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SociologyDiscoveryPortfolio

MeaghanMcGann
Sociology115
Dr.Allen
19November2014

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CausalThinkingandEthnographicResearch
Small,M.L.(2013).Causalthinkingandethnographicresearch.
AmericanJournalofSociology,
119
(3),597601.Retrievedfrom
http://search.proquest.com/docview/1550999912?accountid=15021

Whatcamefirst,thechickenortheegg?Thisageoldquestionisaclassicexampleof
causalrelationships.Thequestionisreallytryingtoidentifycauseandeffect:istheeggthe
effectofthechicken,oristhechickenaneffectoftheegg?InCausalThinkingand
EthnographicResearch,MarioLuisSmallshedslightintothisissuebyproposingthree
differentperspectivesattemptingtobothquantifyandqualifythecauseeffectrelationship.He
alsoutilizesethnographicresearchtotakeadeeperlookintocausalanalysis.
Smallproposesthecounterfactualmodelasthefirstlenswithwhichtoexaminecausal
relationships.Thecounterfactualmodelaskswhatifquestions.Itistypicallyusedby
sociologistsasaquantitativemeasureofdata.Itspurposeistoforeseepossibleeffectsofactual
andcountersituationsonlargesamplesizes.Thecounterfactualmodelfocusesontheeffectsofa
causeratherthanthecauseoftheeffects.Thisisreferredtoasforwardcausalinferenceas
opposedtoreversecausalinference.Thesecondperspectiveisthequalitativecomparative
analysisapproach.Thislensproposesthatthenumberofcausesforaparticulareffect
outnumbersthenumberofeffectsforaparticularcause.Qualitativecomparativeanalysisisa
qualitativemeasureusedtoanalyzesmallersamplesizesbysociologistsofhistory.Itsuggests
thatparticulareffectsoccuronlyduetoaparticularcombinationofcauses.Analysisiskeyin
thistheorybecausethesociologistmustassesstherightcombinationofcausesnecessaryto
produceaparticulareffect.Thethirdlens,themechanismperspective,emphasizesneitherthe
causenortheeffectincausalanalysis,buttherelationshipsbetweenthetwo.Thisapproach

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becamedominantbecauseitallowedforobservationbetweenmacroandmicrolevels.The
mechanismperspectiveseeksanexplanationratherthanajustification.Ithaschallenged
sociologicalresearcherstopayparticularattentiontohowindividualsrespondtosocial
conditions,tohowtheseresponsesinteractwiththoseofothers,andtohowbothindividualand
collectiveresponsesproduceslargerscalephenomena(599).Ethnographicresearchisoften
referredtoinassessingthequantitativeandqualitativefindingsofcausalrelationships.
Ethnographiescanlookatcausalclaims,groupinteractionsandwhatmakescertainperspectives
convincinginordertoofferfurtherinsightintocausalanalysis.
Thearticleshowsstrengthinthatitbringsinperspectivesthatassessboththequalitative
andquantitativesidesofcausalanalysis.Thisisimportantincreatingawellroundeddata
sampleandinprovidingforbothabstractandconcretedataobservations.Thethreesuggested
perspectivesofferedcoverseveraldifferentfacetsofthecauseeffectrelationship:one
emphasizesthecause,anotheremphasizestheeffectsandthethirdemphasizeslinksbetweenthe
two.Bybringinginethnographicresearch,Smallallowsforimplicationsbeyondjustcausal
analysis.AweaknessoccursinthatSmallsuggestsverygeneralimplications,buthedoesnot
actuallystateanyoftheseimplicationsinthearticle.Helacksconcreteexamplesofthese
differentcausalperspectivesandhowtheyrelatetoreallifesituationsinwhichcausalanalysis
liescrucial.Smallindicatesthatthecounterfactualmodel,thequalitativecomparativeanalysis,
andthemechanismperspectivearefoundationalintermsofcausalanalysis,butfailstosupport
theseclaimsorclarifywhytheseparticularperspectivesarethebackboneofcausalanalysis.
Smalllinkscausalanalysistoethnographicresearch,butfailstodefinethisrelationship.Heeven
statesthelackofspecificitywithinthearticle:Whiletheworkintheseandotherperspectives

