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FUNDAMENTAL MEDICAL

SCIENCE III
Physiology laboratory report
(week-1)

Asis Mirchandani (07120110051)
Steven Matuali (07120110055)
Ivan Triangto (07120110056)
Julius Tanaca (07120110058)
Andrew Lienata (07120110066)

Universitas Pelita Harapan
Faculty of Medicine
1

To calculate the relative humidity of the room. 2 .2012 Objectives Experiment 1  To measure the oral (mouth) temperature properly and  accurately using a maximum thermometer. To understand the factors that affects the results of measurement of the oral (mouth) temperature of a person. Experiment 3   To understand the difference of the wet and dry thermometer. To understand the difference between temperature reading of  the axillary and the antecubital space. To determine the effect of exercise on the axillary temperature of a person. (Such as: breathing through mouth and rinsing with ice water). Experiment 2  To measure the axillary and antecubital space temperature  properly and accurately using a maximum thermometer.

the student again observed the reading and recorded. This is done to ensure that the previous readings do not interfere with the results of this experiment. The second part of the experiment is done to observe the effect of breathing through ones mouth has on his body temperature (oral temperature). The thermometer was also swung forcefully several times to get the mercury meniscus below the 35˚C on the thermometer. The student then swings the thermometer forcefully for several times to ensure that the mercury meniscus is below the 35˚C scale to set the starting point of measurement for the thermometer. The reading was recorded. the student then removed the thermometer and observed the reading on the thermometer. Firstly to avoid all inaccuracies. a maximum thermometer is taken and cleaned using either tissue/cotton dipped in alcohol. The student then placed the reservoir of the thermometer under his tongue and closed his mouth for three minutes. he had to ensure that he covered 3 . At first. After three minutes. While doing this.Materials and Methods: Experiment 1 The first part of the experiment is done to measure the oral temperature of a student using a maximum thermometer. The same student who measured his oral temperature in the first part of the experiment had to breathe calmly through his mouth only for doing this experiment. The thermometer is then placed back under his tongue for another three minutes without cleaning or swinging it. The first and the second reading were compared. When the minimum time of three minutes was reached. the maximum thermometer was cleaned using tissues/cotton and some alcohol.

At first. the main objective is to compare the temperatures of the axilla with the one in the antecubital space. the experiment could begin. After these six minutes. After doing this. He then ensured that his antecubital space was wiped with tissue and dried of any moisture. the student observed the reading on the thermometer and recorded it. The student then placed the thermometer on his axilla firmly for six minutes.or closed his nose to avoid breathing from it. The student then ensured that his axilla was dry and that it was wiped with tissue. The temperature reading on the thermometer was then observed and recorded. 4 . the student placed the thermometer under his mouth for another six minutes. Experiment 2 For the second experiment. The third part of the experiment was done to determine the effect of rinsing the student’s mouth with ice water on the oral temperature of the student. the maximum thermometer was wiped with tissue dipped in alcohol. In the first part of the experiment. the student noted the temperature and recorded it. another student volunteers for his temperature to be recoded. After six minutes. Like the previous parts. He then places the reservoir of the thermometer under his tongue and closed his mouth for six minutes. The mercury meniscus of the thermometer was also lowered to a height below the 35˚C level by swinging it forcefully for several times. The same student as the ones in part one and two of the experiment rinsed his mouth with ice water several times. Once this was done. the thermometer was swung forcefully for several times. Step one was then repeated by the student. which was cleaning the thermometer using alcohol and lowering the mercury meniscus by swinging the thermometer forcefully. To lower the mercury meniscus to lower than 35˚C. the maximum thermometer was cleaned and wiped with tissue dipped in alcohol.

Another student used this thermometer to measure his axillary temperature by placing the thermometer on his axillary for six minutes. the thermometer is cleaned using alcohol and swung forcefully to bring back the mercury meniscus to the 35˚C level. After that. After the two minutes. they were plotted to a psychometric graph to calculate the relative humidity.He then placed the thermometer on his antecubital space and flexes his arm for six minutes. After the readings were taken. The reading was observed and recorded. he observed and recorded the reading comparing it to that of his axillary temperature. He then observed recorded and compared the result to his axillary temperature before exercising. Firstly. He then did a stationary run of 120 steps per minute by following a metronome for two minutes. This was done by observing the reading that was there on the wet and dry thermometer. After this the student cleaned the thermometer and brings back the mercury meniscus to the 35˚C level. he wiped his axillary with tissues to ensure it is dry and placed the thermometer in his axillary for 6 minutes. For the second part of this experiment. the aim is to determine the effect of exercise on the axillary temperature of the student. 5 . Experiment 3 The third experiments object is to calculate the relative humidity of the air.

5 36.Results Experiment 1 a.5 120 c. Measurement of axilla and antecubital temperature Antecubital Axilla space 36.3 360 Temperature (°C) Time (sec) b. Measurement of mouth temperature Trial 1 Trial 2 (°C) 36. Measurement of mouth using ice water temperature Temperature (°C) Time (sec) 36.9 Time (sec) 180 180 Temperature b. Measurement of breathing through mouth temperature Temperature (°C) Time (sec) 37. Measurement of exercise on axilla temperature 6 .3 360 Experiment 2 a.6 360 36.

