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Kartveluri Memkvidreoba XII Beridze Merab

Kartveluri Memkvidreoba XII Beridze Merab

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აწყურის ეტიმოლოგიისათვის
MERAB BERIDZE

ABOUT ATSKURI ETYMOLOGY
მერაბ ბერიძე

აწყურის ეტიმოლოგიისათვის
MERAB BERIDZE

ABOUT ATSKURI ETYMOLOGY

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qarTveluri memkvidreoba (akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis qarTveluri dialeqtologiis samecniero-kvleviTi institutis perioduli samecniero Jurnali) tomi

XII, gv., 31-36 merab beriZe awyuris etimologiisaTvis awyuri saqarTvelos erT-erTi uZvelesi qalaqi iyo. herakles laSqrobis dros (VII s.) aq saydari augiaT, romelic XII-XIII ss. samcxis saeklesio centri gaxda. "grigol xanZTelis cxovrebis" Tanaxmad, ukve grigolis dros (VIII-IX ss-Si) arsebobda awyuris saepiskoposo da sakaTedro taZari, romlis meTauri iyo xanZTelis mowafe efrem didi mawyvereli. dReisaTvis SemorCenilia awyuris gumbaTovani taZris nangrevebi. "farTobiT igi yvelaze didi eklesia yofila saqarTveloSi" (smeel, 2007, gv. 119). awyuri friad mniSvnelovan samxedro-strategiul punqts warmoadgenda. aq gadioda didi gza, romelic samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos akavSirebda qarTlTan (l. menabde, 1962, gv. 47). bolo dros awyurSi Catarda arqeologiuri gaTxrebi, romelmac bevri istoriuli cnoba gaacocxla: "awyuris teritoriaze arsebuli cixis citadelSi mikvleulia axali welTaRricxvis dasawyisis anu andria mociqulis awyurSi yofnis periodis kedlis naSTi, romelic andria mociqulis mier cixis zeda nawilSi mariam RvTismSoblis xatis dasvenebis SesaZleblobas realurs xdis. cixe, rogorc Cans, warmoadgenda im mosaxleobis akropoliss, romelic mdinare mtkvris marcxena napirze mdebareobs... ukanasknel wlebSi Catarebuli gaTxrebis Sedegad dafiqsirebulia mniSvnelovani faqti _ Zveli samosaxlo arsebobda Zv. w. aRricxviT V saukunidan ax. welTaRricxviT I saukunis CaTvliT mdinaris marcxena napirze. axali welTaRricxvis damdegidan samosaxlos mdebareoba Seicvala da igi mTlianad mtkvris marjvena napirze gadmovida. swored aq ganviTarda Sua saukuneebis qalaqi, romlis arqiteqturul dominants warmoadgenda ori xuroTmoZRvruli Zegli _ RvTismSoblis taZari da cixe" (v. liCeli, 2008, #8 (116). mTeli istoriis manZilze awyuri mniSvnelovani politikuri da saeklesio centri iyo. aq iqadaga pirvelad qristianoba andria pirvelwodebulma pirvel saukuneSi da moaqristiana samcxe. saqarTveloSi mironis kurTxevis ufleba swored awyuris episkoposis _ efrem mawyverelis mcdelobiT dawesda. igi saqarTvelos erT-erT umTavres eparqias warmoadgenda. "wm. mociqul andrias mier daarsebuli awyuris saepiskoposo, romlis sakaTedro taZarSi dabrZanebuli iyo RvTismSoblis xelTuqmneli, saswaulmoqmedi xati. awyuris uZvelesi saepiskoposo gauqmda TurqTa mZlavrobis dros XVII saukunis bolos. imave saxelwodebiT, magram ufro gazrdili teritoriiT awyuris eparqia aRdga 1917 wels" (z. abaSiZe, 2007, gv. 145).

