsgzsgvX'Ju
0DRpH.nD.yDwhtylRM.wuh>It'd=b.oh.oh.u'd;M>w>wD.xD.w>utkupGgwz.<w>ChxD.vXw>uqJ;wD.
xD.w>rl;w>&>wz.toDu'D;wbsDqlngwywD><'D;w>M.w>urHord;uG>xHuhRtDRcDzsdw>od.w>oDw>bsXt
usdRtusJub.oh<'D;w>[h.w>rRvdvXw>oh.wz.tHRtzDcd.ub.M><'D;rRvDRwH>vXw>[h.w>rRvdb.bsD;
b.'g'D;b.qXb.uwD>qlpH.nD.yDwhySRvXtrRuJxD.vd.xD.w>wz.t*D><[h.ul.[h.z;w>zJtvD>td.
wbsDv>v>zJw>od.w>oDwz.w>-uX;qDwvJtDRuwD>xDbdvXw>tusdRtusJwz.tylRM.wuh>I
(3).ySRoh.wz.M.rh>ySRvXtzD.Cmw>pdurDRcd.oh.vX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhtylRtod;M. (UNHCR,IRCLAC),

'D;unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmwz.ub.uJxD.w>wcgvXtzsgzsdzsdzsgzsg'D;td.'D;w>[H;M>rl'gvXt0Joh.wz.
t*D>M.vDRI
 y[h.ul.vX w>wD.xD.w>utkupGgtusdRtusJw>urR*hRxD.uhRtDR 'fod;w>urRvDRwH>uhRvX pH.
nD.yDwtw>[H;xD.zD.xD.w>*h>w>0Dwz.uvJRto;b.bsD;b.'g'D;w>u&Xu&dz;'d.wzkpkmpkm
vXt[H;rl'gwz.w>ySJ>uhRtw>zH;w>rRwz.uoht*D>M.vDRIw>ySJ>uhRw>'ftHRwuvkmrRwh>vHt
o;vXw>zH;w>rR0JRusdRweDRtylRvHM.vDRI
 y[h.ul.vX w>u&Xu&dz;'d.wzkpkmpkm u[h.tw>ymzsg vXtb.C;'D;pH.nD.yDwhw>zH;w>rR vX
trR0J<pH.nD.yDwhtpXt*h>tusdR w>uGJ;zk.tvXtySJR vXt0Joh.wz.EkmvDRymCkm0JM.vDRI w>tHR
urRzsgxD.w>vDRzsJ.vDR[d<w>*H>ql.w>*H>p>wz.vX urRpXRuhRw>vXw>ub.ymvDRuhRw>zH;w>
rRvXw>ub.rRuhRtDRt*D>wz.M.vDRI
(4).w>tHRtvD>td.0JoyS>uwX>vX w>u'Do'XySReD>w*Rtw>bH.w>bX'D; wb.rh>w>wcgvX w>[H;M> w> cGJ;

w>,m'D; ymclol.uGHmw>*h>w>usdRcJvXmqlw>u&Xu&dvXt[h.w>zH;w>rRwz. vXb.w>ymyeD.tDR vXtzd;
oJp;wz.ttd.M.b.I w>[h.cD[h.eDRw>*h>w>udsRwz.tusdRtusJ w>ub.rR*hRxD.uhRtDR 'D; w>tHR rh>*h>*D>
tlwcgvXw>ub.rRqdtDRM.vDRI
13. w>vd.wz.vXw>ub.rRvdM>tgxD.tDR

vXw>vDRCkoh.ngwbsDtHRtzDcd. yymvDRuhRw>*h>w>usdRwz.vX turh>w>wz. vXtuJbsK;uJzSd.
vXcgqlngw>rRvdt*D>M.vDRI
(1).rRw>uG>u'guhRb.C;(IRC) zd;oJp;w>qD.xGJrRpXRw>zH;w>rRwz.0HR [h.cD[h.eDRw>vX w>xH.M>tDR w
z.qlySRvXttd.'D;trl'gud;zk'J;ttd.wuh>I
(2).Ckoh.ngb.rEkRtCdvXrJ>v;'Ju0DRtHRrh>'Ju0DRvXt'd.uwX>(IRCLAC)vJREkmvDRrRwh>w>vXtylR,Hm
wh>r;vHb.q. ywxH.pH.nD.yDwhtpXvXt*hRxD.b.'D; w>wD.zsgxD.oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;
w>&>wz.pSR'H;0Jt*h>M.wuh>I
(3).rRw>Ckoh.ngvXtl;yF.'Ju0DR'D; 'Ju0DRt*kR*Rwz.tbX.pXRvXw>vDRqDzsg'fvmtod;wuh>Iw>oh.w
z.M.rh>0J eD.*H>eD.'G;vXw>rl;w>&>tzDcd.tHR rh>w>trh>twDupD'D{gI w>[h.w>pH.nD.vXw>zXEkmySRunDvX
w>'k;CmtylRtHR wrh>w>wcgvXw[h.*H>[h.bgySRvXuwD.zsgtw>rl;w>&>tgxD.{gI oGH.xH;w>pkql.cD.w
u;w>rl;w>&>wz.b.w>wD.xD.tDRqlrwRttd.vJ.'D;w>rEkRrRto;'D;t0Joh.vJ.I
(4). wuD>cgpH.nD.yDwhw>rRtusdRtusJtw>*H>ql.tw>*H>p>I

