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Jasmine A. Moore
EH 500
Dr. Frost
2 December 2015
Identity Formation in Developmental Writers
Introduction:
As a writing lab assistant at Calhoun Community College, I have observed extremely
negative student views on writing. Students frantically seek help on various levels that can range
from grammar confusion to feeling as if they have nothing to say. Often, I am troubled by their
acknowledgements of themselves as poor writers. Whether students are enrolled in
developmental courses or introductory composition classes, the feelings of inadequacy are
generally widespread. Their anxieties are complicated by grading pressures and teacher
expectations to which they must conform. Among other things, these perspectives illuminate
their lack of foundational writing development within their elementary and secondary
educational experiences, resulting in a sort of stuck or helpless attitude toward all writing
assignments.
In addition, instructors at the community college level may offer scant background
knowledge to supplement various gaps in student education, expecting adult learners to attain
complicated and abstract concepts in their own time. While it is important for students to make
an effort to do independent work and research, these students feel that the messages in literature,
poetry, and criticism are often difficult to understand and articulate, making it hard for them to
form any sort of opinion or argument about the given texts. In turn, students feel no affinity with

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identifying as both critical and creative writers, causing them to distance themselves from
gaining a personal connection to writing that goes beyond a superficial level.
My research explores this notion of bad writing and how it has become intertwined
with the identities of adult learners. I believe my research will add to available scholarship by
viewing writing as both a epistemological and psychosocial practice. Psychosocial practice
understands that the effects of social background largely contribute to identity formation and
psychological development. For example, if a student is socialized to seeing writing as an
important and noteworthy practice that contributes to their social development, they will begin to
see themselves within the construction of literate practices. They will relate to forms of
expression that may have been barred from them if literacy was not socially reinforced at an
early age. From my understanding of student views, writing pedagogy has essentially fallen into
two categories: a systematic nuts-and-bolts plugging in of information that lacks insight, or a
highly subjective esoteric form that cannot be reached by the novice. This positioning makes
writing unavailable to students who would potentially come to understand the significance that
writing could have within their own lives. I aim to understand how students become writers
(positively motivated, self-actualized, and self-aware) based on the levels of identity associated
with nurtured skills and voices, or conversely, neglected ones.
In addition, I have learned over the years that many students who have issues with
writing have had widely different literate experiences from my own. My own identity as a writer
has been encouraged through enrichment programs, weekly visits to public libraries with my
mother, other highly literate family members reading along with my siblings, and participating in
both creative and critical writing experiences. Thus, my understanding of writing as an enjoyable
art form and social practice has continued to shape my own perception of myself as an

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imaginative being. I compare interpretations of my beginning writing prowess and own personal
experiences to students I have interviewed in order to see similarities and differences in identity
within writing. My personal reflections can pinpoint key factors in which my understanding of
writing took a significant shift from the formative perspectives that these students have now
acquired.
In addition, I examine the role that community colleges play in strengthening adult
literacy and composition. Currently, my position allows me to observe students who would agree
to this sense of being bad writers as a result of the limited or remedial offerings that are
available. The second goal of my observation is to see if community college English classes
actually broaden horizons for adult learners, or if they are a continuation of secondary
educations easily assessed skill building classes that do not actively include the individual
writer as a wealth of experience and information. How does this ideology of bad writing
contribute to students feelings of participating in academia? Will they feel that their newly
acquired skills have changed the way they think about their own lives, or does writing still only
exist in the form of a means to a relatively boring end? By collecting voluntary interviews and
writing samples of students along with secondary scholarship, I plan to address the identity
associated with bad writing and the effectiveness of community college in negating or
reinforcing this mindset. I have collected two testimonials from female students while analyzing
my own work and changing identity as a writer. My personal reflections may pinpoint key
factors in which my understanding of writing took a significant shift from the formative
perspectives that these students have now acquired.

