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Starches and Sauces Comparison and Evaluation

Starch Pastes and Puddings Comparison and Evaluation


Elizabeth Chevrette
Russell Sage College
Due: October 6, 2015

Introduction

The process of making starch pastes and puddings requires knowledge of food science
principle pertaining to starch, sugar, and preparation properties. In this laboratory, six different
types of starches were used to make starch pastes to test the viscosity and flow properties each
starch. Puddings were made using corn starch, different amounts and types of sugar, and different
cooking methods (Brown, 2015).
Two important components of a starch molecule are amylase and amylopectin. These
give starch its properties including its ability to act as a thickening or gelling agent in foods.
Amylase is an un-branched, insoluble, hydrophobic molecule, while amylopectin is branched,
soluble, and hydrophilic. Gelatinization, which occurs in the presence of starch, heat, and water,
is a necessary reaction for the formation of starch pastes and starch gels. Due to sugars ability to
hold onto water molecules, the puddings with more sugar will have less gelling ability
(McWilliams, 2012).
Five different puddings and six types of starch pastes were made through the process of
this laboratory (Brown, 2015). Due to starchs ability to act as a thickening agent twice as much
as flour, it was predicted that the three starch pastes would thicken quickly and be less gel-like,
while the three flour based starch pastes would thicken more slowly and closer to their boiling
point (McWilliams, 2012). The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the appearance,
texture, and flavor of chocolate pudding products, as well as measure the linear spread of starch
pastes.
Methods
This laboratory was completed by following experimental procedures in Unit 12 of
Understanding Food Principles and Preparation, 5th edition, by Brown, Walterm and Berthard
(2015) (Brown, 2015). Starches and sauces, comparison of vanilla pudding products, and effect
of type of starch on viscosity of starch pastes. Exceptions to these procedures in the comparison
of vanilla pudding produces included the making of chocolate puddings instead of vanilla, the
substitution of Hersheys home-made cocoa cream pie filling for cornstarch pudding, sugar free
Jello pudding for canned pudding, and chia seed superfood pudding for flour pudding. Jello
brand pudding was used for cooked and instant pudding mixtures.
Exceptions the procedures in the effect of type of starch on viscosity of starch pastes
include the exclusion of testing done with waxy cornstarch, rice starch, and arrowroot. Starch
pastes were only made at 120F and descriptions were only recorded for hot versions (Brown,
2015). See attached recipe page for ingredients and directions used in the making of starch pastes
and puddings used in this laboratory.
Results
Chocolate Pudding Products

The most notable difference in the appearance of the chocolate puddings was a mild color
difference, the accidental surface gelatinization of the three Jello brand puddings, and the visual
texture. The appearance, texture, flavor, and type of starch used are recorded in Chart 1:
Comparison of Chocolate Pudding Products.
Chart 1: Comparison of Chocolate Pudding Products
Pudding
Appearance Texture
Flavor
Hersheys
Cream Pie
Filling

Jello
Pudding
mix, cooked
Jello
Pudding
mix, Instant
Jello Sugar
Free
Pudding
mix, Cooked
Chia Seed
Superfood
Pudding

Lighter
Color
No
gelatinizatio
n
Dull color
Gelatinized
Darkest in
color
Gelatinized
Thicker
appearance
than the
Jello original
version
Bubbly
Lightest in
color

Type of
Starch
Corn Starch

Creamy
Very
smooth

Very rich
flavor
Sweetest

Very thick
Lumpy
texture
Smooth
Creamy
Thick
Most thick
Less
smooth

Sweet
Rich

Corn Starch

Very Sweet
Flavorful

Corn Starch

Not as
sweet
Unpleasant
aftertaste

Corn Starch

Slimy
Seed like
Lumpy

Bland
Not sweet
Semi bitter

Corn Starch

Types of Starch and Viscosity of Starch Pastes


When looking at starch pastes, the most notable differences were the color and flow
properties. The line spread of each starch paste was measured and descriptions of the visual
appearance were recorded in Table 1: Types of Starch on Viscosity of Starch Pastes.
Table 1: Types of Starch on Viscosity of Starch Pastes
Starch
Line spread 120F
Cornstarch
5.5 cm
Quick-cooking tapioca

8cm

Potato Starch

6.7cm

All-purpose flour

6.5cm

Dextrinized flour

7.5cm

Description of Paste
White
Small firm mound
Cloudy
Has flow properties
Translucent
Has flow properties
Opaque
Lack of flow properties
Carmel colored

Whole-wheat flour

Lack of flow properties


Beige
Lack of flow properties

6.5cm

Discussion
The ability of starch pastes and puddings to form is due to the
amylose and amylopectin molecule. Pudding and starch structure changes
in foods when sugar and water are added. Sugar has hygroscopic
properties, which is the ability of sugar to attract and hold water. Sugars
ability to hold water can cause the structure of pudding and starch to
change with the different concentrations of sugar (McWilliams, 2012)
In the first stage of this laboratory six different starch pastes were
mixed and cooked to 120F. each mixture then underwent a line spread test
and the line spread was measured and recorded (see Table 1: Types of
Starch on Viscosity of Starch Pastes). Starch with low percentage of
amylase, such as tapioca, will lack structure. Corn, which has much higher
levels of amylose, allows the formation of a firm ball with much stronger
structure. Wheat flour, which had the highest gel strength, was able to
emanate gel like properties (Brown, 2015).
In the second stage of this laboratory, five different kinds of pudding
were made and tested for appearance, texture, and flavor (see Chart 1:
Comparison of Chocolate Pudding Products). The most thick of the six
puddings was the sugar free pudding mix which, since it contains a sugar
substitute instead of real sugar, it did not have the same water holding
properties that the other five puddings which were made with sugar had.
The pudding with the least amount of sugar was the Chia seed super food
pudding, which was more watery and slimy in texture.
In conclusion these experiments showed different properties of
starch and sugar as they relate to the food science and nutrition field.
Starch demonstrated the different ratios or amylose and how it effects gel
and flow properties, while pudding demonstrated how sugar content of a
food can change its structure by altering the amount of available water.
Knowing the properties and effects different ratios of ingredients is
helpful in the case of a food allergy that needs substitution like celiac or a
dairy allergy. Sugar free could be useful in the case of a diabetic patient,
or a patient who needs to cut sugar in his or her diet. Also, subbing whole
milk for extra calories for someone who has limited chewing and
swallowing ability could be a useful tool.
References

Brown, A. (2015) Understanding Food Principles and Preparation, 5th edition,


Cengage Learning. Stamford, CT.
McWilliams, M. (2012) Food Experimental Perspectives, 7th edition, PrenticeHall Inc: Upper Saddle River, NJ.