samcxis mTavrebis mier separatistuli ideebis ganxorcielebis saqmeSi iyo mcdeloba, rom eklesiuradac CamoecilebinaT mesxeTi saqarTvelos kaTolikosisaTvis, amitom kidev ufro gaizarda awyurisa da mawyverlis roli XIV-XV saukuneebSi. awyuris arseboba odiTganve dakavSirebuli iyo mtkvarTan. strategiulad mniSvnelovani punqti warmoadgenda gzaTSesayars. mtkvris xeobaze gamavali gzebi ver ascdeboda awyurs. Zvel teqstebSi es saxeli sxvadasxva formiT gvxvdeba: n. maris mier gamocemul giorgi merCules "grigol xanZTelis cxovrebaSi" gvaqvs awyuri: "siwmindesa Sina awyurisa saswaulTa moqmedi" (n. mari, 1911). "rameTu didi efrem uwinarYs mravalT wliT arsenissa iqmna episkopos awyurisa saydarsa" (n. mari, 1911). awyuria akaki SaniZis redaqtorobiT gamosul "qarTuli enis istoriul qrestomaTiaSi" "grigol xanZTelis cxovrebis" Sesabamiss adgilebSi (a. SaniZe, 1949, gv. 258). awyuri moixsenieba basil zarzmelis TxzulebaSi, agreTve, rogorc saepiskoposo centri: "ganabrwyinva RmerTman didi igi mRdelTmoZRuari giorgi Suartyleli, romelman daipyra saydari awyurisa~" (n. vaCnaZe, 1975, gv. 177). awyuris episkoposi aris mawyuereli: "tomni didisa efrem mawyuerel episkoposisani" (n. mari, 1911). "xolo yovelTa amaT saqmeTa simravlisaTa metyueli piri da ena~ didsave Tana giorgis mawyuerelsa iyo netarica mama~ serapion. vina~ca yovelni cru sawaulni da saqmeni, romelni-igi pirvel episkoposobisa da ukana~ skneli exilvnes, momiTxrnes pirman man utyuvelman giorgis vetyA mawyuerelsa" (n. vaCnaZe, 1975, gv. 178). "xolo movida RmerT-Semosili giorgi mawyuerelica juariTa yovelTa TanamwyobrTa eklesiisaTa" (n. vaCnaZe, 1975, gv. 180). awyuri gvxvdeba leonti mrovelis TxzulebaSi CarTul andria pirvelwodebulis epizodSi: "aw yovelTa mier saxilvel ars xati yovladwmidisa awyuerisa RvTismSobelisa (leonti mroveli, 1955, gv. 38)". iqvea fonetikuri varianti awyveri: "xolo wmida mociquli wamoemarTa da moiwia awyvers" (leonti mroveli, 1955, gv. 39), romelsac sqolioSi variantad aqvs awyuri. "daasvenes yovlad didebuli xati yovlad wmidisa awyveris RvTismSoblisa mciresa mas ekudersa" (leonti mroveli, 1955, gv. 43). juanSerTan CarTul imave epizodSi gvaqvs awyueri (juanSeri, 1955, gv. 224). "matiane qarTlisaSi" ixsenieba "awyueris cixis patroni" (matiane qarTlisa, 1955, gv. 300). iseve, rogorc hagiografebTan, matianeSic mawyuereli gvaqvs: "gamoiyvana mawyuerelman mesxni" (matiane qarTlisa, 1955, gv. 300). awyuris saxelis variantulobam dRevandlamde moaRwia. mas oficialurad, marTalia, awyurs uwodeben, magram adgilobrivi mosaxleoba meoce saukuneSi awyverad moixseniebda. mesxeTSi gavrcelebul erT xalxur leqsSi vkiTxulobT: "awyvris xeobas Semovhyev, WaWkars vnaxe saxli kldisa,

