You are on page 1of 447

MONOGRAF

PENGAJARAN & PEMBELAJARAN IPTA

2

STRATEGI DAN KAEDAH PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN

n a s n I l a d o M i t i l a
n
a
s
n
I
l
a
d
o
M
i
t
i
l
a
u
K
n
a
t
a
k
g
n
i
n
e
P
h
a
r
A
e
K

siri MONOGRAF PENGAJARAN & PEMBELAJARAN IPTA

2

STRATEGI DAN KAEDAH PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN

C

12-14 Disember 2007 Hotel Palace of the Golden Horses, Seri Kembangan, Selangor

Sir i M ono gra f Pen gaj aran dan Pembelajaran IPTA Koleks i e
Sir i M ono gra f Pen gaj aran dan Pembelajaran IPTA Koleks i e
Sir i M ono gra f Pen gaj aran dan Pembelajaran IPTA Koleks i e

Siri Monograf Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran IPTA

Koleksi eksklusif kertas kerja Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 (CTLHE07)

Monograf 1 Pembangunan Modal Insan

Monograf 2 Strategi dan Kaedah Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran

Monograf 3 Teknologi dan Inovasi dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran

Monograf 4 Polisi dan Pengurusan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran

Monograf 5 Isu Semasa dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Pengajian Tinggi

Buku Abstrak Ke Arah Peningkatan Kualiti Modal Insan

ISBN 978-967-960-222-7

© 2007 Pusat Pembangunan Akademik (CADe), Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Semua Hakcipta Terpelihara. Tiada bahagian terbitan ini boleh diterbitkan semula, disimpan untuk pengeluaran atau ditukarkan ke dalam sebarang bentuk atau dengan sebarang alat juga pun, sama ada dengan cara elektronik, gambar serta rakaman dan sebagainya tanpa kebenaran bertulis dari penulis artikel dan Pusat Pembangunan Akademik (CADe), Universiti Putra Malaysia terlebih dahulu.

Diterbitkan oleh

Pusat Pembangunan Akademik (CADe) Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Tel: 603-8946 6112/6175 Fax: 603-89466043 Web: www.cade.upm.edu.my

SI DA NG ED IT OR Monograf Pers idanga n P engajaran da n P
SI DA NG ED IT OR Monograf Pers idanga n P engajaran da n P
SI DA NG ED IT OR Monograf Pers idanga n P engajaran da n P

SIDANG EDITOR

Monograf Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

Ketua Editor Sidek Hj. Ab. Aziz

Sidang Editor

Mohd. Majid Konting Mansor Ahmad Zaidan Abdul Wahab Mohd. Kamil Yusof Rusli Abdullah

Hamidah Meseran Mohd. Farid Jaafar Marzanah A. Jabar Fatimah Sidi Nor Azirawani Man

Editor Teknikal

Juraidah Mohamad Amin Lailawati Bakar Muhammad Asrul Abd. Salam Azura Adam Nurhafizah Mat Sah

Hasmah Abdul Wahab Saiful Ramadzan Hairani Muhammad Khairuddin Yusuf Mohd. Ridzuan Ishak

i

Siri Monograf Pengajaran dan Pembelajar an IPT A Kol eksi ek sklu sif kertas-ker ja
Siri Monograf Pengajaran dan Pembelajar an IPT A Kol eksi ek sklu sif kertas-ker ja
Siri Monograf Pengajaran dan Pembelajar an IPT A Kol eksi ek sklu sif kertas-ker ja

Siri Monograf Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran IPTA

Koleksi eksklusif kertas-kerja Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 (CTLHE07) di Hotel Palace of Golden Horses, Seri Kembangan, Selangor, pada 12-14 Disember 2007.

Pembangunan Modal Insan Strategi dan Kaedah Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Teknologi dan Inovasi dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Polisi dan Pengurusan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Isu Semasa dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran PengajianTinggi Ke Arah Peningkatan Kualiti Modal Insan (Buku Abstrak)

PRAKATA Siri M ono graf Penga jara n dan Pembel ajaran IPT A merup aka
PRAKATA Siri M ono graf Penga jara n dan Pembel ajaran IPT A merup aka
PRAKATA Siri M ono graf Penga jara n dan Pembel ajaran IPT A merup aka

PRAKATA

Siri Monograf Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran IPTA merupakan koleksi eksklusif kertas kerja Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Pering- kat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 (CTLHE07) yang berlangsung pada 12-14 Disember 2007 di Hotel Palace of Golden Horses, Seri Kembangan, Selan- gor. CTLHE07 dianjurkan bersama Universiti Putra Malaysia dan Majlis Ketua Pusat Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Institut Pengajian Tinggi Awam Malaysia di bawah naungan Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malay- sia.

Pembangunan modal insan merupakan salah satu teras dalam Misi Nasional dan Rancangan Malaysia Kesembilan bagi meningkatkan keupayaan pengetahuan, kreativiti dan inovasi serta memupuk minda warga kelas pertama. Institut Pengajian Tinggi (IPT) merupakan saluran utama penjanaan modal insan negara yang berpendidikan, berkemahi- ran, kreatif, inovatif, bersikap progresif dan berfikiran kritis. Kini pelbagai inisiatif dan usaha penambahbaikan secara menyeluruh ke atas sistem penyampaian sistem pendidikan dan latihan, peningkatan kualiti sistem pengajaran dan pembelajaran secara holistik sedang giat dijalankan di peringkat IPT untuk melahirkan graduan yang berkualiti dan berdaya saing.

Usaha kerajaan adalah untuk mewujudkan universiti bertaraf antara- bangsa dan memastikan pendidikan dan latihan di peringkat tertiari berkualiti tinggi bagi memenuhi prospek kerja dan keperluan majikan. Kerajaan juga menyediakan lebih banyak peluang dan akses kepada pendidikan, latihan dan pembelajaran sepanjang hayat di semua pering- kat pendidikan. Inisiatif Hasil Pembelajaran merupakan langkah awal IPT bagi menyediakan pelajar kepada pengalaman pembelajaran dan pendi- dikan yang lengkap sebelum mereka bergelar graduan bagi menempuh alam pekerjaan. IPT turut berhasrat untuk menjana graduan yang memi- liki kemahiran yang komprehensif dan seimbang bukan sahaja dari sudut kualiti kognitif bahkan juga dari segi kemahiran insaniah yang merang- kumi pelbagai aspek insani seperti sikap dan akhlak.

Siri Monograf Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran IPTA dibahagikan kepada 6 bahagian iaitu:

1. Pembangunan Modal Insan

2. Strategi dan Kaedah Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran

3. Teknologi dan Inovasi dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran

4. Polisi dan Pengurusan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran

5. Isu Semasa dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Pengajian Tinggi

6. Ke Arah Peningkatan Kualiti Modal Insan (Buku Abstrak)

Semoga penerbitan siri monograf ini dapat dimanfaatkan oleh semua pihak terutama dalam usaha kolektif menjana modal insan negara yang berkualiti serta melonjakkan kualiti pendidikan Malaysia ke peringkat global dan dapat bersaing di arena antarabangsa.

- EDITOR -

iii

PEN GHARGAAN Sekalung pengharg aa n kep ada Kementerian Pengaji an Tinggi Malaysia (KPT) Naib
PEN GHARGAAN Sekalung pengharg aa n kep ada Kementerian Pengaji an Tinggi Malaysia (KPT) Naib
PEN GHARGAAN Sekalung pengharg aa n kep ada Kementerian Pengaji an Tinggi Malaysia (KPT) Naib

PENGHARGAAN

Sekalung penghargaan kepada

Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia (KPT) Naib Canselor, Universiti Putra Malaysia Timbalan Naib Canselor (Akademik dan Antarabangsa) Universiti Putra Malaysia Majlis Ketua Pusat Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Institut Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia Puncak Niaga (M) Sdn Bhd Anjung Visi Solution Sdn Bhd Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA) Aniotek Sdn Bhd Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris Koperasi UPM Berhad Mavisco (M) Sdn Bhd Kospeta Printing Bhd

Setinggi penghargaan dan terima kasih kepada individu-individu yang terlibat secara langsung dan tidak langsung dalam usaha menerbitkan Siri Monograf Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran IPTA ini.

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

KANDUNGAN

BIL

TAJUK

M/S

Sidang Editor

i

Siri Monograf Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran IPTA

ii

Prakata

iii

Penghargaan

iv

1)

A Contextual Approach, using Problem-Based, to the Teaching and Learning Statistics in the Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Nafisah Kamariah Md Kamaruddin, Wan Mohd Rashid Wan Ahmad, UTHM

1

2)

Impact on the Implementation of Bilingualism in Science and Mathematics in Higher Education Mohini Mohamed, Aziz Nordin UTM

10

3)

Hubungan Pengajaran Pensyarah dan Minat Pelajar dengan Kefahaman Konsep Moral: Kajian di UUM Mohamad Khairi Haji Othman, Abdull Sukor Shaari, UUM

19

4)

Teachers’ Use of Questions in ESL Classrooms Kalyani a/p Rajoo, Institut Perguruan Darulaman

28

5)

Gaya Pembelajaran, Kemahiran Generik dan Motivasi Pelajar Merentasi Bidang Sains Tulen, Kejuruteraan dan Sains Sosial di UTM Abdul Rahim Hamdan, Mohamad Najib Ghaffar, Azlina Kosnin, Jamaluddin Ramli, Mahani Mokhtar,UTM

39

6)

Multiple Intelligence: The Reliability of MyMICA in Identifying Teaching and Learning Strategy Siti Rahayah Ariffin, Rusminah Musliman

52

7)

The Importance of Law in Sports and Physical Education from A Pedagogic Perspective Zaidi Hassim, UKM

66

8)

Tema-tema dalam Pembelajaran Bersepadu: Implikasi kepada Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran ¹Ling Siew Eng, ²Siti Rahayah bt. Ariffin, ²Saemah bt Rahman ¹Uitm, ²UKM

79

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

9)

Implementation of Outcome-Based Education Delivery System at Pre-University Level Balbir Singh Mahinder Singh, Chong Fai Kait, Hasnah M Zaid UTP

90

10)

Outcome-Based Curriculum: Its Implementation in the Teaching of English Language Proficiency Courses Shahrina Md. Nordin, Subarna Sivapalan, UTP

100

11)

A PBL Approach for Acquiring Global Project Experiences in Architectural / Engineering / Construction Education Rahinah Ibrahim, UPM

111

12)

Predicting Successful Completion of MBA Study Using e-Miner Izwan Nizal Mohd Shaharanee, Chooi-Leng Ang, UUM

125

13)

Facilitating Graduate Level-Learning: A Case Study of the “Newfoundland Strategy” Normah Haji Omar, UiTM

134

14)

Penilaian Kemahiran Teknikal Berasaskan Model Kompetensi bagi Sumber Guna Tenaga Menerusi Pendekatan Pendidikan Teknikal dan Vokasional di Malaysia Kahirol Mohd. Salleh, Nor Lisa Sulaiman, UTHM

148

15)

Persepsi Pelajar terhadap Pembelajaran Akses Kendiri melalui Penggunaan Laman Web dan Kesannya terhadap Mata Pelajaran Sejarah Ahmad Rafaai Ayudin, Norhasni Zainal Abidin

158

16)

Facilitator and Learner’s Understanding on Roger’s Core Conditions of a Person Centered Counseling (And Learning) in the Student Centered Learning Environment Mansor b Abu Talib, UPM

167

17)

Managing Diversity Training for Medical Students Harlina HS, Ruzanna Z, Juriza I, Siti Mariam B, Nabishah M UKM

176

18)

Instilling Moral Values in Report Writing Course Hajah Siti Akmar Abu Samah, UiTM

180

19)

Persepsi Pelajar terhadap Aktiviti di dalam Kelas Bahasa Arab:

189

Tinjauan di USIM Lubna Abd Rahman, Wan Azura Wan Ahmad, Arnida A.Bakar USIM

20)

Writing a Case as a Teaching Tool Zainal Abidin Mohamed, UPM

199

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

21)

Analisis Gaya Pembelajaran Pelajar Baru Universiti Malaysia Terengganu Nur Amirah Amiruddin, Fauziah Abu Hasan Wan Abd Aziz Wan Mohd Amin, UMT

211

22)

A Study of Visual Ability Based on Gender Differences with First -Year UiTM Chemistry Students Sharipah Ruzaina Syed Aris, Nesamalar V. Kantasamy Mashiah Domat Shaharudin, Badariah Abu Bakar, UiTM

223

23)

Pembelajaran Kolaboratif: Bekerja Sebagai “Satu Kumpulan” atau “Bekerja dalam Kumpulan”? Wan Zah Wan Ali, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd.Ayub, Rosnaini Mahmud Mokhtar Hj.Nawawi, Rusli Abdullah, UPM

233

24)

Penggunaan Kamus Arab-Melayu dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Bahasa Arab Tasnim binti Mohd Annuar, UDM

248

25)

Knowledge and Interest on Traditional Medicine among UiTM Pharmacy Students Ibtisam Abdul Wahab, UiTM

258

26)

Tahap Kefahaman Kemahiran Mereka Bentuk Eksperimen dan Kemahiran Mengeksperimen di Kalangan Pelajar Tahun Dua Program Pendidikan Fizik Merentas Jantina Noor Anita binti Ali, Shaharom bin Noordin, UTM

266

27)

Board Game: Nun-Forecaster Fast Forward into the Corporate Future – What Lies Ahead of You? Rozainun Abdul Aziz, UiTM

276

28)

Pelaksanaan Kaedah SCL dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Kursus Kenegaraan Malaysia di Universiti Putra Malaysia dan Kesannya ke atas Gred Pencapaian Pelajar Zarina Muhammad, UPM

286

29)

Pendekatan Pembelajaran Bahasa Arab Pelajar China di Xi’an International Studies University (XISU): Suatu Tinjauan di USIM Arnida A. Bakar, Lubna Abd. Rahman, Wan Azura Wan Ahmad USIM

297

30)

Enhancing Environmental Engineering Curricula through Intensification of Field Course Sumiani Yussoff, Onn Chiu Chuen. UM

311

31)

Freemind for the Teaching and Learning of Electrical Machines Mohd Fakhizan bin Romlie, UTP

321

32)

Pengajaran Kursus Pemikiran Kritis Berteraskan Al-Qur’an di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi: Satu Cadangan Mohd Fauzi Hamat, UM

332

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

33)

Facilitating Graduate Level-Learning: A Case Study of the “Newfoundland Strategy” Normah Haji Omar, UiTM

344

34)

Cikgu, Gambarajah Ini Menyusahkan Saya! Johari Surif, Nor Hasniza brahim, Mohammad Yusof Arshad UTM

357

35)

The Impact of Coorperative Learning Method in Increasing Student’s Academic and Soft Skill Performance. An Exploratory Study in UMS Caroline Geetha, Vivin Vincent Chandran, UMS

371

36)

Online Interaction: Quantitative versus Qualitative Approach ¹Mohd Fadzli bin Ali, ²Gordon Joyes ¹UTM, ²University of Nottingham

379

37)

Explication of Tacit Knowledge in Higher Education Instituitional Research through the Criteria of Professional Practice Action Research Approach: A Focus Group Case Study at an Australian University Edward Wong Sek Khin. UTAR

387

38)

Implementation of Outcome-Based Education (OBE) in Universiti Putra Malaysia: A Focus on Student Learning Outcomes (SLO) Mohd Ghazali Mohayidin, Turiman Suandi, Ghazali Mustafa Roselan Baki, Norfaryanti Kamaruddin, Nor Azirawani Man Azura Adam, Siti Norziah Abdullah, UPM