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Review of Scholarship
While I felt that the scholarly studies in part offered various ways to think about how
students come into writing, I believe a large part of my findings were based on inferences I was
able to make about my own literate practices. The scholarship provided multiples lenses to
identify that lower level writing is deemed a problem that must be eradicated. From there, I was
able to construct my own sense of why good and bad writing differ.My research utilizes a
variety of sources in order to think critically about the student interview answers from a
theoretical approach. By understanding the work of various scholars in the field, I was able to
interpret their answers based on a framework that encapsulates both identity formation in
writing, and student success at the community college level In Rethinking Basic Writing:
Exploring Identity, Politics, and Community in Interaction, Laura Gray-Rosendale develops an
analytic framework to identify what basic writers do in written and oral composition. She
discovers the focus of her research by realizing that her students built sophisticated oral
arguments amongst their peers that was not reflected in their written practices, which lies outside
of traditional understandings of basic writing development (4). Rosendale writes, This book,
then, is an examination of these students own practices and what I found when I began to look
differentlynot at how I identify them, but instead how they already identify themselves, the
self-presentations or self-stagings they constantly create and construct (5). She came to her
research question by situating herself within the grey areas of scholarship that failed to recognize
the conversations that student peers were having with one another about understanding their own
writing. She explores historical-social paradigms in relation to identity and understanding how
student writing is affected by peer reviewing through conversation. Rosendales study concludes
by attempting to illumine the future of research and practice with basic writing studies.

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Rosendales chief finding was displayed in understanding that students were establishing
formal argumentative identities in oral communication when other scholars had only examined
their rhetorical skills in written communication. I have observed community college students
who do not consider themselves within a basic category, yet have stated that high school teachers
told them that their writing was not college ready. However, unlike Rosendales students, it
seems that the students I have interviewed also lack the tools of expressing their goals for writing
and argument in both oral and written form. This informs my findings because I believe that
students are not discussing their ideas openly in classrooms, nor are they taught to record them
effectively.
In addition, the article entitled The Seven False Beliefs: Addressing the Psychosocial
Underpreparedness of the Community College Student by Dr. Michael Miranda may attribute to
this inability to be an accurate self-judge of skills as one of the reasons why community college
students do not perform well. The goal of Mirandas essay is to pinpoint several beliefs that
community college students hold that contribute to their overall failure. At the end of each
erroneous concept, he pinpoints a plan of intervention and a revision to the students overall way
of thinking about academic success., One of the most interesting points he describes the students
as saying, All I have to do to get a good grade is to prove that I tried my best (572). Many
students who consider themselves to be poor writers are taught that effort can be conflated with
quality, which becomes challenged in the community college setting. This may have something
to do with the social practice or working-class labor mindset which can inform the way students
think about their written work as Rosendale posits. Mirandas article attributes success to those
students who correct their previously held notions about how to get by in community college
setting.

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This argument can be connected to Stefan Peruns article entitled What the Hell is
Revise?: A Qualitative Study of Student Approaches to Coursework in Developmental English
at One Urban-Serving Community College. Peruns article details an ethnographic approach to
community college student writing. He lists his results as, Students high school experiences
shaped approaches to coursework (at least initially), whereby students quickly complete
assignments without regard to the assessment criteria and expected passing grades for their
effort (1). While it would seem that high school experiences should prepare students, many
community college goers who find themselves placed in developmental classes have not been
prepared for academic writing. Thus, they only view academic writing as a means to job security
instead of pursuing subjects for its own interest or as a way to learn more about themselves. My
own understanding of the article is where my argument can be placed. Not only do many
Calhoun students enter writing classes unprepared, their expectations for what writing is and
what writing does can be attributed to their own psycho-social identities, as mentioned at the
beginning of the study. It seems that experience with writing that can be labeled as not college
ready does not deter their goals of using writing to pursue places in the work force. In fact, it
seems that because they are underprepared to deal with writing from an advanced level of
synthesis and exploration, writing for them can only come in the form of quantitative output or
job readiness.
Susan McLeod takes a different approach to understanding student preparedness in
writing in Some Thoughts About Feelings: The Affective Domain and the Writing Process.
Rather than seeing student success based on a particular organization of practices and strategies
that can be found in Mirandas article, McLeod argues for a psychological understanding of
student success, the affective domain, during the writing process. She examines the various