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oncausalityhasgrownrapidlyinrecentyears,theroleofcontemporaryethnographicresearchin
anyofthisworkremainsunclear(599).Thisisanunresolvedissuethatappearsvitaltothe
relationshipSmallisattemptingtocreatebetweencausalanalysisandethnographicresearch
withinhisarticle.
Smallemphasizestheimportanceofcausalthinkinginunderstandinginformaland
formaldimensions.Theunderstandingofthecauseandeffectrelationshipbehindaparticular
circumstancecanplayalargeroleindeducinghiddenimplicationsandbringingtolightthings
thatarenoteasilyseenonthesurfacelevel.Causalanalysisworksatavarietyoflevels.Itcanbe
appliedtoindividuals,togroups,toinstitutionsandcommunitiesandtoentiresystemsascausal
analysisreveals,causeeffectrelationshipsoftendospanacrossmanydifferentlevelsofsociety.
Anindividualcanaffectanentireinstitutionandviceversa,aninstitutioncanplayamajorrole
inthelivesofindividuals.Thisalsosuggestsascopeofinquirywithinbothmicroandmacro
levels,coveringbothsmallscaleandlargegroupinteractions.
Whyiscausalanalysisimportant?Smallsuggeststhatrelatingcausalthinkingand
ethnographicresearchallowsforabetterunderstandingofsocietywhenemployedunderthree
perspectives:thecounterfactualmodel,thequalitativecomparativeanalysis,andthemechanism
perspective.Causalanalysiscouldhelpsociologistsdiscovertherootofparticularproblemsin
societyandpotentiallypredictrelationshipsthatmightprovidesolutionsorpreventothersocietal
dilemmasinthefuture.

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Immigration,OrganizationandtheGreatRecession:StructuralChangeorContinuity?
Rosenfeld,J.,&Kleykamp,M.(April01,2013).Immigration,Organization,andtheGreat
Recession:StructuralChangeorContinuity?.
AmericanSociologicalReview,78,
2.)

InImmigration,Organization,andtheGreatRecession:StructuralChangeor
Continuity?JakeRosenfeldandMeredithKleykamprespondtoCarltonscritiqueoftheir
previousarticle,HispanicsandOrganizedLaborintheUnitedStates,1973to2007.They
concurwiththecritiquethattrendsinbusinesscyclescontributetochangewithinpredicted
patterns,howevertheydisagreewiththesuggestionthatthetrendsinbusinesscycleshavea
strongercorrelationtoHispanicimmigrantunionmembershipthantheactualrelationships
betweenHispanicimmigrantsandtheunionorganizations.RosenfeldandKleykampoffertheir
responseinthreeparts.
First,RosenfeldandKleykamprespondtotheeffectstheGreatRecessionhadonthe
predictabilityofjoiningunions.Theycomparetheirprerecessionandpostrecession
unionizationdatatoCarltonsinordertoevaluatetrendsinimmigrantunionizationrelativeto
theGreatRecession.RosenfeldandKleykampconcludethatCarltonsfindingsareinfluenced
bythenonrecessionyearsthatactashisreferencepoint.Thoughtheinclusionofprerecession
yearsinthedatasamplerevealssomevarianceinthepredictabilityofHispanicimmigrant
unionization,thereisconsistencywithintheoddsofHispanicimmigrantunionizationbeingless
thantheoddsofunionizationfornonimmigrantwhites.Second,RosenfeldandKleykampassess
therateatwhichHispanicimmigrantunionmembersleftunionsprerecession,betweenthe
recessions,andpostrecessioncomparedtononimmigrantwhiteunionleavers.ThoughCarlton
suggeststhatcomparedtononHispanicwhites,Hispanicimmigrantsweremorelikelytolose
unionjobs...atanincreasedrateduringtheGreatRecession(336)RosenfeldandKleykamp

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revealrelativelyconsistentrelationshipsbetweentheratiosofHispanicimmigrantsandnon
immigrantwhiteswholefttheunionsintheprerecession,intermediaterecessionand
postrecessionperiods.RosenfeldandKleykampconcludethatCarltondoesnotestablishenough
contextorsupporttosostronglycorrelatetheGreatRecessiontodecreasedunionization.While
theGreatRecessioncertainlyisafactorindecreasedunionization,thepastseveraldecadeshave
revealedanoveralltrendingdecreaseinunionizationacrossnotonlyHispanicimmigrant
populations,butallothersubpopulationsaswell.
AstrengthofthisarticleisreflectedinRosenfeldsandKleykampsadmittanceofthe
validitybehindCarltonscritiques.RosenfeldandKleykampownthatbusinesscycles,likethe
GreatRecession,indeeddoplayaroleinunionizationtrendsthatcouldinfluencetherateof
Hispanicimmigrantunionization.Theyattempttogainamacrolevelunderstandingof
unionizationtrendsbycomparingprerecession,intermediaterecessionandpostrecession
findings.AweaknessoccursinthattheHispanicimmigrantcategoryisahugeand
heterogeneousgroup,combiningsubpopulationswhoseprobabilityofunionizationlikely
differs(335).Thismakesthegeneralizationofcertaintrendswithinlargercommunitiesvery
difficult.Whenmakingobservationsregardingnumbersofunionmemberswholeftunions
prerecession,betweenrecessions,andpostrecessions,RosenfeldandKleykampfailedto
deducetheexactreasoningbehindleavingtheunions.Thisunresolveddatacouldbean
importantfactorinassessingwhythereismoreprevalenceofnonimmigrantwhitesinunions
thanHispanicimmigrants.
Initsanalysisofunionizationtrends,thisarticleemphasizestheimportanceofunions
withintheAmericanlaborforce.Itdiscussesthedecreasingtrendsofunionizationandseeksto

