apØv\_n

APbv ]n aßmSv

ap≥hn-[n-Iƒs°-Xn-cmb At\z-j-W-߃
Ckvemapw Ckvem-anI kwkvIm-chpw s]mXp-k-aq-l-Øns‚ `mK-am-bn-cn-t°, {]hm-NIs\ Xnc-»o-ebv°p ]n∂n-te°v am‰n-\n¿Øm-\m-hn-√. Cu kml-N-cy-Øn-emWv aX]-fin-X-∑m-cp-tS-X-√m-Ø, apkvenw t{kmX-€p-I-fn¬ \n∂-√mØ {]hm-NI Poh-N-cn{X-߃ {]k-‡-am-Ip-∂-Xv. hnizm-kn°p am{X-a-√ Ahn-izm-kn°pw {]hm-NI
PohnXw {]tNm-Z-I-am-Ip-∂Xn\v Cu Poh-N-cn-{X-߃ CS-bm-°pw. \ΩpsS ImeØns‚ hyY-I-sfbpw `oXn-I-sfbpw A`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-°m-\p≈ [m¿an-I ss[j-Wn-Ii‡n ]I-cm≥ {]hm-N-I-kva-c-W-bv°m-Ip-sa∂ t_m[yw CØcw Poh-N-cn-{X-]-T-\ßsf km¿∞-I-am-°p-∂p.
.............................................................................................-.==.................................................................................

ap

l-Ω-Zns‚ PohnXw `qX-Im-e-Øn-se-t∏mtgm
kw`-hn-®p-t]mb Hcp Ncn-{X-k-µ¿`-a-√. \n›-e-X-bnte°p hnc-an-°m≥ hnk-Ω-Xn-°p-∂Xpw Ime-ØneqsS {]k-cn-°p-∂-Xp-amb kvt\l-t{]-c-W-Iƒ aplΩ- Z n¬ \n∂v \mw Adn- b p- ∂ p- ≠ v . Ncn- { X- Ø ns‚
PUXzw apl-Ω-Zn\p Nm¿Øn-s°m-Sp-Ø-h¿ {]hm-NI-s\-b√ tI´-Xv; sI´p-I-Y-Ifpw ap≥hn-[n-I-fp-amWv.
sI´p-I-Y-Iƒ kmam-\y-t_m-[-Øns‚ `mK-am-bn-Øocp-∂-Xns‚ sshcp≤yw {]I-S-am-Wv, {]hm-N-I-s\-∏‰n- ]m›m-Xy-temIw Bbn-c-Øn-tesd h¿j-ß-fmbn
]pe¿Øp∂ s]mXp-[m-c-W-Iƒ Fs¥√mw F∂-t\zjn-°p-tºmƒ.
aX-{]-`m-j-W-ß-fn¬ \n∂pw aX-]m-c-ºcy t{kmX€p-I-fn¬ \n∂pw e`n-°p∂ \_n-bpsS hnh-c-W-߃
hnizm-knsb Xr]vXn-s∏-SpØp-∂-Xm-Imw. F∂m¬
apl- Ω Zv hnizm- k n- b psS kzIm- c y- k z- Ø - √ - t √m.
Ckvemapw Ckvem-anI kwkvIm-chpw s]mXp-k-aql- Ø ns‚ `mK- a m- b n- c n- t °, {]hm- N - I s\ Xnc- » o-

ebv°p ]n∂n-te°v am‰n-\n¿Øm-\m-hn-√. Cu kmlN-cy-Øn-emWv aX-]-fin-X-∑m-cp-tS-X-√m-Ø, apkvenw
t{kmX-€p-I-fn¬ \n∂-√mØ {]hm-NI Poh-N-cn-{X߃ {]k-‡-am-Ip-∂-Xv. hnizm-kn°p am{X-a-√ Ahnizm- k n°pw {]hm- N I PohnXw {]tNm- Z - I - a m- I p∂Xn\v Cu Poh-N-cn-{X-߃ CS-bm-°pw. \ΩpsS
Ime-Øns‚ hyY-I-sfbpw `oXn-I-sfbpw A`n-ap-JoI-cn-°m-\p≈ [m¿an-I ss[j-Wn-I-i‡n ]I-cm≥
{]hm-N-I-kva-c-W-bv°m-Ip-sa∂ t_m[yw CØcw
Poh-N-cn-{X-]-T-\-ßsf km¿∞-I-am-°p-∂p.
DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v Ic¨ Bwkvt{Sm-ßns‚ c≠p
{]hm-NI Poh-N-cn-{X-߃ t\m°p-I. BZy-tØXv
{]kn-≤o-I-cn-®Xv 1991¬. ""apl-ΩZv : F _tbm-{K^n
Hm^v Zv s{]m^-‰v.'' CsX-gp-Xm-\p≈ kml-Ncyw
Ic¨ Bwkvt{SmMv hni-Zo-I-cn-°p-∂p-≠v. kmØm\nIv thgv k - k ns‚ t]cn¬ k¬am≥dpjv Z nsb
acWin£bv°p hn[n® Bb-Øp√ Jpssa-\n-bpsS
aX-im-k\w henb tImem-lew D≠m-°nb ka-

