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Project 3.2.2 and Project 3.2.

3: Student Resource
Sheet
Use the information found below to guide your research and to design your model.
Guiding questions are broken down by assignment. Take notes, answer questions, and
complete sketches in your laboratory journal.
1. Oral cavity, pharynx, (must also include accessory organs such as salivary
glands, tongue, and teeth)
What is the oral cavity and what does it contain?
o The oral cavity is the first part of the digestive tract and it contains the
mouth along with the organs in the mouth. Food is partly broken down by
the process of chewing and by the chemical action of salivary enzymes.
What is the function of the salivary glands?
o The salivary glands produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other
parts of the digestive system moist. Also, in the saliva there are salivary
enzymes that break down starches into smaller molecules.
What is the function of the tongue?
o The tongue aids in moving food in the mouth (typically toward the teeth),
chewing, and swallowing.
What is a bolus?
o A bolus is small rounded mass of a substance. Chewed food at the
moment of swallowing is an example of bolus.
Where are the soft and hard palate located and what are their functions?
o The soft and hard palate are located at the roof of the mouth. The hard
palate is at the front, and the soft palate is at the back. The hard palate
holds the root of the teeth. The soft palate is pressed down for swallowing.
What mechanical and chemical digestion occurs in the oral cavity?
o The mechanical digestion that occurs in the oral cavity is chewing. The
chemical digestion occurring in the oral cavity is the enzymes in saliva
commencing the degrading of food.
What mechanisms are in place to make sure food does not go down the wrong
tube and into the windpipe?
o A flap of skin, known as the epiglottis, separates the esophagus from the
trachea, thus preventing food from "going down the wrong tube".
2. Esophagus and Stomach
What is peristaltic movement and how does it function in the esophagus?
o Peristaltic movement refers to the constriction and relaxation of muscles in
the esophagus, stomach, and intestines that occur in wavelike
contractions. In the esophagus, peristaltic movement occurs when food is
eaten.
Does any digestion of food occur in the esophagus?
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Human Body Systems Project 3.2.2 and Project 3.2.3 Student Resource Sheet Page 1

o Some food is digested in the esophagus.


What are the primary functions of the stomach?
o The primary functions of the stomach are to break down food and extract
nutrients needed for the body.
What is chyme and how does the stomach mix this material?
o Chyme is the pulpy acidic fluid that passes from the stomach to the small
intestine. The stomach mixes chyme by combining food, enzymes, and
gastric juices.
What role does the stomach play in decontaminating the incoming food matter?
o The stomach decontaminates incoming food matter with a lot of acids
which help break down food matter and kill bacteria.
What cells in the stomach function to form enzymes and acids?
o The parietal cells in the gastric epithelium create HCl. The chief cells
create pepsinogen.
Why doesnt gastric juice digest the inside of the stomach?
o Gastric juice doesnt digest the inside of the stomach because the
stomach is strong and was made to handle gastric juices without digesting
itself.
What are sphincters and how are they related to the stomach?
o Sphincters are the openings into and out of the stomach. They open and
close when needed to either allow food into the stomach or to allow
digested food out of the stomach.
What mechanical and chemical digestion occurs in the stomach?
o A type of mechanical digestion that occurs in the stomach is churning. A
type of chemical digestion that occurs in the stomach is the role of gastric
acid.
3. Small Intestine and Large Intestine
What are the three sections of the small intestine and what role does each
section play in digestion or absorption?
o The three sections of the small intestine are the duodenum, jejunum, and
ileum. The duodenum receives partly-digested food, acid, and bile. The
jejunum and ileum break down food fully.
What is the pH within the small intestine and how is this pH maintained?
o The pH of within the small intestine is 6. This pH is maintained through
bicarbonate ions.
Where do bile and pancreatic enzymes enter the small intestine?
o Enter the small intestine through the duodenum.
How does food move through the intestines?
o The pathway of food through the intestines.
What enzymes act inside the small intestine and what are the functions of these
enzymes?
o The enzymes that act inside the small intestine are amylase, protease,
and lipase. Amylase acts on starch and breaks it down into small
carbohydrate molecules. Protease acts on proteins and breaks them down
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Human Body Systems Project 3.2.2 and Project 3.2.3 Student Resource Sheet Page 2

