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IP Network - Troughput Test Tools

IP Network - Troughput Test Tools

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Short description of IP througput and comparing iperf with ntop.
Short description of IP througput and comparing iperf with ntop.

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Published by: magnus2862 on Mar 29, 2010
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09/19/2010

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IP networks - throughput Magnus Abrahamsson

2010-02-17

Mid Sweden University The Department of Information Technology and Media (ITM) Author: Magnus Abrahamsson E-mail address: mrabris@gmail.com Scope: 2223 words inclusive of appendices Date: 2010-02-16

IP networks - throughput Magnus Abrahamsson

2010-02-17

Report Computer A, Computer networks, 7.5 points, DT024G (distance)

IP networks - throughput
Test tools

Magnus Abrahamsson

IP networks - throughput Magnus Abrahamsson

2010-02-17

Foreword
This is a short technical report written as an assignment in the course Datornätverk. The report is actually an extension to the one of the topics we studied in this course. I have chosen write a report that you could say is a mix of the subject “Test and compare two types of software in the area of data communication” and “Compare two data communication standards”. I will look closer on test tools to measure IP network performance with focus on throughput, and describe their advantages and disadvantages. It has been quit a challenge for me, but a good one. I hope you enjoy reading it as much as I liked writing and working with it.

Kind regards Magnus Abrahamsson

IP networks - throughput Magnus Abrahamsson

2010-02-17

Table of Contents
Foreword ..........................................................................................................iii 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 2 2.1 2.2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 Introduction............................................................................................5 Scope .............................................................................................5 Outline ..........................................................................................5 Contributions ...............................................................................5 Network throughput introduction.....................................................6 Throughput ..................................................................................6 Goodput (data transfer rate)......................................................7 Network tools.........................................................................................8 iperf ...............................................................................................8 jperf................................................................................................8 ntop................................................................................................9

4 Test tool measurements......................................................................11 4.1 Testbed........................................................................................11 4.2 iperf .............................................................................................12 4.2.1 TCP throughput test.......................................................12 4.2.2 Testing UDP ....................................................................12 4.2.3 Simulate application data traffic ..................................13 4.2.4 Bi-directional test............................................................14 4.3 ntop..............................................................................................15 4.3.1 Network traffic historical view.....................................15 4.3.2 Network Throughput ....................................................16 5 6 Conclusions / Discussion...................................................................17 References.............................................................................................18

IP networks - throughput Magnus Abrahamsson

Introduction 2010-02-17

1

Introduction
How to measure throughput and if it’s really delivered is one of the topics both end-users and network operators are discussing right now. As networks become larger, more complex, and more heterogeneous network management turns into an increasingly complex task. It requires different types of network monitoring and diagnostic tools then ping and traceroute, how are suitable just for tackling simple connectivity problems. Both automated tools and special performance tools will be necessary in the future to support the human effort. This document is intended to provide valuable information and examples for network managers or operators on the use of two different network tools; iperf and ntop.

1.1

Scope
There are several different network monitoring and diagnostic tools and ways to measure the network performance in an IP network. This study has its focus on how to measure of bandwidth/throughput with iperf and ntop.

1.2

Outline
Chapter 2 gives you a description of different IP network performance terms. Chapter 3 gives you information about network test & measurement tools Chapter 4 gives you more hands-on examples of about the tools. Chapter 5 gives you conclusions and more comments on the subject.

1.3

Contributions
Special big thanks to all colleagues at work which have been very supportive during the whole process.

IP networks - throughput Magnus Abrahamsson

Network throughput introduction 2010-02-17

2

Network throughput introduction
Before we look into what kind of data the different test tools can provide us with, it’s impotent to be able to distinguish between some network terms associated with throughput. Therefore I will try to walk you through some of them in this chapter.