5 360 (After Temperature (°C) Time (sec) Experiment 3 a. in which such affects could be the heat production mechanism created by the body. Although these results have came up. there are several factors that may affect the data. The heat loss mechanism took place as soon as the skin has detected heat. in 7 .Axilla Axilla (Normal) stationary run) 36. Measurement of relative humidity Wet (°C) 22 Bulb Dry Bulb Humidity (°C) 25 Level (%) 78 Discussion After having obtained the following results.8 360 36. it could be easily compared within different trials of the experiments. as well as heat loss mechanism.

The laboratory temperature had a wide range and it could even be under 0°C. less muscular contraction and more sweat gland activity by the production of sweat as a cooling mechanism.which signals were then transmitted to the anterior lobe of hypothalamus located in the brain. Similarly. If the 8 . The maximum temperature was specialized to do monitoring of body temperature. Experiment 1a showed that the two trials of mouth temperature measurement with the final result of 36. In order to complete this experiment. the heat was produced the body when skin has detected cool temperature and the mechanism is continued by signal transmission to the posterior anterior lobe for arterioles to constrict (vasoconstriction). allowing vasodilation.9°C that showed an insignificant temperature change by 0. whereas the laboratory thermometer was filled with alcohol. where as the laboratory temperature was mainly used for other laboratory experiments. activity of sweat gland was reduced and production heat through skeletal muscle activity. The maximum thermometer was filled with mercury to measure. Both the thermometer had different temperature range. a crucial apparatus was needed while doing the experiments that was the thermometer. The possible cause that the temperature of the second trial was higher than the first trial was due to which the mouth was already closed for 180 seconds and immediately a second trial was done after having noted down the temperature that made the heat accumulate (by closing the mouth) more than the first trial. The maximum temperature had its lowest temperature at 35°C and maximum at 42°C. which is shivering. In experiment 1.50°C and 36.4°C since the procedure and the time temperature being measured was the same. such as measuring temperature of specific liquid. the results have varied due to one of the mechanisms mentioned previously that have taken place.

Experiment 2b was an experiment between temperature measurement without any movement in the axilla and with movement in the axilla. there would be a slight temperature change or could be none as well. In fact. the final result of the temperature measured was supposed to be lower than both the experiments (1a & 1b) since with cooling results in a lesser temperature. What was expected was that the temperature taken after the stationary movement would give a 9 . there was similarity between the result of experiment 1a and 1c. Eventually. more heat was being produced. The reason was because by breathing more with mouth allows water vapor to be produced. Experiment 2a was done by comparing temperature measurement taken from both axilla and antecubital. Since the time of measurement was quite long. taking the temperature measurement from the axilla would be more accurate since axilla itself is closer to the body comparing to antecubital. Therefore there was an increase in temperature. The cause of the following result was due to which. Comparing both the experiments of 1a and 1b showed a different result. where as antecubital temperature was 36. thus the body allowed homeostasis to take place by heat production mechanism. Experiment 1c showed a similar result with experiment 1a with a result of 36.6°C. the temperature was made to increase to a normal temperature. more water vapor. that was for 360 seconds. What changes that was expected was that the temperature taken from the axilla would be warmer or higher than the temperature taken from the antecubital. Thus. The final result came up to be as expected. Thus. in which the axillary temperature was 36. axillary temperature gave a more accurate result. Therefore.5°C. in which temperature of 1a was lesser than 1b that was 37.3°C.3°C. that was the temperature of mouth with ice water for a duration of 360 seconds.time taken to measure the temperature for 360 seconds.

higher temperature result. whereas the dry bulb showed 25°C and humidity of 78%. the wet bulb showed a temperature of 22°C. without air conditioning becomes hotter and more humid. The difference was caused by the heat loss mechanism that was sweating that gave a lower temperature reading. The result showed that the room was quite high in its humidity level. Thus a room with air conditioning causes a cooler temperature and a less humid. In experiment 3a. Therefore. but instead it was lower than without movement. 10 .

This may cause an inaccuracy since each student wouldn’t be the same. The experiment itself requests several students to do it. Thus the result could be inaccurate. The last experiment shows a high humidity level that could be caused by the presence of many students in the room. several inaccuracies have taken place due to the body mechanism itself and due to human errors as well. The second experiment inaccuracies mainly caused by the production of sweat that was actually a cooling mechanism and affected the thermometer. Eventually this could change the result. As the student interacted with one another. If the result would have shown a higher difference of at least 1°C. it releases water vapor that could increase the humidity level. the experiment could be examined much better. The problem with the results obtained was that the gap between the temperatures was too less that might result in an inaccuracy while doing the experiment. the mouth may not be fully closed allowing heat to be released and mouth wasn’t completely rinsed with ice water of quite a low temperature.Conclusion While doing the experiment. While the first experiment was done. Some may be more adaptable to cooler temperature and some were more adaptable to hotter temperature. Some could be prone to more sweating than the others. 11 .

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