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levels of learned helplessness and anxiety that often confront beginning writers, noting that a
theory of emotions may be a more fruitful address of the writing problem (427). This negative
emotionality may be coupled with a physiological response that drives students to distance
themselves from writing altogether. Coupled with this behavior, McLeod acknowledges that
beliefs (the social side of her psychological and physiological argument) are an important factor:
Our students come to us with a great many beliefs about writing which diminish their perception
of their own skills as writers. Some of these are general cultural beliefs: good writers do not
struggle but wait until inspiration visits; writing skills equal editing skills; the study of grammar
will make you a better writer (429).
This work is important because it explores a complicated understanding of student reactions to
writing assignments that go beyond perceived laziness or ineptitude. While the article considers
works like Mirandas to be important, it attempts to take a deeper approach to address student
mental health when developing their identities throughout academic work. Mirandas work only
nods to the fact that students need to get things done without acknowledging the psychological
implications behind why they may feel intimidated or anxious about the pressures of academia.
This article has helped me to understand the negative feelings that many beginning writers
associate with writing tasks, and how the tug-of-war between anxiety and academic success
develop depending on what approach any writing teacher attempts to take. Not only is it
important to understand individual writing habits, but it is equally important to see how students
see themselves within the overall process.
Conversely, Carl Nagins text entitled Because Writing Matters: Improving Student
Writing in Our Schools attempts to align both writing development and instructor pedagogy to
create positive results early in secondary education. I use my understanding of Carls Nagins

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text to offer ways of understanding the teaching practices that some writers may have
experienced in high school that either helped or hindered their growth. This will also be
influential in interpreting my own development as a writer from the exercises given to me in
formative years that allowed for creativity and analysis. Chapter Two discusses the challenges of
how students learn to write, and emphasizes several pedagogical styles that teachers can initiate
to enhance the learning process. Nagin writes, The biggest difference between good and poor
readers and good and poor writers is their strategy use, not their skill use (32). While Nagins
book is geared toward preparing future educators to strategically improve writing standards, it
will be useful to reinterpret these tools in the context of what may have gone wrong during the
development of basic writers, and how these distinctive problems have contributed to their
identities overall.
However, what I found missing from Nagins text with the writers identity centered in
writing can be found in Bronwyn Williams article entitled Pay Attention to the Man Behind the
Curtain: The Importance of Identity in Academic Writing. Williams admonishes educators for
viewing academic writing as a body of work devoid of personality and cultural experiences. He
reasons that identity shapes and informs any academic research by linking the personal
experiences of the author to the project they intend to undertake (713). For Williams, identity
cannot be divorced from writing, and educators who preach objectivity in the name of rigor
greatly hinder student writing. Williams writes, When it comes to writing about research or
scholarship, I start by telling students that if they cannot find the questions to research that they
are passionate about, then their work will suffer as a result (714). Throughout the interview
process, it has become clear to me that somewhere between the belief of their lack of skills and
creating no passionate connection to the text because of instructor pedagogies, beginning writers

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begin to fall through the cracks. This article fully states that there is no writing or reading
without identity which creates the case that certain influences that produced negative results for
the students I have observed.
Much like the Williams article, I draw on Robillards understanding of the function of
narrative to illustrate the creation of my own identity within my writing and that of basic writers.
Robillard writes, Many of our students probably feel a strong disconnect between the self that
works and the self that attends class (77). I find this notion to be interesting and complicates the
use of narrative writing, and how this conception of narrative identity informs the way students
construct formal analysis. Most students in the basic writing classes have difficulties with
writing narratives because they see it as a platform for audition in which to project their future
goals. While this is telling of their various backgrounds, it leaves room for expansion because
there is little exploration of connecting past and present experiences. Thus, while Robillard feels
narrative could be an appropriate vehicle for furthering understanding, I agree that certain
pedagogical practices and in-put-out-put mindsets limit the capabilities to these voices.
But how do students transform Robillards position of narrative illustration from their
internal thoughts of their own lives into stylized and interesting prose? Peter Elbow answers this
question in the article Three Mysteries at the Heart of Writing. Elbow examines the difficulties
that students face when conveying feeling and emotions into words that make sense and
accurately depict what they wish readers to know (14). He uses the practice of inkshedding and
freewriting to incite active engagement for novice writers who feel that they have nothing to say
(12). This practice seems fairly important for students to lose their self-conscious attitudes
towards seeing writing as an inaccessible task. However, at the community college level, it
seems that students are asked to do much less of this, and to focus on flawless and errorless

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papers that competently use textual support and little brainstorming process. Students are
supposed to know what they wish to write about, and how to write it both interestingly and
effectively.
Finally, in an effort to understand my own use of texts as a researcher and writer, I make
use of Joseph Harris Rewriting: How to Do Things with Texts. This book is especially important
to linking identity with argumentative writing by understanding how researchers establish
themselves within texts. Harris writes, I dont want to lose the metaphor of conversation
entirelywriting is in a very real way a process of trying to say something to somebody. But a
text is also an artifact; it is not only something you say but something you make (37). I believe
this notion has been implicitly taught to me throughout school that creativity does not just come
in the form of fiction writing and poetry. Harris contributions depict criticism going hand in
hand with creativity that is usually not discussed in writing practices. From this standard, I am
able to draw a connection between my position within my own writing juxtapose the positions
that the interviewees take in their own.
Methodology and Student Interviews
To approach the goal of my research questions, I decided that personal interviews would be the
best course of action in understanding how students see themselves as writers. This is the list of
questions:
1. What kinds of writing assignments were required of you during high school?
2. What is good writing to you? What is bad writing?
3. Why do you like or dislike writing?
4. Do you feel that your college writing classes will help you as a writer?

