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CE F311 Design of Concrete Structures

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama


Course Lecture-I

BITS Pilani
Hyderabad Campus

Basics of Concrete Technology

Introduction
Basics of Concrete Technology
Cement
Fine Aggregate
Coarse Aggregate
Water
Admixtures
Use of Steel as a Reinforcing Material
Types of Steel
Properties of Steel
Basics of Reinforced Concrete Design
Objectives and Methods of Design
Different Structural components and their behavior
Loads and Forces acting on various structural components
Stress-Strain characteristics of concrete and steel
Size effect of Concrete
Durability of Concrete

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Concrete Components
HUMAN
BODY

CONCRETE

COARSE
AGG.
FINE
AGG.

=
=

CEMENT.
MATERIAL

MUSCLE

WATER

BLOOD

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

SKELETON

FAT

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Composition of concrete
Materials ( volume % )
Gravel

Sand

34

30

Water

Air

18

Cement

15

Cost ( % )
Gravel

Sand

20

21

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

Cement

59

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Global Annual Consumption of


Structural Materials
Material

Unit Weight
(kg/m3)

Million
Tonnes

Tonnes/Person

Structural steel

7850

1244

0.18

Cement

1440

3400

0.48

Concrete

2400

2.4 (990 litres)

Timber

700

18,000

277

0.04

Drinking
water

1000

5132

0.73 (730 litres)

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Advantages of Concrete
1. Moulded to any shape
2. Easy availability of materials (for manufacturing concrete)
3. Low maintenance
4. Water and fire resistant*
5. Good rigidity
6. High compressive strength
7. Economical*

8. Low-skilled labour required for handling concrete


Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Disadvantages of Concrete
1. Low tensile strength (one-tenth of its compressive strength)
2. Requires forms and shoring (Process of Supporting a
Building).
3. Relatively low strength(the compressive strength of normal
concrete is about 510% steel)
4. Time-dependent, volume changes with variation.
5. CO2 emission*****
Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Concrete States
Plastic State: When the concrete is first mixed it is like 'bread
dough'.
It is soft and can be worked or moulded into different
shapes. In this state concrete is called PLASTIC. Concrete
is plastic during placing and compaction.
The most important properties of plastic concrete are
workability and cohesiveness.
A worker will sink into plastic concrete.
Setting State Concrete then begins to stiffen.
The stiffening of concrete, when it is no longer soft, is
called SETTING.
Setting takes place after compaction and during finishing.
Concrete that is sloppy or wet may be easy to place but will
be more difficult to finish.
A worker leaves footprints in setting concrete.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Hardening State
After concrete has set it begins to gain
strength and harden.
The properties of hardened concrete are
strength and durability.
Hardened concrete will have no
footprints on it if walked on.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Ordinary Portland Cement


Dry powder (grey) of very fine particles
Forms a paste when mixed with water
Chemical reaction-Hydration

Glue (Binder)
Paste coats all the aggregates together

Hardens and forms a solid mass

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Cementitious materials & their percentage

Oxides

Cement

FA

Microsilica

GGBS

CaO

63-68%

1-2%

30-40%

SiO2

19-24%

55-65%

95%

30-40%

Al2O3

4-7%

10-16%

11-16%

Fe2O3

1-4%

10%

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

These compounds present in the raw materials when


subjected to high clinkering temperature combine with each
other to form compounds called Bogues compound

Tricalcium silicate
Dicalcium silicate
Tricalcium Aluminate
Tretracalcium
Aluminoferrite

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

3 CaO.SiO2
2 CaO.SiO2
3 CaO.Al2O3
4 CaO.Al2O3.
Fe2O3

C3S
C2S
C3A
C4AF

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Tricalcium silicate & dicalcium silicate constitute 70 to 80%


of cement & are the most important compounds responsible
for strength.
Also modifications in cement can be made which will lead to
the production of different types of cement as will be
discussed separately in further course of the discussion.
CALCIUM SILICATE HYDRATES:
During the course of reaction of C3S and C2S with water,
Calcium silicate hydrates(C-S-H) and Ca(OH)2 are formed.

