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Global Tobacco

Epidemic
Danielle Grasso SN, Keri LaRizzo SN,
Jenna Spotts SN, Kirsten OMeara SN

Key Facts: Tobacco


Tobacco kills up to half of its users
Tobacco kills around 6 million people each year
More than 5 million deaths are due to direct tobacco
use
More than 600,000 are a result of non-smokers being
exposed to second hand smoke
Nearly 80% of the worlds 1 billion smokers live in low
and middle income countries
The tobacco related illnesses and death have the
greatest impact on the low and middle income
countries

What is the Problem?


Tobacco is the only legal drug that kills many of its users when used
correctly as intended by the manufacturers
Although many acquire noncommunicable diseases such as COPD,
emphysema, and cancer, many also have an increased risk of death
from communicable diseases such as the flu, pneumonia, and
bronchitis
Ingredients are harmful to public health due to added attractiveness,
addictiveness, and toxicity
Extra ingredients are added to menthol cigarettes to allow for a deeper inhale
increasing the amount of nicotine dose per puf
Some ingredients are found to be toxic alone or in combination with other
substances found in tobacco products

Smoking Prevalence
United States

Brazil

Poland

Male (adults)

20.5%

21.6%

30.0%

Female (adults)

15.3%

13.1%

23.0%

Male (youth)

14.1%

6.4%

15.7%

Female (youth)

11.2%

6.3%

12.1%

Systematic Review of the Link Between Tobacco and


Poverty

Highest incidence of smoking among men is shown to


be in lower-middle income countries
For the total population, the highest incidence of
smoking is among upper-middle income countries
Low income smokers were shown to have worse
outcomes in tobacco related diseases. Possibly due to
access to health care

Tobacco Control Legislation: An Introductory Guide


Brazil is the worlds top tobacco leaf exporter, 4th largest tobacco producer, 8th largest cigarette
exporter but has the strongest smoking legislation
In 2002 Brazil began ofering free support to smoking cessation service including pharmacological
and cognitive therapy interventions
From 1989-2001 cigarette consumption fell by 32%
Brazil has strong smoking legislation as a result of large amount of support on all levels of its
government.
Poland has the most comprehensive smoking legislation in existence
Since Poland introduced its smoking legislation there has been a drop in the percentage of the
population currently smoking. (from 62%-40% in men and 30%-20% in women)
In the US most smoking legislation occurs at the subnational level
National government has the power to tax and regulate commerce in regards to tobacco but has
not ofered any support
In the US there is no comprehensive tobacco control program and tobacco control varies from state
to state

Why is the Global Tobacco Epidemic so


Important to the Nursing Profession?

Mortality Rates
6 million people every year worldwide
Half of tobacco users will die from use
600,000 or more die from second
hand smoke exposure

Common Health Issues

How can Nurses Help to Alleviate the Global Tobacco Epidemic?

EDUCATE and Participate!!!


World Health Organization Framework
Adopted in 2005
Covers 90% of the worlds population
Prevent the incidence of tobacco use
world-wide

The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control


MPOWER
M - monitoring tobacco use & prevention policies
P protecting people from tobacco smoke
O - ofering help to quit tobacco use
W warning about the dangers of tobacco
E enforcing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and
sponsorship
R - raising taxes on tobacco

Conclusion
Youve heard the numbers tobacco kills
Tobacco is the only drug that when used the way it is
intended, kills many people
It is important to educate on smoking prevention and
the many ways to help quit
Not only do many smokers acquire noncommunicable
diseases but they also acquire communicable diseases
that can harm them and potentially kill them

References
World Health Organization. (2014). Systematic review of the link between tobacco and poverty. Retrieved from
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/136001/1/9789241507820_eng.pdf?ua=1&ua=1
World Health Organization. (2004). Tobacco control legislation: an introductory guide. Retrieved from
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2004/9241562684_eng.pdf?ua=1
World Health Organization. (2015). WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2015: Country profile United States of
America. Retrieved from http://www.who.int./tobacco/survellince/policy/country_profile/usa.pdf?ua=1
World Health Organization. (2015). WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2015: Country profile Poland. Retrieved
from http://www.who.int./tobacco/survellince/policy/country_profile/pol.pdf
World Health Organization. (2013). WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2015: Country profile Brazil. Retrieved from
http://www.who.int./tobacco/survellince/policy/country_profile/bra.pdf?ua=1
World Health Organization. (2014). Fact sheet on ingredients in tobacco products. Retrieved from
http://www.who.int/tobacco/industry/product_regulation/factsheetingredients/en/
World Health Organization. (2015). Tobacco. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs339/en/
World Health Organization. (2007). The Smoker's Body. Retrieved from
http://www.who.int/tobacco/publications/health_efects/smokers_body/en/
World Health Organization. (2015). WHO global report on trends in tobacco smoking 2000-2025. Retrieved from
http://www.who.int/tobacco/global_report/2015/en/