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Christina Saunders
EDCT 645
Individual Synthesis Report for Country Case Study: Argentina
October, 2015
Instructor: Dr. Joseph Wieczorek


Argentina is a country in South America, with a population of about 42 million
people as of 2013 and the GDP per capita in 2012 is about $18 thousand (in 2012)
(Argentina). The United States is a county with a population of about 316 million
people as of 2013 with a GDP in 2012 of about $50 thousand (United States). If
Argentina has a population that is only about an eighth the size of the United
States, and their GPD is about two fifths what the US is, then why are they able to
provide their students with so much more technology?
The average school day in the United States is about 6 hours long, with a
break for lunch. Lunch is provided at the school, even breakfast is given at some
schools. Transportation is given to students who live further than one mile away
from their school. In Argentina the average school day is about 4 hours in most
schools. Students must walk to school, or get their own transportation somehow.
Because it might take students more than an hour to get to school, one way,
students are only required to attend school for four hours a day. Students return
home for lunch and many do not return to school after, some will come back for
extra classes such as art and music.
Argentina as big cities, such as Buenos Aires and Santa Fe. They also have
small towns, and even smaller villages where one teacher is responsible for
teaching 20 students from first grade to twelfth grade. Annapolis, the capital of
Maryland, has various parts that are similar to that of Argentina. Parts of Annapolis
are very wealth, such as the people who live in the big cities of Buenos Aires, and
people who live well under the poverty line such as in the small villages.
Technology usage in Argentina has increased and is helping students; if it can be
effective there then Annapolis needs to adapt the idea to help their students as

In the country of Argentina, many schools have developed a one- to-one with
technology in relation to their students. Many schools have given students laptops
for them to use at school as well as take home to use for homework and personal
use as well. In areas where the income is low many school have grants given to
them by programs such as All Kids Online to help give the technology to their
students as well as to help give teachers technical support as well.
Towers have been place in many of Argentinas cities and villages to insure
that students will be able to use the internet at home as well as in school. Pini
(2014) talk about how students are even using their computer with their parents so
they can see their childs work, but also to allow them the chance to use the
internet. Light (2012) talks about classes that the local University and teachers
offered classes for parents to come and learn how to use the laptops as well as to
learn how to use the software their children were using so they could see what their
students were doing during school each day.
Using technology in the Classroom
The use of one-to-one technology has significantly help teachers in Argentina.
Many schools have students showing improvement of at least 10% on national test
since the technology has been introduced into their classrooms (Light 2012). In a
small school village in Argentina there is a two room classroom where one teacher is
responsible for teaching 19 students from age 5 to 16. Before her students had
access to laptops the teacher reported she would get through about 2 subjects each
day as she would have to go back and forth between the younger students and the
older students. When a child was stuck and needed help s/he was left with no
option but to wait for the teacher. Now this teacher has two interactive white

boards, one the younger students and one for the older students, to use with
lessons where she is teaching the whole group or re-teaching part of the group.
Each child also has a laptop that they use to complete group projects as well as
individual lessons at their specific level. The teacher, with the help of a technology
coach, has lessons for each student in their own folder located within the school
folder on the Sakai Platform. Now the teacher can cover three if not all four
subjects with her students each day.
At a bigger village, where there is one teacher to about 20 students; teachers
also now have interactive white board, and each student now has their own laptop.
Before the teacher was stuck juggling between teaching students with chalk and
having 20 students use her own laptop. Some of these teachers are mixing old and
new practices. Students are still using their copy books (a book where they copy
down exercise, notes, and any work done in class) but now they are not writing
everything. They are pasting photo copy of worksheets into their books, or simply
use the copy book for notes and then use the laptops to complete activities to
inforce the information.
In the innovated, experimental school found just outside San Luis, 24
teachers are there to help 300 students. Students are able, just like at the smaller
village, to move at their own pace through the material and there for they are
better able to understand what they are doing in school. Here teachers are also
mixing new and old practices. Students still use their copy books, but they do not
past copies of worksheets in them. When the teacher wants to give a worksheet
she puts it on the Sakai platform and students complete the worksheet online.
Pini, Mustanti, and Pargman (2014) met with students for a few sessions. All
students attended the same school in Buenos Aires; they raged from first graders to