2.1

Throughput
How fast we actually can send data through a network. It’s usually measured bit per second (bps). You have to keep in mind that the value of “maximum throughput” could have four different meanings depending of its context. They are: Type of throughput Maximum theoretical throughput Description

Based on ideal circumstances. Primarily used as a rough calculated value to determining bounds in a design phase. Maximum Achievable throughput Maximum data rate of successful data transfer through a communication path. Peak measured throughput (peek) Measured on real transaction for a short period of time. Useful for system that relies on burst data transactions. For system with high duty time it less likely of interest. Maximum sustained throughput (avg) The average or integrated over long time throughput. God for high duty networks to measure the performance. Could be misleading if package shaping are used. Real transaction in progress meas-

Current measured throughput

IP networks - throughput Magnus Abrahamsson (current)
Table 1: Type throughputs

Network throughput introduction 2010-02-17 ured throughput.

Keep an eye on the lowest value link in the series, it’s referred to as the bottleneck.

2.2

Goodput (data transfer rate)
Goodput or data transfer rate refers to the achieved average net bit rate that is delivered to the application layer, exclusive of all protocol overhead, data packets retransmissions, etc. For example, in the case of file transfer, the goodput corresponds to the achieved file transfer rate. The file transfer rate in bit/s can be calculated as the file size (in bytes), divided by the file transfer time (in seconds), and multiplied by eight. If no data compression is provided by the network equipment or protocols, we have the following relation: Goodput ≤ Throughput ≤ Maximum throughput ≤ Net bit rate

IP networks - throughput Magnus Abrahamsson

Network tools 2010-02-17

3

Network tools
We will in this chapter look deeper into two different tools, and see what kind of network performance they actually measures.

3.1

iperf
iperf is a nifty little program for measuring TCP and UDP performance between end points. It has both client and server pieces, so it requires installation at both ends of the connection you're measuring. Via this tool you then could measure throughput on your various network segments, and collect jitter and datagram loss statistics. [4] Primarily Measured Throughput: Maximum Achievable throughput iperf Advantages + Easy to install + Possible to simulate application traffic + Could be running directional or bi-directional + Measures jitter on simulated traffic (UDP) + Measures packet lost. + Free (Open-source) iperf Disadvantages - lack of documentation

3.2

jperf
It’s possible to use a Java based GUI for iperf called jperf. I not going into any further detail regarding this tool, only show you a screenshot from it.

IP networks - throughput Magnus Abrahamsson

Network tools 2010-02-17

Picture – jperf GUI

3.3

ntop
ntop is a wonderful hybrid packet analyzer that generates nice clickable HTML reports that show you what's happening on your network. It slices and dices network traffic all kinds of ways: by protocol, host, local or remote network, network load, network flow, what Web sites your users are visiting, how much traffic is coming from or going to remote sites, throughput and loads more. It supports virtually all network protocols over both IP networks and Fibre Channel. [5] Primarily Measured Throughputs: Maximum sustained throughput (avg) Peak measured throughput (peek) Current measured throughput (current) ntop Advantages + Easy to install + Simple application traffic + Free(Open-source) + Traffic measurement + Traffic monitoring + Network optimization and planning

IP networks - throughput Magnus Abrahamsson + Detection of network security violations ntop Disadvantages - (sampling period)

Network tools 2010-02-17

IP networks - throughput Magnus Abrahamsson

Test tool measurements 2010-02-17

4

Test tool measurements
In this chapter we will give actual examples on how the two test tools, iperf and ntop, worked in a live environment.

