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Dane Mann

Experiment 9
Lab Partner: Madison
CHEM 1251L-022
11/ /2015

Introduction
The goal of this experiment was to find the molarity of three solutions using titration. The first
solution that had its molarity determined was sodium hydroxide. This was done because sodium
hydroxide was used as the titrant for the other two analytes. All of the reactants in this
experiment are either acids or bases. Therefore all reactions in this experiment were acid base
reactions which resulted in the formation of a salt and water. Since sodium hydroxide is
classified as a secondary standard it was analyzed with the primary standard Potassium
Hydrogen Phthalate or KHP for short. Knowledge of how molarity relates to mass and volume is
needed in this experiment. Below are the formulas used to determine molarity, moles, and
volume.

Molarity ( M )=

Moles ( Mol )=

Moles(mol)
Volume( L)

Massof substance( g)
Molecular Atomic Mass( g /mol)

Molarity ( M 1 ) Volume ( V 1 ) =Molarity ( M 2 ) Volume ( V 2 )

Procedure
Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) Titration
Approximately 1 gram of KHP was weighed using a balance and weighing paper, this
approximate weight was then recorded. The KHP was then moved to an Erlenmeyer flask and
was mixed with distilled water in order to create an acidic solution. The final volume of the KHP
solution was 75 mL. 5 drops of the indicator (phenolphthalein) were then placed into the KHP

solution. A ring stand was then set up with a buret clamp and a buret. A white piece of paper was
placed on the base of the ring stand and the Erlenmeyer flask containing the KHP was then place
on the white piece of paper. The buret attached to the ring stand was then filled with sodium
hydroxide. The titration process then began. The cock stop of the buret was turned so that a
constant trickle of sodium hydroxide would enter the Erlenmeyer flask containing the KHP
solution. Once the indicator started to show signs of constant color the cock stop was turned in a
manner so that only a few drops came out every few seconds. The Erlenmeyer flask containing
the KHP was subjected to a constant swirling so that the sodium hydroxide was spread out
among the whole solution. When the indicator started to show signs of constant color the cock
stop was turned to in such a manner that only one drop would be formed. This drop of sodium
hydroxide was then washed into a solution using distilled water. Once the KHP solution appeared
to become a constant shade of light pink the volume of sodium hydroxide was recorded. This
process was then repeated two more times each time using 1 mL less sodium hydroxide than the
last trial. The Erlenmeyer flask containing the KHP solution was then washed thoroughly and the
buret was refilled with more sodium hydroxide.
Acetic Acid Titration
A 2 mL solution of acetic acid which the molarity was unknown was measured in a 10 mL
graduated cylinder and the measurement was then recorded. This solution of acetic acid was then
placed into an Erlenmeyer flask and diluted to a volume of 50 mL using distilled water. 5 drops
of an indicator (phenolphthalein) were then placed into the acetic acid solution. This solution of
acetic acid was then placed onto the ring stand setup from the previous titration. The solution of
acetic acid was then titrated using the same methods as the KHP titration. The volume of sodium
hydroxide used was then recorded and the process was done again with a clean Erlenmeyer flask.

After the second trial the Erlenmeyer flask was cleaned and more sodium hydroxide was placed
into the buret.
Sulfuric Acid Titration
A 2 mL solution of sulfuric acid which the molarity was unknown was measured in a 10 mL
graduated cylinder and the measurement was then recorded. This solution of sulfuric acid was
then placed into an Erlenmeyer flask and diluted to a volume of 50 mL using distilled water. 5
drops of an indicator (phenolphthalein) were then placed into the sulfuric acid solution. This
solution of sulfuric acid was then placed onto the ring stand setup from the previous titration.
The solution of sulfuric acid was then titrated using the same methods as the acetic acid titration.
The volume of sodium hydroxide used was then recorded and the process was done again with a
clean Erlenmeyer flask. After the second trial the Erlenmeyer flask was cleaned and more
sodium hydroxide was placed into the buret.
Results
Table 1: Values of the NaOH solution
Data
Mass of KHP (grams)
Volume of NaOH

Trial 1
1.02
25.52

Trial 2
1.02
25.63

Trial 3
1.02
25.12

used (mL)
Moles of NaOH used

0.00499

0.00499

0.00499

(moles)
Molarity of NaOH

0.196

0.195

0.199

mols
solution ( liter )