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betterunderstandthesetrendssothatinturntheymayraiseawarenessandbecomeagentsof
changewithinthelaborinstitution.AsRosenfeldandKleykamppropose,withouta
fundamentalrestructuringoftheinstitutionalunderpinningsoforganizedlabor,unionization
rateswillremainathistoriclowsforallgroups(337).
RosenfeldandKleykampsanalysisoftheeffectsoftheGreatRecessiononunionization
andtherateatwhichunionmembersleftunionspre,betweenandpostrecessionoffersa
thoroughrebuttaltoCarltonscritiqueofHispanicsandOrganizedLaborintheUnitedStates,
1973to2007.InrespondingandevaluatingCarltonscritiques,RosenfeldandKleykamp
articulatetheimportanceofunionsacrossallpopulations,notonlyHispanicimmigrants.Further
researchmightpertaintosocioculturalvaluesassociatedtounionlaborinHispanicimmigrant,
Hispanicnonimmigrant,andnonimmigrantwhitesubpopulations.Furtherresearchalsomight
lookatacomparisonbetweentheeconomiesandworkerbenefitsinunionizedcountriesas
opposedtothosecountrieswhodonothaveunions.

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TheIsraeliKibbutzimandtheWestermarckHypothesis:DoesEarlyAssociationDampen
SexualPassion?ACommentonShorandSimchai
Maryanski,A.,Sanderson,S.K.,&Russell,R.(March01,2012).THEISRAELIKIBBUTZIM
ANDTHEWESTERMARCKHYPOTHESIS:DOESEARLYASSOCIATION
DAMPENSEXUALPASSION?ACOMMENTONSHORANDSIMCHAI:
CommentaryandDebate.
AmericanJournalofSociology,117,
5.)

TheWestermarckthesisisbasedontheclaimthatchildrenrearedtogetheraresexualy
indifferenttowardeachotherasadults(1503).InanarticlepublishedbytheUniversityof
ChicagoPress,AlexandraMaryanski,StephenSanderson,andRaymondRussellrespondtothe
articleIncestAvoidance,TheIncestTaboo,andSocialCohesion:RevisitingWestermarckand
theCaseoftheIsraeliKibbutzimbyEranShorandDulitSimchai.Throughthestudyofadults
whogrewupinakibbutzeducationsystem,ShorandSimchaiproposeevidencethatappearsto
contradictWestermarcksclaimsandsuggeststhestronginfluenceofsocialcohesionwithin
sexualattractionandindifference.
Westermarckproposedhisthesisasanaturalevolutionaryinhibitormeanttopreventthe
consequencesofincest.Heexpandedhistheoryoutsidethefamilialsettingandprojecteditalso
ontochildrenwhowereraisedtogether.SpecificstudieswithinIsraeliKibbutzimsystems,in
whichnonrelatedchildrenwereeducatedinintensepeercommunities,appeartoconcurwith
WEstermarckshypothesis.Oneethnographicstudyanalyzed2,769marriagerecordsin211
kibbutzimanddiscoveredonly14casesinwhichpeershadmarriedeachother(andthese
coupleshadnotbeenrearedtogetherduringtheirearliestyears)(1504)eventhoughpeer
marriageswithinthesecommunitieswereactuallyencouraged.InoppositiontoWestermarcks
thesis,ShorandSimchaiconductedinterviewson50maleandfemaleindividualsbetweenthe
agesof2470whohadgrownupinthekibbutzsystem.Theirinterviewsassessedsexual
attractiontothesubjectspeersandthesocialcohesionwithintheirpeergroupsduringtheirtime