2 C3S + 6H
2 C2S + 4H

C3S2H3 + 3Ca(OH)2

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

C3S2H3 + Ca(OH)2
BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Types of Cement
1) Ordinary Portland Cement

a) O.P.C 43 Grade

- IS:8112:1989

b) O.P.C 53 Grade

- IS:12269:1987

2) Rapid Hardening Cement

- IS:8041:1990

3) Sulphate Resisting Cement

- IS:12330:1988

4) Portland Slag Cement

- IS:455:1989

5) Low Heat Cement

- IS:12600:1989

6) Portland Pozzolana Cement

- IS:1489 (Part I)

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Storage

Cement should be stored off the ground in a wellaired, clean, dry place. Wrapping the cement bags in

plastic sheets gives extra protection, Bulk cement will


normally be stored in silos.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Setting time of Cement (IS 4031(5))


Initial setting time is that time period between the time water is added to cement and
time at which 1 mm square section needle fails to penetrate the cement paste,
placed in the Vicats mould 5 mm to 7 mm from the bottom of the mould.
Final setting time is that time period between the time water is added to cement and
the time at which 1 mm needle makes an impression on the paste in the mould but 5
mm attachment does not make any impression.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Setting time of Cement-Standard Specifications


Type/Name Of
Cement

Referenced
Indian
Stanadard

Initial
Setting
Time, mints
(min.)

Final Setting
Time, mints
(max.)

OPC(33)
OPC(43)
OPC(53)
SRC
PPC
RHPC
PSC
High alumina
Super sulphated
Low heat
Masonry cement

IS:269
IS:8112
IS:12269
IS:12330
IS:1489,P1
IS:8041
IS:455
IS:6452
IS:6909
IS:12600
IS:3466

30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
60
90

600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
1440

IRS-T-40

Railway

60

600

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Aggregates
These are of two basic types:
COARSE: crushed rock, gravel or screenings.
FINE: fine and coarse sands and crusher fines.
Aggregates should be:
STRONG and HARD: A stronger, harder aggregate will give a
stronger final concrete. Never use a crumble or flakey rock like
sandstone.
DURABLE to stand up to wear and tear and weathering.
CHEMICALLY INACTIVE so the aggregates dont react with
the cement.
Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

CLEAN Dirt or clay sticking to the aggregates will weaken the


bond between paste and aggregates.
GRADED Aggregates should range in size so that they fit
together well. This gives a stronger and denser concrete.

Rounded aggregates give a more workable mix.


Angular aggregates make concrete harder to place, work and
compact, but can make concrete stronger.

Flaky particles have influence on workability,


requirement, interlocking, strength, & durability

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

cement

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Aggregates are important constituents in concrete & give body


to the concrete
Reduce shrinkage & Effect economy
Occupy 70-80 % of volume of concrete
Fine aggregates:

Natural or manufactured sand with particles up to 10mm.


Generally, sand particles almost entirely pass the 4.75 mm
sieve and are predominantly retained on the 75m sieve.
Coarse aggregates:
Natural gravel or manufactured material. The
predominantly retained on the 4.75 mm sieve.
Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

particles are
BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Size of Aggregates
MAS that can be used are governed by the following factors:

Thickness of section (not larger than 1/5th)


Spacing of reinforcement (not larger than 3/4th of clear
distance)

Clear Cover
Mixing, Handling, & placing techniques.

MAS of 20mm is widely used for Structural & Road


Works.
MAS of 10mm is used in shotcrete.

MAS of 80 to 150mm is used for mass concreting.


Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Properties of fine aggregates

Road Works

Structural
Concrete

2.0 to 3.5

Max. 2%

Max. 2%

a) Sodium Sulphate

Max. 10%

Max. 10%

b) Magnesium
Sulphate

Max. 15%

Max. 15%

Properties
1) Fineness
Modulus (FM)
2)Water Absorption
3) Soundness Test:

*Soundness test is to determine the resistance to disintegration of aggregates


by saturated solutions of sodium sulphate or magnesium sulphate.

*FM more than 3.2 is generally considered unsuitable for concrete


Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Sieve Analysis
% Passing
I.S Sieve
(mm)

63mm

40mm

20mm

16mm

12.5mm

10mm

80

100

63

85 - 100

100

40

0 - 30

85-100

100

20

0 to 5

0-20

85-100

100

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

16

85100

100

12.5

85 to
100

100

10

0 to 5

0 to 5

0 to 20 0 to 30

0 to 45

85 to 100

4.75

0 to 5

0 to 5

0 to 10

0 to 20

2.36

0 to 5

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

STORAGE

Aggregates should be stored where they will stay clean,


separated from other materials and dry. If the aggregates are
very wet use less water in the mix.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Properties of Aggregates

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Water
Water is mixed with the cement powder to form a paste which
holds the aggregates together like glue.
Water must be clean, fresh and free from any dirt, unwanted
chemicals or rubbish that may affect concrete.
Many concrete plants now use recycled water.