cnkme

=

41

ho-£Ww apt∂m´p
hbv°pI. `n∂-k-ao]-\-ßsf ka-Nn-ØX- t bmsS kzoI- c n°p∂ Cu {]hm-NI-ssi-en-bmWv
B[p-\n-I-cmb PohN- c n- { X- I m- c - ∑ msc
G‰hpw BI¿jn-®sX∂p \mw ImWp∂p. Ccpfn¬\n∂p
{]Im- i - Ø n- t e°v
F∂
`mc- X ob
Nn¥sb icn- h bv°p∂ Hcp temIho-£-W-amWv {]hmN-Is‚ alm-i-‡nbm-b-Xv. Pmln-enø
AYhm A⁄- X bpsS Imew F∂
]Zw \mw s]mXpsh
a\-€n-em-°n-bXv
Ckvem-an-I-]q¿h-Ime-sØ-°p-dn-®m-Wv. F∂m¬, kao-]-Im-esØ
Kth-jWw Cu ]ZsØ hymJym-\n-°p-∂Xv Hcp
am\-kn-Im-h-ÿ-bm-bn-´m-Wv. A{I-ahpw `oXnbpw
]c-Øp∂ Hcp am\-kn-Im-h-ÿ-sb-bmWp aplΩZv Pmln-enø F∂-Xp-sIm≠v A¿∞-am-°n-bn´p-≠m-Ip-I. Cu hni-I-e-\-coXn ]n¥p-S-cp-I-bmsW-¶n¬, ka-Im-enI-tem-I-Øns‚ A‘-X-bn¬
apl-Ω-Zns‚ {]iv\-]-cn-lmc coXn-Iƒ khn-tij-am-Ip-∂Xp ImWmw.
Cu kµ¿`-Øn-emWv \mw, ]Sn-™m-dp-\n-∂p≈, apl-Ω-Zns‚ Poh-N-cn-{X-sa-gp-Øns‚ Ncn{Xw
]cn-tim-[n-°p-∂-Xv.
a[y-Im-eØv ]›m-Xy¿ Icp-Xn-bXv Ah-cpsS
aXhpw Z¿i-\-ß-fp-sa√mw km¿h-eu-In-Ihpw
BtKm- f - h p- a m- s W- ∂ m- W v . lnwk- b n- e q- ∂ nb
tImf-\n-hm-gvNbv°v \ymbo-I-c-W-am-bXpw Cu
A[o-i-Xz-t_m-[-am-Wv. bqtdm-∏ns‚ ho£Ww
temI- h o- £ - W - a m- b - t ∏mƒ AXn- \ - ∏ p- d w, B
akvXn-jvI-߃°p ]pd-Øp-≈-sX√mw A[-atam
A]-cn-jvIr-Xtam Bbn amdn. C°m-c-W-Øm¬,
F´mw \q‰m-≠n¬ Ckvem-ans\ "{InkvXpaXhncp-≤-cmb aX-\n-tj-[n-I-fpsS Iq´w' F∂ \nebn-emWp bqtdm∏v hne-bn-cp-Øn-b-Xv. shfn-]mSp
]pkv X - I - Ø nse A¥n- { In- k v X p- h n- s \bpw
temImh- k m- \ - s Øbpw kw_- ‘ n® ImhyI¬]-\-Iƒ bqtdm-∏ns‚ a\-kns\ h√msX {`an∏n-®n-´p≠v F°m-e-Øpw. Ckvem-ans‚ hchv Cu
{`am- fl - I - X bv ° v B°w Iq´n. {]hm- N - I s\
A¥n- { In- k v X p- h mbpw kmØms‚ k¥- X nbmbpw k¶¬∏n-°p∂ Hcp coXn a[y-Imew
hsc hym]-I-am-bn-cp-∂p.
a[y-Im-e-Øns‚ A¥y-Z-i-I-ß-fn¬ \thm∞m-\-Øn\p If-sam-cp-°nb ^vtfmd≥kn-sebpw
a‰pw henb {KŸ-im-e-I-fn¬ Ckvem-an-s\bpw
{]hm-NI
- s
- \bpw icn-bmb Zni-bn¬ Is≠-Øm≥
Ht´sd Ncn-{X-tc-J-Ifpw ]T-\-ßfpw e`y-am-bncp-∂p-sh-¶nepw ss__n-fns‚ \ntj-[-am-bn-´mWv

