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Patrisha Carter

Sarah Sintich
Advanced Placement Biology
12 October 2015

Macromolecules

Carbohydrates Summary
What makes up carbohydrates?

• Elements: Carbon hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
• Functional Groups: Hydroxyl group and Carboxyl Group (Ketose and Aldose sugars)
Reaction Types:
• Condensation Reaction (Dehydration Synthesis) -monomers are joined to create a polymer,
results in a water molecule being lost
• Hydrolysis Reaction- water molecule is used to split polymer
Types of Carbohydrates:
• Monosaccharide- single sugar, which is the monomer of carbohydrates. Example: glucose
• Disaccharides- double sugars, results from two monosaccharides joined through dehydration
reaction . Example: sucrose
• Polysaccharides- polymers composed of many sugar building blocks . Example: starch
Functions:
• Provides energy during cell respiration
• Energy storage if lipids are not present Example: Glycogen
• Structural material for the cell Example: Glycoproteins
Linkage type? Glycosidic Linkages
Types of Polysaccharides:
• Starch (in plants) and glycogen (in animals) have the main function of energy storage (Both
polysaccharides are broken down by hydrolysis reaction)
1. Starch- stored as granules within plastids, can be branched or unbranded in form, all
glucose subunits are in the alpha configuration

2. Glycogen- stored in muscle and liver cells, in branched form for quick energy release
• Cellulose (in plants) and chitin (in arthropods and fungi) have the main function to provide
structure, all glucose monomers are in the beta configuration
3. Cellulose- components of cell walls in plants, makes them indigestible
4. Chitin- makes up the cell walls in mushrooms and exoskeletons
Configurations: alpha helix and beta pleated sheet

Lipids Summary
• Elements: hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen atoms

• Hydrophobic- substance that repels water
• Hydrophilic- substance that is attracted to water
Types of Lipids:
• Monomer- fatty acid, long chain of hydrogen and carbon atoms with a Carboxyl group
• Triacylglycerol- 3 fatty acids and one glycerol, joined through condensation reaction
Function:
• Long term energy storage
• Cushion organs
• Insulates the body
• Structure of cell
Linkage type? Ester Linkages
Types of Fat:
• Saturated fats- single bonds between carbon atoms, solid at room temperature Example:
butter
• Unsaturated fats- double bonds between carbon atoms, liquid at room temperature Example:
olive oil
Phospholipids: 2 fatty acids and a glycerol, fatty acids are hydrophobic tails (one saturated and
one unsaturated) that are connected to a hydrophilic head (phosphate group), make double
layers to protect cell
Steroids: lipids composed of carbon skeleton of four fused rings Example: cholesterol, keeps
animal cell membranes fluid and flexible

Protein Summary
Types of Proteins:
• Monomer- polypeptide, which can connect together in order to make a peptide bond
Functions:
• Chemical reactions (enzymes)
• Structure
• Carriers and transpire
• Signaling

• Receptor and binding
• Contractile & motor
• Defense
Enzymes- regulate metabolism by acting as catalysts, which speeds up chemical reactions
Linkage Type? Peptide bond
Amino Acid Structure:
• The central carbon is a alpha carbon, which is attached to Carboxyl, amino group, H atom and
a R group
How to Build Proteins:
• Amino acids (2 or more) join by peptide bond
• Repeated N-C-C sequence occurs
Structure of Proteins:
• Primary level- linear structure
• Secondary level- alpha helix or beta pleaded sheet, folding and coiling of amino acid chains
Bonds: H-bonds
• Tertiary level- determined by interactions and bonding between R groups Bonds: H-bonds ,
hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions, disulfide bridges, van der waals interactions, ionic
bonds
• Quaternary level- two or more polypeptide chains joined together
Chaperonins: protein molecules that assist the proper folding of it her proteins

Nucleic Acid Summary
Functions:
• Store and transmit hereditary information
• Primary storage molecules in all living organisms
• Example: DNA and RNA
Monomer? Nucleotides, composed of a nitrogen base, pentode sugar, and phosphate group
2 Type of Nucleotide Bases:
• Pyrimidines- single ring N-base

- Cytosine
- Thymine
- Uracil
• Purines- double ring N-base

- Adenine
- Guanine
Linkage Type? Phosphodiester linkage
DNA: double stranded, replication occurs when the cell is about to divide, antiparallel
arrangement , bases (A,T,C,G)
RNA: single stranded, made from DNA, used to make proteins, bases (C,U,A,G)