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underthekibbutzimsystem.Thefindingsrevealedthatover50%oftheintervieweesfeltsexual
attractiontotheirkibbutzimpeersduringadolescence,thismostoftenoccurringwithintheless
sociallycohesivecommunities.Theimportanceofsocialcohesionisemphasizedbecausemost
oftenincestoccursinfamiliesthatarenotsociallycohesive.AnanalysisofShorandSimchais
findingsindicatesthatthegenerationalevolutionofthekibbutzimeducationsystemplaysalarge
contributingroleintheattractionbetweenpeers.Withintheyoungergenerations,thepercentages
ofattractionbetweenpeerswashigherbecausetheyhadincreasedexposuretofamilialsettings
outsideofthekibbutzandsobondedlesswiththeirpeers.Whereasinoldergenerations,the
kibbutzimmodelprovidedformoresocialcohesionduetocommunalsleepingandstronger
emotionalbonds.Factoringinthegenerationalchangeswithinthekibbutzim,Shorand
SimchaisfindingsactuallysupporttheWestermarckhypothesis.
Astrengthofthearticleoccursinthevalidityofthedataitcollected.Thestudiesused
factoredinothercontributingvariablessuchasageandsexwhenassessingfactorsrelatingto
peermarriageswithinthekibbutz.Anotherstrengthoccursintheapparentpursuitofa
nonbiasedreport.Boththestrengthsandweaknessesareassessedofthoseforandagainst
Westermarckshypothesis.Oneweaknessappearsinthesubjectivityofmeasuringsexual
indifferenceandattraction.Emotionalvaluesthoughrepresentativeofqualitativedata,are
extremelydifficulttoquantify.AweaknessoccurswithShorandSimchaisstudyinthatthe
intervieweeswererecountingemotionalfeelingsfrommanyyearsprevious.ThoughShorand
Simchaiattempttojustifythevalidityoftheirsubjectsrecallbyemphasizingtheinfluenceof
adolescenthormones,thediscrepancyintimeallowsformucherrorinjudgmentandrecall.

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ThisstudylooksatbothmacroandmicrolevelimplicationsofWestermarcks
hypothesis.Onthemacrolevelitevaluateshowcommunities,specificallykibbutzimeducational
systems,functionwithinthecontextoftheWestermarckhypothesis.Dothesecommunitiesasa
wholevalidateorinvalidateWestermarckstheory?Thestudyalsotakesamicrolevelapproach
byassessingindividualswithinthekibbutzimcommunityandthenrelatingtheirgenerational
experiencetotherelevanceofWestermarckstheory.
Oneinterestingcomponentofthisstudyliesintheroleofsocialcohesionwithineach
study.Thestudiesofadultswhohadgrownupinkibbutzeducationsystemsvaryintermsof
explicitlysupportingornotsupportingWestermarckshypothesis.Thesocialcohesionfactor
playsalargeroleinexplainingthisvariance.Socialcohesionisinstrumentaltothehealthofnot
onlyfamiliesandcommunities,buttoallofsociety.Furtherresearchmightanalyzethesocial
cohesionofindividualswhogrewupunderthekibbutzimsystemrelatingtothoseoutsidetheir
peersgroups.InregardstoWestermarckstheory,socialcohesionisapositivecontributing
factortothethecreationofahealthycommunity.Issocialcohesionalwaysafactorofhealthin
societies,orcanitbecomeameasureofmarginalizationtothoseoutsidetheimmediatepeer
group?

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ExposingtheMythofSexualAversionintheIsraeliKibbutzim:AChallengetothe
WestermarckHypothesis
Shor,E.,&Simchai,D.(March01,2012).EXPOSINGTHEMYTHOFSEXUALAVERSION
INTHEISRAELIKIBBUTZIM:ACHALLENGETOTHEWESTERMARCK
HYPOTHESIS.
AmericanJournalofSociology,117,
5.)

InExposingtheMythofSexualAversionintheIsraeliKibbutzim:AChallengetothe
WestermarckHypothesis,EranShorandDalitSimchairespondtoMaryanski,Sanderson,and
Russells(MSR)critiqueoftheirargumentsrefutingtheWestermarckhypothesis.WhileMSR
suggeststhatShorandSimchaisfindingsrelatingtokibbutzmactuallysupporttheWestermarck
hypothesis,ShorandSimchaipointtosomemisinterpretationsofdatathatallowthemtohold
ontotheirmainargumentagainsttheWestermarckhypothesis.
First,ShorandSimchaiclarifytheclaimthatsomeparentsofkibbutzimyouth
encouragedtheirchildrentopursuemarriageswiththeirpeers.Inactuality,thisprocesswas
frowneduponandrelatedtoincestaltaboos.MSRalsofailstotakeintoaccountsexualattraction
andindifferenceacrossthebroaderrangeofromanticinvolvementwithinpeergroupstheyonly
commentontheratesofmarriagewithinpeergroups.ShorandSimchaisuggestthatpeerswithin
kibbutzsettingswerelessinclinedtopursuemarriageeveniftheydidexperienceattractionfor
theirpeersbecausetheserelationswouldbefrowneduponandbecauseofthepotential
consequencestheserelationscouldbringtothepeergroupasawhole.ShorandSimchairespond
toMSRsemphasisonsocialcohesionwithintheWestermarckhypothesisbyproposingthat
neitherWestermarcknorhisproponentstalkatanytimeaboutsocialcohesionduring
adolescence(oranyothersocialcomponentforthatmatter)aspartofthemechanismproducing
sexualaversionamongchildrenrearedtogether.closechildhoodassociationshouldproduce
aversion
regardless
ofotherconditionsandcharacteristics(1510).MSRproposesthatShorand