apl-Ω-Zn\_n-bpsS PohnXw
G‰hpw {]Xn-Iq-e-amb kml-N-cyß-tfm-Sp≈ {]Xn-I-c-W-am-Wv.
\ntj-[m-fl-Ihpw lnwkm-fl-I-hpamb kaq-l-Øn¬, ka-Xz-Nn-¥-bneq-∂nb Hcp Z¿i\w apt∂m´p
hbv°p-I, ]cn-jvIr-Xn-bpsS ioeßsf ]cn-]m-en-°p-∂Xpw `qX-Ime-Øns‚ ⁄m\-cq-]-ßsf
ka¿∞-ambn kzmwio-I-cn-°p-∂Xp-amb Pohn-X-ho-£Ww
apt∂m´p hbv°pI ˛ `n∂-k-ao-]\-ßsf ka-Nn-Ø-X-tbmsS kzoIcn-°p∂ Cu {]hm-N-I-ssi-enbmWv B[p-\n-I-cmb Poh-N-cn-{XIm-c-∑msc G‰hpw BI¿jn-®sX∂p \mw ImWp-∂p.
........................ ==
==.......................
bw. k¬am≥ dpjvZn-s°-Xn-cmb ^Xvh-tbmSp
tbmPn-°mXncn°p-tºm-gpw, Bhn-jvImckzmX{¥ysØ \oXo-I-cn-°m≥ Ckvem-an-s\bpw {]hmN-I-s\bpw \nµn-°p-Ibpw cm£-ko-b-ambn AhX-cn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂ teJ-\-ßfpw kwhm-Zßfpw ]Sn- ™ mdp s]mSp- ∂ s\ kPo- h - a m- b n.
{]hm-NI\nµ-bpsS a[y-Imew ]p\¿P-\n-°p-I-bmbn- c p- ∂ p. {]hm- N - I s\ \ncm- I - c n- ° p∂ Cu
s]mXp-t_m-[-Øn\p adp-]Sn F∂ \ne-bn-emWv
apl- Ω Zns‚ Poh- N - c n{Xw Xms\- g p- X n- b - s X∂v
Ic¨Bwkvt{SmMv hni-Zo-I-cn-°p-∂p. Bwkvt{Smßns‚ c≠m-asØ {]hm-NI Poh-N-cn{Xw ]pdØp-h-∂Xv 2006-em-Wv. k]vXw-_¿ 11s‚ `oI-cm{I- a Ww Ata- c n- ° - b nepw a‰pw DW¿Ønb
Ckvemw-`o-Xn-bpsS ]›m-Ø-e-Øn¬, Ckvem-ant‚Xv A‘- a mb lnwk- b psS ]mX- b m- s W∂
ap≥hn[n am[y-a-ß-fpsS s]mXp-Nn-¥-bn¬ B[n]Xyw ÿm]n-°p-tºmƒ, Iep-jn-X-amb Cu ImetØmSv {]hm- N - I \v F¥p- ] - d - b m- \ p≠v F∂
tNmZy-amWv apl-ΩZv: Zv s{]m^‰v t^m¿ Huh¿
ssSw F∂ IrXn°p {]tNm-Z-\-am-b-Xv.
c≠n-SØpw {]hm-N-Is\ Fgp-Xm≥ t{]c-Wbmb kµ¿`-߃ c≠p sh√p-hn-fn-I-fm-Wv. Bib-°p-g-∏-ß-fp-sSbpw thh-em-Xn-I-fp-sSbpw Ccp≠
Hc-¥-co-£-Øn¬ a\p-jy¿°p {]Xo£ \¬Ip∂-sX-s¥-¶nepw Dt≠m F∂ At\z-j-W-amWv
{]hm-N-I-\n¬ FØn-\n¬°p-∂-Xv. CXv aX-]-camb Hcm-`n-ap-Jy-a-√, hmkvX-h-Øn¬. aX-ap-≠m°nb Ie-l-߃ ]cn-l-cn-°m-\p≈ am¿Kw aXØn-\-I-Øpt≠m F∂ At\z-j-W-am-Wv. aplΩ-Zns‚ PohnXw G‰hpw {]Xn-Iq-e-amb kmlN-cy-ß-tfm-Sp≈ {]Xn-I-c-W-am-Wv. \ntj-[m-flIhpw lnwkm-fl-I-hp-amb kaq-l-Øn¬, ka-XzNn-¥-bn-eq-∂nb Hcp Z¿i\w apt∂m´p hbv°pI, ]cn-jvIr-Xn-bpsS ioe-ßsf ]cn-]m-en-°p∂Xpw `qX- I m- e - Ø ns‚ ⁄m\- c q- ] - ß sf
ka¿∞-ambn kzmwio-I-cn-°p-∂-Xp-amb Pohn-X-