sixth graders. Students sat down with the authors on three different session for 45
minutes each time, talking about how using interactive whiteboards and laptops in
the classroom have changed their view of education.
Professional Development
According to Light and Pierson (2012) professional development was given to
teacher in three similar but different ways. At a one- teacher school the coachs roll
was not just to help with technology integration but to also support the teacher
pedagogical any way that she could (2012). The teacher and coach would not just
plan lessons integrating technology but they would also select resources for the
teacher to use, and help integrate other subjects, such as art and music, into the
At a village school teachers were given training offered by the local university
(University of La Punta, ULP). Most teachers, not all attended the training to give
themselves more knowledge of the laptops and how to use them with students.
These teachers, because of their location to the university had several coaches to
help them. They had a coach from the University who came out help with technical
support of the 120 computers as well as helping teachers keep up with how to use
laptops. These teachers also had a coach from All Kids Online who also helped with
technical support, but also helped teachers find educational websites to use with
students and other online resources for them to use with students to help their
lesson. The coach also facilitated extra classes, such as music and a chess
program, after school to give students more options on how to use their laptops.
In an innovated experimental school in a city it was mandatory for teachers
to complete a special university training course on the use of integrating
information and communication technologies (ICT) and student-centered teaching

(2012). Teachers then had to take a month long course at ULP, over the summer, to
make sure all that they had learned was understood and teachers could trouble
shoot some technical problems. Once students went home for lunch teachers would
eat together and spend the afternoon planning lessons, and work on cross
curriculum lessons to help integrate all classes.
Impact on Students
With the interactive white boards and one-to-one technology usage many schools
have talked about many gains in student learning. More students are engaged in
reading activities now that they are on the computer there for students reading
ability are increasing faster than before the laptops were given to students. Many
students love the automate feedback they get from their teacher. With their
teacher able to see all of their work on her own laptop the teacher is able to give
more personal feedback, as well as more immediate feedback on student work.
This means that students are able to move through the material faster than before
allowing them to learn more throughout the school year.
In the bigger villages the internet has brought more resources for teachers to
use, and they are taking full advantage of them (Light 2012). For instance, teachers
now have access to talk with specialized teachers for different subjects or
knowledge about students with disabilities to get ideas on how to teach and help
students access the information. Students use their laptops not just for homework
and school work, but also to play games, chat with friends, and use the Web to
explore the world. There have been a number of not just academic, but also social
and behavioral changes in students that are helping teachers get through more
material. Teachers have reported that their students have more self-control and
better self-esteem since they started using the laptops. Students can see their

work, published on-line, and see that their work is valued and that their work is not
just for the classroom; there is a place for it in the real world.
In the innovated schools teachers have reported many of the same impacts
on students. Their students are happier and want to come to school now that they
have the laptops. Teachers are doing less lecturing, and students are doing more
guided learning and student centered learning so they feel like they are in control of
their own education. As the bigger villages reported, these schools have also seen
an increase in student self-control and self-esteem.
Pini, Musanti, and Pargman (2014) found that if teachers use technology with
students there are four key things teachers should consider before they use
technology. Curiosity, students show no fear when using computers; teachers need
to use this curiosity to their advantage to help students engage in lessons.
Entrepreneurship, students want to be innovated and can adapt to new situations
once we teach them how to. Technology, like laptops, allows students new literacy
skills as they can find new ways to communicate and express their own views. Last
sociability, students love to be social with their peers, as teachers you have to find
ways to intergrade a students social life into the classroom.
More Research
More research needs to be done on how laptops could be completely integrated into
the daily classroom (Light and Pierson, 2012). In both articles the studies were
completed and students use the laptops to complete much of their school work
however they were not the only source of technology or instructions. More research
needs to be completed to see how it would look, or if it is possible to use the laptops
as the only source of technology and instruction with students. This means that

more research into flipped classroom as well as teachers video conferencing with
students will also need to be completed.
More research also needs to be done on programs, such as All Kids Online.
Although the program is widely known, they do not work in all countries. If their
goal is to get all kids online and using technology then why do they not operate in
all countries? Just because over all, a country is not considered third world, or
below poverty does not mean that there are not areas within that country that do
need help.
More research also needs to be done into the wireless towers that were put in
the various cities and villages around Argentina. Where did the money for the
towers come from? How far does the signal reach? More information is need to see
if it would be possible for towers to be put up around Annapolis, and other parts of
the state of Maryland.
Argentina. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Ceria, S., & Rossi, G. (2014). IT education in Argentina. IT Professional, 16(3), 6-9.
Maryland. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Light, D., & Pierson, E. (2012). Highlighting changes in the classrooms of a
successful one-to-one program in rural Argentina: Case studies of "todos los
chicos en la red" in San Luis. Center for Children and Technology, Education
Development Center, Inc. Retrieved October, 2015.
Pini, M., Musanti, S. I., & Pargman, T.C. (2014). Youth digital cultural consumption
and education. Designs for Learning, 7(2), 58-79. doi:10.2478/dfl-2014-0063.
United States Of America. (n.d.). Retrieved from