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Simchaissampledidnotaccuratelyportraythekibbutzsystembecauseofgenerationalchanges
withinthekibbutzstructureandbecauseofincreasedfamilialinvolvementduringsomekibbutz
generations.ShorandSimchairespondthattheycarefullyspecifiedtheirinclusionofindividuals
tothosewhofellwithintheparametersofWestermarckstheory,evendespitegenerational
differenceswithinkibbutzimandpotentialincreaseinparentalinvolvement.Theyalsospecify
thatfamilialinvolvementisnotrelevanttoWestermarckstheoryasthetheoryfocusesonsexual
aversionrelatingtochildhoodassociations,notfamilialinfluence.Finally,theyrefuteMSRsuse
ofthetermsexualindifferenceratherthanbeingconsistentwithWestermarcksreferenceto
sexualaversion.Indifferenceandaversionaretwodistinctlydifferentthings.
ShorandSimchaisresponsetoMSRscritiqueisanexcellentexampleofhowtorefutea
critique.TheysystematicallygothrougheachofMSRsargumentsagainsttheirclaimsand
debunkthem.Theyclarifyandexpandonpreviousassertionsandrefutetheignorant
suppositionsoftheiropponents.Theygobacktotheiroriginalsourcestovalidatetheirrelevance
andpointouttheirrelevanceandlackofcontextforsomeofMSRssources.
ShorandSimchai,despiteMSRscritique,continuetosuggestthatWestermarcks
hypothesisiswrong.Theirstudiesrevealthatindividualswhogrewupextremelyclosetotheir
peergroup,aswithinthekibbutzimeducationalsystem,didnotfeelthesamesexualaversionto
theirpeersastheyprofessedfortheirsiblings.ShorandSimchaifurtheropposeWestermarcks
hypothesisbysuggestingthatevenwhensexualindifferencedoesexist,onecanoftenfind
alternativeexplanationsforit(suchasagehomophilyandwhatmanywomenintervieweescalled
lackofmaturityintheirmalepeers)thatdonotinvolveabiologicalorpsychological
mechanismthatistriggeredbyclosechildhoodassociation(1512).Childhoodassociationisnot

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thepredominantevolutionaryfactorthatkeepsindividualsfromincestualrelationships.Further
researchmightlookatfamilialandindividualsimilaritiesandcharacteristicsapartfrom
childhoodassociationsintheanalysisofincestualrelationshipsinfamilies.Thepurposeofthis
furtherresearchwouldbetoraiseawarenessandpotentiallyfindcausalfactorsthatcouldbe
avoidedoreliminated.

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SymmetryisBeautiful
Shwed,U.,&Bearman,P.S.(December01,2012).SymmetryIsBeautiful.
American
SociologicalReview,77,
6.)

TheTemporalStructureofScientificConsensusFormation
(ShewedandBearman2010)
developedaprocedurewhichdidnotrequireexpertjudgmenttoevaluatethelevelof
contestationinscientificliteratures(1064).InSymmetryisBeautiful,UriShwedandPeter
BearmanrespondtoBTUcritiquesoftheirproposedproceduresuggestingthatsomeofBTUs
findingsactuallysupporttheirclaimsandmaintainthevalueofsymmetryintheunderstanding
andexaminationofscientificworks.
Withintheirprocedure,ShewedandBearmanshowhowsciencemaydevelopspirallyby
askingnewquestionsfromnewfindings,cyclicallybygettingstuckbehindoldquestions,orina
planebyfocusingonirrelevancies.Theyemphasizetheeffectsofnetworkcommunitieswithin
thesedevelopments.Thisnetworkofcommunitiesdoesnotrelyonexpertanalysisorpositive
andnegativetiesduetothenatureoftheprocedurewhichinvolvesscientificcontestation,
modularityasaglobalpropertyofgraphs,symmetry,comparability,andempirical
results(1064).Byproposingthemodularitycommunitydetectionalgorithmasageneral
propertyofnetworks,ShewedandBearmanwereabletojoinideasandmeasurestocreatea
symmetricaltoolforscientificsociologiststocritiquecontestedinformationwithinloadedissues.
Symmetryiscreatedwhenexpertopinionoranalysisisnotrequiredtointerpretdata.Shewed
andBearmansuggestthepossibilityforflawsevenwithinexpertanalysisofcontesteddata.
Theyemphasizeconsistencywithinsymmetryandtheirrelevanceofspecialization.BTUdoubts
theabilityoftheproceduretostandonitsownwhenactuallyemployed,howeverShewedand
Bearmanproposethatthetrendswefindinscaledmodularity,withoutanydatamanipulation,