42

cnkme

]sØm-ºXmw \q‰m-≠nse Hmdn-b‚-en-Ãp-I-fpsS ]cn-an-Xn-Ifpw ap≥hn-[n-Ifpw Ccp]Xmw \q‰m-≠nse s{]m^-j-W¬ Ncn-{X-Im-c-∑m-scbpw apl-Ω-Zv \_nsb°pdn®v
Fgp-Xp-tºm-sg√mw ]tcm-£-ambn kzm[o-\n-°p-I-bp-≠m-bn. Cu kzm[o-\X ]n≥hmßp-∂Xv Fgp-]-Xp-Iƒ°p-ti-j-am-sW∂p ImWmw. At∏m-tg°pw Ckvem-anI ]T-\cw-KØv Ic¨-Bw-kvt{SmwMv, tSm¿ Bt{µ, ssa°¬ sk¬kv, am¿´n≥ enMvkv,
B≥tacn jnΩ¬ XpSßn Ht´-sd-t∏-cpsS ]T-\-߃ apl-Ω-Zv \_nsb-∏‰n D≠m-bn.
.........................................................==...................................................................
Jp¿- B ≥ hne- b n- c p- Ø - s ∏- ´ - X v . apl- Ω Zv
BIs´ A[n-Im-c-Zp¿tam-lnbpw hnj-b-e-ºS- \ p- a mb Im]- S y- ° m- c - \ mbpw hnip- ≤ - \ m- S pIƒ°p
th≠n- b p≈
Ipcn- i p- b p≤w
ss{IkvXh k`-sbbpw aX-sØbpw kwc-£n°m-\p≈ hnip-≤-bp-≤-am-bn; Ckvemapw {]hmN-I\pw kmØms‚ {]Xn-cq-]-ß-fmb A{I-aIm-cn-I-fpw.
a[y- I m- e - Ø nse Kth- j - I ¿°v apl- Ω Zns\ kw_-‘n® B[n-Im-cn-I-tc-J-Iƒ e`yam-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶nepw Ah-cmcpw apl-Ω-Zns‚
bYm¿∞ PohnXw At\z- j n®p t]mbn- √ .
sI´p-I-Y-I-fn¬\n∂p sI´p-I-Y-I-fn-te-°p≈
k©mcw apl-Ω-Zn\p cm£-ko-b-amb {]XnOm-b-bmWp kΩm-\n-®-Xv. apkvenw-Iƒ ImS∑mcpw A{I-an-I-fp-amb tKm{X-ß-fm-sW∂pw
apl-ΩZv Ah-cpsS \n¿Z-b-\mb ssZh-am-sW∂pw-hsc Nne¿ Icp-Xn.
a[y-Im-esØ Nne ss{IkvXh Fgp-ØpImcpw aX- ] - fi n- X - c p- s ams° apl- Ω - Z ns‚
acWw 666-em-sW∂p hniz-kn-®p. 666 ]m›mXy¿°p kmØms‚ A°-ß-fm-Wv. kzm`m-hnI-ambpw kmØms‚ k¥m\w F∂ coXnbnep≈ IY-Iƒ {]N-cn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.
apl-ΩZv Aßs\ "alu≥Uv' Bbn (kmØms‚ Ah-Xmcw F∂¿∞w). apl-Ω-Zns\
alu≥Uv F∂p hnfn-°p∂ coXn GXm≠v
]Xn-s\´mw \q‰m≠p hsc XpS¿∂p. thmƒ´b- d ns‚ cN- \ - I - f n¬ apl- Ω Zv alu≥Uv
BWv. A‘-hn-izm-kn-I-fmb Hcp-]‰w BfpIƒ Bcm-[n-°p∂ sNIp-Øm-\mWv apl-ΩZv
F∂ [mc-W-bn-emWv Cu {]tbmKw {]Nmcw
t\Sn-b-sX∂p s_¿WmUv sehnkv \nco-£n°p-∂p-≠v. Ums‚-bpsS Unssh≥tIma-Unbn¬ apl-ΩZv sImSpw\c-I-Øn¬ shs¥-cnbp-∂Xv C°m-c-W-Øm-em-Wv. CXv sI´p-I-YIƒ F{X Bg-Øn¬ thtcm-Sn-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂Xns‚ DZm-l-cWw IqSn-bm-Wv.
ss{Ikv X h \thm- ∞ m- \ - I m- e - Ø n\p
tijw ]Xn-s\´mw \q‰m≠v BIp-tºm-tg°pw
Cu ImgvN-∏m-Sp-I-fn¬ Nne am‰-߃ h∂p.
apl- Ω - Z ns\ kmØms‚ {]Xn- c q]w Bbn
I≠n-cp∂ coXn°p ]Icw kq{X-im-enbpw
AXym-{K-ln-bp-amb Hcp X´n-∏p-Im-c-\mbn´mWv
Nne ss{IkvXhNn¥-I¿ hni-I-e\w sNbvXXv . ]Xn- s \´mw \q‰m- ≠ n\p tijw {^©v
P¿a≥ Kth-j-I-cn¬ \n∂p apl-Ω-Zn\p Ipd®p-IqSn am\yX e`n-®p. \s√mcp cm{„ob
t\Xmhpw \nb- a - \ n¿amW hnZ- K v [ - \ p- a mbn

