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Nokia Networks

Nokia Academy
3G RANOP RU40
Performance Monitoring

RN31571EN40GLA1

Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

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RN315701EN40GLA1

Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

Performance Monitoring

Call drop (RAB, DCH, radio link)

Mobility (SHO, ISHO, relocation)


HSPA drop
HSPA mobility (SCC, HSUPA SHO)

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Call drop analysis process 1/2


Flow chart for RAB
Serving and neighbor
cells availability
Alarms/Tickets

Top (N) drops


neighbor performance
(use SHO success per adjacency
counters to identify badly
performing neighbors) and map

Site OK ?

Audit adjacent sites for


alarms, availability,
configuration and capacity

YES

Configuration and
parameter audit

Conf OK ?

NO

YES

3G Cell at
RNC
border?

No SHO

See next slide

SHO
Success
Rate < 90%?

SHO

ISHO
Failures

No SHO triggered???
Fragmented Cell!
Forgotten Neigbours!
Temporary Solution
DSR;
Solution Fragmented
Cell find Reflection or
antenna side lobe
change Antenna tilt or
azimuth;
2G Investigation
TCH blocking or
TCH seizure failure
(interference)

Iur
performance

Investigation Iur

New site ?
Analyse last detailed
radio measurements

NO

3G cell at
inter-RNC
border ?

YES
No cell
found ratio
>40 %

YES

YES

NO

ISHO

Traffic

3G cell
covers over a
coverage hole
?

YES

RF and IFHO neighbor


optimisation

RF and ISHO neighbor


optimisation

NO
YES

ISHO
Success
Rate < 90%

RN315701EN40GLA1

No cell found
ratio > 90 %
and enough
ADJG

Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

Wrong reference clock


(10MHz tuning)

Call drop analysis process 2/2


Corrrect the adjacencies list
(Include forgotten neighbors)
Not OK

No SHO

Check adjacencies
OK

No
Check of cell fragmentation

Check SHO parameters

YES

change Antenna tilt or azimuth


Temporary solution: activate DSR

No SHO triggered??? Fragmented Cell! Forgotten Neigbours! Temporary


Solution DSR;
Solution Fragmented Cell find Reflection or antenna side lobe change
Antenna tilt or azimuth;

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Call drop analysis


Failure cause example for voice
Many CS RAB
drop causes
due to radio
and
transmission

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Call drop analysis


Failure cause example for PS

Many PS RAB drop causes


due to UE and radio

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Call drop analysis


1.

Check high call drop cells and its neighboring cells for any fault alarms

2.

Generate call drop root cause distribution and check for main contributors (radio, BTS,
Iub, Iur, RNC, Iu, MS)

3.

Check SHO if success rate < 90% (leads to radio link failure)

4.

Check if cells are at RNC border (check Iur capacity and SRNC relocation problem)

Detect badly performing neighbors using SHO success rate per adjacency counters (M1013)

High incoming HO failure rate from all adjacencies check sync alarms

Assess neighbor list plan and do visualization check with map

Evaluate HO control parameters and trigger thresholds

Check ISHO KPI if RT ISHO < 90% or NRT < 80% (leads to radio failure)

Check missing neighbors (M1015)

Check GSM frequency plan, RNC and MSC database consistency

Check alarm of reference clock in 3G or in 2G

Check 2G TCH congestion

Check RRC drop during ISHO RT / NRT

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Call drop analysis


5. Look for DL or UL path loss problem if RAB drop due to radio dominates

Check UE lost counters (active L1 synchronization failure) to check UL/DL path loss problem

Check active set update failure rate (with cause no response from UE)

Map radio failures with RL power and CPICH related parameters (CPICHToRefRABOffset, PTxDPCHMax)

Check call reestablishment timer (T315)

Check Ec/Io distribution for bad coverage issue (M1007)

6. Check core network parameter setting if RAB drop due to Iu

Check SCCP signaling (MSC / SGSN, RNC, IuCS / IuPS)

7. If high RAB drop due to BTS

Check for any BTS faulty alarm (e.g. 7653 cell faulty alarm)