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fitbroadexpertreportsoneachofoursevencasestwoofwhich...weremadeafterour
analysis(1069).Theemploymentofsymmetricalanalysisallowsfortheidentificationof
consensusanddisagreementwithincriticalissueswithoutthenecessaryemploymentofexpert
analysis.
AstrengthofthisstudyoccursinthatitreliesonconcretedatatovalidateShewedand
Bearmansprocedure.Thestudyispurelyempirical:wedidnotclaimorassumethemodularity
ofindexescontestationwetestedtheideaandfoundthatitdid(1065).Becauseofthisreliance
onempiricaldata,thestudyeliminatessomemeasureofsubjectivity.Itspurposeliesinthelack
ofrequirementofexpertanalysissothatsymmetry,accessibilityandobjectivitymaybe
systematicallyachieved.Thiscanalsobeaweaknessinthatexpertopinionisextremelyvaluable
incriticallyassessingtheclaimsoffindingsthatmightnotbedetectedevenunderahighly
efficientsymmetricaltool.Anotherweaknessoccursinthelackofevidenceexemplifyingthe
successofShewedandBearmansprocedureonactualdata.Theyemphasizethewonderful
empiricalsubjectivityofthissymmetrybutfailtorepresentthesefindingswithintheirarticle.
Thesocialinteractiontheoryweavesitswayintothisstudyintheanalysisofpositiveand
negativecitations.BTUsuggeststhatspecificpositiveandnegativetiesneedtobemadeinorder
toaccuratelyanalyzesociologicalscientificfindings.Thisisclearlyareferencetopositiveand
negativesocialinteractions.TheBTUcritiqueisitselfanegativeinteractionwithShewedand
Bearmansoriginalarticle.However,ShewedandBearmansuggestthatsymmetrycreates
indistinctlinesbetweenpositiveandnegativefeedback.TheyuseBTUastheirexample,
proposingthateventhoughBTUscritiquemeanttofocusontheflawswithinShewedsand
Bearmansarticle,itactuallyallowedtheanalysistospreadtomorereaders,prolongitstenures

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inASRspages,andbroadenitslinkagetothescientificcommunitiesinterestedincommunity
detectionalgorithms,whilesubstantiallystrengthening[ShewedandBearmans]results(1065).
Theyassertthatthelinebetweenpositiveandnegativeanalysisisnotassharpasitwouldseem
andthustheroleofsocialinteractionwithinsymmetricalanalysisisrenderedlessrelevantthan
theobjectivityofempiricalassertions.
Howimportantishumanjudgmentintheanalysisofdata?Areobjectivealgorithms
replacingthenecessityofhumanexpertise?Theseareimportantquestionstoaskasthefindings
ofShewedandBearmansuggesttheeasewithwhichsymmetricalanalysissimplifies
contestationandreducesthecomplicationsapparentwithinhumancritique.

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TheEffectsofIndustrial,OccupationalandSexSegregationonBlueCollarMarkets
Form,W.(September01,2012).ReflectionsuponTheEffectsofIndustrial,Occupationaland
SexSegregationonBlueCollarMarkets35YearsLater.
SocialForces,91,
1.)