402

39)

Program Peningkatan Profesional: Pemantap Pegawai Akademik Institusi Pengajian Tinggi Mansor Ahmad, Juraidah Mohamad Amin, Haryati Abdullah UPM

427

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

A CONTEXTUAL APPROACH, USING PROBLEM-BASED, TO THE TEACHING AND LEARNING STATISTICS IN THE UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA (UTHM)

NAFISAH KAMARIAH MD KAMARUDDIN MOHD RASHID WAN AHMAD

Centre for Science Studies Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)

nafisah@uthm.edu.my

© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. Prosiding Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Institusi Pengajian Tinggi (CTLHE07), The Palace of Golden Horses, Seri Kembangan, Selangor, 12-14 Disember 2007

ABSTRACT - The Mathematics Department, Centre for Science Studies in the Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) has adopted the contextual teaching and learning approach. In the contextual approach, by using the problem-based method, students engage in the problem-solving investigation that integrates skills and concept from many content areas. Students will be working in teams to perform tasks and the lecturer will facilitate them. Vygfotsky emphasized that cognitive development results from a dialectical process whereby a child learns through the problem-solving experiences shared with someone else, usually a parent or teacher but sometimes a sibling or peer. In addition, according to Vygotsky, when children were tested on tasks on their own, they rarely did as well as when they were working in collaboration with an adult as the process of engagement with the adult enabled them to refine their thinking or their performance to make it more effective . This is what the social constructivism emphasizes on which meanings and understanding grow.The implementation of contextual approach in the UTHM is already more than four years; however there is no proper module of teaching and learning mathematics contextually. Thus, this research is to study the effectiveness of the contextual approach. This study will be conducted on the second year engineering students taking statistics. In this research, a quasi-experimental research design is used. The research instruments will consist of 2 sets of questionnaires, 3 quizzes and a standard test. Likert scale will be used as a form of measurement for the questionnaires. Solomon’s Four-Group Design will be used where the students will be divided into four groups: 2 control groups and 2 treated groups as shown in the attachment. This design allows the researcher to assess whether there is an interaction between the treatment and the pretest. This design combines two basic experimental designs.This research will produce a proper implementation of the contextual approach in the teaching and

[

1

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

1.0

INTRODUCTION

learning mathematics in higher learning institutions. Hence it will help students to learn mathematics and most importantly to apply it in their engineering subjects.

Keywords: Social Constructivism, Problem- based Learning, Contextual, Statistics

In 1997, the Technical Education Department under the Ministry of Education, Malaysia, introduced the contextual approach in the teaching and learning mathematics, additional mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology in all Malaysian technical secondary schools. After one month of the implementation of this approach to selected technical schools, a pilot test was done to see the effectiveness of this approach. The students were divided into two groups: control and treated groups. The contextual groups used the

contextual module, watched the contextual video and did the laboratory activities. After watching the video, the students started to realize the use of mathematics in real life situations. The students enjoyed the laboratory activities and they were more involved with the lesson. The students were more motivated because they started doing their homework given by the teachers. Weak students who did not like mathematics tended to appreciate mathematics. It seemed that the barrier between them and mathematics had been broken. A good student commented that she would still understand the concept by either method but she understood faster with the contextual approach. After a month, these two classes were given the same test. Due to the result of the study where the findings were very positive (11% increase in performance) and hence the implementation of the contextual learning in mathematics, additional mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology subjects in the year 1998 for all

. Starting from the year 2001, the

vocational /technical secondary schools

contextual approach has been used for learning and teaching applied mathematics in the Malaysian community college, Ministry of Education, so that students will be able to understand abstract concepts through concrete

experiences.

[3]

From 1998 to 2000 more than 80% of the UTHM intake was from Malaysian Technical Secondary Schools. Thus it is the UTHM’s obligation to introduce this program as a continual process in higher learning institutions. In 2002, the contextual approach in the teaching and learning mathematics was introduced in the Centre for Science Studies in UTHM. The implementation of contextual approach in UTHM is already more than four years; however there is no proper module of the teaching and learning mathematics contextually and there is no proper experimental research that has been done to study whether this method has been effective. Thus, this research is to study the effectiveness of the contextual approach.

2

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Contextual Learning

The contextual learning means one that incorporates examples that are drawn from everyday experiences in personal, societal and occupational life which provide concrete hands-on applications of material to be learned [3] . In the first project by the Ohio State University College of Education and Bowling Green State University, the definition of the contextual teaching and learning was developed as the conception of the teaching and learning that helps teachers relate subject matter content to real world situations and motivates students to make connection between knowledge and its applications to their lives as family members, citizens, and workers; and engage in the hard work that learning requires [4] . The contextual approach was introduced for students’ technical and career preparation or Tech Prep by the Center for Occupational Research and Development, Texas, USA. The contextual approach is one of the Tech Prep elements.

In the contextual approach, by using the problem-based method, students engage in the problem-solving investigation that integrates skills and concept from many content areas. Students will be working in teams to perform tasks and the lecturer will facilitate them. Vygfotsky emphasized that cognitive development results from a dialectical process whereby a child learns through problem-solving experiences shared with someone else, usually a parent or teacher but sometimes a sibling or peer [1] . In addition, according to Vygotsky, when children were tested on tasks on their own, they rarely did as well as when they were working in

collaboration with an adult

. He added that it was always the case that

the adult was teaching them how to perform the task, but the process of engagement with the adult enabled them to refine their thinking or their performance to make it more effective [2] .

[2]

2.2 Contextual Learning Key Elements

2.2.1 Develop Subject Matter CONTENT

Students learn best if we can relate to their past experiences. According to constructivism, students construct their own knowledge by testing ideas based on prior knowledge and experiences, applying these ideas to new situation, and integrating the new knowledge gained with preexisting intellectual constructs [3] .

2.2.2 Involve Students in DOING

According to Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory, the

. In the contextual

students learn best by thinking and doing

[5]

3

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

approach, the lab activities or mathematical experiments help students to study by this method. The old way of teaching is a one-way communication. We cannot assume students accept and understand everything that is taught by the teacher. By looking at the notes that the students copied from the blackboard, we can see that certain students copied differently from what was given to them and that means they understand the concept wrongly. By using the lab activities or mathematical experiments in the contextual approach, it helps them to understand the concept better as the concept of experiential learning explores the cyclical pattern of all learning from Experiences through Reflection and Conceptualizing to Action and on further Experience [5] .

2.2.3 Make The CONNECTION Between Context and Practice

According to.Kolb and Hull in the Center of Curriculum Development, Malaysian Ministry of Education (2001), the

contextual approach makes the learning connect with all kinds of experiences in social, culture, physical and psychological

contexts

. This theory encourages educators to choose or

generate surrounding that get good learning outcomes. The uses of motivational video programs take students into workplace and demonstrate the use of mathematics on the job. Through the video presentation and the class discussion, students associate and recognize the mathematical skills needed in the rapidly changing workplace. After watching the video, the students started to realize the use of mathematics in real life situations. Studies done by Zaidi in KUiTTHO shown that the technical students agreed that the application of multimedia using simulation, illustration with video attracted their attention during the lesson and this approach was able to motivate them to focus on the lessons [7] . In addition, the research done by Baharudin and NurHaiza who used Learning Styles Questionnaires (LSQ) by Honey & Mumford , reflector is the main learning style for the technical teachers and students [8] [9] . The teaching and learning activities which were effective for this group were to stimulate them by watching video or giving them time to think before react, giving conclusion without pressure which was being focused in the contextual approach.

2.2.4 Practice Cooperative Learning

[6]

The contextual approach helps students to learn in a group where this approach will encourage them to ask questions, discuss and solve problems together. Students will practice cooperative learning while the teacher serves as a guide. According to Zahariah et all, cooperative learning promoted positive relations among students and there was a tendency to be more cooperative among the peer members in discussing and solving problems [10] . The main goal for schools is

4

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

to prepare the students for work. Thus it is important that the students work together because in real life situations they have to work with other workers. They will learn to do things in a working environment. They will need to communicate with each other and this will increase their communication skills. Cooperative learning helps learners acquire the curriculum the

. However cooperative

basic cooperative attitudes and values

learning does not mean students achieve better academically as in Messier research, the overall achievement scores were higher

in the traditional lecture-based groups (control) than the

cooperative lecture groups (treatment)

2.2.5 Carry out Learning in Workplace Setting, Where Possible

[11]

[12]

.

Workplace lab activities created by business and industry focus on measurement and computation, and help students to develop critical thinking skills. Students relate the formulas and theories that are taught in the classroom to their everyday lives or their future jobs. If we can bring students to the real life atmosphere let say a company then they can see the real thing. However if we cannot, we need to simulate the workplace. In the experiment besides making them understand the concept, the students also work in environment or group projects that simulate the workplace. This is a good practice because there is a lot of complain from companies that the students who graduated from higher learning institution cannot perform well in the workplace. In the contextual approach, by using the problem-based method, students engage in the problem-solving investigation that integrate skills and concept from many content areas or by using the project-based learning, students work autonomously to construct their own learning, and culminate in realistic products [13] .

2.2.6 Problem-based Learning

There are also many definitions of the problem-based learning (PBL). Fogarty defined PBL as a curriculum model designed around real-life problems that are ill-structured, open- ended, or ambiguous. In problem based learning students go through many stages which are defining the problem, gathering known facts, generating questions, hypothesizing, eventually generating alternatives, advocating solutions and justifying recommendations [14] .

Many researchers have found out that PBL is very effective and helps the students, not only in understanding the concepts but also in developing themselves. According to Vygotsky in Cole, understanding is social in origin [15] . In addition, in a study by Acar et al., they found that PBL provided the basis

5

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

for the development of systems engineers [16] . Sometimes students are not able to connect what they learn in class with the real world. PBL will be a good method of learning as the creation

of most PBL classes is built around the delivery of the real-world learning experience to the students [17] . Traditional method is a one-way method of teaching and the students are expected to just accept what the teacher teaches. However in PBL, there is a connection between the teaching method and the depth and complexity of the learning, as the students may be expected to reach the level of analytically complex comprehension through the problem-based work that is not done in the traditional

method of teaching

[18] .

The success of this method will depend on many aspects such as the experience of the lecturers, the implementation of PBL, the evaluations of the students’ performances, etc. This variation in PBL design would occur as

the use of PBL is increasing [19] . Lecturers should be aware of the problems that may occur when implementing PBL. For example, the students would get a lot of information all at once and found difficulty to plow through the concepts or the introductory application with less theory makes the computation more

difficult [20] .

3.0

SCOPE

This reasearch will focus on the contextual approach, using problem- based, in the teaching and learning statistics for the second year degree engineering students, UTHM As it is important that the students know the importance of statistics and the application of statistics in engineering, this research will focus on statistics subject. The duration of this research is 3 years.

4. 0

OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH

The objectives of this research are as follow:

1. To determine whether using statistics video clips embedded in power point presentations in learning statistics help students to understand the statistics concepts

2. To determine whether using the mathematical lab using SPSS in learning statistics helps students to understand the statistics concepts

3. To determine whether the class activities using problem-based learning helps students to understand the statistics concepts.

4. To determine whether there is a significant difference between the test result of the contextual group with the non-contextual group.

6

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

5.0

METHODOLOGY

In this research, a quasi-experimental research design is used. The research instruments will consist of 2 sets of questionnaires, 3 quizzes and a

standard test. The 1 st set of questionnaires which will consist of 5 main sections : Background, Teaching and learning approach, Video, Class activities, Statistics

lab. The 2

criticality and team working. Likert scale will be used as a form of measurement. Before the questionnaires are given to the respondents, a pioneer test will be done where ten degree students will be randomly selected to answer the questionnaires. The pioneer test is to find the value of the Alpha-Cronbach, that is to determine the validity of the questionnaires. Solomon’s Four-Group Design will be used where the students will be divided into four groups: 2 control groups and 2 treated groups as shown in the attachment. This design allows the researcher to assess whether there is an interaction between the treatment and the pretest. This design combines two basic experimental designs.

set of questionnaires will consist of 3 main sections: creativity,

nd

Solomon’s Four-Group Design :

R Group A Pretest Treatment Posttest

R

Group B Pretest No Treatment Posttest

R

Group C Treatment Posttest

R

Group D No Treatment Posttest

The study will focus on the teaching and the learning that provide concrete hands-on application of materials to be learned. It will investigate whether the contextual approach in using mathematics lab, statistics video clips embedded in power point presentations and class activities is effective, that is, the degree technical students are able to understand the mathematics concepts and apply the concepts in their engineering subjects.

Independent t-test is used with the achievement test as the independent variable for the Grouping Variable and the students’ marks as the dependent variable for the Test Variable. All data will be collected through the questionnaire survey and 3 quizzes on these technical students after they do the class activities, watch the mathematics video and they do the mathematical lab. The treated groups will do all the three activities that are contextually design while the 2 control groups will do all the 3 activities that is non-contextually design. After they do all the activities, a common test will be given to all students. This research will produce a proper implementation of contextual approach in the teaching and the learning mathematics in higher learning institutions and the research findings will indicate whether the technical students understand mathematics concept better by using the contextual approach

Frequency and percentage will be used to answer the first three research questions. Inference statistics will be used to study the effectiveness of understanding mathematical concept using contextual approach. The research hypothesis is as below:

H o :

µ control = µ treated

7

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

H a :

µ control µ treated

An observations of the activities and interview will be also carry out to complement the quantitative study.

CONCLUSION

This research will produce a proper implementation of contextual approach in the teaching and the learning mathematics in higher learning institutions. Hence it will help students to learn mathematics and most importantly to apply it in their engineering subjects.

REFERENCES

[1]

Funderstanding (2001). Vygotsky and Social Cognition.

[2]

http://www.funderstanding.com/vygotsky.cfm. Retrieved 12 July, 2007. Atherton J. S. (2005). "Learning and Teaching".

[3]

http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/constructivism.htm. Retrieved 12 July, 2007. First Tech Prep National Convention, organized by Technical Education

And Learning In Kuittho,

Malaysia.4 th International Conference On

[4]

Department, Malaysian Ministry of Education in September, 1997. National Conference on Teacher Quality, Department of Education.

[5]

Washington D.C., USA in January, 2000. Kolb, D. A. Experiential Learning : Experience As The Source of

[6]

Learning and Development. (Englewood : Prentice Hall, 1985). National Conference on Teacher Quality, Department of Education.

[7]

Washington D.C., USA in January, 2000. Mohd Zaidi Abdul Hamid and Nafisah @ Kamariah Md Kamaruddin A

Survey Of The Application Of Multimedia In The Process Of Teaching

[8]

Technology In Teaching And Learning In Higher Education. Beijing, China : 2005. Baharuddin Aris, Jamaluddin Hj Harun, Noraffandy Yahya, and Zaidatun

International Conference on University Learning & Teaching. UiTM Shah

[9]

Tasir, “Teknologi Pendidikan : Modul Pembelajaran Johor(Univeristi Teknologi Malaysia, 2000). Nurhaiza Abd Wahab and Nafisah @ Kamariah Md Kamaruddin.).

[10]

Learning Styles Of Form Four Electrical Engineering Students In Three Technical Schools In Malaysia. 3rd International Seminar on Learning and Motivation. Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia, 2005. Zahariah Mohd Zain, Geetha Subramaniam, and Arlinah Abd Rashid.