awalkuli, dawalkuri alaguri, qildas erT gogo vnaxe, iman damikoda guli". awyveri, WaWkari, alaguri, qilda samcxe-javaxeTis sofelTa saxelebia, amitom mTqmelis informacia sandoa. vinme mesxs (ivane gvaramaZes) Cauweria Semdegi leqsi; "biWi var googitauri, Tofi magdia mxriani, awyverSi daviarebi, rogorc iremi rqiani" (e. TayaiSvili, 1918, gv. 110). "awyuris ufro Zveli forma unda iyos "awyveri" an awyuñri, an awyueri" (s. jiqia, 1958, gv. 121). sabolood SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom awyuri Semdegi formebiT gvxvdeba: awyuri, awyueri, awyveri, awyuYri. episkoposi ki iyo an mawyuereli an mawyvereli. rogorc moyvanili xalxuri leqsebidan Cans, saxeli naTesaobiTSi SeiZleba SeikumSos da miviRoT awyvris forma. aqac igive fuZea gamoyenebuli, romelic gvxvdeba Zireul saxelSi, amitom SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom v da u erTmaneTis fonetikuri variantebia. umarcvlo u-s Tavisi niSani anbanSi ar hqonda _ rogorc a. SaniZe brZanebs _ amitom Zvelad iseve iwereboda, rogorc marcvliani u. "amaSi gvSvelis zogjer axali saliteraturo qarTuli, sadac Zveli umarcvlo u v-d aris warmodgenili" (a. SaniZe, 1976, gv. 20). erTmarcvlian sityvaSi umarcvlo u inarCunebs marcvals, rogorc es moxda awyuris SemTxvevaSi, xolo awyuerSi igi aris umarcvlo, amitom gvaqvs misi paraleluri v-iniani forma _ awyveri. es iyo wesi Zvel qarTulSi: "umarcvlo u SeiZleba sruli xmovani gaxdes da marcvlianoba SeiZinos Tu mas ar axlavs xmovani da marto darCa erTmarcvlian sityvaSi" (a. SaniZe, 1976, gv. 21). awyuri ormarcvliania, magram u-sa da v-s urTierToba ufro Zveli Cans da igi fuZis SigniT unda yofiliyo momxdari. e. i. iyo wyur forma, romelSic u aris marcvlovani da mas hqonda paraleluri forma wyuer, sadac u iyo umarcvlo. awyurSi aprefiqsis saxiT gamoyo n. marma (n. mari, 1935, gv. 163). es gamoyofa rom sworia, isic miuTiTebs, rom istoriuli fonetikuri procesebi leqsikuri, Zireuli morfemis farglebSi xdeba. v-sa da u bgerebis urTierTmimarTeba Zvel qarTulSi Seiswavles T. gamyreliZem da g. maWavarianma. maTi daskvna aseTia: "iseTi SemTxvevis analizi, sadac erTsa da imave morfemaSi "ureduqcio" da "nareduqcial" formaTa monacvleoba regularul xasiaTs ar atarebs da sadac etimologiuri kavSirebi ukve didi xnidan aris gawyvetili, gvafiqrebinebs, rom E-sa da u-s mimarTeba qarTuli enis ganviTarebis uZveles periodSi ar unda yofiliyo igive, rac Zvel qarTulSi: kerZod, "ureduqcio" formebSi xmovnis win unda gvqonoda [E], xolo "nareduqcial" formebSi Tanxmovnebs Soris _ marcvlovani [u] (T. gamyreliZe, g. maWavariani, 1965, gv. 49).