InReflectionsuponTheEffectsofIndustrial,OccupationalandSexSegregationon
BlueCollarMarkets35YearsLater,WilliamFormrelateshispersonalexperienceswithin
labormarketresearchtothedirectioninwhichtheworkforceisheadedtoday.Formexamines
severallevelsofworkingclassthathavecontributedtolackofautonomywithinwork
environmentsandincreasedstratification.
Whileobtaininghisundergraduatedegree,thediscrepancybetweeneconomictheoryand
theactualoccupationalrealityquicklybecameapparenttoForm.Whenworkingonhis
dissertation,helearnedaboutclass,statusandpowerbyfindinghimselfthetranslatorofsomeof
Webersworksdealingwithsocialstratification.Inhisresearch,Formfocusedonthemeasureof
autonomylaborershadacrossseveraldifferentworkingclasslevels.Atthemanageriallevel,
workersareinchargeoftheirownactivities.Attheprofessionallevel,workersmanagetheir
transitionintotheworkforce.Thebureaucracygovernsoverthecivilservicelevel.Inthelast
levels,unionmanagementbargainingrepresentscontestedcontrol,andindividualsbargainas
besttheycaninthefreelabormarket(14).Formfoundthatsocialcapitalplayedalarge
contributingroleineconomicinfluence.In1977,withRobertBibb,Formintroducedlabor
marketstratification,anareaofstudythatanalyzedlabormarketsatthesocietallevel.Formwas
chosenaspartofcommitteetoworkwiththeU.S.BureauoftheCensustogathermoredata
relatingtothefunctionoflabormarkets.Unfortunately,in1980,theBureauoftheCensus
eliminatedandcombinedsomeworkingclassrelatedcategoriesthatgreatlyhinderedthis
stratificationresearch.Studiesrelatingtogenderequityreveallingeringdivisionsbetween

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genderrolesinthehouseholdandpublicarenamainlyduetothebiologicaldifferencesthat
allowonlywomentobearchildren.Formprojectsthatmachineshavetakenoverthelaborthat
requireslittleskillintheworkforce.Heputsforwardthattheconcentrationshouldthenshiftto
improvingeducationsothatstudentscanobtainprofessionaldegreesandsubsequentlymore
autonomyovertheirwork.
AstrengthoccursinFormspursuitofintegrationofdisciplineswithinhisresearchof
labormarkets.Heseestheadvantageofcombiningeconomictheorywithsociologicalprinciples
inordertogainabroaderunderstandingoflabormarkets.Formanalyzesseverallayerswithin
thespectrumofthelabormarketinordertobetterunderstandstratification.Withinhisarticle
Formalsointroducesseveralexamplesofsociologistwhohavehenceusedlabormarket
stratificationconceptstofurthertheirresearchrelatingtothesociologyoflabormarkets.Hethus
suggeststheaccessibilityandvalidityofhiscontributions.Aweaknessofthisarticleoccursin
Formslackofclarificationbehindhisterms.Formneverspecifieswhatstratificationactually
meansorlookslikewithinlabormarkets.Additionally,thetermlabormarketbecomesavery
broadgeneralizationthatneverspecifiesdifferencesinstratificationbetweendifferentfieldsof
thelabormarket.ItisalsoclearthatFormisworkingfromthelensofacapitalistsystem,buthe
failstospecificallycorrelatethislargelyinfluentialfactorintohisanalysisofstratificationwithin
labormarkets.
Formassessestheinfluenceoflabormarketsacrossseveralsociallevelsandclasses.This
allowshimtodiscusspossiblestratificationwithintheselevelsastheypertaintoclassand
workerautonomy.AdditionallabormarketresearchenablesFormtoexaminebothmacroand

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microlevelsasheevaluatesstratificationrangingfromindividualscompetinginthefreelabor
markettomanagersrunningcompaniesattheinstitutionallevel.
Arelaborstratificationandlackofworkerautonomyresultsofourcapitalisteconomic
system?Formassessestheeffectsofstratificationwithinthelabormarket,butfailstooffer
insightintotherolethatcapitalismplaysinthis.Stratificationismagnifiedundercapitalist
systemsbecauseoftheexploitationoflaborproductionbythosewhoholdthepower.This
stratificationcreatessharpdifferencesinclassthatleadtoextremedifferentiationinlabor
descriptionandthusvastdifferencesinlevelsofautonomyintheworkforce.Americarunson
capitalism,howthencanthislaborstratificationbealleviated?Furtherresearchmightassessthe
levelsofstratificationandautonomywithincapitalistanddifferentialeconomicsystemsinan
attempttoassesstheadvantagesandweaknessesoftheUnitedStatescurrentlabormarket
system.

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ReflectiononARevisedStrainTheoryofDelinquency
Agnew,R.(September01,2012).ReflectiononARevisedStrainTheoryofDelinquency.
SocialForces,91,
1.)