[11]

2004. Cooperative Learning in an Economic Classroom. INCULT 2004 :

Alam, Malaysia. Unpublished. Borich G. D., Effective Teaching Methods. (New Jersey : Prince-Hall

[12]

Inc., 1996). Messier, William P. Traditional Teaching Strategies verses Cooperative Teahcing Strategies : Which Can Improve Achievement Scores in Chinese Middle Schools? US-China Education Review, ISSN1548- 6613,Volume 2, No1(Serial No.2). Jan 2005,USA.

8

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

[13]

Berns, Robert G and Erikson, Patricia. (2001). “Contextual Teaching

http://www.massey.ac.nz/%7Ealock/virtual/colevyg.htm. Retrieved 12

657-662.

[14]

and Learning.” The Higlight Zone : Research @ Work No . 5. The National Centers for Career and Technical Education, USA. Fogarty, Robin ( 1997). Problem-based Learning & Other Curriculum

[15]

Models for the Multiple Intelligences Classroom. SkyLight Training and Publishing Inc. Cole, Michael and Wertsch, James V. (2001). Beyond the Individual-

[16]

Social Antimony in Discussion of Piaget and Vygostky.

July, 2007. Acar, B. S. and Newman, I. A. "Students as Tutors – Learning Problem-

[17]

Solving Skills by Tutoring PBL", International Journal Engineering Education, Vol, 19, No.5, pp 712-716 (2003). Cockayne, W., Feland III, J. M. and Leifer L. (2003)Using the Contextual

[18]

Skills Matrix for PBL Assessment. International Journal Engineering Education, Vol, 19, No.5, pp 701-705. De Graaff, E. and Kolmos, A. Characteristics of Problem-Based

Learning. International Journal Engineering Education, Vol, 19, No.5, pp

[19]

Zolin, R., Fruchter, R. and Levitt, R. (2003). Reaslism and Control:

Problem-Based Learning Programs as a Data Source for Work-Related Research. International Journal Engineering Education, Vol, 19, No.6, pp

788-798.

[20] Nasr, K and Thomas, C. (2004). Student-centered, Concept-embedded Problem-based Engineering Thermodynamics. International Journal Engineering Education, Vol, 20, No.4, pp 660-670.

9

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

IMPACT ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF BILINGUALISM IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS IN HIGHER EDUCATION

MOHINI MOHAMED AZIZ NORDIN Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

mohainimohd@yahoo.com

p-mohini@utm.com.my

© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. Prosiding Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Institusi Pengajian Tinggi (CTLHE07), The Palace of Golden Horses, Seri Kembangan, Selangor, 12-14 Disember 2007

ABSTRACT - Understanding bilingualism

in science and mathematics education and developing a principled instruction is

a pressing issue in Malaysian system of

education. With the implementation of government policy of teaching science and mathematics in English starting from

year 2003, an increasing number of students are affected with this policy. It is vital to examine the view of instructors from tertiary level, who are bilingual themselves, about their views in the implementation of this policy. An initial study has been undertaken to examine the view of instructors from two public universities in Malaysia. A total of 175 respondents comprise of professors, associate professors and lecturers from eleven faculties participated in the research. It is important to gather theoretical and practical information from

a variety of societal context in order to

empower educators to see possibilities beyond their own constraints and to be able to perform their role appropriately. In the context of Malaysia, even though the dilemma was due to governmental initiatives, it is important to raise the consciousness of the bilingual educator and to liberate their view of bilingual education beyond a simple governmental definition or a single societal perspective.

Keywords: Bilingualism, Science and Mathematics Education, Current Issues In Higher Education

10

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Globalization is impacting on education system in many countries throughout the world. One aspect of this process is the language usage in the teaching of science and mathematics. This is particularly true in the context of Malaysia. The phenomenon where knowledge, value, principle and curricular developed in a local context gaining a global adherence is perceived as being an inevitable outcome. (Clarkson,. 2004). At the beginning of the 1970’s, the main medium of instruction of Malaysian school system was changed from English to Malay, the national language. This was done in some way for political reason and motivated by the call of patriotism and moving away from colonial influence. However from 2003 onwards, the government has launched a reform in education system where all first year primary, secondary and Malaysian matriculation college has to use English in teaching science and mathematics as well as related subjects. The level that started to be affected with this policy were year 1 in primary school, form 1 in lower secondary schools and form 6 for higher secondary and matriculation level. The level that were affected increased gradually and culminated to all level affected by year 2008 including the tertiary level. Public university in Malaysia has mandated that English is to be used as a medium of instruction for all science and mathematics related courses starting from semester 1 for 2005/6 session and all first year courses beginning 2006/7 session. The implementation of this policy brings obvious ramification in the teaching of mathematics in higher education.

2.0 ENGLISH AS GLOBAL ISSUES IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

Students are required to take English exam as a compulsory requirement for entrance to public university. MUET (Malaysian undergraduate English Test) result for new entry student for the 2007/8 intake at one public university which can be considered as a typical sample for other public university indicated that most students scored below the satisfactory level in English competency. From the population of 2916 new students’ intake at a public university, about 72.7% has a score of band 1, 2 and 3. (FIGURE 1)

11

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN
Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007
KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN
1800
1600
1526
1400
1200
1000
UTM
800
667
544
600
400
200
127
51
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
667 544 600 400 200 127 51 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 FIGURE

FIGURE 1: MUET score for 2007/8 student’s intake Courtesy of Centre for Teaching & Learning, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

(2007)

After four years of implementation of the policy, it is obvious that the incoming students that were admitted to university and other higher institution still have low proficiency in English. This scenario sends alarming signal and brings the Malaysian education system in great turmoil. The greatest dilemma of Malaysian education system has been its inability to understand the ethno linguistic complexity of bilingual education and its impact on student, classroom and society in such a way as to enable teacher and instructor to make informed decision about practice in classroom setting. There is a need in Malaysian education system for information about sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic issues that surround bilingualism in science and mathematics education. It is important to gather theoretical and practical information from a variety of societal context in order to empower educators to see possibilities beyond their own constraints and to be able to perform their role appropriately. In the context of Malaysia, even though the dilemma was due to governmental initiatives, it is important to raise the consciousness of the bilingual educators and to liberate their view of bilingual education beyond a simple governmental definition or a single societal perspective (Baker, 1996). A common assumption is that mathematics is a universal language and as such mathematical symbols cut across nations, ethnicity and cultures with different languages. However a study by Aziz et al (2000) showed that there is a strong correlation between test score in science and mathematics with English test score. The result indicated that student with high proficiency in English were more likely to achieve high scores in their science and mathematics test. In other word, the findings revealed that students with low proficiency in English are

12

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

somewhat deprive of achieving high score in science and mathematics. This raise the issues of equity and language gap which is tantamount to creating performance gap in education.

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The data for the research were collected from two public universities in Malaysia. A total of 175 respondents comprise of professors, associate professors and lecturers from eleven faculties had participated in the research. Questionnaires were used as the instrument for data collection and later analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for social science) software. The statistics used in the research were frequencies and percentages.

4.0 FINDINGS

The study indicated that some of the reasons behind the use of English in classroom setting for most of the respondent in order of importance were as below:

a. contributes to the internationalization of the university

b. is necessary for competition in the job market

c. is meaningful for Malaysian students, since it provides training in an internationalized context

d. makes it possible for students from many cultures to learn together

There is an innate wish among the respondents to contribute to the internationalization of their university by conducting their courses in English (Table 1). By doing so, the respondents feel that they can provide platform in enhancing the proficiency of English among their student. The reason for using English can be seen as utilitarian in nature because they hope by acquiring and mastering English among their students can improve their prospect in the job market. The government is exerting effort to make Malaysia as the center of learning in the world map. In line with this aspiration, public universities has received enrollment from international students from various countries especially from the Middle East and Africa. The respondents feel that it is important to conduct their course in English in order to facilitate the students from different countries and cultures to learn together with the local students.

TABLE 1: Positive views

 

Items on positive views

 

M

Disag

Ag

1.

contributes to the internationalization of the university

2.81

10

152

(6.17)

(93.83)

2.

makes it possible for students from many

2.73

18

140

cultures to learn

together

 

(11.39)

(88.61)

6.

is meaningful for Malaysian students,

2.73

11

137

since

it

provides

training

in

an

(7.43)

(92.57)

13

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

 

internationalized context

     

8.

is unavoidable given the prevalence of the English language

2.21

32

73

(30.48)

(69.52)

10.

is necessary to compete with the world

2.69

16

135

 

(10.60)

(89.40)

11.

is necessary for competition in the job market

2.80

11

151

(6.79)

(93.21)

Despite the low English proficiency among Malaysian university students, their instructors strongly feel that Malaysian students are able to compete internationally. However, there are negative arguments as well, such as, Malaysian students are more passive than other international students namely Africans, Bosnian or other Asian students (Table 2 and Table 3). Given their low English proficiency, 81.25% of the respondent viewed that Malaysian students have insufficient training in stating their opinion in English. Naturally, the student who has a good command of English tend to dominate the class discussion. However, this seem to be an elite group because less than 10 percent of Malaysian population has good command of English and are comfortable in using it as a form of communication(Johari et al., 2006).

TABLE 2: Positive views for courses taught in English

 

M

Disag

Ag

1.

It is livelier than a regular course

 

1.84

30

38

 

(44.12)

(55.88)

5.

It is exciting since there are many different opinions

2.07

13

71

(15.48)

(84.52)

12.

Malaysian

students

can

compete

2.50

6

125

internationally

(4.58)

(95.42)

 

TABLE 3: Negative views for courses taught in English

 
 

M

Disag

Ag

2.

Malaysian students are more passive than other Asian Students

1.87

37

52

(41.57)

(58.43)

3.

Malaysian students are more passive than other non-Asian foreign students (Africans, Bosnians, etc)

     

1.84

35

56

(38.46)

(61.54)

4.

It is difficult since the needs of the students are diverse

1.64

34

58

(36.96)

(63.04)

5.

It is exciting since there are many different opinions

2.07

13

71

(15.48)

(84.52)

6.

It is difficult to find teaching material since there are few English publications that share your viewpoint

     

1.16

122

11

(91.73)

(8.27)

7.

The students whose first language is English tend to dominate the discussions

2.16

26

89

(22.61)

(77.39)

14

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

10. Malaysian students have insufficient training in stating their opinion in English

2.24

24

104

(18.75)

(81.25)

11. Malaysian students have insufficient training in explaining about their country to non- Malaysians

1.87

39

58

(40.21)

(59.79)

The study also give evidence that university instructor prefers to write papers in English (Table 4). The main reason is because they perceived that the paper written in English will be read more widely in the world (Table 5). Writing in English for bilingual instructor is of course not without its hurdle. Admittedly, they have difficulties in writing articles in correct grammatical sentences and it became a common challenge for most English learner.

TABLE 4: Writing and publishing papers

 

ITEM 15

Freq

%

1. I write almost all of my papers in English but I also try to publish in Malay

117

66.86

2. I write mostly in Malay, but I also try to publish in English

32

18.29

3. It is not necessary to publish in English in my area

 

4

2.29

4. Other (Please explain:

)

19

10.86

TABLE 5: Reasons for preference to write in English

 
 

ITEM 16

Freq

%

1. The paper will be read more widely in the world that way

125

71.43

2.

There are not that many academic journals in the national

   

language in which I can publish

55

31.43

3.

People that write in English are more highly considered

   

even within the country

35

20.00

4.

Other (Please explain:

)

67

38.29

5.0

IMPLICATIONS

Unlike the situation that occurs in some western countries, bilingual education in Malaysia is not the needs of minority students but the massive population of student. English is the second language of almost all of the students while their first language maybe Malay, Mandarin or Tamil. How can instructors meet the language development needs of these students while at the same time providing all of them the opportunity to fully develop their science and mathematics knowledge at the requirement level? There is no immediate,

15

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

absolute or universal answer. All university programs have to be adapted according to the local context.

Students need access to multicultural environment, appropriate use of first language and use effective English method of content instruction as well as opportunity to show their competence in a variety of ways. In an active integrated learning environment, the development of language proficiency, thinking skills and science and mathematics knowledge are all intertwined. In the beginning, the use of instruction time for mathematics might be insufficient because of the emphasis of language development. However one can imagine a range of instructional emphasis as in FIGURE 1.

Instructional emphasis Use of science and mathematics to develop English Use of English to develop
Instructional emphasis Use of science and mathematics to develop English Use of English to develop

Instructional emphasis

Instructional emphasis Use of science and mathematics to develop English Use of English to develop science
Instructional emphasis Use of science and mathematics to develop English Use of English to develop science
Instructional emphasis Use of science and mathematics to develop English Use of English to develop science
Instructional emphasis Use of science and mathematics to develop English Use of English to develop science

Use of science and mathematics to develop English

Use of English to develop science and mathematics

FIGURE 2: A continuum of instructional emphasis

16

Situations arise in which end of the continuum maybe appropriate for an instructional emphasis in bilingualism education. And as a continuum, there is not always a clear demarcation between the language focus and the content focus.

The concurrent approaches, the switching back and forth in one lesson between two languages are the most common approach. Concurrent approach is actually a skill that needs to be developed. The rationale for the skilled use of concurrent approach is to make the lesson comprehensible to all students and is accessible in an intellectually challenging ways. However, because of the primacy of language as a vehicle for cognitive and academic development, how it is used in the bilingual classroom can have a significant impact on the question of the learning environment. The following is a summary of recommendations brought forth from this study:

Implementation of bilingualism should be grounded in the context of socio cultural, economic and ideological realities

Instead of focusing on deficiencies, instruction should build on the background and interests that student brings to classroom.

Bilingualism instruction has to provide a balance and integrated environment in developing thinking skills, science and mathematics knowledge as well as language proficiencies.

Concurrent approach or a skilled use of both languages may become a part of teaching process in science and mathematics instruction.

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

6.0

CHALLENGES

This initial study emphasized that the implementation of bilingualism in science and mathematics raise several dilemmas and issues. The instructors need to cope in situations where they will not have full control of their situation. Intake of students to public university who are low proficiency in English compelled instructors to switch back and forth from their mother tongue to English. Instead of being frown upon, this practice could create opportunities for bilingual learners to flourish. There is a need to shift to other socio cultural perspective in countering the obstacles of bilingualism in science and mathematics learning. A socio cultural perspective shift away from deficiency models of bilingual learner and instead focuses on describing the resources bilingual students use to communicate mathematically (Moschkovich). By refusing to shift to socio cultural perspective, may result in designing instructional policy that neglects the experiences and competencies of student that they bring to science and mathematics classroom. If all we see are students, who don’t speak English, mispronounce English words, incapable to discuss in English, instruction will focus on this deficiencies. If, instead, we learn to recognize the science and mathematical ideas this student express in spite of their accents, code-switching, or missing vocabulary, then instruction can build on students’ competencies and resources. How to implement socio cultural perspective in order to better understand the processes underlying bilingualism in learning science and mathematics needs further exploration.

CONCLUSION

Understanding the complexity of bilingual science and mathematics education and developing a framework for bilingual education in science and mathematics instruction is a pressing practical issue in Malaysia. When the government mandated the policy of using English in teaching science and mathematics, there followed an unquestioned aggressiveness on the part of some administrator of schools and higher education institutions in implementing the rule. An increasing number of students who enter public university will have to face the dilemma of learning science and mathematics and other related courses entirely in English. It is crucial for teachers and educators to make an informed decision and performed an appropriate role in supporting bilingualism in a changing classroom setting.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to appreciate and extend my gratitude to Research Management Center of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia for the full support of this research. I am also indebted to Professor Rosnani Hashim for her help in distributing and analyzing the data from various faculties at International Islamic University of Malaysia.

