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Physical Geography-the branch of geography that deals with natural

features and processes
Mediterranean Sea-the major ocean on which all the countries of Southern
Europe have coastlines
Pyrenees-mountain system on the Iberian Peninsula that form a boundary
between Spain and France to the north
Apennines-mountain system that runs along the whole peninsula of Italy
Alps-mountain system made up of Europes highest mountains, they are
located in the north side of Italy
Mediterranean climate-the type of climate found across Southern Europe,
the weather is usually warm with little rain in the summer and some rain
during the mild winter
Democracy-form of government in which the people control how things are
run in a nation by choosing their leaders to represent their beliefs
Athens-the first democratic Greek city-state, it allowed for all males 20 and
over to have the right to vote and to speak freely
Sparta-Greek city-state that warred with Athens often; it fought with
Athens however against the invading Persian empire during the Persian
Alexander the Great-a Macedonian ruler who conquered Greece as well as
almost the whole world including Persia, Egypt and eastward into India;
his empire was vast and it allowed Alexander to spread Greek culture in
many different areas of his empire
Roman Law-known as the Twelve Tables, all the rules and laws of Rome
were written on bronze tablets; they included laws regarding wills, courts,
and property (basically everything going on in the Roman government was
recorded to help keep track of its citizens)
Socrates-ancient Greek philosopher who sought to understand and explain
human nature
Pax Romana-period of peace and prosperity under Roman emperor Caesar


The Mediterranean Seas is the major body of water of which all

the countries of Southern Europe have long coastlines. It is the
largest body of water in Southern Europe.

The peninsulas of Southern Europe are the Balkan, Italian and

the Iberian.

Major mountain ranges of Italy are the Apennines and Alps.

Mediterranean climate exists in Southern Europe.

The sea is an important resource in Southern Europe due to its

large cities being ports from which goods are shipped all over
the world and because the seas are full of fish and shellfish
which help fishing industries do well.

Socrates was an ancient Greek philosopher who sought to

understand and explain human nature.

Major resources of Southern Europe are the sea and climate.

Philosophy=love of wisdom

Ideas that came out of ancient Greece were theatre,

philosophy, and democracy

Persian War united Athens and Sparta

Famous Greek leader from Macedonia who almost conquered

the world was Alexander the Great

Latitude-lines that are horizontal; ex. Equator

Longitude-lines that are vertical; ex. Prime Meridian

Roman Empire originated in the Italian peninsula

Oceans that surrounded South America: Pacific and Atlantic

Christianity became the official religion of Rome under

Constantine I