C°m-eØp Nne ]fin-X¿ apl-Ω-Zns\
Xncn-®-dn-™p. tKm´n-s{^Uv sebv_-\nkv
apl-Ω-Zns\ {]iw-kn-°p-∂Xv At±lw
"bYm¿∞ aXm-fl-I-X-bn¬ \n∂p hyXnN-en-®n√' F∂ ImcWw Nq≠n-°m-´n-bmWv. tXmakv Im¿sse¬ apl-Ω-Zns\ "\n»_vZ-\mb alm-flmhv' F∂p hnti-jn-∏n®p. FtUzUv Kn_¨ Xs‚ hnJym-X-amb
"Z lnÃdn Hm^v Unss¢≥ B≥Uv ^mƒ
Hm^v tdma≥ Fw]- b ¿' F∂ _rlZv
{KŸ- Ø n¬
Ckvem- a ns\
BZ- c thmsSbmWp kao-]n-®-Xv. apl-ΩZv A`nPm-X-cpsS \mSy-ßsf \ncm-I-cn® alm\mbpw.
]Xn-s\´mw \q‰m-≠n\p tijw D≠mb
Kuc-h-ap≈ GXms≠√m ]T-\-ßfpw a[yIm-esØ sI´p-I-Y-Iƒ \nd™ {]hm-NI
Nn{Xo- I - c Ww X≈n- ° - f - b p- I - b p- ≠ m- b n.
Ncn{XhkvXp-X-I-fn¬ Du∂n\n∂ A°mZ- a nI ]T- \ - ß - f m- b n- c p∂p Ch- s b- √ mw.
At∏mgpw apl-Ω-Zns‚ {]hm-N-I-XzsØ
Ch-sc√mw kwi-b-tØm-sS-bmWv ho£n®- X v . apl- Ω - Z ns‚ am\- h n- I - X - s bbpw
cmjv{Sob ]Iz-X-sbbpw kmaq-lnI ]cnjvI-c-W-Xz-c-sbbpw Ah¿ KpW-]-c-ambn
hne-bn-cp-Øp-Ibpw sNbvXp.
Ccp-]Xmw \q‰m-≠ns‚ c≠mw ]Ip-Xnbn-emWv ]m›mXy Nn¥-bn¬ Ckvem-anI
]T-\-Ønepw apl-ΩZv hn⁄m-\o-b-Ønepw
auen- I - a mb am‰- ß ƒ kw`- h n- ° p- ∂ - X v .
Hmdn-b‚-en-Ãp-I-fn¬ {]_-e-\mb {^©v
Ncn-{X-Im-c≥ hneywhm´v tam≠vtKm-a-dnbmWv C°q-´-Øn¬ G‰hpw auen-I-amb
]T-\-߃ \S-Øn-b-Xv. tam≠vtKm-a-dn-bpsS
apl-ΩZv A‰v a° (1953), apl-ΩZv A‰v
aZo- \ (1956), apl- Ω Zv s{]m^‰v B‚ v
tÉv k v a m≥ (1961) F∂o IrXn- I ƒ
]m›m-Xy-tem-IØv Ckvem-an-s\bpw aplΩ-Zn-s\bpw kw_-‘n® k¶p-Nn-X-ho-£W- ß sf
XI¿°p- ∂ - X m- b n- c p- ∂ p.
FUn≥_¿Kv k¿h-I-em-im-e-bnse Ad_nIv s{]m^-k-dm-bn-cp∂ tam≠vtKm-adn
apkvenw temIØpw Xs‚ IrXn-I-fn-eqsS
BZ-chv t\Sn. tam≠vtKm-adn {]hm-N-Is\
hne- b n- c pØp∂- X n- ß s\: apl- Ω - Z ns\
kw_- ‘ n- ® n- S - t Ømfw aX- s a- ∂ Xp
kzImcy CS-]m-Sm-bn-cp-∂n-√; Xm≥ Pohn°p∂ kml-N-cy-ß-tfmSv ka-{K-ambn {]XnI-cn-°p∂ hy‡n-Xz-Øns‚ {]Im-i-\-am-bn-

cnkme

=

43

F¥p-sIm-≠mWv {]hm-N-I\v
C{Xbpw t{ijvT-amb kvt\lw
apkvenw-Iƒ \¬Ip-∂-Xv.
bYm¿∞-Øn¬ {]hm-N-Is‚
]Zhn F¥m-Wv, apl-ΩZv Fßs\-bmWv a‰p {]hm-N-I-cn¬
\n∂pw hyXy-kvX-\m-Ip-∂-Xv.
a‰p Ncn-{X]p-cp-j-∑m-cn¬ \n∂pw
apl-ΩZv thdn´p \n¬°p-∂Xv
GsX√mw LS-I-ß-fn-em-Wv ˛
Cu tNmZy-߃s°√mw DØcw
B≥tacn jnΩ¬ Is≠-Øp∂Xv {]hm-NI hy‡n-Xz-Øn-emWv. ImcWw Jp¿-B≥ ]dbpw
t]mse apl-Ω-Zn-s‚Xv at\m-lc
(hn-in-jvS) amXr-I-bmWv (D-kvhØp¬ lk\x 33-:21).
==
.......................==
==.......................