awyuris SemTxvevaSi "ureduqcio" formaa awyueri//awyveri. marTalia "[u]-s [E] bgerad daviwroebam umaxvilo poziciaSi gamoiwvia [v]" (T. gamyreliZe, g. maWavariani, 1965, gv. 53), magram orive bgera agrZelebs arsebobas da istoriul qarTulSi (literaturuli wyaroebis mixedviT VIII-IX saukuneebSi) orive forma dasturdeba, isini paralelurad ixmareba. awyuri da awyveri//awyueri bolo dromde (me-20 saukunis 70-ian wlebamde Zveli Taobis metyvelebaSi) Tanabari uflebiT arsebobdnen. umaxvilo u xmovnis win v-d iqceoda, rogorc ki Sesabamisi pozicia Seiqmneboda _ afiqsebis saSualebiT mawyverelis SemTxvevaSi da naTesaobiT brunvaSi awyveri//awyueri→awyvris saxiT. dReisaTvis v-iniani forma aRar arsebobs da gvaqvs mxolod awyuri, romlidanac gvaqvs gvari (fsevdonimi) awyureli (am gvars atarebda mesxeTis Teatris msaxiobi) da kumSvis gareSea naTesaobiTi brunva: "awyuris saSualo skola", "awyuris mosaxleoba" da sxv. awyuris etimologia pirvelad mogvca n. marma. man awyuri daSala awyur- formiT. wyur- daukavSira kar//kor//ker skur fuZeebs. misi mniSvneloba n. maris mixedviT aris: dasaxlebuli piunqti, sofeli, qalaqi, mxare (n. mari, 1935, gv. 163). awyuri mniSvnelobiT ufro axlos unda idges wyalTan. qarTul wyals Seesatyviseba megruli wyu (h. fenrixi, z. sarjvelaZe, 2000, gv. 657). wyal-Tan Sors ar unda iyos wyar-o, romelic megrulSi gvaZlevs wyor-s (h. fenrixi, z. sarjvelaZe, 2000, gv. 657). wyaroSi o aris sufiqsi. misi sufiqsobis Sesaxeb "azrTa sxvadasxvaoba ar gvaqvs" (v. Sengelia, 2006, gv. 148). wyaro da wyal- sityvaTa kavSiri aSkaraa "wyaro sityvis ara marto Sinaarsobrivi, aramed materialuri kavSiri wyal sityvasTan imdenad aSkaraa, rom, bunebrivia, amis Sesaxeb samecniero literaturaSi azrTa sxvadasxvaoba ara gvaqvs" (v. Sengelia, 2006, gv. 147). awyuri Tavisi "reducirebuli" (awyur-) "ureduqcio" awyuer formiT istoriamdel periodSi gadadis. am azrs amagrebs istoriuli da arqeologiuri monacemebi. amgvarad, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom amosavali unda iyos "wylis" aRmniSvneli saerTo qarTveluri Ziri wy- (v. Tofuria), romelic, garda sakuTriv wyal- fuZisa, gvaqvs wyur- fuZis saxiT ("wyurvili"), ne-r-wy-E, r-wy-ev-a fuZeebSi (m. Cuxua, 2000-2003, gv. 370). amave rigSi Cadgeba wyaro ( *wyl-ar *wyal-ar) (v. Sengelia, 2006, gv. 149). albaT aqve unda ganvixiloT soflis saxeli axalcixis raionSi wyorZa, romelSic gamoyofen wyor-s wylis mniSvnelobiT (n. norakiZe, 1971, gv. 137-141), es wyor- qarTuli wyar- fuZis Sesatyvisi Cans (v. Sengelia, 2006, gv. 150). saerTo qarTvelur wy- Zirs erTvis "reduqciamdel" formebSi v(E)er, -uYr an "reducirebulSi" _ -ur sufiqsi. a- aris daniSnulebis

