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11/27/2015

Calculicious Capstone Essay- Allie Chazen - Google Docs

Allie Chazen Mathematics Ms. Carlee Hollenbeck 23 November 2015

Calculicious Capstone

The topic I completed research is on Quadratic Equations and Formulas. Quadratic formulas are made from quadratic equations. For example, in order to solve a quadratic equation, we need a quadratic formula. Quadratic equations are equations that can create certain lines on a graph, usually parabolas. Furthermore, unlike linear equations that create straight lines, quadratic equations create parabolas, which are curved lines. You can see parabolas in ways that a person would not normally think of. One way you can see a parabola in the world around you is when a tennis ball is thrown up in the air. When throwing a ball upwards, it does not always go straight down, instead it curves when it is about to go back down. When the curving happens that is when you would notice a parabola. This is one quick example of a practical application of quadratic

equations and formulas, and through my research I found that there are various more. Around 400 BC, the Babylonians had the ideas and mathematical information to get to knowing what a quadratic equation consists of. The group did not really have an understanding of what an equation was in order to create a quadratic equation. However, what they did have was certain algorithmic approaches to solving problems that eventually led up to a quadratic equation. Their approach to solving problems were the steps for “Completing a Square.” The solutions to their mathematical problems were always positive because the answer was usually a length. They had not found how to get a negative number yet. Around 300 BC, Euclid, a Greek

11/27/2015

Calculicious Capstone Essay- Allie Chazen - Google Docs

mathematician usually referred to as the “Father of Geometry,” created a geometrical approach

to understanding the math that already existed. Later, Euclid found an equation used with roots.

Around 590­670 AD, the mathematician Brahmagupta and other Hindus pushed the math even

further. They brought in negative numbers and math abbreviations for unknown variables in a

problem. ​Brahmagupta was the first to solve quadratic equations with negative and positive

symbols. Around 800 AD, a man named Al­Khwarizmi created six steps to different types of

equations that did not include negatives or zeros. The six steps he created became known as

“Completing the Square.” The Quadratic equation was then established in the 12th century by

Abraham bar Hiyya Hanasi in Europe. Abraham bar Hiyya Hanasi’s findings were published in a

book in 1145 with ways on completing the quadratic equation.

During my time researching this topic I have learned many math terms such as “roots”,

“quadratic equations,” “coefficients,” “parabolas,” “polynomial,” “completing the square,” and

“quadratic formula”. Each term connects to another term but have different and important

meanings. I found out that a root is a number that can be multiplied by itself. A variable is just a

letter that can represent any numerical value in the equation.​ For example, the variable “x” is

called either a solution or a root if the equation equals zero. You can see that the roots are exactly

the x­intercepts of the quadratic equation. That is because of the intersection between the graph

of the quadratic equation with the x­axis. Next, I found out that parabolas are a curved line,

2

"x ".

which are produced by quadratic equations. This is because of the The form of a quadratic

is, "​y​ = ​ax​ 2 + ​bx​+ ​c​". When graphing, the leading coefficient "​a​" will determine how narrow or

wide the parabola will turn out. For |​ a​ | > 1 (such as ​a​ = 2 or ​a​ = –4), the parabola will be

narrow, because it grows faster (2X or 4X as fast). For | ​a​ | < 1 (such as ​a​ = ​ 1 /​ 3 or ​a​ = 1

​ /​ 4 ), the

11/27/2015

Calculicious Capstone Essay- Allie Chazen - Google Docs

parabola will be wide, because it grows slower ( ​ 1 /​ 3 X or 1 ​ /​ 4 X as fast). Also, if “​a”​ is negative,

then the parabola will be placed upside­down, and can resemble a frown. The next term is

“Completing the Square”, that is when you take a quadratic equation and solve it in order to find

its roots. Another way to solve a quadratic equation is to use the Quadratic Formula. The

quadratic formula will also find the roots of a quadratic equation. Below is the quadratic formula

and a solution to a quadratic equation.