17

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

Barwell, R. & Clarkson, P. “Researching Mathematics Education in Multilingual Contexts: Theory, Methodology and the Teaching of

Conference of the International

Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, vol. I (pp.227-256)

(2004)

Clarkson, P.C. Teaching Mathematics in Multilingual Classrooms: The Global Importance of Contexts. In I.P.Cheong, H.S.Dhindsa, I.J.Kyeleve & O.Chukwu (Eds.), Globalisation Trends in Science, Mathematics and Technical Education (pp.9-23). Brunei Darussalam: Universiti Brunei Darussalam (2004)

Mathematics.” Proceedings of the 28

th

Clarkson, P.C. Language, Logical Thinking and Communication in School Mathematics: Whose Responsibility. In H.S.Dhindsa, L.S.Bee, P.Achleitner & M.A.Clements (Eds.), Studies in Science, Mathematics and Technical Education (pp.99-116). Brunei Darussalam: Universiti Brunei Darussalam (2003) Clarkson, P.C. & Atweh, B. More Perspective on The Impact of Globalisation on Mathematics Education in Higher Education in Australia. In L.Bragg, C.Campbell, G.Herbert & J.Mousley (Eds.), Mathematics Education Research: Innovation, Networking, Opportunity (pp.238-245). Geelong, Vic.: Mathematics ducation Research Group of Australia (2003) Ester J. de Jong Effective Bilingual Education: From Theory to Academic Achievement in a Two-Way Bilingual Program. Bilingual Research Journal, vol. 26 (1) (2002) Moshkovich, Judith To appear in N.Nassir and Cobb (Eds.) Diversity, Equity, and Access to Mathematical Ideas. Teacher College Press (In press)

18

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

HUBUNGAN PENGAJARAN PENSYARAH DAN MINAT PELAJAR DENGAN KEFAHAMAN KONSEP MORAL

MOHAMAD KHAIRI HAJI OTHMAN ABDULL SUKOR SHAARI

Fakulti Sains Kognitif dan Pendidikan,Universiti Utara Malaysia

© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. Prosiding Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Institusi Pengajian Tinggi (CTLHE07), The Palace of Golden Horses, Seri Kembangan, Selangor, 12-14 Disember 2007

ABSTRAK - Pengetahuan dan kefahaman moral akan menimbulkan kesedaran dan penghayatan kepada pelajar tentang pelbagai isu moral yang seterusnya menguasai dan mempengaruhi amalan dan tindakan seseorang. Pensyarah merupakan faktor terpenting dalam mempengaruhi persepsi dan kefahaman pelajar tentang moral. Kertas kerja ini akan membincangkan hasil kajian yang berkaitan dengan hubungan pengajaran pensyarah dan minat pelajar dengan kefahaman konsep moral. Kajian ini dijalankan melalui kaedah tinjauan dengan mengedarkan soal selidik kepada 305 orang pelajar Universiti Utara Malaysia. Fokus utama kajian ini adalah untuk mengenal pasti tahap kefahaman moral dalam kalangan pelajar dan adakah terdapat hubungannya dengan pengajaran pensyarah dan minat pelajar. Hasil kajian mendapati secara keseluruhannya, kefahaman konsep moral responden kajian ini didapati adalah tinggi dan dimensi agama menunjukkan tahap kefahaman yang paling tinggi berbanding dimensi-dimensi lain. Dapatan kajian juga menunjukkan terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara pengajaran pensyarah dan minat pelajar dengan kefahaman konsep moral dalam kalangan responden. Walaupun begitu, masih ada perkara yang perlu diperkemaskan bagi meningkatkan lagi mutu pengajaran dan pembelajaran kursus-kursus berkaitan etika dan moral di IPTA khususnya untuk merealisasikan agenda negara dalam aspek pembangunan modal insan. Sehubungan itu, implikasi dan cadangan juga turut diperbincangkan dalam kertas kerja ini untuk dikongsi bersama.

1.0 PENGENALAN

Dalam sistem pendidikan di negara kita penumpuan terhadap dasar pendidikan untuk melahirkan insan yang baik, menyeluruh dan bersepadu dari segi jasmani, emosi, rohani dan intelek adalah jelas berdasarkan apa yang tersurat pada Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan. Elemen akhlak dan moral adalah merupakan salah satu unsur yang penting dalam memastikan hasrat Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan ini tercapai. Al-Attas (1980) dan Ashraf (1985)

19

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

telah menegaskan bahawa pembangunan insan yang baik adalah menjadi matlamat yang utama di dalam sistem pendidikan negara. Menurut mereka, insan yang baik dengan sendirinya akan melahirkan warganegara yang baik manakala warganegara yang baik tidak semestinya melahirkan insan baik. Pendidikan akhlak dan moral adalah amat penting kepada mereka khususnya di kalangan generasi muda. Oleh itu, setiap pelajar perlu memahami, menghayati dan mengamalkan kesemua prinsip-prinsip akhlak dan moral.

Dalam era globalisasi ini, amalan nilai dan akhlak telah menjadi begitu kompleks dan ini telah menimbulkan persoalan dan mungkin mengelirukan tentang apakah yang dianggap baik dan betul dalam pemikiran dan tingkahlaku pelajar. Dalam media sering memaparkan situasi di mana pelajar-pelajar terlibat dalam kegiatan yang bukan hanya membahayakan nyawa dan kemuliaan sendiri tetapi juga orang lain seperti gengsterisme, buli-membuli, mencuri, kehamilan, pelacuran, dadah dan sebagainya. Ini semuanya akibat mereka yang tidak menghiraukan tentang akhlak dan moral yang baik.

Sesungguhnya penampilan manusia yang berakhlak dan bermoral merupakan sesuatu yang diharapkan oleh masyarakat. Tanpa ada kefahaman yang sebenar tentang konsep akhlak dan moral sudah tentu ia amat sukar untuk dihayati dan diamalkan dalam kehidupan. Dalam hal ini, para pelajar perlu mempunyai kefahaman yang mantap terhadap konsep akhlak dan moral seterusnya dapat berakhlak mulia dan bermoral pada setiap masa dan dimana jua.

2.0 PENYATAAN MASALAH

Masyarakat sering membincangkan tentang masalah keruntuhan akhlak terutama dalam kalangan remaja khususnya para pelajar di sekolah dan di institusi pengajian tinggi. Remaja sering dikatakan tidak berakhlak, tidak pandai membuat pertimbangan dan pelbagai lagi ciri negatif (Lihanna, 2001). Masalah sosial yang melibatkan golongan remaja dengan budaya lepak, curi, dadah, bohsia dan sebagainya telah didedahkan kepada kita setiap hari menerusi akhbar, radio dan televisyen. Mengikut kenyataan Napsiah (Berita Harian, 3 Februari 1993) dalam Azizi dan Yusof (2001) bilangan remaja yang rosak akhlak masih tinggi. Pada tahun 1988 sebanyak 3, 978 kes dicatatkan, 4,111 kes pada tahun tahun 1989, 3,763 kes pada tahun 1990 dan 2658 kes sehingga Oktober 1996. Selain daripada itu, pihak Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia telah mengakui bahawa terdapat 76, 300 pelajar di negara ini terlibat dalam pelbagai masalah disiplin termasuk juga kegiatan samseng (Utusan Malaysia, 3 September 2003).

Tidak dapat dinafikan lagi masalah keruntuhan akidah dan sosial seperti gejala murtad, keruntuhan akhlak, zina, rogol, serta kegagalan remaja untuk melaksanakan tuntutan asas sebagai seorang insan telah menimbulkan pelbagai pandangan dan persepsi di dalam masyarakat terhadap sejauhmana kefahaman konsep akhlak dan moral dalam kalangan remaja.

Pendidikan akhlak dan moral adalah penting kerana ianya dapat membantu pelajar merungkai pelbagai situasi dan isu moral yang mungkin mereka hadapi dalam kehidupan harian mereka. Kepentingan mata pelajaran ini menjadi lebih ketara memandangkan peningkatan gejala sosial dalam kalangan remaja kini. Walaupun beberapa pendekatan dan langkah telah diambil oleh

20

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

pihak berwajib termasuk menerapkan nilai murni merentas kurikulum, masalah gejala sosial dalam kalangan remaja masih tidak dapat dibendung secara berkesan (Asmawati, Rahyl & Abdul Rahman, 2001).

Dalam kajian Ab. Halim dan Zarin (2001) yang bertujuan melihat persepsi pelajar terhadap konsep akhlak mendapati ada responden yang mendefinisikan orang yang berakhlak adalah individu yang mempunyai dan mengamalkan sifat-sifat mulia yang tidak menghubungkaitkan definisi-definisi tersebut dengan nilai-nilai keagamaan yang menjadi teras akhlak di dalam Islam. Keadaan ini mungkin timbul disebabkan kefahaman mereka yang menganggap “orang yang berakhlak” sama dengan “orang bermoral”. Kekeliruan ini harus segera diperbetulkan kerana nilai-nilai akhlak dalam Islam adalah berteraskan kepada al-Quran dan Sunnah yang bersifat tetap, universal dan tidak berubah- ubah. Manakala nilai-nilai moral pula berasaskan kepada pemikiran rasional, tidak tetap dan berubah-ubah mengikut suasana dan masa.

Kajian Ab. Halim dan Zarin l (2002) juga mendapati sejumlah kecil responden tidak dapat menghubungkaitkan keimanan kepada Allah (s.w.t) serta ilmu agama yang ada pada seseorang dengan kepentingan pelaksanaan nilai- nilai akhlak dalam kehidupan mereka. Maka, definisi-definisi mereka kurang menepati konsep akhlak dalam Islam kerana ilmu, keimanan dan pelaksanaan perlu disepadukan bagi menyempurnakan ketaqwaan dan kepatuhan kepada Allah dan kesempurnaan keimanan seseorang individu.

Sementara itu Asmawati, Rahyl dan Abdul Rahman (2001) dalam kajiannya mendapati kebanyakan responden kurang memahami dengan tepat makna moral yang mana dapatan menunjukkan bahawa 83.6% responden menyatakan orang bermoral ialah orang yang sentiasa mematuhi peraturan dan undang-undang masyarakat dan 79.9% menyatakan orang bermoral ialah orang yang berkelakuan baik dalam semua situasi.

Begitu juga kefahaman yang tidak jelas tentang aspek penerapan nilai- nilai murni dan proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran juga wujud dalam kalangan guru-guru baru dan lama (Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum, 1992).

Dapatan-dapatan ini memberi gambaran tentang kefahaman terhadap akhlak dan moral dalam keadaaan yang bermasalah dan faktor pengajaran pensyarah dan minat pelajar memainkan penting dalam kefahaman berkaitan dengan konsep etika dan moral. Justeru, kertas kerja ini cuba ingin mengenengahkan dapatan kajian berkaitan dengan kefahaman konsep moral di kalangan mahasiswa dan adakah faktor pengajaran pensyarah dan minat pelajar mempengaruhi kefahaman konsep moral di kalangan responden.

2.1 SOALAN KAJIAN

1. Apakah tahap kefahaman pelajar terhadap konsep moral?

2. Adakah terdapat hubungan antara pengajaran pensyarah dan minat pelajar dengan kefahaman pelajar terhadap konsep moral?

21

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

3.0 METODOLOGI KAJIAN

Kajian ini berbentuk kuantitatif dengan menggunakan kaedah tinjauan berdasarkan soal selidik yang dijawab oleh responden. Populasi sasaran penyelidik ialah semua pelajar Universiti Utara Malaysia yang mengambil kursus Sains Pemikiran dan Etika Semester Kedua Sesi 2005/2006 iaitu seramai 1327 orang pelajar. Sampel kajian ini adalah seramai 305 orang pelajar yang dipilih secara rawak mudah.

Kajian ini akan menggunakan borang soal selidik sebagai instrumen. Ia dibentuk berpandukan adaptasi daripada kajian-kajian lepas. Instrumen ‘Kefahaman Moral’ mengandungi 4 item bagi setiap dimensi. Soalan-soalan ini dibentuk dan diubahsuai berpandukan kajian oleh Arlene (1980), Nageswararav (1991) dan Nur Surrayyah (1999). Instrumen aspek pengajaran pensyarah Sains Pemikiran dan Etika terdiri 9 item dan aspek minat terhadap kursus Sains Pemikiran dan Etika atau Pendidikan Moral juga terdiri 9 item. Soalan-soalan dibentuk dan diubah suai berpandukan kajian Ab. Halim dan Khadijah (2003) dan Haryati (2004). Item-item tersebut menggunakan skala Likert yang terdiri daripada empat pilihan jawapan iaitu 1 = sangat tidak setuju, 2 = tidak setuju, 3 = setuju dan 4 = sangat setuju.

Kajian rintis telah dijalankan terhadap 40 orang pelajar minor Pendidikan Moral Fakulti Sains Kognitif dan Pendidikan Semester Kedua Sesi 2005/2006. Data daripada kajian rintis tersebut digunakan untuk menentukan tahap kebolehpercayaan instrumen dan memantapkan item-item soal selidik. Ujian Cronbach Alpha dijalankan dan didapati nilai alpha bagi setiap bahagian item berada di atas 0.7 dan ini menunjukkan instrumen tersebut mempunyai kebolehpercayaan yang boleh diterima untuk menjalankan kajian ini.

Data kajian sebenar dikumpulkan dan dianalisa dengan menggunakan perisian Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS). Statistik deskriptif digunakan untuk melihat frekuensi, peratus dan min. Ujian Korelasi Pearson digunakan untuk menentukan hubungan pengajaran pensyarah dan minat pelajar terhadap kursus Sains Pemikiran dan Etika dengan kefahaman moral.

4.0 DAPATAN KAJIAN

Tahap kefahaman pelajar terhadap konsep moral

Berdasarkan Jadual 1, tahap kefahaman pelajar terhadap konsep moral secara keseluruhannya adalah tinggi iaitu berada pada min 3.22 (SD = .31). Seterusnya, Jadual 1 menunjukkan kefahaman responden dianalisis mengikut setiap dimensi. Dimensi Agama menunjukkan min yang paling tinggi (min = 3.57, SD = .46), diikuti dimensi tradisi (min = 3.27, SD = .41) dan dimensi universal (min = 3.01, SD = 51). Min yang paling rendah mengikut dimensi ialah dimensi relatif (min = 3.01, SD = .40)

22

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Jadual 1 : Ringkasan Statistik Deskriptif Kefahaman Konsep Moral

Mengikut Dimensi dan Keseluruhan

 

Bil. Item

Min

S.D.

Dimensi Agama

4

3.57

.46

Dimensi Tradisi

4

3.27

.41

Dimensi Universal

4

3.02

.51

Dimensi Relatif

4

3.01

.40

Konsep Moral

16

3.22

.30

Keseluruhan

Hubungan antara pengajaran pensyarah dan minat pelajar dengan kefahaman konsep moral.

Daripada Jadual 2 dibawah, dapatan menunjukkan terdapat hubungan yang positif dan signifikan antara pengajaran pensyarah dengan kefahaman moral (r=0.33, p<0.01). Dapatan juga menunjukkan minat pelajar terhadap kursus-kursus etika dan moral mempunyai hubungan yang positif dan signifikan dengan kefahaman konsep moral (r = 0.37, p<0.01).

