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Cell Pathology Project:

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

By: Kylar Hanley

Cell Structure: Cell

The cell membrane encloses the cytoplasm

containing all of the organelles inside of the

cell. It regulates the movement of substances
inside and out of the cell.

Cell membrane
structure cont.

The cell membrane

consists of a
phospholipid bilayer,
embedded proteins,
cholesterol (which
allows flexibility),
glycoproteins, and
glycolipids. The
phospholipids contain
both hydrophilic and
While the hydrophobic
tails face each other,
the hydrophilic heads
face the outside and
inside of the cell.
Glycoproteins and
glycolipids attach to the
outside surface of the
Cytoskeleton filaments

Function of the cell

The cell membrane acts as a barrier of

It manages what goes into the cell and

what comes out.
Membrane proteins have their own
specific functions but add to the
functions of the cell membrane such
as: transport, enzymatic activity, signal
transduction, cell-cell recognition,
intercellular joining, and attachment to
cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix.


The cell membrane is

important to the cell and the
organism. It provides
protection from the
surroundings. Because it is
selectively permeable it
allows certain things that the
cell needs to survive like
water. The cell membrane
holds the organelles in the
cytoplasm together. The
organism needs the
membrane because it
protects against foreign
materials and communicate
with the immune system.
Thus, trying to protect
against disease. Without a
membrane the cell doesn't
get some of its structure.

Duchenne Muscular
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy(DMD) is
a genetic disorder and one of the nine
types of muscular dystrophy. It is
characterized by progressive muscle

Duchenne Muscle
This disease effects the myoblasts which are

between the muscle cell

membrane(sarcolemma) and sarcomeres
(contractile units). The structures transmit
contractile forces from sarcomeres by
synchronizing which averts ruptures in the
membrane. When the sarcolemma doesn't
attach to certain proteins it causes a disruption.
This disruption causes leakage of muscle
proteins such as creatine kinase(CK) and causes
a process of degeneration. Duchenne muscle
dystrophy is caused by a lack of a protein called
Dystrophin which attaches to the extracellular
matrix? Deficiency of his protein leads to the
breakdown of the cell membrane.

Duchenne Muscle

Signs of this disease normally appear at

the early age of two or three and primarily
affect boys.
It first affects the muscles of the pelvic
area, thighs, arms, shoulders, and legs.
Around the teen years it weakens heart
muscles and respiratory muscles. Enlarged
calves are also symptoms. A third of boys
with DMD have a learning disability,
because the lack of dystrophin causes mild
effects on comprehension.
Campbell AP Biology Textbook and class cell