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Background:

Nutrition for Young Adults


Nutrition program
Topic: Calories, Carbohydrates, Fats, & Proteins
Session: 1 of 9
Audience: Ages 18-25
Setting: Community center
Introduction:
Understanding what we put in our bodies should be a major concern
for everyone. Knowing what nutrients we consume, and what their functions
are needs to be a priority for all. A recent poll suggests that as Americans,
25% of us eat at fast food establishments daily (Daily Nutrition Statistics,
n.d.). What is that food, or any food made up of? The goal of this session is
to inform participants of the basic macronutrients we consume on a daily
bases, and what their functions in our bodies are.
Goals:
1. Clients will increase their knowledge about macronutrients.
2. Clients will increase their knowledge about calories.
Objectives:
1a. At the conclusion of the session, the client will be able to identify
how many calories are in each gram of macronutrient on a short fill in
the blank quiz.
1b. At the conclusion of the session, the client will be able to identify
bad fats in an in class activity.
2a. At the conclusion of the program, the client will be able to correctly
answer questions on a short quiz about calories.
Initiation:
To introduce this lesson, I will lead the clients in a quick discussion. I
will ask the clients to share any knowledge they possess on calories and
macronutrients. The discussion will give me an idea as to how informed my
clients already are on the subject, and serve as an ice breaker for the group.

Content Outline:
Content

Method

Time

I. Initiation

Group Discussion

5 min.

II. Why Im teaching


None
This Program
a. Reasons why

Lecture

Materials
None

5 min.

III. Calories
Lecture/Visuals
a. Definition
b. Function
c. Empty Calories
o Solid Fats
o Added Sugars
d. Balance
e. Excess
f. Deficit
g. In a Pound

10 min.

PowerPoint

IV. Carbohydrates
a. Definition
b. Functions
c. Foods
d. Types
o Simple
o Complex
e. Calories

10 min.

PowerPoint

Lecture/Visuals

V. Fats
PowerPoint
a. Definition
b. Functions
c. Types of Fat
o Trans
o Saturated
o Unsaturated
d. Calories
VI. Proteins
PowerPoint
a. Definition
b. Functions

Lecture/Visuals

Lecture/Visuals

10 min.

10min

c. Types
o Complete
o Incomplete
o Complementary
d. Calories
Content Core:
I.

Initiation
o Introduce myself to the clients.
o Ask clients what knowledge they have on calories and
macronutrients.
o Engage in a group discussion over shared information.

II.

Why Im teaching this program


o Reasons why: Tell the clients about my background in the
field. Explain to them how I myself never had this material
taught to me in school (until I went to college).

III.

Calories
o Definition: A unit of energy supplied by food.
o Function: Calories provide us with energy. Without calories
we would not be able to perform any bodily activities.
Calories essentially keep us alive and well.
o Empty Calories: Calories from solid fats and added sugars.
Empty calories are used to describe foods that you do not
need, or that have very little to no nutritional value.
o Solid fats: Fats that are solid at room temperature.
o Added sugars: Sugars and syrups that are added when food or
beverages are prepared.
o Foods that contain solid fats: Some foods that contain solid
fats are butter, pork fat, and beef fats.
o Foods that contain added sugars: Some foods that contain
added sugars are cookies, ice cream, and soda.

IV.

Carbohydrates
o Definition: A Carbohydrate or a carb is a biological molecule
consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
o Functions: Our bodies use carbohydrates to make glucose,
which fuels our bodies and gives us energy. Carbs are our
main source of fuel during prolonged physical activity, and
serve as one of our major sources of energy.
o Foods: Cabs can be found in fruits, vegetables, grains, milk,
and foods with added sugar.
o Types:

Simple Carbs: Simple carbs otherwise known as simple


sugars, only have 1 or 2 molecules or units of sugar.
You can find simple carbs in table sugar, and even in
fruits.
Complex Carbs: Complex carbs contain 3 or more
molecules or units of sugar in a chain. Starches and
dietary fiber are examples of complex carbs.
Starches: A complex carb. Some examples of starches
are potatoes and peas.
Dietary Fiber: A complex carb. Dietary fiber can be
found in many foods. Breads, nuts, and fruit are a few
examples.
o Calories: Carbohydrates contain calories. There are 4
calories per gram of carbohydrates.
V.