84

vHmbs;pJwz.
vHmbs;pJ=(1): uFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhw>rl;w>&>wz.vXw>usJRClusJRzd;tDRwM>
(1).w>rRur.w>rl;w>&>vXw>usJRClusJRzd;tDRwM>b.wz.M.

w>rl;w>&>'fM. rh>w>rl;w>&>vXw>[H;xD.
zD.xD.tDR 'D;[h.w>pH.nD.yXM>'.xJvXuFD.wJ.pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJtzDvm{dRM.vDRI w>rRur.w>rl;w>&>
vXw>usJRClusJRzd;tDRwM>b.wz.wrh>w>rRur.uGD>rh.wcgvX'Ju0DRpH.nD.yDwhpH.nD.qXwJmtDRyXM.b.I
(2).w>rRur.tuvkmwz.vXb.w>&J.vDRtDRvXtzDvmwz.tHRrh>?w>rRur.uDG>rh.wz.vXw>usJRCl
usJRzd;tDRwohb./wz.M.vDRI
1.w>rRoHvXtwzd;oJp;
2.[h.*H>[h.bg<qD.wclxD.<uGJM>vGJM>zdo.vXurRoHvDRto;
3.w>rRoHvXwzd;oJp;vXtymCkmvXySR'Du*l>tylR
4.w>rRql.w>rR[;*DR[k;o;
5.w>rRw&DwygvXw>usJRClusJrzd;tDRwM>tqXzd(276, 277, 277bis, 277ter)wz.M.vDRI
6.w>rRw&Dwyg(w>rHCkmql.)vXySR'Dwzk<'Dwu*l>vXw>usJRClusJRzd;wM>
7.w>usJ;pX;rRw&Dwyg(rHCkmql.)vXw>usJRClusJRzd;wM>tqXzd(276, 277, 277bis, 277ter )tqXwz.tHR
pkmpkmI
8.oGH.xH;w>rR[;*lm[;*DRxD'gqlzdo.wz.
9.w>usJ;pX;rRur.oGH.xH;w>rR[;*lm[;*DRxD'gqlzdo.'D;qD.wclxD.'D;ymCkmvXw>vXurRb.'dqg<rR[;
*lm[;*DRxD'gzdo.vXoGH.xH;w>rR[;*DRwz.tylRwcsK;'H;vXw>rR[;*DRtHRuJxD.<uJxD.tzXrk>< uJxD.0HRt
vD>cHtuwD>M.vDRI
10.'k;wl>w>b.'db.xH;e;e;uvJmqlzdo.
11.'k;td.xD.w>rR'X.'D;b.'db.xH;'d.'d.rk>rk>
12.w>rRur.b.C;w>oluoH.rl;bSD;wz.
13.w>rRuRySRunD
14.w>usJ;pX;rRuRySRunD<ymCkmqD.xGJrRpXRw>vXw>rRuRySRunDwcsK;'H;vXw>rRuRtHRuJxD.to;<uJxD.
o;tuwD><uJxD.0HRtvD>cH<'D;
15.w>rRur.w>vXtb.C;oh.yS>'D;
16.w>rRur.b.C;w>olw>pku0JRwz.