cp-∂p. aX-sa-∂Xp kzIm-cytam hy‡n-\n-jvTtam
Bb Hcp Imcyw am{X-ambn ]cn-K-Wn-°p-∂-h¿°v
apl-Ω-Zns‚ hy‡nXzw hnNn-{Xtam A]-cn-NnXtam Bbn tXm∂mw. aX-]-chpw ss[j-WnIhpamb Bb Ah-ÿ-I-tfmSp am{X-a√ Xm≥
Pohn® Ime-Øns‚ kmaq-ln-Ihpw cmjv{So-b-hpamb Ah-ÿ-I-tfmSpw {]Xn-I-cn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp∂p
apl-Ω-Zv. {]hm-N-Is‚ CS-s]-S-ep-Iƒ Pohn-XØns‚ F√m taJ-e-I-sfbpw kv]¿in-°p-∂-Xmbn-cp-∂p. C°m-c-W-Øm¬, apl-Ω-Zns‚ {]hr-ØnI-sf, t\´-ßsf aX-]-c-sat∂m atX-X-csat∂m
th¿Xn-cn-®p-Im-Wm-\m-hn-s√∂pw tam≠vtKmadn
\nco-£n-°p-∂p.
apl-Ω-Zns‚ {]hm-N-IXzw kw_-‘n® X¿°ß-fnepw tam≠vtKmadn CS-s]-Sp-∂p-≠v. Jp¿-B≥
bYm¿∞-Øn¬ ssZhw Cd-°n-s°m-Sp-Ø-XmtWm
AtXm apl-Ω-Zns‚ Xs∂ krjvSn-bmtWm F∂Xm-bn-cp∂p Hcp X¿°w. Nne¿ CXv apl-Ω-Zns‚
D]-t_m[a\-€ns‚ krjvSn-bm-bn hymJym-\n-®p.
F∂m¬ Jp¿-B≥ hN-\-߃ ssZh-Øn¬ \n∂p
e`n-®-XmtWm F∂ X¿°w Ncn-{X-Im-cs‚ Ignhp
sIm≠v ]cn-l-cn-°m-\m-Ip-∂-X-s√∂ \ne-]m-SmWv
tam≠vtKm-adn kzoI-cn-®-Xv.
Ccp-]Xmw \q‰m-≠ns‚ Ah-km-\-Z-i-I-ß-fnte°p hcp-tºmƒ {^©v am¿IvknÃv Nn¥-I-\mb
amIvknkw
tdmUn≥k¨
]m›mXy
Ckvemans‚ ]nd-hn°p hgn-sX-fnbn® kmaq-lnIhpw kmº-Øn-I-hp-amb Imc-W-ß-fmWv At\zjn-®-Xv. kºq¿W-ambpw `uXn-I-hm-Z-]-c-amb kao]-\-am-bn-cp∂p tdmUn≥k-Wn-t‚-Xv. apl-Ω-Zns‚
t\Xr-Xz-]-c-amb Ign-hp-Isf At±lw aXn-t∏msS

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cnkme

I≠p. apX-em-fn-Ø-Øns‚ hnImk-]m-X-bn¬ Ckvemw
\yq{S¬ Bbn-cp∂p F∂p hmZn-°p∂ "Ckvemw B‚ v
Iym]n-‰-enkw' F∂ IrXnbpw {it≤-b-am-bn-cp-∂p.
kntbm-Wn-k-tØmSp ISpØ hntbm-Pn∏p {]I-Sn∏n® At±lw ^e-kvXo≥ {]iv\-Øn¬ Xpd∂ C{ktb¬hncp≤ \ne-]m-SmWp kzoI-cn-®-Xv.
]sØm-ºXmw \q‰m-≠nse Hmdn-b‚-en-Ãp-I-fpsS
]cn-an-Xn-Ifpw ap≥hn-[n-Ifpw Ccp-]Xmw \q‰m-≠nse
s{]m^- j - W ¬ Ncn- { X- I m- c - ∑ m- s cbpw apl- Ω Zns\°pdn®v Fgp-Xp-tºm-sg√mw ]tcm-£-ambn kzm[o\n-°p-I-bp-≠m-bn. Cu kzm[o-\X ]n≥hm-ßp-∂Xv
Fgp- ] - X p- I ƒ°p- t i- j - a m- s W∂p ImWmw. At∏mtg°pw Ckvem-anI ]T-\-cw-KØv Ic¨-Bw-kvt{SmwMv,
tSm¿ Bt{µ, ssa°¬ sk¬kv, am¿´n≥ enMvkv,
B≥tacn jnΩ¬ XpSßn Ht´-sd-t∏-cpsS ]T-\-߃
apl-Ω-Zn-s\-∏‰n D≠m-bn.
Ccp-]-Øn-sbm∂mw \q‰m-≠n-se-Øp-tºmgpw ]Sn™mdpw Ckvemapw XΩn-ep≈ AI¬®bpw Ahnizm-khpw Ah-km-\n-°p-∂n-s√∂p ImWmw. CXn\v
Ht´sd cmjv{Sob Imc-W-ß-fp-s≠∂p \ap-°-dn-bmw.
tImf-\n-hm-gvN-bpsS Zpc-¥-^-e-ß-fmWv CXn¬ {][m\w. Ccp-]Xmw \q‰m-≠ns‚ Ah-km-\-tØmsS ]Sn™m-d≥ \mSp-I-fn-te°v apkvenw-Iƒ Ht´sd IpSn-tbdn-b-tXm-sS, GXms≠√m bqtdm-]y≥ cmPy-ß-fnepw
Ata-cn-°-bnepw apkvenw-Iƒ Hcp \yq\-]£ kaq-lambn km∂n- [ y- a - d n- b n- ® p. apkv e nw- I - f psS kmaqlnIPohnXw Cu \mSp-I-fn-se√mw ]pXnb cmjv{Sob
{]iv\-ßfpw D≠m-°p-∂p-≠v. {^m≥kn¬ kvIqfn¬
intcm-hkv{Xw [cn-°p-∂Xp hne-°nb {^©v ]m¿esa‚ns‚ \nb-a-\n¿amWw DZm-l-c-Ww. sU≥am¿°n¬
{]hm-N-Is\ \nµn-°p∂ Im¿´q¨ {]kn-≤o-I-cn-®Xv
henb hnhm-Z-ßfpw {]Xn-tj-[-ß-fp-ap-b¿Øn-bn-cp-∂p.
Cu kmN-l-N-cy-Øn¬ Hcp tNmZy-ap-b-cp-∂Xv HXp°m- \ m- I p- I - b n- √ : a[y- I mew apX¬t° i‡- a mb
A°m-Z-anI ASn-Ø-d-bp-≠m-bn´pw ]m›m-Xy-temIw