If no alarms, COCO detach/attach

8. If high RAB drop due to MS

10

Check physical channel reconfiguration failure rate (IFHO, ISHO, code optimization)

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Call drop analysis


Example for trace of individual dropped call (possible with MEGAMON)

UE does not find SHO neighbor


Event 1F due to RSCP
UE enters compressed mode
But does not find GSM neighbor
either

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Soft drop - DCH


RT and NRT
RT
If communication between UE and network interrupted, this will trigger
RAB drop

NRT
Interrupted communication between UE and network will not trigger
immediately RAB drop
Network tries to shift UE to Cell_FACH state, i.e. tries to keep RAB running

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Soft drop - DCH


Failure cause example

Majority of
DCH drops
still due to
radio

Two drop cause counters only


Radio
Other
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Soft drop radio link failure


Definition
BTS looses synchronization with UE and cannot re establish it
within specified time
Compare number of radio links deletions due to synchronization
failure with total number radio link setup processes
In SHO radio link failure downgrades coverage only, but does not
trigger immediately DCH or even RAB drop
DEL _ SHO _ SRNC _ ACT _ RL _ SYN _ FAIL
UL _ LOST _ ACT
RL _ BRANCH _ ADD _ SUCC _ SHO _ SRNC
RL _ SETUP _ SUCC _ FOR _ FIRST _ RL
RL _ SETUP _ SUCC _ FOR _ SHO _ RL
Downlink radio link failure results
in UL synchronization loss since
the UE stops transmitting

14

RL deletion due to
synchronization failure
RL setup due to softer HO
RL setup due to initial request
RL setup due to soft HO

The counter DEL_SHO_SRNC_ACT_RL_SYNC_ FAIL measure the number of Radio link


deletions on SRNC side due to an active radio link synchronisation failure. If a BTS loses
synchronisation on an active RL and is not able to re-establish synchronisation during
the allowed time.

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Soft drop - radio link failure


Failure example RL deletion by SRNC and DRNC (with OSS data)
Each point represents one cell

< 20 % abnormal deletions

Black = RL deletion by SRNC


Red = RL deletion by DRNC
High number of abnormal radio link
deletions by DRNC

> 50 % abnormal deletions

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Performance Monitoring

Call drop (RAB, DCH, radio link)

Mobility (SHO, ISHO, relocation)


HSPA drop
HSPA mobility (SCC, HSUPA SHO)

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SHO successful softer HO


Signaling and trigger
UE

BS

RNC

Measurement report 1A or 1C
AC
RL addition request
RL addition response

BTS resources needed


But no Iub resources
(no CAC)

SETUP PHASE

If problem, check radio link


addition failure causes (M1005)
Active set update

ACCESS PHASE
Active set update complete

17

If problem, check air interface


performance

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SHO successful soft HO


Signaling and trigger
UE

BS

RNC

Measurement report 1A or 1C
AC
RL setup request

BTS resources needed

RL setup response
AAL2 sig. ERQ
AAL2 sig. ECF

SETUP PHASE
And Iub resources
needed (CAC)

If problem, check radio link


setup failure causes (M1005)

Active set update

ACCESS PHASE
Active set update complete

18

If problem, check air interface


performance

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SHO Overhead
Concept and counters
Indicates size of SHO area
If too small, SHO might fail
If too big, capacity is wasted

Counter for calculation of overhead


Consider the time, a call stays in an active set of 1 / 2 / 3 cells, both for RT and
NRT services

ONE_CELL_IN_ACT_SET_FOR_(N)RT
TWO_CELL_IN_ACT_SET_FOR_(N)RT
THREE_CELL_IN_ACT_SET_FOR_(N)RT

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SHO Overhead
Concept and counters
Call setup in cell A.

Cell A

Cell B

After 40sec Event 1A (addition): Active Set has changed.


(CellA) ONE_CELL_IN_ACTIVE_SET incremented + 40sec
Cell A

Cell B

After 60sec Event 1B (deletion): Active Set has changed.