Fats
o Definition: Fat is a major source of energy for the body. It
is made up of a long chain of acids, and is also the main
form of storage for energy in our bodies.
o Functions: Fats give you energy to perform daily activities.
They also help you absorb vitamins into your body. While
you are inactive and even asleep, fats are your main
source of fuel.
o Types:
Trans Fat: Trans fats are very unhealthy for you.
They increase LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol), and
lower HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol). High levels
of trans fat lead to a variety of health risks, including
heart complications. Some examples of foods with
trans fats are hard butter, margarine, and frozen
pies.
Saturated Fat: Saturated fats are not healthy for
your body. These fats should be kept to a minimum.
Like trans fat, the can increase your LDL cholesterol
(bad cholesterol). Some examples of saturated fats
in food are whole milk, cheese, ice cream, and fatty
meats.
Unsaturated fats: There are 2 types of unsaturated
fats, mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fats.
Eating these fats in moderation may help reduce
your LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol). Examples of
food sources with mono-unsaturated fats are olive
oil, canola oil, and nuts. Examples of foods with
polyunsaturated fats are corn and soy oil.

o Calories: Fats contain almost double the calories of carbs or


proteins. One gram of fat is equivalent to 9 calories.
VI.

Proteins
o Definition: Proteins are large molecules consisting of 1 or
more long chains of amino acids. They are a part of every
cell in our body.
o Function: We eat proteins to replenish the protein we have
used in our bodies. They are the major components in
muscles, and help with the contraction of muscles.
Proteins also perform various other functions such as
transporting and storing molecules in our bodies.
o Types
Complete: A complete protein contains all of the
essential amino acids. Any animal based food source
is a complete protein.
Incomplete: An incomplete protein is a protein
source that is lacking 1 or more of the essential
amino acids. Rice and beans are just a couple
examples of incomplete proteins.
Complementary Proteins: Complementary proteins
are 2 or more incomplete proteins that provide all
essential amino acids.
o Calories: Protein contains 4 calories per gram.

Culmination:
At the conclusion of the session, I will briefly discuss what we covered
in the session, and what will be discussed in the next session. If anyone has
further questions, they will be able to ask and receive answers. The mini
quiz will be passed out and completed. There should be plenty of time to
answer all the questions, as it will be a short check on learning quiz during
session time. Finally I would give the group a farewell, and dismiss the group
from the session.
Anticipated Problems and Possible solutions:
Some issues could arise during or before the session. There is a
possibility that the technology will fail. A possible solution to this would be to
check all equipment before the session, and make adjustments if necessary.
Another issue is time. Some topics or discussions may run over their desired
time constraint. A possible solution to this is to be conscious of how much
time is left in the session, and adjust fire accordingly.
Evaluation:

I will be evaluating the clients through an impact evaluation. The mini


quiz at the end of the session will hopefully serve as evidence that the
clients learned the material during the session.

References:
Anorexia nervosa. (2014, December 30). Retrieved from Mayo Clinic:
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/anorexia/basics/definition/con20033002
Binge-eating disorder. (2015, April 9). Retrieved from Mayo Clinic:
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/binge-eatingdisorder/basics/symptoms/con-20033155
Bulimia nervosa. (2012, April 3). Retrieved from Mayo Clinic:
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bulimia/basics/symptoms/con20033050
Carbohydrates. (2012, December 11). Retrieved from CDC:
http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/carbs.html
Daily Nutrition Statistics. (n.d.). Retrieved from Statistics Brain:
http://www.statisticbrain.com/daily-nutrition-statistics/
Dietary Fat. (2012, September 27). Retrieved from CDC:
http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/fat/index.html
Dietary Fats. (2015, March 5). Retrieved from Medline Plus:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/dietaryfats.html
Empty Calories. (n.d.). Retrieved from USDA: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/weightmanagement-calories/calories/empty-calories.html
Facts & Statistics. (n.d.). Retrieved from Fitness.gov:
http://www.fitness.gov/resource-center/facts-and-statistics/
Healthy Weight- it's not a diet, it's a lifestyle! (n.d.).
Healthy Weight- it's not a diet, it's a lifestyle! (2014, January 15). Retrieved from
CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/calories/index.html

Nutrition and healthy eating. (2014, September 5). Retrieved from Mayo Clinic:
http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/indepth/water/art-20044256
Nutrition for Everyone. (2011, February 23). Retrieved from CDC:
http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/vitamins/
Nutrition for Everyone. (2012, October 10). Retrieved from CDC:
http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/water.html
Nutrition to Grow on. (2014, May 22). Retrieved from California Department of
Education: http://www.cde.ca.gov/ls/nu/he/nrttogrow.asp
Protein. (2012, October 12). Retrieved from CDC:
http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/protein.html
Williams, M. H. (2007). Nutrition for Health,Fitness, & Sport, 8th edition. New York:
McGraw-Hill .