£nt®m F∂p `b-∂p. ssZh-h-N-\F¥p sIm≠mWv apl-Ω-Zn-s\ß- f psS Akm- ∂ n- [ y- Ø n¬ Xs‚
∏-‰n-bp≈ sI´p-I-Y-Ifn¬ A`nZuXyw kw_-‘n®p t]mepw kwic- a n- ° p- ∂ - X v ? CXn\v ant\m
b-am-bn. Hcp km[m-cW a\p-jy≥.
dohvkv (ap-l-ΩZv C≥ bqtdm]v
A\m- Y ≥. FgptØm hmb- \ tbm
: F Xuk‚ v Cb¿ Hm^v
Adn- b m- Ø - h ≥. ssZh- Ø ns‚ Cu
shtè anØv ta°nwMv
Xnc-s™-Sp∏v Aÿm-\-Øm-bn-cp-∂p˛2003) DØcw Is≠-Øp-∂Xv
sh-∂mtWm? AtXm F√mw GtXm
a[y-Ime ss{IkvXh aX-hm-ZnPn∂p _m[-bm-bn-cpt∂m?
I-fn-em-Wv. Ah¿ A°m-eØv
k¶-S-ß-fp-sSbpw B[n-bp-sSbpw
Ckvem-anI aX-Z¿i-\-sØtbm
s]m≈p∂ NqSn¬ apl-Ω-Zn\p adp-]aXm- N m- c - ß - s ftbm A{I- a nSn-bmbn HSp-hn¬, \o≠ c≠p h¿j°m≥ Xp\n-™n-√. GI-ssZ-hmØn-s\m-Sp-hn¬ Ccpƒ \oßn, ssZhcm-[-\-bpsS aq¿Ø-X-bm-bn-cp∂p
kzcw tI´p:
Ckvemw, AXp- a mbn G‰p""sXfn™ {]`m-X-sØbpw
ap´p∂Xv ss{IkvXh k`-bpsS
{]im- ¥ - a mb cm{Xn- s bbpw
\ne-]m-Sp-Isf s]mfn-°p-∂-Xmap≥\n¿Øn Rm≥ kXyw sNø-s´.
sW∂v Ah¿°-dn-bmam-bn-cp-∂p.
Xm¶- f psS c£n- X mhv , Xm¶sf
AXn-\m¬ Ah-cpsS FXn¿∏pIsøm-gn-™n-´n√, shdp-Øn-´p-an-√.
I- s f√mw {]hm- N - I - s \- X nsc
]c-tem-I-amWv Cl-temI PohnXncn-®p-hn-Sp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. {]hmX-sØ-°mƒ Xm¶ƒ°v DØ-aw.
N-Is\ \nµn-°p∂ Cu coXn\mY≥ ]eXpw Xm¶ƒ°v Xcm≥
bmWv C°m- e Øpw am[y- a t]mIp-∂p. At∏mƒ Xm¶ƒ Xr]vXßfpw _p≤n- P o- h n- I - f p- s a√mw thZ-\n-°p-∂-h-tcmSpw
\m-Ipw.
XpS-cp-∂-Xv.
A\m-YXzw A\p-`-hnA\m- Y s\∂pI≠v Xm¶ƒ°v
sI´p- I - Y - I - f psS Hcm- b ncw °p-∂-h-tcm-Sp-ap≈
A`bw \¬In-bn-t√?
h¿j- ß ƒ ]n∂n- S p- t ºmgpw klm-\p-`q-Xn, ]mh-ßhgn- b - d n- b m- Ø - h - s \∂p I≠v
{]hm-N-I≥ C\nbpw apJy-[m-ct\¿hgn Im´n-bnt√?
bpsS aXn∏p t\Sn- b n- ´ n- √ . tfm-sSm∏w \n¬°mZcn-{Z-s\∂p I≠v kº-∂-\m-°nB≥tacn jnΩ¬ Xs‚ IrXn- \p≈ {]Xn-_-≤X
bnt√?
bn¬ (B≥Uv apl-ΩZv Cukv F∂nh-bmWv G‰hpw
AXn-\m¬, A\m-Ysc Ah-K-Wnlnkv sak≥P¿) apl-Ω-Zns‚ henb ssZh-km£yw
°-cp-Xv.
k¿Km-flI-amb aX-Kp-W-ßsf F∂p sXfn-bn-°m≥
tNmZn-®p-h-cp-∂-hs\ B´n-tbm-SnB[p-\nI Poh-Nc
- n-{X-Im-c∑
- mcpw Hcp A\m-Y-s\-b°-cp-Xv.
Ah-K-Wn-®Xv FSpØp ]d-bp√msX a‰m-sc-bmWv
c£n- X m- h ns‚
A\p- { Klw
∂p-≠v. F¥p-sIm-≠mWv {]hmDds° {]Jym-]n-°p-I.''
N- I \v C{Xbpw t{ijv T - a mb ssZhw Xnc-s™-SpCXv apl-Ω-Zn-\p≈ ssZh-Øns‚
kvt\lw apkvenw-Iƒ \¬Ip-∂- °p-I?.