Jadual 2 :

Korelasi Pengajaran Pensyarah dan Minat Pelajar dengan Kefahaman Konsep Moral

Pembolehubah

Kefahaman Moral

p

Nilai r*

Pengajaran

 

0.33**

.001

pensyarah

 

Minat

terhadap

0.37**

.001

pendidikan

 

moral

/

Sains

Pemikiran Etika

 

**p<0.01, * p<0.05

23

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

5.0 PERBINCANGAN

Secara keseluruhannya tahap kefahaman konsep moral dalam kalangan responden adalah tinggi iaitu min 3.22. Kajian ini juga mendapati kefahaman konsep moral mengikut dimensi menjelaskan bahawa dimensi agama menunjukkan tahap kefahaman yang tinggi, diikuti dimensi tradisi, dimensi universal dan yang terakhir dimensi relatif. Dapatan kajian ini bersesuaian sebagaimana pendapat (McGregor, 1977) menjelaskan bahawa moraliti bererti nilai-nilai yang bersifat mutlak dan tatahukum, peraturan dan kod-kod nilai-nilai moral yang tetap. Selain itu, dapatan menunjukkan kefahaman moral dimensi agama adalah tinggi berbanding dimensi-dimensi lain dan ini selari dengan pandangan Peters (1973) yang menjelaskan bahawa kod-kod nilai moral dan peraturan yang bersifat tetap merupakan garis panduan untuk tingkahlaku bermoral dalam masyarakat. Peters (1973) juga menyatakan bahawa konsep moraliti seumpama ini pada hakikatnya berasal daripada ajaran dan dogma agama, malah kadangkala pendidikan moral sering dihubungkaitkan dengan pendidikan agama yang tidak boleh dipersoalkan kewibawaannya.

Sementara itu, dalam melihat perkaitan antara pengajaran pensyarah dengan kefahaman konsep moral. Dapatan kajian ini menjelaskan bahawa terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara pengajaran pensyarah dengan kefahaman konsep moral (r = 0.33, p<0.01). Kajian ini menyokong dapatan kajian Asmawati, Rahyl dan Abdul Rahman yang mendapati pensyarah merupakan faktor penting dalam mempengaruhi persepsi dan kefahaman pelajar tentang moral. Kajian Rohayi Majzub dan T. Subahan (1993) pula menjelaskan bahawa proses pengajaran yang dibantu oleh sifat guru yang positif, komitmen guru, cara penyampaian guru, aktiviti yang dilaksanakan oleh guru dan kaedah pengajaran guru mempunyai hubungan yang signifikan dengan kecemerlangan akademik dan tahap kefahaman pelajar. Begitu juga Cantrell (1977) menjelaskan bahawa pengetahuan, sikap dan ciri-ciri lain yang ada pada guru mempunyai hubungan dengan proses pengajaran guru dan seterusnya mempengaruhi kefahaman pelajar.

Sementara itu, Azizah (1999) menyatakan seorang guru yang berkesan seharusnya mengetahui segala aspek yang terkandung dalam silibus dan perlu menguasai ilmu. Bukan sahaja mahir dalam ilmu yang hendak diajar tetapi perlu mempelbagaikan kaedah dan strategi pengajarannya. Azizah juga menjelaskan antara sifat guru berkesan ialah mesra, bertanggungjawab, bekerjasama dengan guru lain, sayangkan pelajar, sabar dan kreatif. Hopkins dan Stern (1996; 501) menjelaskan tentang beberapa ciri guru berkesan ialah ;

The key characteristics of high quality teachers highlighted by the study are : commitment, love of children, mastery of subject didactics and multiple models of teaching, the ability to collaborate with other teachers and a capacity for reflection.

Begitu juga dalam aspek minat terhadap kursus Pendidikan Moral terdapat hubungan yang signifikan dengan kefahaman konsep moral. Dapatan ini adalah selari dengan kajian Crow dan Crow (1980), Abu Zahari (1988) dan Abu Seman (1997) yang mendapati bahawa terdapat hubungan antara minat dalam mata pelajaran dengan pencapaian. Kajian ini juga menyokong kajian yang dibuat oleh Nurhizan dalam Haryati (2004) yang mendapati bahawa minat pelajar terhadap bahasa Inggeris mempunyai hubungan dengan pencapaian

24

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

bahasa Inggeris tingkatan dua. Ini menjelaskan bahawa semakin pelajar minat terhadap sesuatu kursus atau mata pelajaran akan meningkatkan kefahaman dan pencapaian pelajar dalam kursus yang dipelajari.

Aspek yang agak penting dalam meningkatkan minat pelajar dalam pembelajaran adalah suasana persekitaran yang memberangsangkan dan suasana pembelajaran yang kondusif. Isahak dan rakan (1988) menyatakan tempat atau bilik darjah perlu strategik dan jauh dari sebarang gangguan seperti kebisingan, pertembungan kelas dan lain-lain. Pelajar perlu diberi suasana kelas yang berlainan dari biasa dan bersesuaian dengan tajuk yang akan dibincangkan pada hari itu. Tindakan ini akan lebih membantu mempercepatkan pemahaman pelajar terhadap isi pelajaran disamping menimbulkan semangat baru dalam diri pelajar. Dapatan kajian Noorlia (2000) menjelaskan bahawa pelajar boleh belajar dengan baik dalam pelbagai situasi pembelajaran dan pelajar lebih cenderung untuk belajar dengan suasana pembelajaran pelbagai cara.

KESIMPULAN

Hasil kajian ini diperlihatkan tahap kefahaman konsep moral adalah baik dan dimensi agama menunjukkan tahap kefahaman yang paling tinggi berbanding dimensi-dimensi lain, justeru program dan projek-projek berbentuk keagamaan haruslah diperhebatkan lagi oleh semua pihak ke arah meningkatkan dan memantapkan moral di kalangan pelajar.

Selain itu, dapatan kajian juga menunjukkan terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara kepentingan kursus Pendidikan Moral atau Sains Pemikiran dan Etika serta minat pelajar dengan kefahaman konsep moral, justeru kursus seperti ini perlu diberi perhatian serius dan diwajibkan kepada semua pelajar sebagai teras universiti.

Dapatan kajian ini juga menjelaskan bahawa pengajaran pensyarah mempunyai hubungan yang siginifikan dengan kefahaman konsep moral dalam kalangan pelajar. Justeru, para pensyarah haruslah meningkatkan keprofesionalisme ke tahap yang lebih tinggi. Para pensyarah hendaklah sentiasa mengamalkan amalan pendekatan pengajaran yang lebih baik , berkesan dan bersifat andragogi. Siri bengkel berkala perlu diadakan bagi tenaga pengajar untuk tujuan mengemaskini pengetahuan pengkuliahan, bahan bacaan dan mempertingkatkan kefahaman tentang ilmu berkaitan strategi pengajaran yang berkesan atau aspek pedagogi dan andragogi.

BIBLIOGRAFI

[1]

Ab. Halim Tamuri dan Zarin Ismail. (2001). Persepsi pelajar muslim terhadap konsep akhlak. Kertas Kerja Persidangan Kebangsaan Pendidikan Moral Dalam Dunia Globalisasi, Fakulti Pendidikan Universiti Malaya, 23 – 25 Mei.

[2]

Ab. Halim Tamuri dan Zarin Ismail.

(2002). Pendidikan akhlak dalam

KBSM : Persepsi pelajar terhadap konsep akhlak. Prosiding Wacana

25

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Pendidikan Islam (Siri 1) : Kurikulum Bersepadu Pendidikan Islam Menghadapi Cabaran Era Globalisasi. Bangi : Fakulti Pendidikan, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

[3]

Ab. Halim Tamuri dan Khadijah Abdul Razak. (2003). Pengajaran akhlak di sekolah menengah : Persepsi pelajar-pelajar. Prosiding Wacana Pendidikan Islam (Siri 3) : Perkaedahan Pengajaran Pendidikan Islam :

Antara Tradisi dan Inovasi. Bangi : Fakulti Pendidikan, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

[4]

Abdul Rahim Abdul Rashid. (2001). Nilai-nilai murni dalam pendidikan :

Menghadapi perubahan dan cabaran alaf baru. Kuala Lumpur : Utusan Publications & Distributors Sdn. Bhd.

[5]

Abu Seman Sareh Mat Isa. (1997). Penentu pencapaian mata pelajaran sains dan matematik di kalangan pelajar Tingkatan 4 di Daerah Padang Terap. Tesis Sarjana Sains Pengurusan, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

[6]

Abu Zahari Abu Bakar. (1988). Memahami psikologi pembelajaran. Petaling Jaya : Penerbit Fajar Bakti.

[7]

Al-Attas, Syed Muhammad al-Naquib. (1980). The concept of education in Islam. Kuala Lumpur : ABIM

[8]

Arlene Bastion. (1980). Moral education : A survey of teachers perception in selected schools. Tesis Sarjana Pendidikan, Fakulti Pendidikan Universiti Malaya. (Tidak diterbitkan).

[9]

Ashraf, Syed Ali. (1985). New horrizon in muslim education. Cambridge : The Islamic Academy.

[10]

Asmawati Suhid, Rahyl Mahyuddin dan Abdul Rahman Mad Aroff. (2001). Persepsi pelajar institusi pengajian tinggi terhadap Pendidikan Moral. Kertas Kerja Persidangan Kebangsaan Pendidikan Moral Dalam Dunia Globalisasi, Fakulti Pendidikan Universiti Malaya, 23 – 25 Mei.

[11]

Azizah Lebai Nordin. (1999). Guru pendidikan Islam yang berkesan. Masalah pendidikan, Jilid 22.

[12] Azizi Hj. Yahaya dan Yusof Boon. (2001). Program pemulihan akhlak wanita : sejauhmanakah keberkesanan pusat perlindungan wanita membantu proses pemulihan. Kertas Kerja Persidangan Kebangsaan Pendidikan Moral Dalam Dunia Globalisasi, Fakulti Pendidikan Universiti Malaya, 23 – 25 Mei.

[13]

Cantrell, R.P. (1977). Teacher knowledge, attitudes and classroom teaching correlations of student achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 69, 172-179.

[14]

Crow, I. D & Crow, L. (1980). Psikologi pendidikan untuk perguruan (terj) Habibah Alias. Kuala Lumpur : Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

[15]

Haryati Borham. (2004). Mata pelajaran tasawwur Islam : Minat dan keberkesanannya terhadap pelajar-pelajar Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan di Daerah Petaling Jaya, Selangor. Disertasi Sarjana Pengajian Islam, Akademi Pengajian Islam Universiti Malaya. (Tidak

26

diterbitkan). Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL

diterbitkan).

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

[16]

Hopkins, D. & Stern, D. (1996). Quality teachers, quality school :

International perspectives and policy implications. Teaching & Teacher Education, 12 (5).

[17]

Isahak Haron & rakan. (1988). Asas-asas dalam amalan pedagogi. Kuala Lumpur : Utusan Publication & Distributors Sdn. Bhd.

[18]

Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia : Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum. (1992). Laporan Pengesahan Awal Perlaksanaan KBSM.

[19]

Lihanna Borhan. (2001). Persepsi nilai etika dan idealisme remaja Malaysia. Kertas kerja Persidangan Kebangsaan Pendidikan Moral Dalam Dunia Globalisasi, Fakulti Pendidikan Universiti Malaya, 23 – 25 Mei.

[20]

McGregor. (1977). Moral Education. Dlm. Wong, F.H.K. (ed.). Readings in Malaysian education. Kuala Lumpur : Penerbit Universiti Malaya.

[21]

Nageswararav Ramamoorthy. (1991). Persepsi guru-guru sekolah rendah terhadap pendidikan Moral di Daerah Klang dan Kuala Langat. Tesis Sarjana Pendidikan, Fakulti Pendidikan Universiti Malaya. (Tidak diterbitkan).

[22]

Noorlia T. Goolamally. (2000). Hubungan antara gaya belajar dengan pencapaian Matematik dan pencapaian akademik di kalangan pelajar. Tesis Sarjana Pendidikan, Fakulti Pendidikan Universiti Malaya.

[23]

Nur Surrayyah Madhubala Abdullah. (1999). The understanding of moral education among form four Moral education teachers in the federal territory. Tesis Master of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia. (Tidak diterbitkan)

[24]

Nur Surrayyah Madhubala Abdullah, Izah Isa dan Zakaria Kasa. (2001). Perceptions of pre-service teachers from the Faculty of Educational Studies on the need for Moral education. Kertas kerja Persidangan Kebangsaan Pendidikan Moral Dalam Dunia Globalisasi, Fakulti Pendidikan Universiti Malaya, 23 – 25 Mei.

[25]

Rohayi Mohd Majzub dan T. Subahan Mohd Meerah. (1993). Satu tinjauan sahsiah dan tingkah laku pendidik yang berkaitan dengan embelajaran. Jurnal Pendidikan, 15, 125-135.

[26]

Peters. R. S. (1973). Reason and compassion. London : Routledge and Kegan Paul.

[27]

Sufean Hussin. (1989). Pengajaran nilai dalam kurikulum. Petaling Jaya : Fajar Bakti Sdn. Bhd.

[28]

Utusan Malaysia, (September 3, 2003).

27

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

TEACHERS’ USE OF QUESTIONS IN ESL CLASSROOMS

KALYANI RAJOO Language Department, Darulaman Teacher Training Institute, 06000 Jitra, Kedah.

kelly_rajoo @yahoo.com

© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. Prosiding Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Institusi Pengajian Tinggi

(CTLHE07),

The Palace of

Golden Horses, Kembangan, Selangor 12-14 Disember 2007

Seri

1.0

INTRODUCTION

ABSTRACT - Oral questions play a significant role in the language classroom. Despite arguments that classroom questions do not reflect questions that are asked in real conversations outside the classroom and whether language teaching methodologies need the sort of interaction produced by questions (Chaudron, 1988), language teachers regard questions as an effective tool to initiate the target language and to help students’ learning by providing them opportunities to practice the target language. This paper reports on a qualitative study exploring the use of display and referential questions and their effect on students’ responses. The aim of the study was also to investigate the use of probing questions to follow-up and extend the students’ responses. Data was collected from 2 ESL classrooms in a teacher training institute by means of classroom observations. This paper discusses the results of the study and concludes with recommendations for ESL teachers on ways of utilizing questions effectively in the language classroom.

One of the aims of teaching English as a second language (L2) is to facilitate opportunities for second language learners to use the language for oral communication and maximize opportunities for language acquisition to take place. In the classroom, teachers have long used questions to stimulate student thinking, facilitate student learning, and to initiate teacher-student interaction. Using questions and answers to challenge assumptions, expose contradictions, and to lead to new knowledge and wisdom is an undeniably powerful teaching approach. Thus the technique of questioning forms an integral part of instruction in the classroom.

Gall (1984) claimed that 80% of all school time is devoted to questions and answers. Brown and Edmonson (cited in Borich, 1992) found that an average of 100 to 150 questions per class hour were asked in the typical elementary and secondary classrooms. Teachers teaching at all grade levels regard the act of asking questions as an effective way of transferring factual knowledge and conceptual understanding, as well as to facilitate the learning process. Teacher-pupil interaction in the classroom is usually by means of the

28

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

teacher eliciting pupils’ responses through questioning. Ferris (cited in Basturkmen, 2001), found that 79% of students considered ‘in-class questions’ as the category of talk most often required in courses of study. Such perceived usefulness of questions has led to its widespread use as a contemporary teaching technique in the classroom. However, research by Gall (1970) and Stubbs (1983) indicate that through questioning, teachers dominate the available talking time in the classroom, thus limiting pupils’ opportunities to participate. Good and Brophy (1987) contend that discussions initiated by questions are parrot-like and boring with teachers asking a question, students giving a response, and the teacher redirecting or asking another question and so forth.