Strainscanbedefinedaseventsorconditionsdislikedbyindividuals(34).Inhis
reflectiononARevisedTheoryofDelinquency,RobertAgnewcommentsonhisfoundational
workrelatingtostraintheoryanddiscussesrevisionsandadditionstohisoriginalarticlein
additiontofurtherresearchsparkedbythearticle.Heproposesthatdelinquencyisnotaresultof
theinabilitytoreachpositivegoals,ratheritcanresultfromtheincapabilityofescapefrom
negativeenvironmentalfactors.
Manystraintheoriessupposethatdelinquencyoccurswhenindividualsfindthemselves
unabletoattaintheirindividualideaofsuccess.Thesestraintheoriesindicatedthestronger
likelihoodofdelinquencyamonglowerclassesduetoeconomicandeducationalconstraintsthat
addedtotheinhibitedachievementoftheirgoals.Thesetheorieswereunabletoexplainwhythe
greatestratesofdelinquencyoccurredduringadolescence.Additionally,findingssuggestedthat
crimemostoftenoccurredamongindividualswhodidnotprofessexpectationsoffulfillingtheir
goals.Incontrasttothisview,Agnewputsforwardthatdelinquencyoccurswhenindividuals
findthemselvesunabletoescapefromnegativeorpainfulcircumstances.Agnewstheory
representedasignificantdeparturefrompriorstraintheoriesratherthanfocusingonwhathave
beencallednoneventsortheinabilitytoachieveonesgoals,thetheoryfocusesonnegative
eventsormistreatmentbyothers(34).ThiseventuallyleadtoAgnewsgeneralstraintheory
(GTS)whichintegratedAgnewsnewstraintheorywithpreviousstraintheoriestosuggestthat
straincorrelateswiththeapparentfailureinachievingindividualgoals,withtheabsenceof
positivestimuli,andwiththepresenceofnegativestimuli.BothAgnewsrevisedtheoryand

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GTScorrelateangerwithstrainincasesofdelinquency:Thisangercreatespressurefor
correctiveaction,interfereswiththeuseofcertainlegitimatecopingstrategies,suchas
negotiation,reducesconcernfortheconsequencesofonesbehavior,andcreatesadesirefor
revenge(36).GSThasbeenusedtoaccountforoffendingpatternsinindividualslivesandto
betterunderstanddifferencesincrimeamongparticulargroupsandinparticularcommunities.
GTShasalsobeenutilizedinadvocatingforcertainpoliciesrelatingtocrimecontrol.
AstrengthofAgnewsarticleoccursinhisthoroughexplanationoftheevolutionofGTS
theory.Heincludesthestrengthsofpreviousandcurrenttheoriesandthethinkingbehindtheir
integrationintoGTS.NotonlydoesAgnewexplainthehistorybehindthesetheories,healso
carefullydefineshistermsastheyrelatetostraintheoryanddelinquency.Anotherstrength
appearsinthepracticalimplicationsofGTSvocalizedinthearticle.TheexamplesAngewuses
adequatelyexposecausalproblemsofdelinquencyandhowGTSspecificallyplaysarolein
thesestudies.AweaknessoccursinthatAgnewsinitialassertionthatdelinquencyresultsfrom
theblockageofpainavoidancebehavioraswellastheblockageofgoalseekingbehavior(33)
shiftsfromemphasizingbehaviorstoemphasizingstimuliwithnoapparentexplanation.
Additionally,Agnewproposesangerasacontributingfactortodelinquencywhenstrainis
presentbutfailstoofferconcreteexamplesofthisasaviablefactorbeyondhypothetical
situations.
ThesocialexchangetheorybecomesaprominentideawithinGTS.Socialexchange
exertsthatpositiveandnegativeinteractionscontributetopositiveandnegativeassociations.
Whenindividualsexperiencestrain,theyareexperiencinganegativeinteraction.Suchrepeated
strains,ornegativeinteractions,willleadtonegativeassociationsandconsequentlythedesireto

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escapefromthesestimuli.Itiswhenindividualsfindthemselvesunabletoescapefromthese
negativestimuli,thatcrimeanddelinquencyaremorelikelytooccur.Negativesocialexchange
thusbecomesacontributingfactorintheoccurrenceofcrimeanddelinquency.
RobertAgnewsaccountoftheevolutionofstraintheoryandhisparticularinfluences
withinGTSallowforabroaderunderstandingofthecausalfactorsbehindcrimeand
delinquency.Angerissuggestedasastrongemotionalfactorinactsofdelinquency.Further
researchmightlookatadeeperanalysisofemotionsthattriggerorpreventactionsthatcorrelate
withdelinquency.GTSalsoputsforwardseveralnegativestimulithatcontributetocriminalacts.
Additionalresearchmightlookatpositivestimulithatmightserveaspreventativemeasuresin
termsoftheoccurrenceofcrimeanddelinquency.Ifpositivesocialinteractionscanbe
intentionallymaximized,thenpositiveassociationsandpositivebehaviorshaveagreater
likelihoodofbeingproducedandnegativesocialinteractionspotentiallyleadingtodelinquent
behaviorhaveagreaterlikelihoodofbeingunderminedorprevented.