into amino acids. Lipase breaks down dietary fats into smaller molecules
called fatty acids and glycerol.
What is the function of the large intestine in relation to digestion?
o The large intestine absorbs water and salts. It also stores waste material
until they're thrown out of the body.
What are the three sections of the large intestine and what roles does each play
in digestion or absorption?
o The cecum takes digested liquid from the ileum and passes it on to the
colon. The colon is the principal place for water reabsorption and absorbs
salts when needed. The rectum is where leftover waste sits until it is ready
to be emptied through the anus.
How does the large intestine help maintain a water balance in the body?
o Helps the body digest and remove water from the remains of food (feces)
after which it will go through the rectum.

4. Pancreas, Liver and Gallbladder


What are the size and the location of the pancreas?
o The pancreas is about 6 inches long and sits across the back of the
abdomen, behind the stomach. The head of the pancreas is on the right
side of the abdomen and is connected to the duodenum (the first section
of the small intestine) through a small tube called the pancreatic duct.
What are the different functions of the pancreas, and how is the pancreas directly
related to digestion?
o Enzymes, or digestive juices, produced by the pancreas are secreted into
the small intestine to further break down food after it has left the stomach.
The gland also produces the hormone insulin and secretes it into the
bloodstream in order to regulate the body's glucose or sugar level.
How does the pancreas connect to the rest of the digestive system?
o The pancreas lies beneath the stomach and connects to the rest of the
digestive system through the small intestine at the duodenum.
What enzymes are produced by the pancreas and what are their functions?
o Pancreatic proteases (such as trypsin and chymotrypsin) - which help to
digest proteins.
o Pancreatic amylase - which helps to digest sugars (carbohydrates).
o Pancreatic lipase - which helps to digest fat
How is insulin related to the digestive system?
o As food is broken down, glucose is released into the bloodstream. Insulin
reduces blood glucose levels when they become too high.
What is the size of the liver and where is it located?
o By percussion, the mean liver size is 7 cm for women and 10.5 cm for
men (Table 94.1). A liver span 2 to 3 cm larger or smaller than these
values is considered abnormal. The liver weighs 1200 to 1400 g in the
adult woman and 1400 to 1500 g in the adult man.
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Human Body Systems Project 3.2.2 and Project 3.2.3 Student Resource Sheet Page 3

o The liver is the largest internal organ of the body and is located in the right
upper quadrant of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and is protected
by the lower right ribs. It also extends across the midline toward the left
upper quadrant of the abdomen.
How does the liver function in relation to digestion?
o The liver has multiple functions, but its main function within the digestive
system is to process the nutrients absorbed from the small intestine. Bile
from the liver secreted into the small intestine also plays an important role
in digesting fat. In addition, the liver is the body's chemical "factory."
What are other functions of the liver in the body?
o Many vital functions have been identified with the liver. Some of the more
well-known functions include the following: Production of bile, which helps
carry away waste and break down fats in the small intestine during
digestion. Production of certain proteins for blood plasma.
What is the relationship between the liver and the gallbladder?
o Between meals, it (gallbladder) stores and concentrates bile, which is
produced at a constant rate by the liver. When it is not full of bile, the
gallbladder is about 3 inches long and 1 inch wide at its thickest part. After
meals, the gallbladder releases bile into the duodenum to aid with
digestion.
What is the function of bile and where does it enter the digestive tract?
o Since bile increases the absorption of fats, it is an important part of the
absorption of the fat-soluble substances, such as the vitamins A, D, E, and
K.
o Bile is stored in the gallbladder to help aid digestion.

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Human Body Systems Project 3.2.2 and Project 3.2.3 Student Resource Sheet Page 4