Related studies on the relationship between teachers’ questions and students’ responses in L2 classrooms have been inconclusive and contradicting findings have been reported. Both Brock (1986) and Nunan (1987) claimed that the use of referential questions elicited longer responses. Nunan also argued that despite the learners’ insufficient proficiency in L2, there was an increase in length and complexity of students’ turns. These findings were, however, contradicted by Wu (1993) who argued that irrespective of their type, an overwhelming number of responses to the questions solicited restricted responses. In fact, Wu takes the position that referential questions were less effective as a means of eliciting response. However, Wu cited factors like cultural values, students’ attitudes and interpersonal variables on answering behaviour as possible reasons for students’ reluctance in responding to questions

Using these studies as a point of departure, the present study was intended to investigate teacher questions and student responses in two ways: (1) the initial questions that were asked by the teachers and the responses the questions elicited, and (2) the probing questions used by the teachers to follow through the students’ responses to enable them go beyond their initial responses. A comparison was also made to find out if the use of probing questions could improve student responses in terms of language output. Hence, this study sought to answer the following research questions:

1. What are the types of questions asked by teachers in the ESL classroom?

2. What type of student responses are initiated by the questions?

3. What types of probing questions are used by teachers to enable students to extend and improve their responses?

4. Do responses elicited by the probing questions indicate an improvement to the students’ initial responses?

2.0. THE FRAMEWORK OF QUESTIONS

This study adopted Long and Sato’s Model (1983) where teacher questions are categorized using the terms referential and display. A referential question refers to a question to which the response is not known by the teacher. In asking this question, an information gap exists between the teacher and student. On the other hand, a display question is a question to which the asker knows the answer and the purpose of this question is to get students to demonstrate some previously-learned knowledge. The terms display and

29

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

referential are commonly referred to in research (Brock, 1986; Nunan, 1987; Wu, 1993) on teachers’ use of questions in L2 classrooms. However, based upon the findings in these studies, the researcher felt that classifying teacher questions as simply display and referential seemed inadequate in investigating the effectiveness of teacher questions on student responses. Thus, in this study, both referential and display questions were further sub-categorised into open or closed types which is the simplified version of the Barnes Model as cited in Kerry

(1982).

The Barnes Model classifies questions based on their elicitation functions. Questions are identified as factual, reasoning, open, non-reasoning and social based on the functions and the linguistic demands of the questions. Factual questions where student responses can be limited to one-word or short responses are categorized as closed questions, and reasoning questions which require students to explain, interpret and construct a logical organized sequence are referred to as open questions.

This study, also adopted Turney’s (cited in Kerry, 1982) framework for identifying probing questions as it would enable the researcher to identify the probing questions based on their functions. A probing question follows students’ responses and attempts to stimulate student’s to think through their initial responses, thus helping students to expand and develop the quality of their response.

3.0 TEACHER QUESTIONS AND SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING

In the second language classroom, the act of answering questions is known to engage the students in interaction and provide opportunities for the use of the target language (TL). Studies by Mizon and Early (both cited in Chaudron, 1988) found that questioning was used more by teachers with students who are non-native speakers (NNS) than with native speakers (NS). Long and Sato (1983), for example, found that the most frequent use of teachers’ questions in the classroom was concerned with comprehension checks, and that such questions are actually never asked in NS-NNS interaction outside the classroom.

Long and Sato (1983) also found that ESL classrooms were characterized by display questions. This, they say does not occur in naturalistic NS discourse. Research by Brock (1986) and Pica and Long (1986) also found that ESL teachers used significantly fewer referential questions than display questions. Mehan (cited in Brock, 1986) claimed that the use of known- information questions generated discourse which does not reflect the demands of discourse that occurs outside the classroom. Brock (1986) contends that as opposed to display questions, the use of referential questions increases the amount of learner output, and that an increased use of referential questions by teachers may create communication that occurs outside the classroom.

Despite changes and innovations in the curriculum and in L2 teaching and learning, there seems to be no distinct improvement in the ways teachers ask questions. For teacher questions to be effective in the language classroom and help achieve the aims of L2 learning, there is a need for teachers to examine and improve their questioning practice. Brown (1997) considers the initiation of

30

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

interaction by the teacher as an important key to creating an interactive language classroom, and one of the best ways to develop the teacher’s role as an initiator and sustainer of interaction is for teachers to develop a repertoire of questioning strategies.

4.0

METHODOLOGY

4.1 Method of Data Collection

This study adopted a qualitative methodology. The primary source of data was the classroom observations carried out by the researcher. Audio recording equipment was used during the observation to record the lessons. The researcher was also present to take field notes. Semi-structured interviews with the teachers and students was also conducted as ‘method triangulation’ (Borg and Gall, 1989). The interviews enabled the researcher to further understand the teachers’ and students’ attitudes and perceptions on engaging in asking and answering questions in the language classroom. Also, to remove bias in reporting and to determine accuracy in interpreting, some patterns of questioning behaviour of the participants were put forth to the participants themselves to obtain explanation and verification.

4.2 Research Sample

This study was carried out in a Teacher Training Institute and the study sample was made up of two lecturers from the English Studies Unit of the Language Department of the institute. The method and procedure identified for data collection limited the number of participants who could be accommodated in this study, and thus led to purposive sampling (Gay and Airasian, 2003). Both lecturers selected for this study were teaching the English Language Proficiency component. Two classes taught by these lecturers were also identified for this study. The students in both these classes were enrolled in the pre-service courses offered in the institute and were majoring in various subjects. The English Language Proficiency component is a compulsory subject for all major pre-service courses.

4.3 Research procedure

The data collection started with the classroom observations. The recordings of the two lessons were first transcribed. The researcher adopted a verbatim transcription as it would allow for excerpts from the transcripts to be used for the purposes of reporting, discussing and interpreting the findings.

The classroom transcripts were then inductively analysed based on the research questions. Topics were generated from the corpus of data for the purpose of reporting the findings. This, together with data derived from the teacher and student interviews was used for the discussion and interpretation of the results.

31

5.0. FINDINGS Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI

5.0.

FINDINGS

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Asking and answering questions seemed central in the classroom discourse of both Teacher A (TA) and Teacher (TB). Between them, both teachers had asked a total of 248 questions for the whole duration of their lessons, thus, indicating that questions are still commonly favoured as a means of eliciting learner language and involving students in the lesson. The questions asked by the teachers during the course of their lessons included those that were repeated, rephrased, redirected as well as questions used for prompting and probing.

TA, who conducted a discussion- based aural-oral lesson had selected a theme for the lesson. Discussion about the theme was generated primarily through the use of teacher questions. On the other hand, TB, who conducted a reading comprehension lesson had used questions to work through the understanding of the reading text. As observed in the transcripts of the two lessons, initial questions (Q1) asked by the teachers consisted of both referential and display questions. Most of the initial questions asked by TA were of the referential-closed type. Similarly the ‘closed’ model featured significantly in Teacher B’s use of display questions. In comparing the students’ responses elicited by referential questions and display questions, no distinct changes were noted in terms of length, structure and the quality of the responses. Regardless of the questions being display or referential, students’ responses were often limited to one-word or short phrases as in the following examples:

Example 1 (TA lines 69 – 70) (The teacher was seeking the student’s opinion)

Teacher:

When you are alone, do you feel bored?

Student:

No.

Example 2 (TA lines 49 – 1.50)

(The teacher was seeking the student’s opinion)

Teacher:

What do you think happens when people are lonely?

Student:

They cry.

The ‘closed’ nature of the referential question in Example 1 constrained the student’s response to providing the monosyllable “No” response. Similarly, in Example 2, the referential question by the teacher to seek the student‘s opinion was met with a short response. Since the closed-referential question had functioned to seek factual information, the short response had sufficed in answering the question. Similarly, a significant number of the display questions by TB elicited only short responses. Although the material the teacher used had provided students with content information and linguistic help, students had opted to supplying short responses to the questions. Again this was largely due to the nature of the display questions as evident in the example below:

32

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Example 3 (TB lines 9 – 10)

(The teacher was checking the student’s knowledge)

T:

S: Damaged.

What is the condition of the car?

The closed-ended questions used to elicit factual information contained in the text had effectively constrained the students’ responses to supplying one- word answers. The responses however met the requirements of the questions and the teacher had judged the responses as appropriate and seemed satisfied with them.

In TA’s lesson, the instances where the referential questions produced long responses were few and far between. In fact throughout the lesson, there were only three instances where the referential questions solicited longer responses from the students. An example from TA’s lesson is provided below:

Example 4 (TA lines134 -135)

(The teacher was asking the student to relate her experience)

T:

Sally, tell me your experience when you first came to this

S:

college. Why did you cry? Because I came from far away. I cannot adapt …the food was spicy …

The student’s response to the referential question had demonstrated that the ‘open’ nature of the question had allowed the student to engage in her cognitive process and the manner in which the student responded also reflected that she had attempted to structure a complex response. Similarly, there were also a few instances when responses to the display questions in TB’s lesson succeeded in eliciting longer responses. This is demonstrated in the example provided below:

Example 5 (TB lines101 – 102)

(The

accidents)

teacher

was

seeking

student’s

opinion

about

the

causes

of

T:

Now, why do you think drivers like to speed?

S:

To reach their destination faster.

Although dealing with known or predictable information, the ‘open’ nature of the display questions had succeeded in eliciting longer response. The display question may not have engaged the student in the same cognitive process as the use of the referential question, but at least there was some improvement in terms of language output. Despite the significant number of display questions asked by TB, the few instances that referential questions were used in the lesson had generated discussions that were more interesting as reflected in an example below:

33

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Example 6 ( TB lines 176 – 177) (The teacher was seeking the student’s opinion)

T:

Are you happy plastic surgery is around?

S:

Yes, can make the nose look better.

The use of the referential questions had allowed the teacher to venture beyond textual information, factual knowledge as well as information known to the teacher. In asking these questions, the teacher had been genuinely concerned with seeking information from her students and the communication seemed more ‘real’ than that structured by the use of display questions.

One of the strategies employed by both teachers to enhance the questioning-answering sequence in their classroom was the use of probing questions as follow-up to students’ initial responses as in the example below:

Example 7 (TA lines 59 – 64)

(The teacher was asking for the student’s opinion)

T:

Aik, do you like spending time alone? Yes or no?

When angry. When have assignments.

S:

Sometimes.

T:

When do you like being alone? Is there a particular time?

S:

Normally, when do you want to be alone?

T:

When do you like being with people?

S:

When I need to discuss things.

In the above example, the teacher’s initial question was followed up with a number of probing questions which were aimed at seeking clarification based on the student’s responses. Data from the transcripts also showed that both teachers had employed probing questions to raise consciousness about TL use as in the example below:

Example 8 (TA lines 37 – 44)

(The teacher was evaluating the student’s knowledge about the subject of mental health)

T:

Can you tell me one problem that people with mental health have?

S:

Psychic.

T:

Is that the right response? I mean if someone is having a mental

S:

problem, what is the effect? Suicide.

T:

Have you had friends who committed suicide?

S:

Yes.

T:

Really? Commit suicide is to kill yourself. Have you had friends

S:

who committed suicide? No.

34

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Here, the teacher had used a number of probing questions to enable the student to think through and assess his response and to enable student to form a clearer implication his own response. Such exchanges initiated by questions had prolonged teacher-student interaction and made the discussion interesting.

This study found that both referential and display questions could be followed-up with probing questions. However, student responses to the use of probing questions did not show any pronounced changes in terms of quality or length of structure. This again was a result of the characteristics of the questions. The use of ‘What’ or ‘When’ questions that dealt with factual or known information elicited only short responses. Open questions such as ‘How’ and ‘Why’ questions elicited improved responses in terms of length and the quality of the students’ response.

6.0 DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

In studying the contrast between the use of referential and display questions, the researcher observed that the choice of questions used by teachers was largely determined by the nature of the lessons and their instructional objectives. In the reading comprehension lesson, a significant number of display questions were asked by the teacher. As display questions were associated with factual questions, they were used for comprehension checks. In explaining her choice of questions, TB who had conducted the reading comprehension lesson said that her primary concern had been to get her students to understand the textual information in the reading material. Her choice of questions, she asserted, enabled her to ascertain whether the lesson fulfilled her objectives of getting her pupils to comprehend the textual information.

Although some research (Brock, 1986; Holmes, 1986; Nunan, 1987) dismiss the use of display questions as ineffective in the language classroom, the researcher shares Shoomosi’s (2004) view that they have a place in the Reading Comprehension lessons for checking students’ comprehension and for asking students to recall facts from the text. However, this does not mean that referential questions cannot be used in the reading comprehension lesson. With careful planning of classroom instructions, teachers can allow the use of more referential questions and achieve instructional gains at the same time.

Long and Crookes (cited in Nunan, 1987) for example, suggested that increasing the use of referential questions over display questions is likely to stimulate a greater quantity of genuine classroom communication. Data from this study also seemed to suggest that referential questions used in the aural-oral lesson had stimulated more interesting discussions as in the example below:

Example 9 (TA lines134 -135)

T:

When you first came to college, did you feel lonely?

S:

Yes, Sally cried.

T:

Sally, tell me your experience when you first came to this college. Why did you cry?

The use of referential question had allowed for topic nomination by the learners. It is clearly evident that the next question by the teacher was based on

35

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

the student’s response. Similarly, it was observed that in the two instances that TB had employed referential questions in her reading comprehension lesson, the discussion had been more interesting and had reflected genuine communication.

This research also found that students’ responses improved when open questions were asked. Both the open display and open referential questions elicited improved responses as opposed to the closed questions. The quality of the students’ responses too depended on the types of probing questions used. For example, the “Why” and “How” types of probing questions produced improved responses in terms of length and complexity of structure compared to the “What”, “Who” or “When” types of questions. It was also noted that the use of probing questions enhanced interaction and prolonged communication between teacher and pupil thus supporting Kerry’s (1982) view that probing is beneficial because it can help students to express more fully and more clearly what they have in mind.

One of the teachers in this study viewed probing questions as questions that were able to ‘provoke’ the students’ linguistic capabilities. According to him, using probing questions can bring about improvement to students’ responses as well as influence them to reflect on their responses. His view was shared by the other teacher who said that using probing questions does not only directly affect the particular responder, but can facilitate other students’ thinking as well. Despite these views, the data seemed to suggest that probing questions were seldom employed by the teachers. In fact, Groisser’s (cited in Good & Brophy, 1987) statement that teachers seize upon the first answer given, and often react to it with a comment or move on to asking another question seems to hold much truth.

Therefore, this study makes the following recommendations to enable teachers to utilize questions effectively in the language classroom.

1. Questions should have relevance to the objectives of the lesson. Each context requires an appropriate strategy for itself. However, the objectives should not impose a strict restriction on the types of questions used. Both referential and display questions can be utilized irrespective of the type of lesson and the method of instruction selected by the teacher. With careful planning teachers can effectively use more referential questions to generate greater interest to the topic and lesson.

