IMMUNOREGULATION

Biologic Response Modification

Increase the rate of the response

Elevate its magnitude

Increase the duration of the response

Specific
Helper factors Transfer factors Immunogenic RNA

Non-specific
Adjuvants
Freund·s Adjuvant BCG Toxins and Lipopolysaccharides Alum precipitate

Secreted by T cells following interaction of Ag-specific receptor with its homologous epitope cytokines chemokines lymphokines

Antigen specific dialyzable extract of immune T cells capable of transferring CMI

Extracted from lymphoid tissues of experimental animals following antigen injection

Substances that enhance immunogenicity of molecules without altering their chemical composition
³dirty little secrets of vaccines´

injected

Freund¶s Adjuvant

I C

P

T F.A.

C

P

T F.A.

*depot- forming

MD /N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanylD-isoglutamine

enhance both antibody and cell mediated immunity FA

Mineral oil surfactant (Arlacel A) mycobacteria

M. tuberculosis/ M. butyricum
*depot- forming

Attenuated

mycobacterium
Vaccine against TB Macrophage activation Enhance NK cell

activity
Activity resides in cell

wall glycolipids

- anti- tumor activity

- Elevated IgE

Toxins & Lipopolysaccharides
Enhances antibody response by stimulating a subpopulation of

B cells

T cells
* muramyldipeptide

Alum recipitate
Al(OH)3 ± absorbent gel-form Slight irritant effect Enhances ingestion and processing of antigen by macrophages

Depot Water-in-oil

Delayed release of antigen rolongs lymphoid tissue exposure to antigen
Same

Freund¶s Adjuvant

Precipitants

Calcium alignate Alum A(OH)3 Bentonite Polyacrylamide Methylated Bovine serum albumin

Absorbents

Same

Inflammatory response Ag exposure to macrophage, B & T cells Clonal expansion of T & B cells proliferation and differentiation of T & B cells; activate macrophage Ag Processing & T helper cell activity

Mycobacteria (wax D); Muramyl dipeptide of the cell wall LPS (endotoxin) PHA Con A IL-1, -2, and -3 MAF IFNs Polyadenylateuridylate

-end-

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