(Cell A) TWO_CELL_IN_ACTIVE_SET incremented +60sec
(Cell B) TWO_CELL_IN_ACTIVE_SET incremented +60sec
Cell A

Cell B

After 20sec Call release.


(Cell B) ONE_CELL_IN_ACTIVE_SET incremented + 20sec
Cell A

20

Cell B

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SHO Overhead
Cell level
E1A CPICH

E1B CPICH

Offset 4dB

KPI shall give average


number of radio links
during a call

Offset 6dB

SHO
area

cell A

ONE _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ FOR _ RT / NRT


TWO _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ RT / NRT 2
THREE _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ RT / NRT 3
ONE _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ RT / NRT
TWO _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ RT / NRT
THREE _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ RT / NRT

Factors 1/2/3
= number of
radio links

Total time of
all calls

Total time during which all calls are


running with different AS size

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cell B

SHO Overhead
Cell level
Example: RNC area with 3 cells A, B and C
Cell A: 20 s active alone, 10 s with B, 10 s with C, 5 s with B + C
(20 s alone, 20 s with 2 cells, 5 s with 3 cells)

Cell B: 30 s active alone, 10 s with A, 5 s with C, 5 s with A + C


(30 s alone, 15 s with 2 cells, 5 s with 3 cells)

Cell C: 25 s active alone. 10 s with A, 5 s with B, 5 s with A + B


(25 s alone, 15 s with 2 cells, 5 s with 3 cells)

Cell level results


Cell A: Average AS size = (20x1 + 20x2 + 5x3) / (20 + 20 + 5) = 1.67 (67% overhead)

Cell B: Average AS size = (30x1 + 15x2 + 5x3) / (30 + 15 + 5) = 1.50 (50% overhead)
Cell C: Average AS size = (25x1 + 15x2 + 5x3) / (25 + 15 + 5) = 1.56 (56% overhead)

Too big SHO overhead indicated

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SHO Overhead
Cell level
Cell level formula gives too high KPI value
Reason:
If e.g. A and B are active, during this time a call is counted both in A and
B, i.e. two times
If e.g. A. B and C are active, during this time a call is counted in A, B and
C, i.e. three times

cell A
Counted in
cell A only

Counted in cell A and


cell B

cell B

If cell A active together


with B
than cell B also active
together with cell A
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SHO Overhead
RNC level
ONE _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ FOR _ RT / NRT
TWO _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ RT / NRT

KPI compares effective


number of calls with
number of radio links

THREE _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ RT / NRT


ONE _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ RT / NRT
TWO _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ RT / NRT / 2
THREE _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ RT / NRT / 3
Denominators 1/2/3:

cell A

Call with 1 radio link


Belongs completely to its single
active cell

Cell with 2 radio links

Call belongs
to cell A only

Half the call belongs to each


active cell
Cell with 3 radio links
One third of the call belongs to
each active cell

24

RT/NRT means sum of


counters for RT and NRT e.g.
M1007C0+M1007C19 for ASS=1

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cell B
Call belongs half to
cell A and half to cell B

Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

SHO Overhead
RNC level
Example: RNC area with 3 cells A, B and C
Cell A: 20 s active alone, 10 s with B, 10 s with C, 5 s with B + C
Cell B: 30 s active alone, 10 s with A, 5 s with C, 5 s with A + C
Cell C: 25 s active alone. 10 s with A, 5 s with B, 5 s with A + B
RNC level results
Cell A, B and C altogether
75 s active alone
50 s with second cell
15 s with third cell
Average AS size = (75 + 50 + 15) / (75/1 + 50/2 + 15/3) = 1.33 (33% overhead)
RNC level KPI gives about half the overhead only than the cell level KPI!!