85

vHmbs;pJ=(2): unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmw>od.w>oD(39)xH.
unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmw>od.w>oD (39)xH.(b.w>uG>u'guhRw>od.w>oDwbh.tHRvX(2011)eH.w>
od. w>oDwz.tHR vXySRb.uDb.cJwz.t*D> (ySRvXtCkxH.M>w>td.u'kwpd>wvD> wz.t*D>) vX 'J u0DR (7)
bh.vXmwz.tylRM.vDRI
eD.
w>*h>w>usdR
w>[H;*h>0D
*H>
1 [H.ud;zsX.'J;ub.uGJ;zsgu0DR'heD.*H><[H.eD.*H><( UN)eD. 1. [h.w>oh.ng
*H><eD.*H>'D;[H.zdCDzdrk.cGgeD.*H>vX[H.rJmngM.vDRI(w>bsX) 2. [h.yvD>
3. [h.phtD.vd;(100)b;
2 ySRwrSHRwysDRwz.rh>[JrHwh>M.<[H.up>ub.vJRymzsgxD. 1. [h.w>oh.ng
qlu0DR'hbH.bXcd.ttd.M.vDRI(w>bsX)
2.wrSHRb.[h.§tD.vD;(50)b;'D;[H.up>b.[h.§
tD.vD;(100)b;M.vDRI
3 ySRub.EkmvDR[;xD.'.xJusJvXySR[h.tcGJ;wz.M.vDRI 1. [h.w>oh.ng
(w>bsX)
2. [h.yvD>
4
5

6

ySRvX[;xD.[;vDRwz.w>*h>uDrh>td.xD.wrHR'D;'Ju0DR 1. [h.w>oh.nge>yX>
b.rlb.'gw[H;rl'gvXt*D>b.I(w>bsX)
2. [h.yvD>
yS R'J u 0D Rzd w z.ub.rRpXRw>vX'Ju 0D R'f t -uX;0Jb .0J 1. [h.w>oh.ng
tod;zJ'Ju0DRb.rlb.'g'D;uFD.wJ.b.rlb.'gvd.b.w> 2. [h.yvD>
rRpXRtcgM.vDRI(w>bsX)
3. [h.phtD.vd;(100)b;
w>wb.ul.vJRrRuRw>zdw>vHRvXw>[h.eDRvDRtDRwz. 1. [h.w>oh.ng
M.b.I(w>bsX)
2. [h.yvD>
3. [h.phtD.vd;
(u)rhrh>1000=5000b;
=b.[h.phtD.vd;3000b;<w>'k;Cm15oD
(c)rhrh>5000b;qltzDcd.
=b.[h.phtD.vd;5000b;<w>'k;Cm25oD

w>td.zSd.wbsDv>v>[H.zdCDzdcX.p;vXt[JxD.w>td. 1.[h.w>oh.ng
zSd.ub.rh>ySR'd.wkmcd.ySJRvXte>yX>w>M.vDRI(w>bsX)
2.[h.yvD>
8 [gcD9e.&H.wkR*DRcD 5e.&H.M.ySRvXtrlt'gwtd.wz.< w 24.w>'k;Cm24e.&H.
b.[;xD.[;vDRvX'Ju0DRtylRb.I(w>bsX)
9 w>vDRwdd>vDRqDrh>td.wrHRrHRub.'k;oh.nge>[l'Ju0DRySR [h.w>oh.ng
b.rlb.'gM.vDRI(w>bsX)
10 w>wb.bk.usD><ye><od<rJmwJ;vJ;vX'Ju0DRtylRb.I
1.[h.w>oh.ng
(w>bsX)
2.[h.yvD>
7

3.[h.phtD.vD;

(u)od<rJmwJmvJ;<200b;
(c)uSD><ye><500b;
11 qD<xd.'h .<xD; 'D;xGH.wz.bk .tDRvXtvD> b.usJb .w 1.[h.w>oh.ng
uh>Iwb.'k;td.xD.w>uDw>cJ<w>[;*lm[;*DRvXcd.CXR 2.[h.yvD>
t*D>b.I(w>bsX)
3..[h.phtD.vD;
(u)xGH.rh>th.b.ySRw*R*Rub.[h.uoH.yShR
86

12

13

14

ySRud;*R'J;ub.'due.rRxGJxH'D;w>uqSJuqSDw>bsXM. 1.[h.w>oh.ng
vDRI(w>bsX)
2.[h.yvD>
3.wu
[H;*h>0D'fxH'D;w>uqSJuqSDw>bsXtd.0Jtod;
w>ub.vlRydmxGJw>bsXeJ.vDRvXtb.xJG'D;w>ul.b. 1.[h.w>oh.ng
ul.ohud;rR'J;vDRI(w>bsX)
2.[h.yvD>
3.u[H;*h>0D'fw>ul.b.ul.ohw>bsXtd.0Jtod;
M.vDRI
w>wb.wJtXwJqgvdmo;vXuvkm*h>0D'D;w>bl.w>bg 1.[h.w>oh.ng
M.b.I(w>bsX)
2.[h.yvD>
3.qSXqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'g

