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Bibliography Assignment 1

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Fusion Power: Pros and


Nuclear fusion is the main energy source in the

universe. It is what powers the stars and our sun.
Scientist have been able to create uncontrollable
fusion reactions resulting in the creation of
hydrogen bombs. However, the creation of a
controlled fusion reaction has been a difficult
task for scientists so far. Creating nuclear fusion
would provide a limitless amount of energy that
would virtually be cleaner. It would be easier to
control and stop than nuclear fission which is a
variant of nuclear fusion. However, scientists are
having challenges creating way of isolating the
energy with magnetism or gravity. Building
commercial reactors would cost a considerable
amount of money to construct and operate and
accommodate the creation of the energy source.
It could also create an amount of negative
energy that can be harmful to life on the planet.
Finally, it requires the use of extremely high
temperatures to synthesize and control within a
given area without causing great harm.

Nuclear Fusion Power


Nuclear fusion has been a major project for many

organizations and countries since the 1950s. Countries
such as USA, China, Russia, and many others have been
working together to find the best way to create nuclear
fusion, a variant of nuclear fission that produces 4
times the energy that fission produces. Methods of
creating fusion include magnetism, lasers, heating

Nuclear Fusion
UXL Encyclopedia of Science | 2002
COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group, Inc.

According to this regarding nuclear fusion, the idea has

been around for quite a long time. In this quote
Dreams of harnessing fusion power for human use
developed alongside similar dreams for harnessing
fission power (Gale Group, 2002), fusion power has
been known as long as the idea of nuclear fission and is
a common dream among many scientists. However,
many scientist had a similar problem with containment
and production of the energy source as stated in this
quote regarding peaceful applications One cannot
build a machine made out of metal, plastic, glass, or
any other common kind of material. At the
temperatures at which fusion occurs, any one of these
materials would vaporize instantly. (Gale Group,
Recently in the year 1989, two scientists had
discovered a new alternative form of fusion
production, cold fusion. The basic concept of cold
fusion is getting atoms to react in heavy water or
deuterium oxide. However,

Nuclear fusion reactions

mark a 'milestone'

Copyright 2015 Los Angeles Times

Scientists believe to have found a way to make the energy let

out more than what has been put in.
One of the commonly used experimental ways to create
nuclear fusion is with the use of lasers.
According to scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National
Laboratory, they are still a very long way from "ignition," the
point at which the reaction generates more energy than was
required to kick it off with lasers (Khan, 2/12/14).
However, scientists have high hopes since they have found the
right way to reaching this ultimate goal and are continuously
striving to reach it.
The way that was used that gave these scientists hope was
with the use of deuterium which has one proton and one
neutron and tritium which consists of one proton and two
neutrons. This reaction combines the protons and neutrons
ewcept for 1 neutron and the element produced is helium and
the amount of energy given off is massive. However, the
amount of energy produced through lasers is much higher than
the result of the reaction.
Scientists see this breakthrough as a chance to improve since
the goal of producing this energy is so close.

Nuclear Fusion Is a Real

Possibility, New Models

In New Mexico, scientists have revealed a reactor that has

reached the break-even point between the amount of energy
used and the amount of energy produced. In other words,
scientists have found a way to produce the same amount of
energy that was used through a process that creates a elf
sustaining energy source.
Computer simulations have predicted that the output was 100
times that of a 60 million amperes put into the system. The
output rose as the current went up: 1,000 times the input
power was reached from an incoming pulse of 70 million
amps (Emspak, 3/26/2012)
In the case of real-world application, however, so far it has
proved impossible to use that much amperes because there is
not a reactor currently in operation that can produce that
amount of energy.
The only machine that produces a slightly lower amount of
amperes is the Z-machine located in Sandia, New Mexico. It
produces a maximum energy output of 26 million amperes
which has been noted as the break-even point of the reaction.

Nuclear Fusion: Physics

There are two conditions that must be met in

order to obtain practical energy.
One method consists of having plasma
temperature high enough to where fusion
reactions occur sufficiently.
The other method involves confining the energy
in a space to allow the molecules to synthesis
properly by keeping the temperature of the
reaction constant.
The only problem with using both methods is
that the initial reaction only reacts as a burst of
energy so in order to collect practical amounts of
energy, the process must be executed repeatedly
in order to produce the right amount of results
for practical use.
The conditions that must be present in order for
plasma to be created are conduction, convection,
and radiation. These processes are an essential
step for creating plasma which is needed to
produce nuclear energy.

Benefits of Nuclear Fusion


There are a few benefits to nuclear fusion that

would satisfy many people who have growing
concerns of the world.
The energy is completely carbon free which is
good for the environment. The only bi-product
produced is helium.
Its energy efficient meaning that it can take small
amounts of fusion energy and produce a massive
amount of energy.
Its reliable because there is no known limit to the
amount of fusion available so there is no known
way that we will run out of it in the future.
Its safe as well because it doesnt produce any
nuclear waste. If it did, it could be reused in the

Advantages and
Disadvantages of Nuclear
Fission by Occupy Theory

There are several

disadvantages to producing
It costs a huge amount of
money to operate and collect
materials for production.
It could produce waste from
nuclear fission which is
technically used for
manufacturing bombs.
If there is a nuclear
breakdown or meltdown, it
could lead to dangerous side
effects to people and the