Realistic SHO overhead indicated

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SHO Overhead
RNC level example

Typical target
for SHO
overhead 40%

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SHO per adjacency


Concept and counters
SHO attempts per adjacency
No attempts to distant cell might be removed from neighbor list

No attempts to nearby cell check whether SC of ADJS is declared correctly in RNC data
base
No attempts to inter-RNC cell check whether RNC data bases are consistent with each
other (e.g. SC declarations)

Very few attempts to nearby cell check user distribution and propagation conditions
Very few attempts in general check addition window setting

Too many attempts to specific neighbor check user distribution and pilot pollution
Too many attempts in general check addition window setting

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SHO per adjacency


Concept and counters
SHO success per adjacency
High failure rate (several 10%) besides RL setup / addition failures and air
interface performance check for SC clash
100% failure rate to intra-RNC cell check for HW faults
100% failure rate to inter-RNC cell check for inconsistency between RNC and
core network data base (e.g. CI, LAC and RAC declarations)

Attempt and success per adjacency monitored by AutoDef SHO


counters (M1013)
SHO_success_per_ADJS_RNC

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SHO_ADJ_INTRA_FREQ_S HO_COMPL
SHO_ADJ_INTRA_FREQ_S HO_ATT

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ISHO successful procedure


Signaling and trigger
UE

BTS

RNC

MSC

RRC: Measurement Report (Event 1F)


NBAP: RL reconfig. prepare
NBAP: RL reconfig. ready
NBAP: RL reconfig. commit
RRC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration

UE put into
compressed mode

RRC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete


NBAP: CM command
RRC: Measurement Control

RRC: Measurement Report

RxLev
measurements

NBAP: CM command
RRC: Measurement Control

BSIC verification

RRC: Measurement Report


RANAP Relocation required
RANAP Relocation command
RRC: HO from UTRAN Command

RANAP Iu release request


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ISHO
execution

ISHO analysis
Flow chart

No

Too low success


rate
Top N cells

No action
needed

Yes

CM Start
Not
Possible?

No

Low ISHO
Measurement
success ?

No

Low ISHO
Success ?

No

Yes

Yes
Yes

Check admission
control rejection
TCP and RTWP

Missing ADJG or
Bad Neighbor
planning ?

Wrong 2G Ncell
Parameter (BSIC)
Or BSIC collision

Non-optimum
Compressed mode
parameter set

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Missing or wrong 2G
parameter in 2G MSC
or SGSN (BCCH, LAC,
CellID)
Poor GSM
Coverage
2G Ncell
Congestion
Too low ISHO triggering
threshold or
Too strict ADJG
minimum threshold

Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

Half Rate in 2G
Ncell ?

ISHO analysis
ISHO cause example (with OSS data)
Blue = RSCP triggered
Red = Ec/Io triggered
Black = DL RL power triggered
UE power triggered = 0

UL SIR target triggered = 0

HHO mostly triggered by event 1F


Event 1F again mostly due to low coverage, but not quality

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ISHO analysis
ISHO cause example RSCP under 1F conditions (possible with MEGAMON)

Usually very low coverage


under event 1F conditions
Consistent with counter
statistics

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ISHO analysis
ISHO cause example Ec/Io under 1F conditions

Usually acceptable Ec/Io even


under event 1F conditions
Consistent with counter
statistics

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ISHO - analysis
ISHO failure example no target cell found (with OSS data)
Each point represents one cell
100% target cell found

80% target cell found

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ISHO - analysis
ISHO failure example no target cell found

In several source cells often


failure to find target cell

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ISHO - analysis
ISHO failure example target cell not accessed

Much less critical to access


target cell

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ISHO per adjacency


Concept and counters
ISHO attempts per adjacency
No attempts to distant cell might be removed from neighbor list
No attempts to nearby cell check whether BCCH frequency and BSIC is
declared correctly in RNC data base

ISHO success per adjacency


High failure rate (several 10%) besides air interface performance check for
BCCH-BSIC clash
100% failure rate check for inconsistency between RNC, BSC and core
network data bases (e.g. CI, LAC and RAC declarations)

Attempt and success per adjacency monitored by AutoDef SHO


counters (M1015)
ISHO_success_per_ADJG_RNC

37

HO_ADJ_INTER_SYS_HHO_COMPL
HO_ADJ_INTER_SYS_HHO_ATT

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Inter-RNC mobility
Relocation and anchoring