2. The use of questions should ensure that it increases student participation and student talk in the classroom. As such, teachers should employ more ‘open’ questions than ‘closed’ questions. Closed questions have been found to constrain and limit students’ responses as these questions can be answered by one word, often “yes” or “no”, or by using very short phrases. Open-ended questions, on the other hand, elicited much more thinking or information and required complex responses from the students.

3. Teachers need to determine their learners’ needs in order to achieve the sort of balance needed in using the different types of questions. For example, data from the students’ interview

36

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

showed that some students preferred open questions as they said the questions allowed them to supply a variety of answers. Also the students said that they preferred questions that required more than just needing them to provide the correct answers, though they admitted that their low proficiency in the language imposed restrictions in being able to answer appropriately.

4. Using good questioning strategies such as asking probing questions will guide students to figure out their answers and also stimulate the questioning process. As questioners, teachers should also be able to further explore students’ responses to enable them to apply their knowledge and encourage them to think through their responses. In using probing questions, teachers will also be able to show students how to extend their responses as subsequent questions are formed based on the students’ responses.

CONCLUSION

In the language classroom, teachers’ questions have important functions in facilitating language learning. One of the objectives of the ESL curriculum is to promote speaking and expressing in the TL. Therefore, this study implies that teachers’ questioning behaviour, and a greater awareness regarding the use of questions can foster a conducive climate for language learning. As questioners, there is a need for teachers to realize that there are different types of questions, and that some types of questions can limit or constraint students’ responses. As questioners, teachers have to realize that much of the quality and quantity of the information that they are going to receive depends on how it is asked in the first place. Since teacher questions are regarded by both teachers and students as a valuable tool in the language classroom, there is a need for it to be exploited appropriately to maximize teaching and learning.

REFERENCES

[1]

Pica, T & Long, M. (1986). The linguistic and conversational performance of experienced and inexperienced teachrs. In Day, R.R.(ed) Talking to learn: conversation in second language acquisition, 85 – 89. Mass.:

Newbury House

[2]

Chaudron, C. (1988).Second Language Classroom: Research on teaching And learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[3]

Borich, G.D. (1992). Effective Teaching Methods. New York: MacMillan Publishing Company.

[4]

Gall, M.D. (1984). Synthesis of research on teachers’ questioning. Educational Lesdership. 42. 40 – 47.

37

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

[5]

Basturkmen, H. (2001). Descriptions of spoken language for higher learners: the example of questioning. English Language Teaching Journal. 55 (1). 4-13.

[6]

Stubbs, M. (1983). Discourse Analysis: the sociolinguistic analysis of

natural

language. Oxford: Blackwell.

[7]

Good, T.L & Brophy, J.E. (1987). Looking in Classrooms. New York:

Harper

Row

 

[8]

Brock, C.A. (1986). The effects of referential questions on ESL

classroom

discourse. TESOL Quarterly. 20 (1), 47 – 58

[9]

Nunan, D. (1987). Communicative language teaching: Making it work.

ELT Journal. 41

(2). 136 – 145

[10]

Wu, Kam-yin. (1993). Classroom Interaction and Teacher Questions Revisited. RELC Journal. 24 (2). 49 – 68.

[11]

Long, M.H. & Sato, C. (1983), Classroom foreigner talk discourse: forms

and

functions of teachers’ questions in Seliger, H. and Long, M.H.(eds).

Classroom

Oriented Research in Second Language Acquisistion.

[12]

Kerry, T. (1982). Effective Questioning: A teaching skill workbook. London: MacMillan.

[13]

Brown, H.D. (1994). Teaching by Principles: An interactive approach to

language

pedagogy. New Jersey:Prentice Hall.

[14]

Borg, W. R. and Gall, M. D. (1989). Educational Research: An

Introduction. New York:

Longman

[15]

Gay, L.R. and Airasian, P. (2003). Educational Research: competencies

for

analysis and applications. New Jersey: Pearson Education.

[16]

Holmes, J. (1986). Classroom interaction and the second language

learner.

Guidelines. 8 (2). 19 – 30.

[17]

Shoomosi, N. (2004). The Effect of Teachers’ Questioning Behavior on

EFL

Matrix.

Classroom Interaction: A Classroom Research Study. The Reading

[Online] 4 (2) 96-104. Available:

http://www.readingmatrix.com/articles/shoomosi/article/pdf. [2005, Jan.

21].

38

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

GAYA PEMBELAJARAN, KEMAHIRAN GENERIK DAN MOTIVASI PELAJAR MERENTASI BIDANG SAINS TULEN, KEJURUTERAAN DAN SAINS SOSIAL DI UTM

ABDUL RAHIM HAMDAN MOHAMAD NAJIB GHAFFAR AZLINA BT. KOSNIN JAMALUDDIN RAMLI MAHANI BT. MOKHTAR

Jabatan Asas Pendidikan Fakulti Pendidikan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 Johor Bahru

p-rahim@utm.my

© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. Prosiding Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Institusi Pengajian Tinggi

(CTLHE07),

Seri Kembangan,

Golden Horses,

Selangor . 12-14 Disember 2007

The Palace of

ABSTRAK - Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mengenalpasti amalan gaya pembelajaran pelajar, kemahiran generik, motivasi belajar dan pencapaian akademik pelajar-pelajar tahun tiga fakulti-fakluti dari disiplin Sains, Sains Sosial dan Kejuruteraan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Seramai lima ratus orang pelajar telah dipilih secara rawak dari semua fakulti sebagai sampel kajian. Kajian ini juga mengenalpasti perbezaan amalan gaya pembelajaran pelajar, kemahiran generik, motivasi belajar dan pencapaian akademik pelajar. Kajian deskriptif berbentuk tinjauan ini menggunakan siri soal-selidik untuk mendapatkan maklumat yang berkaitan. Perbandingan nilai min dan ujian-t digunakan sebagai asas dapatan. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa amalan gaya pembelajaran yang berorientasi pembelajaran dalaman adalah sederhana dan amalan gaya pembelajaran yang berorientasi pembelajaran luaran adalah tinggi. Bagi kemahiran generik pula didapati bagi aspek komunikasi, kemahiran kerja dalam kumpulan, pembelajaran sepanjang hayat, kemahiran kepimpinan, beretika dan berintegriti adalah tinggi manakala bagi aspek kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah dan kemahiran keusahawanan adalah sederhana. Pelajar mempunyai motivasi belajar secara intrinsik yang tinggi dan motivasi belajar ekstrinsik yang sederhana. Dari segi pencapaian pelajar didapati secara keseluruhannya sebahagian besar pelajar- pelajar berada pada aras kelas dua tinggi. Secara perbandingannya didapati pelajar- pelajar yang datang dari disiplin yang berbeza mengamalkan gaya pembelajaran yang berbeza, kemahiran generik yang berbeza dan motivasi yang berbeza. Keadaan ini menunjukkan pelbagai langkah perlu diambil secara pro-aktif untuk menyeimbangkan dan meningkatkan

39

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

keupayaan pelajar sebagai graduan yang kompeten dari pelbagai aspek untuk memenuhi cabaran globalisasi.

Kata Kunci: Gaya Pembelajaran, Kemahiran Generik, Motivasi dan Pencapaian Akademik

1.0

PENGENALAN

Pencapaian akademik merupakan alat ukur kepada kejayaan pelajar mengikuti sesuatu kursus di universiti. Walau bagaimanapun tahap kesediaan pelajar untuk mengharungi dunia luar selepas mengikuti kursus dengan jayanya di universiti telah menjadi persoalan yang hangat dibincangkan sejak akhir-akhir ini. Perbagai persoalan timbul berkaiatan dengan bagaimanakah pelajar itu belajar, apakah kemahiran generik yang telah di terapkan dan apakah yang memotivasikan mereka untuk belajar dan apakah kaitannya dengan pencapaian mereka.

Ilmu pengetahuan hendaklah disertai dengan tahap kemahiran yang tinggi untuk mencapai sesuatu kerja yang bermutu tinggi. Kemahiran adalah salah satu unsur yang penting dalam kehidupan manusia. Lebih banyak bidang kemahiran yang dapat dikuasai, ia akan mendatangkan lebih banyak faedah dalam kehidupan. Dalam konteks pembelajaran dan pekerjaan, para pelajar perlu didedahkan dengan kemahiran generik yang merupakan kemahiran utama yang perlu ada untuk memudahkan pelajar melaksanakan tugas dalam pelbagai situasi di alam pembelajaran, kehidupan dan pekerjaan seharian.

Dalam konteks menuntut ilmu, universiti adalah merupakan sebuah pusat penyebaran ilmu pengetahuan yang terkemuka. Para pelajar dapat mempelajari berbagai-bagai bidang baru yang ditawarkan di universiti. Kewujudan universiti telah memberi peluang kepada semua pelajar-pelajar yang berkelayakan untuk melanjutkan pelajaran di dalam bidang yang diminati. Pelbagai bidang atau mata pelajaran dirancang dan disediakan untuk memenuhi keperluan para pelajar di peringkat universiti.

Kajian ini akan cuba melihat perkaitan antara kemahiran generik, gaya pembelajaran dan motivasi pelajar yang datang daripada disiplin program yang berbeza di Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

1.1 Objektif Kajian

Kajian ini bertujuan untuk melihat tahap kemahiran generik, gaya belajar pemilihan dan bentuk motivasi pelajar-pelajar tahun 3 kesemua 10 fakulti, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Antara objektif kajian yang akan dijalankan adalah :

i. Mengenalpasti tahap pencapaian akademik pelajar-pelajar tahun 3 dari teras disiplin yang berbeza iaitu Sains, Kejuruteraan dan Sosial Sains di Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

40

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

ii. Mengenalpasti tahap kemahiran generik dikalangan pelajar- pelajar tahun 3 dari teras disiplin yang berbeza iaitu Sains, Kejuruteraan dan Sosial Sains di Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

iii. Mengenalpasti tahap pendekatan belajar pelajar-pelajar tahun 3 dari teras disiplin yang berbeza iaitu Sains, Kejuruteraan dan Sosial Sains di Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

iv. Mengenalpasti bentuk motivasi pelajar-pelajar tahun 3 dari teras disiplin yang berbeza iaitu Sains, Kejuruteraan dan Sosial Sains di Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

v. Menentukan adakah terdapat perbezaan kemahiran generik, gaya belajar dan motivasi antara pelajar-pelajar dari teras disiplin yang berbeza (Sains, Kejuruteraan dan Sains Sosial).

2.0 KAJIAN LITERATUR

Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum (1995) dalam konteks sistem persekolahan di Malaysia telah menggariskan bentuk kemahiran generik untuk pelajar adalah seperti berikut:

1. Kemahiran berkomunikasi

2. Kemahiran menggunakan teknologi

3. Kemahiran merancang dan mengelola aktiviti

4. Kemahiran bekerja dengan orang lain dan dalam kumpulan

5. Kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah

6. Kemahiran mengurus, memilih dan menganalisa maklumat

7. Kemahiran memahami budaya

8. Kemahiran menggunakan idea dan teknik metematik

Menurut Gibbs et al.(1994), kemahiran generik melibatkan kemahiran personal dan interpersonal yang diperlukan untuk komunikasi dan bekerja secara koperatif dan kolaboratif dalam kumpulan. Gibbs et al.(1994) dan Blumhof et al. (1996) menyatakan, kemahiran generik merupakan satu kemahiran di mana seseorang itu boleh bekerja dengan baik secara berdikari mahupun dalam kumpulan. Industri kini memerlukan graduan dapat menjadi pekerja yang mempunyai kepelbagaian jenis kemahiran. Oblinger dan Verville (1998) menyatakan bahawa graduan yang berjaya adalah mahir dan pakar dalam bidang mereka, walaupun begitu mereka haruslah melengkapkan diri mereka dengan kemahiran generik untuk membolehkan mereka menyesuaikan diri mereka dengan alam pekerjaan.

Michelle Tullier (2000), menjelaskan bahawa kemahiran-kemahiran yang sering dilihat oleh majikan ialah kemahiran berfikiran secara kreatif dan kritis, kemahiran komunikasi, kemahiran interpersonal, kemahiran mengurus, memilih dan menganalisis maklumat, kemahiran memahami budaya dan kemahiran bekerjasama dengan orang lain. Sijil sahaja tidak menjamin seseorang itu berjaya dipilih untuk bekerjaya. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) telah menggariskan bentuk kemahiran generik yang akan diterapkan kepada pelajar-

41

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

pelajarnya adalah berdasarkan kepada atribut graduan selaras dengan misi Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia. Atribut inilah yang digunakan penyelidik sebagai 7 daripada kemahiran generik yang di kaji. Berikut merupakan kemahiran generik yang disasarkan UTM beserta dengan ciri-ciri bagi setiap kemahiran:

1. Kemahiran Komunikasi

2. Kemahiran bekerja secara kumpulan

3. Kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah

4. Kemahiran mengurus dan menganalisa maklumat

5. Kemahiran usahawan

6. Kemahiran kepimpinan

7. Beretika dan berintegriti

Dari kajian-kajian lepas, terdapat dua perbezaan kumpulan pendekatan gaya belajar iaitu pendekatan dalaman dan luaran untuk pembelajaran yang telah dibangunkan oleh Entwistle et al. dalam program kajian di Lancaster 1983). Pendekatan dalaman bergantung pada penggunaan hubungan makna pembelajaran antara konsep dalam ’semantic-long term memory’. Makna dari bahan dicipta melalui jaringan di antara perhubungan, yang mana akan melibatkan ’episodic’ seperti ’schemata semantic’ dari pengalaman peribadi. Ausubel (1978) mengatakan, adalah penting sekali bahawa memori batas waktu panjang akan tidak terbatas dalam saiz dan waktu lamanya. ’Scemata’ dan imej dari peristiwa lepas disimpan dalam memori batas waktu panjang, ia juga mengandungi konsep untuk menyediakan cara dari memeluap makna. Ini menunjukkan bahawa pendekatan dalaman melibatkan tujuan untuk memahami dan mencuba untuk menceritakan maklumat yang datang untuk pengetahuan yang dahulu dan pengalaman dalam aturan untuk mengutip makna peribadi.

Pendekatan luaran berasaskan pada pembelajaran menghafal melalui ulangan dalam memori batas waktu yang singkat sehingga kata demi kata perwakilan daripada bahan terancang dalam episodic memori batas waktu panjang. Tujuannya adalah untuk memenuhi permintaan tugas, yang mana memimpin untuk memperingatkan hanya dari pandangan yang diperlukan oleh guru. Ausubel (1978) juga menyatakan bahawa memori batas waktu singkat nampak terbatas dalam saiz dan waktu lamanya. Proses menggunakan ulangan untuk melakukan memori bahan yang sama diterangkan oleh Ausubel sebagai “pembelajaran menghafal”.

Pendekatan kepada pembelajaran adalah merujuk kepada perbezaan motif dengan kesamaan strategi yang pelajar gunakan untuk berjaya melakukan berbagai-bagai tujuan berkaitan kepada pembelajaran. Entwistle & Ramsden (1983) menyatakan hubungan diantara pendekatan kepada pembelajaran dan pencapaian akademik, penemuan khas adalah korelasi negatif diantara pendekatan luaran dan pencapaian. Pendekatan dalaman adalah lebih kepada menyukai kepada mengaitkan kepada kecemerlangan akademik dalam tahun dari kursus ijazah dan bila prosedur pengkajian secara terus dihadiahkan demonstrasi pemahaman tentang konsep, tapi gabungan pendekatan luaran dan strategik mungkin berguna kepada pelajar sains dan walau apa fakta berorientasikan penggunaan pengkajian (Entwistle, et al. 2000).