afiqsi (Sdr. t. futkaraZe, 2005, gv. 272, sadac *war-/Wor-, *wyar-/Wyor-, *wyur-/Wyur- saerToqarTvelur paralelur fuZeebadaa ganxiluli). awyuri wylian adgils, wylis adgils unda niSnavdes. uZvelesi droidan moyolebuli igi gaSenebuli iyo mtkvris marjvena da marcxena napirebze. damowmebuli literatura z. abaSiZe, 2007 - z. abaSiZe, axalcixis, tao-klarjeTisa da lazeTis eparqia: kreb. "zarzma", 2007. T. gamyreliZe, g. maWavariani, 1965 - T. gamyreliZe, g. maWavariani, sonantTa sistema da ablauti qarTvelur enebSi, Tb., 1965. n. vaCnaZe, 1975 - n. vaCnaZe, "serapion zarzmelis cxovreba" rogorc saistorio wyaro, Tb., 1975. e. TayaiSvili, 1918 - e. TayaiSvili, xalxuri sityviereba, I, Tb., 1918. leonti mroveli, 1955 - leonti mroveli, "cxovreba qarTvelTa mefeTa": qarTlis cxovreba, teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier, t. I, Tb., 1955. v. liCeli, 2008 - v. liCeli, awyuri _ Zveli samcxis dedaqalaqi: gaz. "literaturuli mesxeTi", 2008. n. mari, 1911 - m. ß. Ìàðð, Ãåîðãié Ìåð÷óëú, Æèòèå ñâ. Ãðèãîðiÿ Õàíäçòiéñêàãî, n. maris Sesavali, gamocema, Targmani, sankt-peterburgi, 1911. n. mari, 1935 - m. ß. Ìàðð, èçáðàííûå ðàáîòû, òîì ïÿòûé,1935. matiane qarTlisa, 1955 - matiane qarTlisa, qarTlis cxovreba, teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier, t. I, Tb., 1955. l. menabde, 1962 - l. menabde, Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis kerebi, t. I, nakveTi II, Tb., 1962. n. norakiZe, 1971 - n. norakiZe, zanizmnebi samcxis geografiul saxelebSi: Jurn. "mnaTobi", 1971, #4. smeel, 2007 saqarTvelos marTlmadidebeli eklesiis enciklopediuri leqsikoni, Tb., 2007. h. fenrixi, z. sarjvelaZe, 2000 - h. fenrixi, z. sarjvelaZe, qarTvelur enaTa etimologiuri leqsikoni, Tb., 2000. t. futkaraZe, 2005 - t. futkaraZe, qarTvelebi, nawili I, quTaisi, 2005. a. SaniZe, 1949 - qarTuli enis istoriuli qrestomaTia, a. SaniZis redaqciiT, Tb., 1949. a. SaniZe, 1976 - a. SaniZe, Zveli qarTuli enis gramatika, Tb., 1976. v. Sengelia, 2006 - v. Sengelia, qarTvelur da Cerqezul enobriv sistemaTa istoriis zogi sakiTxi, Tb., 2006. m. Cuxua, 2000-2003 - m. Cuxua, qarTvelur ena-kiloTa SedarebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 2000-2003. s. jiqia, 1958 - s. jiqia, "gurjistanis vilaieTis didi davTari", Tb., 1958.

juanSeri, 1955 - juanSeri, "cxovreba vaxtang gorgaslisa": qarTlis cxovreba, teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier, t. I, Tb., 1955.

MERAB BERIDZE ABOUT ATSKURI ETYMOLOGY Atskuri is one of the ancient cities. It has been an important political and eclessiastic center for centuries. Saint Andria Pirveltsodebuli was the first who preached Christianity here in the I c. and converted the whole Samrskhe into Christianity. In Georgia crism was sanctified with the effort of Atskuri bishop, Ephrem Matskvereli. Prefix –a [a] was seperated in the word Atskuri by N. Mari. According to hagio-gr-a-phical and historical sources the word Atskuri is met with the following forms: Atskuri, [awyuri], Atskueri [ awyueri], Atskveri. [awyveri], Atskuei [awyuYri] where the Georgian root- tsk [wy] is seperated. The same root is met in the following words:Tskali [wyali], Tskaro [wyaro] Tsku [wyu], Tskor [wyor] etc. To my mind the word Atskuri means a place for water or a watery place.Atskuri is built on both sides of the river Mtkvari.

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