3GPP options to
use MM

SRNS relocation
CN

Iu
RNC

Iu
RNC

Iu

Iu

RNC

Iur

RNC

S-RNC

Release Iur resources


after drop of last
source RNC cell

SRNS Relocation standardised


mobility method

RN315701EN40GLA1

Iu

Iu
Iur

D-RNC

RNC

Iu
Iur

RNC

Keep Iur resources


until release of the
call

Anchoring supported in
Nokia SRNC only for CS RT
and PS NRT services within
Cell_DCH

38

CN

CN

CN

Iu
Iur

SRNC anchoring

SRNC Anchoring not as such


standardised mobility method
Can lead to limited mobility at the border
between RNCs of different vendors
But can be implemented by applying
undefined set of standardised features

Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

Inter-RNC mobility
Incoming and outgoing relocation
Relocation procedure and failure detected differently between source
and target RNC
Target RNC
Target RNC sees relocation as incoming RRC connection setup with cause
SRNC relocation

Setup, access and active counters incremented both for RRC and RAB
In case of failures, corresponding setup and access failure counters are
incremented both for RRC and RAB (failure due to RNC)

Source RNC
Source RNC starts relocation procedure and releases finally RRC connection
with cause SRNC relocation

Active release counters incremented both for RRC and RAB


In case of failures, corresponding active failure counters are incremented both for
RRC and RAB (drop due to RNC)

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Inter-RNC mobility successful relocation


Signaling and trigger
RNC
Source

RNC
Target

Core

UE

RANAP Relocation required


RANAP Relocation request
RANAP Relocation request ACK
RANAP Relocation command

SETUP PHASE
RRC setup attempt
RRC setup failure due to RNC

ACCESS PHASE

RNSAP Relocation commit


RANAP Relocation detect

RRC setup complete


RRC access failure due to
radio or RNC

RRC UTRAN mobility info


RRC UTRAN mobility info confirm
RANAP Relocation complete

40

RANAP Iu release

ACTIVE PHASE

RANAP Iu release complete

RRC release due to relocation

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Inter-RNC mobility possible failures


Target RNC does not respond to RANAP relocation request or RNSAP relocation
commit (internal RNC or Iu problem)
Target RNC responds with RANAP relocation request NACK (no resource available
in target RAN)
Synchronization failure on Iur (transmission problem)
UE does not respond to RRC UTRAN mobility info (air interface or UE problem)
Synchronization failure on radio link (air interface problem)

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Performance Monitoring

Call drop (RAB, DCH, radio link)

Mobility (SHO, ISHO, relocation)


HSPA drop
HSPA mobility (SCC, HSUPA SHO)

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HSDPA drop analysis process


Flow chart
High drop
ratio

Top N cells

No

No action
needed

Yes
No

No
Pre-emption

Transition to
DCH due to
mobility
Yes

Yes

Normal Release
(No action
needed)

Normal Release
(No action
needed)

Transition to DCH
due to other
reason (e.g. type
of RAB)

No

No
Drop due to
radio

Yes

Yes

Normal Release
(No action
needed)

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Yes

High SCC Failure


Rate

No

HSDPA drop = soft drop


RNC tries to shift UE to Cell_FACH
RNC tries to keep RAB running

Drop due to
other reason

Check CQI distribution


and Ec/Io distribution for
coverage issue

Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

Check RB reconfiguration failure


rate (UE response with failure or
no response at all)
Check ICSU log (UE type)

Yes

Check HSDPA mobility


settings (SHO and SCC
parameter)

HSDPA drop analysis process


Failure cause example
Majority
of DCH
drops due
to radio

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Performance Monitoring

Call drop (RAB, DCH, radio link)

Mobility (SHO, ISHO, relocation)


HSPA drop
HSPA mobility (SCC, HSUPA SHO)

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Serving Cell Change SCC successful procedure


Signaling and trigger for inter BTS SCC
UE

BTS
Source

BTS
Target

RNC

RRC: Measurement Report (e.g. Ec/Io)


NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready
ALCAP: Establish Request
ALCAP: Establish Confirm
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit
RRC: Radio Bearer Reconfiguration
RRC: Radio Bearer Reconfiguration Complete