Always check bore water before use.


Dont use sea water as it may rust the steel reinforcement in
the concrete.
Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Permissible Limits for Solids as per Table 1 IS:456-2000


Material

Limits

Organic

200 mg/ml

Inorganic

3000 mg/ml

Sulphates (as SO3)

400 mg/ml

Chlorides (as Cl)

2000 mg/ml

Suspended matter

2000 mg/ml

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Admixtures
Admixture can be defined as a chemical product which is added
to the concrete batch immediately before or during mixing or
during an additional mixing operation prior to the placing of

concrete for the purpose of achieving specific modifications


to the normal properties of concrete.
Admixtures are commonly classified by their function in
concrete but often they exhibit some additional action.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Admixtures (Contd..)
Why do we need Admixtures:
Concrete must be placeable and durable.
High degree of workability is required in case of thin

walls, tremie concreting, pumping of concrete.


Durability includes limitation for water to cement ratio
so that the concrete structure maintains its required
strength and serviceability.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Admixtures (Contd..)
Admixtures are generally used to achieve the following:
In Fresh Concrete:
Increase workability and/or
increasing the w/c ratio.

Improve cohesiveness
segregation or bleeding.

and

pumpability

thereby

without

reducing

Improve to some extent set retardation


Entrain air bubbles in the fresh concrete.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Admixtures (Contd..)
In Hardened Concrete:

Increase strength by reducing w/c ratio, maintaining


the same workability
Reduce permeability and improve durability by
reducing w/c ratio.
Reduce heat of hydration & drying shrinkage by

reducing cement content.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Admixtures (Contd..)
The classification of ASTM C 494-92 is as follows:

Type A

- Water reducing

Type B

- Retarding

Type C

- Accelerating

Type D

- Water reducing and retarding

Type E

- Water reducing and accelerating

Type F

- High range water reducing(HRWRA)

Type G

- High range water reducing & Retarding

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Admixtures (Contd..)
Classification of superplasticizer:

Sulphonated napthalene-formaldehyde condensates (SNF)

Sulphonated melamine-formaldehyde condensates(SMF)

Fourth generation Superplasticizers:

Polycarboxylate Ether (PCE)

Acrylic polymer based (AC)

Multicarboxylate Ether

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Admixture interaction
Interaction of Water reducing admixtures

Cement
particles

Water
released

Water

Negative charge induced.


Interparticle repulsion occurs
Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Vibration of concrete

The purpose of compaction of concrete is to


achieve highest possible density of concrete by
removing the entrapped air
Types of vibrators
Internal vibrators

External vibrators
Vibrating tables
Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Improperly Consolidated - Honeycomb

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Improperly consolidated Concrete


Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Improperly consolidated Concrete


Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

Segregation at the bottom of the pour


(also note the trash at the bottom of the wa
BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Properties of fresh concrete

Workability
Segregation
Bleeding
Why are we interested in the properties of fresh concrete?

Influence the final quality of hardened concrete


Help to detect variations in material and process
Uniform fresh concrete - Uniform hardened concrete
Last chance to identify unsatisfactory quality

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Procedures used for testing freshly mixed concrete are


standardized
Workability & consistency
Bleeding and settlement
Setting time
Air content
Temperature
Density
Used not only in the laboratory but also in the field
Designed to eliminate random variations that may occur in the
test results and lead to unnecessary disputes on the quality of
concrete
Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Workability

Generally implies the ease with which a concrete mix can be


handled from mixer to its finally compacted shape
Consistency fluidity
Mobility ease of flow
Compactibility ease of compaction

Internal work required to produce full compaction

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Workability (Cont..)

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Measurement of Consistency
Workability Terminology

Very stiff

Stiff

Plastic

Soft (wet)

Flowing

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Slump Test
Requirement

Slump IS:1199

Slump Cone

Tamping Rod
Ruler

Suitable for normal


mixes of medium to
high workability

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Slump Test (Cont..)

Method

Concrete put in cone in 4 layer, each layer tamped 25 times


Top struck off and cone carefully lifted off
Slump measured

Not suitable for dry mixes & highly flowable mixes

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Workability Requirements
Slump (mm)
Concrete Construction

Maximum

Minimum

Reinforced foundation walls and footings

75

25

Plain footings, caissons and substructure


walls

75

25

Beams and reinforced walls

100

25

Building columns

100

25

Pavements and slabs

75

25

Mass Concrete

50

25

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Tolerance limits of workability as per IS 4926:2003


The IS 4926:2003 specifies the following tolerance limits of
workability as criteria for acceptance:
Slump: 25 mm or 1/3rd of the specified value
whichever is less
Compacting factor: 0.03 for specified value 0.9;
0.04 for specified value 0.9 0.8 0.05 for
specified value 0.8
Flow test: Acceptance criteria to be established
between the supplier and purchaser.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Segregation
Segregation refers to a separation of the components of fresh
concrete, resulting in a non-uniform mix

The primary causes of


segregation are differences in
specific gravity and size of
constituents
of
concrete.
Moreover, improper mixing,
improper
placing
and
improper consolidation also
lead to segregation.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

Sp.Gr.