42

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Dalam kajian kepada pencapaian akademik pelajar psikologi pada perbezaan peringkat dalam program pengajian mereka, Sadler-Smith (1997) menemui kesignifikanan dan korelasi yang positif diantara prestasi dan pendekatan dalaman (r = 0.26) dalam sampel pelajar-pelajar perniagaan. Keputusan ini mencadangkan hubungan sederhana diantara pendekatan pembelajaran dan prestasi.

Abdul Rahim (2004), menemui hubungan yang lemah antara pendekatan dalaman (r = 0.05) dan pendekatan luaran (r = 0.12) dengan pencapaian akademik pelajar dalam kajiannya ke atas pelajar-pelajar Perdana PTV, UTM. Manakala kajiannya ke atas pelajar-pelajar PKPG PTV, UTM pula hubungan yang diperolehi antara pendekatan dalaman (r = 0.43) dengan pencapaian akademik adalah sederhana. Pendekatan luaran (r = 0.25) dengan pencapaian akademik pula adalah rendah.

Teori dua faktor herzberg menyarankan bahawa terdapat dua faktor motivasi iaitu ’dissatisfier’ dan ’satisfier’. Faktor ’dissatisfier’ mewakili faktor ekstrinsik terhadap pekerjaan seperti upah, suasana kerja polisi pengurusan dan lain-lain. Herzberg percaya bahawa faktor-faktor ini tidak menjadi faktor secara terus sabagai motivasi tetapi sebagai tambahan kapada motivasi iaitu sesuatu yang perlu sahaja. Kehilangan salah satu faktor motivasi ini mungkin menjejaskan motivasi tetapi kehadiran semiua faktor akan menyebabkan muncul motivasi kedua iaitu ’satisfier’ yang menjelaskan tahap motivasi seseorang. Faktor ’satisfier’ meliputi kerja itu sendiri iaitu kompetensi, pengiktirafan, dan perkembangan.

Motivasi boleh dikategorikan kepada dua iaitu motivasi intrinsik dan motivasi ekstrinsik. Motivasi intrinsik berpunca daripada dalam diri seseorang, manakala motivasi ekstrinsik adalah berpunca dari luar diri seseoarang dan ia berkait rapat dengan pengukuhan.

3.0 METODOLOGI KAJIAN

Kajian ini adalah berbentuk deskriptif iaitu kajian yang menerangkan sesuatu fenomena atau bagi mendapatkan maklumat mengenai sesuatu peristiwa yang sedang berlaku (Majid, 1990). Kajian ini dijalankan di semua fakulti, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor iaitu;

i. Fakulti Sains (FS)

ii. Fakulti Pendidikan (FP)

i. Fakulti Alam Bina (FAB)

ii. Fakulti Pengurusan Sumber Manusia (FPPSM)

iii. Fakulti Sains Komputer (FSK)

iv. Fakulti Kejuruteraan Awam (FKA)

v. Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik (FKE)

vi. Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal (FKM)

vii. Fakulti Kejuruteraan Kimia Sumber Asli (FKKSA)

viii. Fakulti Kejuruteraan Sains Geoinformasi (FKSG)

43

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Sampel yang digunakan ialah Pelajar-Pelajar Tahun Tiga Pendidikan Fakulti-fakulti dalam disiplin Sain Tulen, Kejuruteraan dan Sains Sosial UTM iaitu seramai 500 orang pelajar. Oleh itu, kaedah persampelan tidak rawak-sampelan bertujuan telah digunakan. Soal selidik digunakan untuk mendapatkan maklumat yang dikehendaki. Menurut Mohamad Najib (1999), penggunaan soal selidik dapat meningkatkan ketepatan dan kebenaran yang diberikan oleh sampel kerana ia tidak dipengaruhi oleh pengkaji. Set soal selidik yang digunakan mengandungi dua bahagian iaitu bahagian A dan bahagian B. Bahagian A mengandungi perkara yang berkaitan biodata responden. Manakala bahagian B pula tiga sub yang berkaitan iaitu pendekatan belajar, kemahiran generik dan motivasi. Kajian rintis tidak dijalankan kerana kajian ini menggunakan instrumen yang dibina oleh Abdul Rahim Hamdan (2004) dalam kajiannya ke atas pelajar- pelajar PKPG dan perdana Pendidikan Teknik dan Vosional yang bertajuk “Student Study Approach Preferences and Motivation in Teacher Training in Malaysia”. Nilai Alpha Cronbach untuk item soalan pendekatan dalaman adalah 0.89 manakala untuk item soalan pendekatan luaran adalah 0.73.

Hasil analisis bahagian A akan ditunjukkan dalam bentuk jadual peratusan. Bahagian B pula, pengkaji akan menganalisis setiap persoalan kajian yang dikemukakan mengikut aspek kajian yang ditentukan. Kaedah yang digunakan bagi memproses data-data yang diperolehi adalah berdasarkan kepada min. Pertimbangan Skor Min dibuat mengikut aras rendah, sederhana dan tinggi. Ujian Anova Satu Hala pada aras signifikan, p=0.05 digunakan untuk menunjukkan perbezaan antara pemboleh ubah yang digunakan terhadap pelajar-pelajar dari berlainan disiplin.

4.0 DATA DAN PERBINCANGAN

Jadual 4.1 di bawah menunjukan jumlah dan peratusan responden bagi setiap fakulti yang telah di ambil sebagai sampel untuk tujuan kajian ini, pada dasarnya reponden tersebut merupakan wakil keseluruhan pelajar yang mengikuti pengajian difakulti-fakulti berkaitan.

 

Jadual 1:

Taburan Responden Mengikut Fakulti

Bil

Fakulti

Jumlah

Peratusan

Responden

1.

Fakulti Pendidikan

79

15.8

2.

Fakulti Alam Bina

47

9.4

3.

Fakulti Pengurusan Sumber Manusia

40

8.0

4.

Fakulti Sains

92

18.4

5.

Fakulti Sains Komputer

26

5.2

6.

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Awam

41

8.2

7.

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal

39

7.8

8.

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik

59

11.8

44

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

9.

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Sains Geoinformasi

46

9.2

10.

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Kimia dan Sumber Asli

31

6.2

 

Jumlah

500

100

Tahap pencapaian akademik pelajar-pelajar mengikut fakulti, pada dasarnya ramai pelajar dari setiap fakulti berada dalam kedudukan CGPA 3.00 hingga 4.00. Sebagai contohnya Fakulti Pendidikan (87.3%), Fakulti Alam Bina (70.3%), Fakulti Kejuruteraan Awam (90.3%), Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal (59%), Fakulti Kejuruteraan Sains Geoinformasi (73.9%), , Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik (86.4%), Fakulti Pengurusan Sumber Manusia (72.5%), Fakulti Sains Komputer (73.1). Walaubagaimanapun terdapat fakluti yang mempunyai pencapaian yang agak rendah berbanding dengan fakulti-fakulti lain iaitu Fakulti Kejuruteraan Kimia dan Sumber Asli (54.9%) dan Fakulti Sains (39.1%). Pelajar- pelajar masih lagi mempunyai 3 semester lagi untuk mengekalkan prestasi atau meningkat prestasi sebelum tamat pengajian. Bagi pelajar-pelajar Fakulti Sains pula mereka yang diambil sebagai sampel kajian ialah merupakan pelajar tahun akhir pengajian memandangkan pada tahun pengambilan pelajar-pelajar tahun tiga fakulti-fakulti laian, fakulti sains tidak membuat pengambilan. Secara keseluruhannya, 69.6% pelajar-pelajar dari semua fakulti adalah berada pada kedudukan CGPA 3.00 hingga 4.00 dan ini memberikan gambaran yang baik terhadap pencapian pelajar. Rajah 1 menunjukkan carta bar kedudukan CGPA pelajar mengikut fakulti.

Pencapaian Akedemik Mengikut Fakulti

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1=FP 3=FKA 5=FKSG 7=FKKSA 9=FPPSM 2=FAB 4=FKM 6=FS
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1=FP
3=FKA
5=FKSG
7=FKKSA
9=FPPSM
2=FAB
4=FKM
6=FS
8=FKE
10=FSK

CGPA

2=2.00 - 2.497=FKKSA 9=FPPSM 2=FAB 4=FKM 6=FS 8=FKE 10=FSK CGPA 3=2.50 - 2.99 4=3.00 - 3.49 5=3.50 -

3=2.50 - 2.992=FAB 4=FKM 6=FS 8=FKE 10=FSK CGPA 2=2.00 - 2.49 4=3.00 - 3.49 5=3.50 - 4.00 Rajah

4=3.00 - 3.494=FKM 6=FS 8=FKE 10=FSK CGPA 2=2.00 - 2.49 3=2.50 - 2.99 5=3.50 - 4.00 Rajah 1:

5=3.50 - 4.008=FKE 10=FSK CGPA 2=2.00 - 2.49 3=2.50 - 2.99 4=3.00 - 3.49 Rajah 1: Carta Bar

Rajah 1: Carta Bar Pencapaian Akademik Mengikut Fakulti berdasar peperiksaan akhir semester 1 2006/2007 pelajar tahun 3

45

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Tahap kemahiran generik pelajar-pelajar tahun 3 bagi semua fakulti di Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Secara keseluruhannya semua pelajar dari setiap fakulti mempunyai tahap yang tinggi untuk bahagian kemahiran komunikasi iaitu berada di antara tahap min 3.7-3.9 dan min keseluruhan ialah 3.82.

Untuk kemahiran menyelesai masalah pula Fakulti Pendidikan, Fakulti Alam Bina, Fakulti Kejuruteraan Awam, Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik dan Fakulti Mekanikal mempunyai tahap min yang tinggi iaitu diantara 3.67 hingga 3.8. Manakala bagi Fakulti Kejuruteraan Sains Geoinformasi, Fakulti Sains, Fakulti Kejuruteraan Kimia dan Sumber Asli, Fakulti Pengurusan Sumber Manusia dan Fakulti Sains Komputer mempunyai tahap yang sederhana iaitu min diantara 3.4 hingga 3.66. Secara keseluruhannya tahap kemahiran menyelesai masalah adalah pada tahap sederhana iaitu dengan min 3.65.

Bagi kemahiran bekerja dalam kumpulan pula didapati pelajar-pelajar dari semua fakulti mempunyai tahap min yang tinggi iaitu di antara 3.9 hingga 4.2 dan min keseluruhannya ialah 4.08. Pembelajaran sepanjang hayat dan kemahiran pengurusan maklumat juga menunjukkan pelajar-pelajar dari semua fakulti berada pada tahap min yang tinggi iaitu di antara di antara 3.9 hingga 4.2 dan min keseluruhannya ialah 4.07.

Bagi kemahiran Keusahawanan pula di dapati pelajar-pelajar dari tiga fakulti (Fakulti Kejuruteraan Sains Geoinformasi, Fakulti Sains Komputer dan Fakulti Pengurusan Sumber Manusia) yang mempunyai tahap min yang tinggi iaitu diantara 3.68-3.81. Manakala kemahiran keusahawanan pelajar dari fakulti- fakulti lain berada pada tahap sederhana iaitu di antara min 3.11 hingga 3.66 dan ini mempengaruhi min keseluruhan menjadi sederhana iaitu 3.49 sahaja.

Bagi Kemahiran Kepimpinan pula menunjukkan hanya pelajar-pelajar dari tiga fakulti (Fakulti Sains, Fakulti Kejuruteraan Kimia dan Sumber Asli dan Fakulti Pengurusan Sumber Manusia) menunjukkan tahap min yang sederhana iaitu di antara 3.61-3.64, manakala fakulti-fakulti lain semuanya berada pada tahap min yang tinggi iaitu diantara 3.67 hingga 3.92dan ini mempengaruhi min keseluruhan bagi Kemahiran Kepimpinan iaitu 3.73 untuk berasda pada tahap tinggi.

Kemahiran Beretika dan berintegriti, pelajar-pelajar dari semua fakulti menunjukkan mereka berada di tahap yang tinggi iaitu di antara 3.8 dan min keseluruhan kategori ialah pada tahap min 4.20. Secara keseluruhannya, semua pelajar dari semua fakulti mempunyai tahap kemahiran generik yang tinggi iaitu pada tahap min 3.86.

Dari aspek pendekatan pembelajaran pula di dapati pelajar-pelajar dari Fakulti Kejuruteraan Awam dan Fakulti Sains Komputer mengamalkan pendekatan pembelajaran luaran pada tahap yang tinggi iaitu pada aras min 3.72 dan 3.77, manakala pelajar dari fakulti-fakulti lain hanya mengamalkan pembelajaran pada tahap sederhana iaitu antara 3.45 hingga 3.66 sahaja. Keadaan ini menunjukkan secara keseluruhannya pelajar-pelajar dari semua

46

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

fakulti mengamalkan pembelajaran luaran secara sederhana iaitu pada tahap min 3.56.

Bagi amalan pembelajaran dalaman pula didapati Fakulti Pendidikan, Fakulti Alam Bina dan Fakulti Kejuruteraan Awam menunjukkan pelajar- pelajarnya berada pada tahap min yang tinggi iaitu dalam lingkungan min 3.68 hingga 3.72, manakala pelajar-pelajar dari lain-lain fakulti berada pada tahap sederhana iaitu di antara min 3.32 hingga 3.66 dan ini secara keseluruhannya menunjukkan amalan pembelajaran secara dalaman juga berada pada tahap sederhana iaitu dengan min 3.58 tinggi sedikit berbanding min untuk pembelajaran secara luaran.

Dari aspek motivasi belajar pula di dapati pelajar-pelajar dari semua fakulti mempunyai tahap motivasi intrinsik yang tinggi iaitu diantara min 3.74 hingga 4.15 dengan min keseluruhannya yang tinggi iaitu min 3.95. Bagi motivasi ekstrinsik pula didapati pelajar-pelajar dari semua fakulti mempunyai tahap motivasi intrinsik yang sederhana iaitu pada min 3.32 hingga 3.53 kecuali Fakulti Kejuruteraan elektrik yang berada pada tahap tinggi dengan min 3.67. Secara keseluruhannya didapati tahap motivasi ekstrinsik adalah pada tahap sederhana dengan minnya 3.47.

Berdasarkan analisis Anova Satu Hala Kemahiran Generik Pelajar, nilai signifikan yang diperolehi ialah 0.001 iaitu lebih kecil daripada nilai signifikan yang ditentukan iaitu p<0.05, oleh itu hipotesis yang menyatakan tidak terdapat perbezaan kemahiran generik pelajar dari fakulti-fakulti yang berbeza adalah ditolak. Analisis ini menunjukkan bahawa terdapat perbezaan kemahiran generik di antara pelajar-pelajar dari fakulti yang berbeza. Pada dasarnya keupayaan kemahiran generik pelajar adalah berbeza dan ini dapat dilihat berdasarkan plot perbezaan yang signifikan dari jadual 2.

Jadual 2 Plot Perbezaan Kemahiran Generik pelajar antara fakulti di UTM

 

FP

FAB

FPPSM

FS

FSK

FKA

FKM

FKE

FKSG

FKKS

A

FP

   

/

/

           

FAB

   

/

/

           

FPPSM

/

/

     

/

   

/

 

FS

/

/

     

/

   

/

 

FSK

     

/

           

FKA

   

/

/