4.1

Testbed
Server1 Redhat HP server, 2 Dual-Core AMD Opteron(tm) Processor 2218 processors (4 cpu cores) (version 2.00.00-rhel4), 4Gb memory 1000 Mbps full duplex, receive & transmit flow control ON Broadcom NetXtreme II BCM5708 1000Base-T (B2) PCI-X 64-bit 133MHz

Client1 Ubuntu 9.10 desktop, Pentium 4 3Ghz, 1Gb memory 100 Mbps, full duplex. Flow control is off for TX and off for RX. Tigon3 [partno(BCM95751) rev 4001 PHY(5750)] (PCI Express) 10/100/1000Base-T Ethernet

ntop server

Iperf client

iperf server

Client1

Server1

Sw

Subnet A

R

Subnet B

Sw

IP networks - throughput Magnus Abrahamsson

Test tool measurements 2010-02-17

4.2

iperf
First start up iperf in server mode with this command: admin@server1# iperf -s Run the client with this command: guest@client1:~$ iperf -c server1

4.2.1

TCP throughput test By default iperf uses TCP port 5001, so make sure it's not blocked. This is the result of a run without tcpdump running: ------------------------------------------------------Server listening on TCP port 5001 TCP window size: 85.3 KByte (default) ------------------------------------------------------[ 3] 0.0-10.0 sec 113 MBytes 94.6 Mbits/sec

Pretty nice- that's as good as you can get on Fast Ethernet. This is what happens when tcpdump is running on server side: [ 4.2.2 4] 0.0-10.0 sec 110 MBytes 92.0 Mbits/sec

Testing UDP Stop the server with Ctrl+C, then run these commands to start iperf server in UDP mode. admin@dserver1:~$ iperf -su from the client run the following: guest@client1:~$ iperf -c deneb –u [ ID] Interval Transfer Bandwidth [ 3] 0.0-10.0 sec 1.25 MBytes 1.05 Mbits/sec [ 3] Sent 893 datagrams [ 3] Server Report: [ 3] 0.0-10.0 sec 5638046520444870 bits (null)s/sec 0.007 ms 0/ 893 (0%) [ 3] 0.0-10.0 sec 1.25 MBytes 0.003 ms 0/ 893 (0%) 0.00

1.05 Mbits/sec

IP networks - throughput Magnus Abrahamsson

Test tool measurements 2010-02-17

That's quite a difference. Why is UDP so slow? Because iperf's default is 1.05 Mbits/second, so it's not a network problem. We can try some different values to see what happens. Let's tell it to use all available bandwidth: admin@server1# iperf -su guest@client1# iperf -c server1 -u -b 100m Client connecting to server1, UDP port 5001 Sending 1470 byte datagrams UDP buffer size: 110 KByte (default) ---[ ID] Interval Transfer Bandwidth [ 3] 0.0-10.0 sec 114 MBytes 95.6 Mbits/sec [ 3] Sent 81314 datagrams [ 3] Server Report: [ 3] 0.0-10.0 sec 513169564593235200 bits 0.00 (null)s/sec 0.009 ms 33/81313 (0.041%) [ 3] 0.0-10.0 sec 1 datagrams received out-oforder That's very good speed, and 0.041% datagram loss is insignificant. That's a good clean connection. VoIP call can tolerate as much as 10% UDP datagram loss. 4.2.3 Simulate application data traffic Applications determine how many TCP or UDP packets are sent, and what size. To get a more real-world idea of performance, you can set the size of the UDP datagram to the same size that your applications use. This example whales on your line by sending 200-byte datagrams at 100 Mbits/second: admin@server1:~$ iperf -su -i 1 guest@client1:~$ iperf -c server1 -u -l 200 -b 100m [ID] Interval Transfer Bandwidth [3] 0.0-10.0 sec 89.0 MBytes 74.7 Mbits/sec 0.054 ms 4728/466661 (1%) The -i option generates a progress display every second.