15

16
17
18
19

20

21
22

23

24

'Ju0DRzdw*Rv>v>vXt[;xD.ql'Ju0DRtcsXM.ub.'k; 1..[h.w>oh.ng
oh.ng'Ju0DRb.rlb.'gvDRI(w>bsX)
2. [h.yvD>
3. [H;*h>0D(ursX>w>rRoXoD)
w>bsX<w>}wD<w>yvD>vXtb.C;'D;rh.tltD.w>wz.w> 1. [h.yvD>
ub.vlRydmrRxGJtDR'fw>eJ.vDRtod;M.vDRI(w>bsX)
2. qSXqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'g
w>*DRrlvXtrR[;*DRySRvk>v>ouJ;y0;wz.vhRwuhRw>'k; 1.[h.yvD>
eJ.§w>qgtDRwohb.I(w>bsX)
2.phtD.vd;1000b;'D;w>'k;Cmwvg
w>ub.vlRydmxGJw>bsX<w>eJ.vDRvXtb.xGJ'D;w>td. 1.[h.yvD>
ql.td.cVud;rHR'J;M.vDRI
2.[H;*h>0D'fql.cVw>bsXtd.tod;
zdo.vXteH.td.(7)eH.wk R(18)eH.wz.rh>rRur.w>'D; 1.[h.w>oh.ng
w>wb.[H;tDR*h>0DvXtw'fod;'D;w>[H;M>ySR'd.wkmcd.ySJR 2.[h.yvD>
*h>0Dtod;M.b.I(w>bsX)
3.[H;*h>0D'ft-uX;0Jb.0Jtod;
rd>y>ud;*R'J;ub.[H;M>rl'gvXzdwz.tw>'d.xD.xDxD.< 1.[h.w>oh.ng
vk>v>ouJ;y0;u*hRt*D> ub.[H;M>rl'gwkRvDRwDRvDRM. 2.[h.yvD>
vDRI
3.w>u[H;*h>0D(ub.[Jymzsgo;ql'Ju0DR
b.rlb.'gwEGHwbsDvXoXvgtwD>ylR)
w>wb.rRxH&l>uD>oJ;tw>[l;w>*JRvX'Ju0DRtylReDwrHR qSXqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'g
b.I
usdmph'D;w>zdw>vHRvXtyShRuXyShRuvHRwz.w>rh>Chvd>Ch'GJ 1Iw>*h>[JxD.vXwtd.'D;vHmCH;Cm(ub.
tDRtvD>rh>td.ub.'k;oh.ngySRb.rlb.'g<ub.td.'D; [h.phtD.vD;500b;)
vHmCH;Cm<M.vDRI
=5000b;qltzDvm(u0DR'hrRyX)
=5000b;=30000b;(u0DR'd.rRyX)
=30000b;qlzDcd.(pH.nD.uGD>ub.rR)
2IphvDRvXzDcd.w>u[H;M>rs;u,R
=100b;wkR5000b;5µ
=5000wkR10000b;4µ
=50000b;qltzDcd.2µ
w>wb.rRur.ySR*h>0DtxloElb.I(uDG>xH)
1.[h.yvD>
=tJ.bXrgtJ.bX0R
2. w>uusJRClusJRzd;
=w>td.CkmvXwcsK;zsDo;
3. [H;*h>0D'fw>u&Xu&db.xGJ[h.w>ur.tod;
=w>CkeD>up>tbsK;vXeD>cdoGH.xH;
w>zdw>vHRvXwtd.'D;w>tk.uDRwz.M.<w>wb.yShRw> 1.
wb.qgtDRb.I(uGD>xH)
[h.yvD><od.uhRoDuhR<qSXqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'g
87

25
26
27
28

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

38

39

rhwrh>vXw>[h.tcGJ;b.M.w>wb.usDoh.usD0.vX'Ju
0DRtylRrh>*hR<'Ju0DRtcsXrh>*hRM.b.I(uGD>rh.)
w>wb.pl;ug<yShR<qg<[H;ymC;uoH.rlRbSD;b.I(uGD>rh.)
w>wb.wRusd.wRphvX'Ju0DRylRb.I(uGD>rh.)
w>wb.[k.w>bs.w><vDw>0hRw>b.I(uGD>rh.)