Quadratic Formula:

11/27/2015 Calculicious Capstone Essay- Allie Chazen - Google Docs parabola will be wide, because it grows

Detail:"±" = Plus or Minus = 2 solutions, "b²" = Square ALL of "b", "­ 4ac" = Plug in #'s for "a" and "c" then multiple that # by "­4", "2a" = put in the # for "a" then multiply by "2".

General Form of a Quadratic Equation:

11/27/2015 Calculicious Capstone Essay- Allie Chazen - Google Docs parabola will be wide, because it grows

Detail:"ax" = Coefficient of x­term, "bx" = Coefficient of x­term, "c" = Coefficient on the "x" to "0" term.

Steps to Solving a Quadratic Equation with the Quadratic Formula:

11/27/2015 Calculicious Capstone Essay- Allie Chazen - Google Docs parabola will be wide, because it grows
11/27/2015 Calculicious Capstone Essay- Allie Chazen - Google Docs parabola will be wide, because it grows

11/27/2015

Calculicious Capstone Essay- Allie Chazen - Google Docs

You Can Apply Quadratic Equations When:

Projectile problem: Having a ball be shot up in the air from the edge of the house, that is 40 feet

above the ground with a initial velocity of 10 feet per second. Trying to find how long it takes

for the ball to hit the ground.

Calculating the area of something:​ Building a rectangular box. If you want to find a side that is

double the length of the other side.

Figuring out a profit:​ Knowing how much supplies to use to make the profit.

Finding a speed:​ Estimate their speed when going up and down a hill.

I think that all of these applications can be solved or supported by using the Quadratic

Equation. One example of an Quadratic Equation use would be for solving how long it will take

a ball to hit the ground.

Problem:

A ball is shot up into the air from the edge of a house, 40 feet above the ground. Its initial

velocity is 10 feet per second. How long does it take for the ball to ​hit the ground​?

 

“Equation”:h = 12t

2 + 1

0t

+ 4

0

1)

I can figure this out simply by, first organizing what the problem already gives

me, and what the problem is asking for.

 

2)

Figure out what everything means:

  • a) h (​Hit the ground​) = 0

  • b) t = Time

  • c) Figure at which times everything hits at “0.”

● Answer: 0 = 12t

2

+ 1

0t

+ 4

0

5) Simplify (Make smaller)

  • a. Everything is divisible ( ) by 2

11/27/2015 Calculicious Capstone Essay- Allie Chazen - Google Docs You Can Apply Quadratic Equations When: Projectile

● Answer: 0 = 6t

2 + 5 + 2

t

0

11/27/2015

Calculicious Capstone Essay- Allie Chazen - Google Docs

6) Use Quadratic formula

Complete the square:

  • i. Figure out what

a, b, and c

are from what I have so far with “Answer”

ii.

2

a = 6t ; b

= 5

t; c

= 2

0

iii. Find what the Quadratic formula tells me

  • 1. Look at the roots ( t)

a.

t = b b

a. t = b b

2

4

(a)(c)

  • 2(a)

  • 2. Plug in the information I have to the equation

b.

t = 5 5

b. t = 5 5

2

4

( )(20) 2(­6) 6
( )(20) 2(­6)
6
  • 3. Solve

c.

t = 5 25 + 480

c. t = 5 + 480

1 2

d.

t = 5 505

d. t = 5 √ 505 12
d. t = 5 √ 505 12

12

t =

5
5

22

  • 12

17 t = 12
17
t =
12
 

t =

27 12
27
12

t =

  • 4

    • 9 4 t =

9

7) Get the answer that’s ONLY positive

9

  • a. t = = Seconds

4

I feel like I explained what Quadratic Equation and Formula is pretty good. I think that I

explained every step clearly and typed every step clearly as well. I explained this topic well

because I organized what is what in the problem, I clearly stated how to get the answer from the

math I presented too. I found there were so many steps to take with this problem, that you really

had to concentrate on what you're doing. I tried to organize this paper in a way to explain

everything but in a easier and more legible way.