IP networks - throughput Magnus Abrahamsson 4.2.4 Bi-directional test

Test tool measurements 2010-02-17

By default, iperf flings TCP packets over your wires as fast as possible. A bi-directional test, which is the -d option, runs both ways: guest@client1:~$ iperf -c server1 [ ID] Interval Transfer client1 -> server1 [ 5] 0.0-10.0 sec 48.8 MBytes Server1 -> client1 [ 4] 0.0-10.0 sec 110 MBytes -d Bandwidth 40.9 Mbits/sec 91.8 Mbits/sec

As you can see the Client1 machine has big troubles with sending packages to the server during bidirectional testing. Why kind of bottleneck is this ? - This is because Clinet1 hasn’t flow control turn on? - Or is it because of the 1000Base-T and 100Base-T differ? - Or could it be the swiches on subnet A? Let do a bi-directional UDP test and see what happens: guest@client1:~$ iperf -c server1 -u -b 100m –d [ 4] 131.116.248.17 > 131.115.4.164 port 5001 [ 3] 131.115.4.164 > 131.116.248.17 port 5001 [ ID] Interval Transfer Bandwidth [ 4] 0.0-10.0 sec 114 MBytes 95.6 Mbits/sec [ 3] 0.0-10.1 sec 114 MBytes 95.1 Mbits/sec 0.029 ms 3891/85459 (4.6%) We can see that we now have almost no jitter (0.029ms) but a lot of package lost (4.6%) in the other direction, server -> client communication.

IP networks - throughput Magnus Abrahamsson

Test tool measurements 2010-02-17

4.3

ntop
We will only look at the ntop in web-mode. You can start the ntop server with: #/etc/init.d/ntop start You can access the ntop server webpage on default port 3000. http://hostname:3000

4.3.1

Network traffic historical view The network traffic historical view gives you a lot of information about the network traffic. It’s easy to see what kind of traffic there is in the network and its average/peek values during the period.

Table3 - Historical View per service

IP networks - throughput Magnus Abrahamsson 4.3.2 Network Throughput

Test tool measurements 2010-02-17

Those are graphs that show the evolution of the total throughput observed in the network. They are presented in different time scales, showing the throughput in the last 10 minutes up to last month. This sort of statistics is valuable to determine peek and low usage periods. In this way the administrator will be able to better schedule traffic intensive or network disruptive activities (physical network maintenance, switch configuration, data traffic with low priority, etc.). It might also be interesting to detect unexpected throughput peeks, which could indicate excessive use of the network resources by a user or group of users. [5] It’s important to understand that ntop use minimum sampling period of a minute. This means that the throughput peak value actually is the peak average of a minute during the measurement period. In the most cases this is accurate enough for network monitoring.

Table4 – Network Throughput : Data sent + revceived

Table5 –Last hour Network Throughput (1 min sampling period)

IP networks - throughput Magnus Abrahamsson

Conclusions / Discussion 2010-02-17

5

Conclusions / Discussion
Measuring the throughput, delay, jitter and packet loss only gives you a hint of where you could have performance issues or the bottleneck in the network. Finding network problems does not necessarily lead to instant solutions. Correct interpretation is still needed. Sometimes it can be frustrating to have a lot of information without finding the answer to your problems. However, network monitoring can truly be an asset to your corporation as a whole.

IP networks - throughput Magnus Abrahamsson

References 2010-02-17

6

References
[1] By Behrouz A. Forouzan; Data Communications and Networking, 4th edition; McGraw-Hill, 2007. ISBN 007-125442-0. By Craig Hunt; TCP/IP Network Administration. O’Reilly. ISBN 0937175-82, s257-300, May 1994 By Gian-Paolo D. Musumeci & Mike Loukides; System Performance Tuning, 2nd edition ; O’Reilly, Feb 2002, s86-91. ISBN 0-20141979-3 By Carla Schroder, Linux Network cookbook, O’Reilly. ISBN 10: 0596-10607-6. November 2007 [Deri98] Deri, L. NTOP User’s Guide - Network Usage Monitor for Unix Systems.Centro Serra, University of Pisa, Italy. Available at http://www.ntop.org/ntop-overview.pdf. Fetched 2010-02-16

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

Front page Illustration: IPv4 INTERNET TOPOLOGY MAP, By UC Regents 2008, AS level Internet graph.

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