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5. Do you do any personal writing outside of class (poetry, journaling, creative fiction or

nonfiction)?
6. What does it mean to be a writer? What is your interpretation of the writing process?
7. Has someone ever told you were a bad writer or good writer? How did this person come

to this estimation? How did it make you feel?


8. What kinds of assignments interest you? Which ones do you find boring?
9. What role does writing perform in your life and the lives of others?
10. In your opinion, what is the goal of research writing in your classes?

I have chosen to leave the students nameless in this study in order to protect their identities
during the findings of this research. Therefore, I will identify each individual student by a given
pseudonym (A and B) in order to analyze their answers during this series of questioning. For the
sake of brevity, I have recorded a summary of their answers to the questions that I felt were most
pertinent in understanding student views on writing in consideration to their development and
identities.
Interview Results with Student A: It is clear that while Student A finds value in writing as a
skill, there is a large disconnect in where identity fits in beyond the performance of job
attainment. However, this is not an indication of superficiality, but instead highlights the socioeconomic status that has grounded her identity as a beginning writer. It was important for me to
create oral interviews with the students as opposed to completing written surveys in an effort to
gauge whether their writing hindered or circumscribed their ability to communicate themselves
fully. Rosendale writes, As this project evidences, we need to continue to examine how Basic
Writers identities, folk logics, politeness strategies, and sociocultural frame-breaking activities
work within conversational interaction as well as their written compositions (170). Student A

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discussed her dreams of being a paralegal, and felt that her college writing classes will help her
to accomplish this goal by becoming more skilled with grammar and punctuation. In order to
interpret this incongruent line of reasoning I draw on Michael Mirandas argument for
successful community college students. Miranda offers, Some first generation college students
are only looking at a college education as a means of gaining access to a better financial future
without recognizing the other lifelong benefits afforded college graduates (574). Therefore,
Student As whole perspective on writing has been shaped by where she can readily identify
within a level of competency in skills. When asked what being a writer meant to her, she was
confused as to how to answer. This indicated that she was unable to articulate the strategies of
writers who started arguments, or the functionality of prose writing. Nagin writes, The very
difficulty of writing is its virtue: it requires that students move beyond rote learning and simply
reproducing information, facts, dates, and formulae. Students must also learn how to question
their own assumptions and reflect critically on an alternative or opposing viewpoint (22-23).
However, the fruitful difficulty that Nagin speaks of has little bearing on how Student A
interprets her world. She felt that being a writer would help her understand more, but was
confused as to what that more could be.
My interpretation of her answers indicates a cursory understanding of the writing process
other than being told that is was good for her to have in her future. The student is unsure of
what equates to good or bad writing, and does not like the actual process of writing at all because
of the pressures or concerns with written articulation. Student A does not trust her own voice, to
which Bronwyn T. Wililams writes, To place your faith in objectivity, detachment, and analysis
results in a concurrent belief that emotion, narrative, and experience are soft and weak (711).
Similarly, student As past experiences with writing only allow her to see the activity through the