1.qSXqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'g
1.qSXqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'g
1.qSXqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'g

[h.yvD>td.'D;w>tX.vDR<w>tk.uDRo;
w>'k;Cm
(u)wEGHwkRCkvg'D;phtD.vD;'d;oMRo;vXw>zdw>vHR
zDcd.
w>wb.rRoHrR0Dw>b.I(uDG>rh.)
qSXqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'g
w>wb.[;CkM>ySRunDvXuvJRrRw>vXw>csXrh>*hR<&dzSd. 1.qSXqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'g
ymzSd.tDRvXeD>up>t[H.rh>*hRM.b.I(uGD>rh.)
rk.cGgw>rRw&Dwyg'D;w>pkql.cD.wu;M.w>wb.rRtDR 1.qSXqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'g
b.I(uGD>rh.)
w>wb.pl;ugzdo.vXeD>up>tbsK;vXtwzd;oJp;vXu 1.qSXqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'g
rR[;*DRzdo.ouJ;y0;M.b.I(uGD>rh.)
w>wb.rRb.'dqgySR*RteD>cdeD>o;M.b.I(uDG>rh.)
1.qSXqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'g
w>wb.rRb.'d'Ju0DRtw>bH.w>bX'D;w>td.*X>qd;usXR 1.qSXqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'g
b.I(uDG>rh.)
w>wb.rRb.'deD>w*Rtw>obVb.I(uGD>xHqluDG>rh.) 1.qSXqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'g
w>wb.'doH;qgoH;b.I(uDG>xHqluDG>rh.)
1.qSXqluFD.wJ.b.rlb.'g
w>vD>w>usJw>ol.xD.bSDxD.'D;w>yD;w>vDvXtb.xGJ'D; 1.[h.yvD>
ySRtg*RM.w>wb.pl;gtDR'fySRw*Rtw>M.b.I(uDG>xHql 2.w>'k;Cmwvg
uGD>rh.)
3.phtD.vd;1000b;
w>wb.[H;M>'D;rR[;*lm[;*DRw>zdw>vHRvX tb.xGJ'D; ySR 1.[h.yvD>
tg*RM.b.I(uGD>xHqluDG>rh.)
2.w>'k;Cmwvg
3.phtD.vd;1000b;
w>wb.rRwXxD.wXvDRw>vX'Ju0DRylRb.I
1.[h.yvD>
(uDG>xHqluDG>rh.)
2.w>'k;Cmwvg
3.phtD.vd;1000b;

88

vHmbs;pJ=(3): w>*h>w>usdRw>tcD.xH;cD.bd
1.(MDRG)?w>usJRClusJRzd;'D;w>bSg&SJuhRw>obH.bk.tvHmeJ.usJ/vHmy}wDm0HR0JzJ(2013)
2.?w>rRur.uDG >rh. wz.vXw>usJ R Cl usJR zd; wM>/unDb .uD b.cJ u rH; wH m w>od. w>oD < tD; uxd b X.
(2009)
3.unDb.uDb.cJurH;wHmw>od.w>oD(39)xH.b.w>uG>u'guhRtDRzJ(2011)eH.
4.?w>ur.rk>qh.rk>*DRwz./vHmy}wDmtHRb.w>rRtDRzJ(2009)'D;(2011)eH.
5.?w>tusdRtusJvXw>[h.w>pH;qXwbsDCD/vXoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;w>rl;w>&>wz.vXuD>uFD.
wJ.'D;uD>y,DRtqXt*DD>(ARM)
6.w>rR*hRxD.w>usJRClusJRzd;'D;zd;oJp;tusdRtusJwz.(DMLS)vHmy}wDm(2009)
7.?pH.nD.yDwhvX 'Ju0DRwz.tylR tw>yXqSX&J.usJR vX uD>uFD.wJ.'D; uD>y,DRtqX /w>ymzsgvX b.w> uGJ; tDR
vX(Kirsten McConnachie).(2012).
8.?w>yXw>qSXySRvXtb.td.,HR'D;txHtuD>wz./rh>w>wRvdmto;to;'D;w>td.w>qd;tvD><oJp;'D;

pH.nD.yDwhtusdRtusJvXuFD.wJ.'D;uD>y,DRtqX/w>ymzsgwbh.tHRb.w>uGJ;tDRvX=
(Kirsten McConnachie).(2011).
9.?ydmrk.wz. tw>'d;M>b.w>cGJ;w>,mvX pH.nD.yDwh tusdRtusJ = ymzsgxD.w>vX ttd.zsg -wXRuvmwz.
'D;tvD>td.vXw>qDwvJub.td.xD.=uD>uFD.wJ./xH*kRuD>*RpH.nD.uDG>u&XcX.p;(2012)
10.?w>zH;w>rRvXw>rRtDRwzSH.w0m vXtwtd.'D;w>uwJmuwDR 'D; w>wb.bsD;b.'g = uD>uFD.wJ.tw>