Percent Error of

0.508

1.02

1.02

measured Molarity of
NaOH (%)
Table 2: Measured values of acetic acid sample
Data

Trial 1
0.197

Trial 2
0.197

Volume of NaOH used (mL)


Volume of Acetic acid used

2.06
2.01

2.09
2.00

(mL)
Molarity of Acetic acid (

0.202

0.206

Percent Error (%)

1.00
Table 3: Measured values of acetic acid sample

3.00

Data

Trial 1
0.197

Trial 2
0.197

Volume of NaOH used (mL)


Volume of Sulfuric acid used

10.11
2.00

10.20
2.00

(mL)
Molarity of Sulfuric acid (

0.498

.502

0.400
Discussion

0.400

mol
Molarity of NaOH ( Liter )

mol
Liter )

mol
Molarity of NaOH ( Liter )

mol
Liter )
Percent Error (%)

The results in Table one depicts the results of the first titration process. This was used to find the
molarity of the sodium hydroxide solution provided. The reason three titrations were done was to
insure that the calculations for molarity were precise and that future calculations for the molarity
of the acetic acid and sulfuric acid were accurate. The titrations that had done with the KHP and
sodium hydroxide showed a precise technique with all the calculated molarities of the three trials
being within 0.004 M of each other. The actual molarity was given later and was 0.197 M. The
molarity that was measured in the three titrations was accurate because the percent errors of the
three trials were all near or below 1% error. KHP was used in this titration because the mass of
sodium hydroxide cant be calculated accurately due to sodium hydroxide being a secondary
standard substance. This means if sodium hydroxide comes into contact with the air its mass will
increase due to the water vapor in the air clinging to it. KHP is known to be a primary standard
meaning it wont have water clinging onto it when mass is being measured.
The results in Table two depicts the results of the titration done with the acetic acid. The two
trials in this experiment were less accurate that the previous calculations. However, this titration
was still accurate. In this titration the largest percent error was 3% which is accurate. The
precision for this titration is the same as the precision of the last titration. Both trials of this
titration yielded calculated molarities within 0.004 M of each other. Since acetic acid is a
monoprotic acid the moles of sodium hydroxide used and the moles of acetic acid used were the
same. This means that there will be a one to one mole ratio between the two solutions.
The results in Table three depicts the results of the titration done with the sulfuric acid. The two
trials in this experiment were more accurate than the previous calculations. In this titration the
largest percent error and the average percent error was 0.400%. The precision for this titration is
the same as the precision of the last titration. Both trials of this titration yielded calculated

molarities within 0.004 M of each other. Since sulfuric acid is a diprotic acid there were twice as
many moles of sodium hydroxide used as there were moles of sulfuric acid used. This means that
there was a two to one mole ratio between the two solutions.
Out of the three titrations preformed the titration using the sulfuric acid had created the best
results in terms of accuracy. All of the titrations were precise to the same degree of being all of
the trials molarities being within 0.004 M of each other. The role of the indicator in this
experiment was to activate when the end point of the acid base reaction has occurred. This end
point is not to be confused with the equivalence point because the equivalence point is a purely
theoretical value whereas the end point is an experimental value. Titration is an accurate way of
measuring molarity. It is still subjected to different types of error, however, as nothing done in a
lab will never be perfect. The results section of this report depicts a great deal of accuracy
coming from this experiment as well as precision.
Conclusion
In this lab experiment the objectives were met. The molarities of the three solutions that were
provided were discovered using titration and were accurate. The molarities are displayed in the
results section. Some off the possible errors with this experiment stemmed from the operators of
the devices. The stopcock was a sensitive device and would change its discharge of titrant rather
quickly so this caused some issues with getting accurate readings, however, the results section
show that the method was still very accurate.

Sample Calculations

Molarity ( M )=

0.202 M =

Moles ( Mol )=

Moles(mol)
Volume( L)

0.00040582 moles
.00201 L

Massof substance( g)
Molecular Atomic Mass( g /mol)

0.00499 moles=

1.02 g
204.22 g/mol

Molarity ( M 1 ) Volume ( V 1 ) =Molarity ( M 2 ) Volume ( V 2 )

Molarity ( M 1 ) 0.002 L=.01011 L 0.197 M

Molarity ( M 1 ) 0.002 L 2=0.00199