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lens of fragmented professional development and projected future goals. In regards to writing as
reflective of what I perceive as Student As socioeconomic conditioning, Amy Robillard writes,
The social structure of the working class is such that there is no stabilityOnes life need not
actually be out of control; the threat only needs to loom large. Is it any wonder that we from the
working class seek order and control in the stories we tell about ourselves? (87). This
conditioning vastly limits concepts of pain, pleasure, creativity, and social movement.
Therefore, Student A is only believes herself to be a poor writer because her skills do not match
the levels of competency needed for job competitiveness, which has nothing to do with an
understanding of style or scholarly writing.
Interview Results with Student B: Student B found value in writing outside of classroom
assignments. She enrolled in the developmental courses in order to catch up, so the class does not
assign lengthy assignments like the introductory writing classes. The emphasis is placed on
correcting grammar usage and establishing foundational reading comprehension. She described
using personal creative writing in the form of poetry in order to escape past negative experiences.
These negative experiences included sexual harassment from male faculty for the duration of her
high school years. Therefore, writing functioned for her in much the way Elbow describes the
purpose of the freewrite: The essence of freewriting is to push ourselves to write or keep on
writing even when we dont have words in mind and we dont know what will come. Most
people cant do this well without conditions of safety. Thats why the default form of freewriting
is privateso we can push away worry about mistakes or poor quality (12). She felt that her
teachers did not care about her education, and she was often told that she would pass her classes
if she participated in explicit acts. As a result of the shame and embarrassment of such acts, she
stopped pursuing educational goals after she graduated until the present when she felt confident

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enough to enroll at Calhoun in order to pursue a position to help others: she discussed becoming
a public school social worker/counselor. Student B exhibits what Michael Miranda pinpoints as a
successful element in adult learner success: A community college is an excellent place to learn
about myself and the profession that I will ultimately choose to pursue. It is a great place to
begin my college careerA college education will improve my life in many ways, and some
presently unanticipated ones (574).
While she believes that she is good writer because she often uses poetry as a form of
expression, Student B felt she had not acquired correct skills to practice writing at a good level.
She hopes that her English classes will give her the words to have a voice and make sense of
the world. McLeod writes, Other students who have succeeded and who have become masteryoriented attribute their failure at a task to lack of effort; these students tend to persist and even
improve when they fail (Dweck and Goetz) (431). Like McLeods estimation, Student B was
not discouraged by her past failures, but instead wished to use them to gain access to a higher
way of thinking. Student B felt that what bored her or confused her most often when reading and
writing was the language that professors and scholars used that did not pertain to experiences or
concepts she was familiar with. When asked if she had done research, she replied, No. We
didnt do much of that kind of work in high school. Nobody really cared enough to explain what
it was, so this is all new to me except using Google and stuff. Therefore, Student Bs deficiency
in understanding the researching experience puts her behind in attaining clear instruction, for
which she will have to find ways to catch up. My understanding of her answers may hint at the
difficulties with revising and knowledge that Stefan Perun illuminates. Perun writes,
experience is a representative narrative that illustrates how students previous learning
experiences shape understandings that can make it difficult for them to interpret their professors

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expectations, and thus almost impossible to understand what they need to do to pass their course
(Perun). Student Bs writing demonstrates that while she wishes to improve and gain access to a
more sophisticated style of writing, she does not yet have the language or knowledge to bring
her thoughts to fruition. Her sentences are short and simplistic, yet solid enough to understand
the aim or core of her arguments.
My Own Writing Experiences
A sample of my writing from my undergraduate freshman year has been used to illustrate my
development as a beginning collegiate writer. The introductory paragraph is as follows:
During the time in which Paul Laurence Dunbar was writing his pivotal works, many
social incongruities existed for African-Americans. The open oppression that was made
constant in their everyday lives provided the most grueling amounts of stress and
suffering. How were these formerly enslaved people supposed to cope with the heavy
weight of their second-class citizenship when their minds and hearts contradicted
subservience entirely? Dunbar addresses these issues within his poetry, concentrating on
the various ways in which the situation of African-Americans had many reactions. The
idea that there are two competing narratives of whether to hide ones identity in order to
be made less vulnerable or make present that identity to be fully recognized, is highly
interesting. Two of his poems entitled Philosophy and We Wear the Mask, are direct
contradictions of each other. While one prizes the importance of concealment, the other
challenges the difficulty of this concealment in the light of individual humanity.
This sample differs from the work of the two interviewees for several reasons. My early work
shows an understanding of foundational organization in the form of the inverted pyramid
approach for writing an introduction: I begin the introduction starting from a broad range of