[h.w>u[ku,m &hvdmrkmvdmqlb.uDb.cJwz.'D; ySRCkxH.M>w>td.u'ktvD>wpd>wvD>wz.I/ySRvXt
[H;M>rl'gvXySR[D.cd.zdcGJ;,mwz.w>ymzsg(2012)
11.?ySR w0Xtw>Ch x D . ql (UNHCR)tw>zH ; w>rR<w>rRzsg xD . w>trd >vH R rd >yS >/( UNHCR)tw>eJ . usJ
(2008)I
12.(UN)bDrk>pXzSd.u&XbH.bXuD.u;w>td.zSd.w>tX.vDRwl>vdm( 2122)vXtb.C;'D;ydmrk.w>rkmw>ck.'D;
w>bH.w>bX(2013)
13.(UN)bDrk>pXzSd.u&X bH.bXuD.u;w>td.zSd.z;'d.w>qXwJm (1325)=vXtb.C;'D;ydmrk.w>rkmw>ck.'D;
w>bH.w>bX(2000)
14.w>td.zSd.z;'d.w>qXwJmvXtb.C;'D;w>rRvDRr>uGHmw>tuh>t*DRwrHRv>v> vX w>uG>wvDR xD'gydmrk.
(CEDAW)
15.?bDrk>pXzSd.u&X*H>cD.xH;w>od.w>oDrd>yS>wz.vXb.w>oltDRvXw>rR*hRxD.uhRpH.nD.yDwh0JRusdRwz.
vXtb.C;'D;uDG>rh./( 2002)
16.(Geneva Call)?w>tX.vDRwl>vdmb.C;w>ywkmoGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkq.
l cD.wu;vX w>'k;w>,R w>o bH.
bk.tw>td.o;qlw>rRvDRr>uGHmrk.cGgw>uG>wvDR/
17.(b.w>qJ; vDR pk rk >usX>vXunD' Du vk mpXzSd. u&X'D; ( KNU'D;KNLA)unD' Du vk mw>xl. zsJ. ok ; rk >'d. zJ
vg,lRvH21oD2013)
18.zDvpH.b.C;oGH.xH;rk.cGgw>pkql.cD.wu;tuDG>rh.vXt[JvXxH*kRuD>*Rw>rRur.uGD>rh.tuDG>bsD.
(ICC)
19.vHmw>*h>w>usdRb.C;( 2014)[D.cd.'Dbh. w>wD.zsgxD. b.C;oGH. xH; w>pkql.cD. wu;vXw>obH.
bk.tylRI
20. w>ymzsgtgbh.vXb.w>uGJ;tDRvX?ydmrk.ydmrXRwz.vXt[H;M>rl'gvXrk.cGgw>wDw>-w>/

89

vHmbs;pJ= (4): w>uwdRtzk.vXb.w>oltDRvXw>ymzsgwbh.tHRtylRwz.
ARC

American Refugee Committee

AUSAID

Previous name for the Australian Government Aid Department (now called DFAT)

ARM/SOP

Automatic Response Mechanism/ Standard Operating Procedures for SGBV Cases in Karen

CBO

Community Based Organization

CCSDPT

Committee for Co-ordination of Services for Displaced People in Thailand

CJ

Camp Justice

CMWG

Camp Management Working Group

CSO

Community Service Order

DARE

Drug and Alcohol Recovery and Education

DFID

Department for International Development (UK Government)

DMLS

Development of Mediation of Legal Standards

INGO

International Non-Government Organization

IRC

International Rescue Committee

KnRC

Karenni Refugee Committee

KNU

Karen National Union

KRC

Karen Refugee Committee

KWO

Karen Women's Organization

LAC

Legal Assistance Centers (also IRC/LAC)

MAT

Mediation and Arbitration Teams

MDRG

Mediation and Dispute Resolution Guidelines

NGO

Non-Government Organization

PV

Physical Violence

RTG

Royal Thai Government

SGBV

Sexual and Gender Based Violence

SV

Sexual Violence

TBC

The Border Consortium (previously TBBC)

TJ

Thai Justice

UNHCR

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

90

unDydmfrk.fu&>