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SCC successful procedure


Signaling and trigger for intra-BTS SCC
UE

BTS
Source

RNC

RRC: Measurement Report (e.g. Ec/Io)


NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready

ALCAP: Establish Request

Setup of transport resources


only needed in case of interWAM mobility

ALCAP: Establish Confirm

NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit


RRC: Radio Bearer Reconfiguration
RRC: Radio Bearer Reconfiguration Complete

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SCC window settings


SCC with associated DCH

HSDPAServCellWindow

EC/I0

RNC, 0..6, 0.5, 2 dB

Drop
window
6dB

Addition
window

CPICH 1 R99
CPICH 2 R5/6

4dB

Addition Time
SHO for A- Periodic
DCH initiated reports

CPICH 2 active

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periodic reports as
long UE in SHO area
Serving cell change
initiated

time

CPICH 1 not
active anymore

Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

SCC window settings


SCC with F-DPCH
HSDPAServCellWindow
RNC, 0..6, 0.5, 2 dB

HSDPASRBWindow

EC/I0

Modified (smaller) SCC


window used, as no SHO
with event 1A yet

RNC, 0..6, 0.5, 1 dB

CPICH 1
CPICH 2

Addition
window

Addition Time
Just periodic
reports

periodic reports as
long UE in SHO area
Serving cell change AND
active set update initiated

CPICH 2 NOT CPICH 2 active


active yet
together with SCC

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time

SCC analysis process


Flow chart
High SCC failure
rate

Top N cells

No

No action
needed

Yes
No
SCC Fail BTS

Yes

No
SCC Fail
Transmission

SCC Fail AC

Yes

Yes

Check BTS HW

Check AAL2
Iub resource
congestion

DL power congestion
?

SCC Fail UE

Yes

Check RB
reconfiguration
Failure rate

No

Channelization
code
congestion ?

50

RN315701EN40GLA1

No

No

No

No

Check
Maximum
number of
HSDPA users

Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

SCC Fail
Others
Yes

Check RNC
internal transport
resources (DMPG)
ICSU
troubleshooting

SCC Fail
Prevention
timer
Yes

Check
HSDPACellChange
MinInterval
parameter

SCC analysis process


Failure cause example

Many serving cell change failure


causes due to AC
51

RN315701EN40GLA1

HSPA started

Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

SCC analysis process


1.

Determine main failure cause contributor

2.

Check HSDPA setup performance of target cells if SCC failure rate of source
cell is high

3.

If high SCC failure rate due to admission control

4.

52

In case of power congestion check HSDPA power settings (in case of dynamic power R99
should not throw out HSDPA completely)

Otherwise check number of HSDPA users

If high SCC failure rate due to BTS

Usually NOT lack of baseband resources (associated DCH already in SHO before SCC, for
HSDPA baseband is reserved per scheduler)

Check radio link reconfiguration failure causes of target cells

Check BTS hardware

RN315701EN40GLA1

Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

SCC analysis process


5.

6.

7.

53

If high SCC failure rate due to UE

Check RB reconfiguration failure rate

Check air interface performance

Check ICSU log for UE type monitoring

If high SCC failure rate due to transport

Evaluate number of reconfiguration failure due the transmission

Check for number of individual AAL connections

Check for frame delay or even frame loss due to congestion

If high SCC failure due to other reason

Check RNC internal transport resources usage (DMPG)

Requires ICSU troubleshooting

RN315701EN40GLA1

Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

SCC User data over Iur


Previous releases up to RU10
Inter-RNC HS-DSCH serving cell change and relocation at the same time
No flow of user data over Iur
Switch back to DCH not required, but nevertheless interruption of HSDPA service by the
mobility procedures

Since RU20
First inter-RNC serving cell change, then relocation
Flow of user data over Iur, when inter-RNC neighbor becomes new serving cell
HSDPA service not interrupted by the mobility procedures

AS={A,B,C}
Normal SHO for
A-DCH

AS={C}
Trigger
relocation

AS={A,B,C}
C= best cell,
HS-DSCH data
over Iur

54

RN315701EN40GLA1

RNC

B
RNC

Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015