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historical knowledge until I gradually focus my thoughts in a developed thesis about two specific
poems. The paragraph is competent in the way of informing the audience of conflicting views in
Dunbars work. However, what is most noticeably evident is the beginning formation of inserting
myself within a particular argument. The words highly interesting ask the reader to consider to
whom the information may seem of value: me and quite possibly themselves. As well, there are
vestiges in the second and third sentences of mimicking the tone of one of my favorite authors,
W.E.B. DuBois. I was able to make an implicit connection between The Souls of Black Folks,
which I read in high school, to my new understanding of Dunbars poetry. Joseph Harris
describes this process in his use of forwarding: As I use the term, a writer forwards a text by
taking words, images, or ideas from it and putting them to use in new contexts. In forwarding a
text, you test the strength of its insights and the rage and flexibility of its phrasings. You rewrite
it through reusing some of its key concepts and phrasings (38). This rhetorical strategy enables
me to think both critically and creatively to discover the patterns between texts. Lastly, my
understanding of the historical period in which Dunbar wrote stems from my own personal
connection to my grandfather who was born in 1919. Hearing stories of his accomplishments
while facing racial adversity made me familiar with the feelings that Dunbar expressed at the
beginning of the 21 century. While this paragraph would not be considered basic, it was an
st

introductory experience for viewing myself as a college-level writer.


This paragraph is demonstrative of being able to answer the questions I posed to the
community college students. My high school experiences prepared me to write at a higher level
upon entering a freshman composition class. Although I was not familiar with Dunbar at the
time, I was still able to use analytical strategies and research skills to become informed about the
author, the time period, and his work. I understood the goal of research writing, and I tried to

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model my style after essays and scholarship that I read on a consistent basis. I knew that this
kind of modeling was seen as good or acceptable and previous teachers consistently talked
about what kind of writers students should be. Not only that, I developed preferences for
certain kinds of genres and styles. In contrast, the community college students I interviewed had
not developed preferences, did not enjoy reading, and were never asked what kind of literature
they liked. They had not thought to model themselves after a particular author, and were not
encouraged to participate in creative works by an English instructor at the college, or in previous
experiences during high school. Their conceptions of the social nature of writing was left to a
minimum, which is the key factor of deviation when comparing my literate experience to their
own.
Conclusion
Unlike my developmental experiences, the two interviewees did not utilize their own
personal experiences as ways to critically approaching academic writing. This stems from the
socio-economic backgrounds in which they found themselves. Equally, they did not have
nurturing educational experiences that fostered an understanding of academic writing beyond the
approach to job readiness or private journaling. Thus, while their community college instructors
assign writing topics that focus on abstract concepts and textual analysis, these students have not
been introduced socially, psychologically, nor academically to the assignments that have been
prescribed. The label ofPoor for their writing standards does not necessarily indicate a lack of
ability, but instead unconsciously describes the failures of education to teach writing as a creative
and epistemological necessity. As well, this failure also turns a blind eye on to the construction of
identity that is absolutely necessary for any writer to uncover a worthy argument. Beyond a

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rudimentary sense, basic writers fail to see what the point of their assignments are, and
consequently, if they even belong to the classification of writer.

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Works Cited
Calhoun Community College Student Interviews.
Elbow, Peter. Three Mysteries at the Heart of Writing. Composition Studies in the New
Millenium: Rereading the Past, Rewriting the Future. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP,
2003. 10-27. Print.
Gray-Rosendale, Laura. Rethinking Basic Writing: Exploring Identity, Politics, And Community
In Interaction : Exploring Identity, Politics, And Community In Interaction. Mahwah,
N.J.: Routledge, 1999. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 13 Nov. 2015.
Harris, Joseph. Rewriting: How to Do Things with Texts.
McLeod, Susan. Some Thoughts About Feelings: The Affective Domain and the Writing
Process. College Composition and Communication 38.4 (1987): 426-435. JSTOR. Web.
3 Nov. 2015.
Miranda, Michael V. "The Seven False Beliefs: Addressing The Psychosocial Underpreparedness
Of The Community College Student." College Student Journal 48.4 (2014): 569.
MasterFILE Premier. Web. 13 Oct. 2015.
Nagin, Carl. Because Writing Matters: Improving Student Writing in Our Schools. John Wiley &
Sons, Inc: San Francisco. 2006. Print.
Perun, Stefan Austin. What the Hell is Revise?: A Qualitative Study of Student Approaches to
Coursework in Developmental English at One Urban-Serving Community College.
Community College Review: Academic Search Premier. 43.3. 23 September 2015. Web.
Robillard, Amy. Its Time for Class: Toward a More Complex Pedagogy of Narrative. College
English. 66.1. (2003): 74-92. National Council of Teachers of English. Web. 5 Oct. 2015.

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Williams, Bronwyn T. Pay Attention to the Man Behind the Curtain: The Importance of Identity
in Academic Writing. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy 49.8 (2006). JSTOR.
Web. 27 Oct. 2015.