hmKvZm\w am{X-a-√, {]Xn-k-‘n-bn-emXv ? bYm¿∞- Ø n¬ {]hm- N - .........................................................
Ip∂ F√m a\p-jy¿°p-ap≈ Dd-∏pIs‚ ]Zhn F¥m-Wv? apl-ΩZv
I-fmWv. ssZhw a\p-jy-t\mSp \oXn
Fß-s\-bmWv a‰p {]hm-NI
- c
- n¬
ImWn-°p-tºmƒ a\p-jy≥ Xncn®p
\n∂p hyXy-kvX-\m-Ip-∂-Xv? a‰p
Ncn- { X]p- c p- j - ∑ m- c n¬ \n∂p apl- Ω Zv thdn´p Xs‚ kl-Po-hn--I-tfmSpw \oXn ImWn-°-Ww. thZ\n¬°p-∂Xv GsX√mw LS-I-ß-fn-em-Wv ˛ Cu \n-°p-∂-h-tcmSpw A\m-YXzw A\p-`-hn-°p-∂-h-tcmtNmZy- ß ƒs°√mw DØcw B≥tacn jnΩ¬ Sp-ap≈ klm-\p-`q-Xn, ]mh-ß-tfm-sSm∏w \n¬°mIs≠- Ø p- ∂ Xv {]hm- N I hy‡n- X z- Ø n- e m- W v . \p≈ {]Xn-_-≤X F∂nh-bmWv G‰hpw henb
ImcWw Jp¿-B≥ ]dbpw t]mse "apl-Ω-Zn-s‚Xv ssZh-km£yw F∂p sXfn-bn-°m≥ Hcp A\m-Yat\m-lc (hn-in-jvS) amXr-I-bmWv' (D-kvh-Øp¬ s\-b-√msX a‰m-sc-bmWv ssZhw Xnc-s™-Sp-°p-I?
lk\x 33-:21). {]hm-N-I-Po-hn-Xw, hN-\w, s]cp- =
am-‰w, coXn F√mw C°m-c-W-Øm¬ kp{]-[m-\-amFor Further Reading :
Wv. ssZhw {]hm-N-Is\ Xnc-s™-Sp-°p-I-bm-bncp-∂p. Xnc-s™-Sp-°-s∏-´-hs‚ amXr-Ibv°v Ncn- 1. Karen Armstrong: Muhammad : A Biography of the Prophet.
Karen Armstrong : Muhammad : Prophet for our Times.
{X-Øns‚ PU-Xztam ImgvNtbm _m[-I-am-In-√. 2.
3. Minou Reeves : Muhammad in Europe: A Thousand Year of Western
Jp¿-B-\nse {][m-\-amb Hcp kq‡w D≤-cn-®p- Myth-Making.
Maxime Rodinson: Muhammad : Prophet of Islam
sIm- ≠ v , Ic¨ Bwkv t {SmMv {]hm- N - I s‚ 4.
5. Colin Turner : Islam : The Basics
\ntbmKw hnh-cn-°p-∂p-≠v. a°m-Im-eØv, Jp¿- 6. William Watt Montgomery : Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman.
William Watt Montgomery : Muhammad at Medina
B≥ shfn-]m-Sp-I-fpsS BZy-L-´-Øn¬ s]mSp- 7.8.William
Watt Montgomery : Muhammad at Mecca.
∂s\ {]hm-N-I\p shfn-]m-Sp-Iƒ \ne-®p-t]m-bn. 9. Tor Andrae: Muhammad : The Man and His Faith.
10.
Annemarie
Schimmel : And Muhammad is His Messenger.
Hcm-bØp t]mepw Cd-°n-°n-´msX c≠p h¿jw 11. Robert Spencer:
The Truth about Muhammad.
IS∂p t]mbn. apl-ΩZv Bi-¶m-Ip-e-\m-bn. cmhp- 12. Michael Cook : Muhammad.
Martin Forward: Muhammad : A short Biography.
Iƒ \n{Zm-hn-lo-\-ß-fm-bn, ssZhw Xs∂ Dt]- 13.
13. Martin Lings: Muhammad

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