Size

Cement 3-3.15 5-80 mm

C.Agg.

2.4-2.8 5-40 mm

F.Agg.

2.4-2.8

< 5 mm

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Segregation (Cont..)
Some of the factors
affecting segregation:
Larger maximum particle size
(25mm) and proportion of the
larger particles.
High specific gravity of coarse
aggregate.
Decrease in the amount of
fine particles.
Particle shape and texture.
Water/cement ratio.
Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Bleeding
Bleeding is the tendency of water to rise to the surface of
freshly placed concrete.

It is caused by the
inability
of
solid
constituents of the mix
to hold all of the mixing
water as they settle
down.
A special case of
segregation.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Bleeding (Cont..)
The tendency of concrete to bleeding depends largely on
properties of cement. It is decreased by:
Increasing the fineness of cement
Increasing the rate of hydration (C3S, C3A and alkalies)
Adding pozzolans
Reducing water content

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Flow test

Flow Test the measured spread in mm of a standard cone


on a dropping table

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Setting time of concrete (IS 8142-1976)

Initial Setting Time indicates that the


concrete has become too stiff to be
made mobile by vibration.

Final Setting Time indicates that the


compressive strength of concrete
measured on a standard cylinder is
about 0.7 MPa.

Penetration Resistance Apparatus

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Hardened Concrete
Concrete is normally sold by its Compressive Strength
This is measured in MPa (N/mm2 )
Typical strength range 10 to 60N/mm2
Sold by volume (m3), produced by weight (Kg)

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Strength of Concrete

FLEXURAL

COMPRESSIVE

Split
Tensile

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

Compressive strength
Flexural strength
Tensile strength

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Strength of Concrete (Cont..)


Compressive strength
Measured maximum resistance of a
concrete specimen to axial loading.
Generally:
expressed in N/mm2
At 1, 3, 7, & 28 days
Symbol fck

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Strength of Concrete (Cont..)


Compressive strength at a specified age, usually 28 days, measured on
standard cube or cylinder specimens, has traditionally been used as the
criterion for the acceptance of concrete.
This is very important for the designer because concrete properties such
as stressstrain relationship, modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, shear
strength, and bond strength are expressed in terms of the uniaxial
compressive strength.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Tensile Strength
Concrete is very week in tension, and direct tensile strength is only about
811 per cent of compressive strength for concretes of grade M25 and above.
The use of pozzolanic admixtures increases the tensile strength of
concrete. Although the tensile strength of concrete increases with an increase
in compressive strength, the rate of increase in tensile strength is of the
decreasing order.
Knowledge of tensile strength is required for the design of concrete
structural elements subject to transverse shear, torsion, and shrinkage and
temperature effects.
Its value is also used in the design of prestressed concrete structures, liquid
retaining structures, roadways, and runway slabs.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Tensile Strength (Cont..)


Shear Strength
Pure shear is a rare occurrence; usually a combination of flexural and shear stresses
exists, resulting in a diagonal tension failure.
Bond Strength*
The common assumption in RC that plane sections remain plane after bending will be
valid only if there is perfect bond between concrete and steel reinforcement. Bond
strength depends on the shear stress at the interface between the reinforcing bar and
the concrete and on the geometry of the reinforcing bar.

Courtesy: Shear
Analysis and Design in
RC Beam by Bambang
Piscesa, ST, MT

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Split Tensile Strength (IS 5816 : 1999)

Due to applied compression load a fairly uniform tensile


stress is induced over nearly 2/3 of the diameter of the
cylinder perpendicular to the direction of load application.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Split Tensile Strength (Cont..)


Splitting Tensile
Strength

st =

2P
Dl

P: applied compressive load

D: diameter of specimen
l: length of specimen

The advantage of the splitting test over the direct tensile


test is the same molds are used for compressive & tensile
strength determination.
The test is simple to perform and gives uniform results than
other tension tests.
Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Flexural Strength
The flexural tensile strength at failure or the modulus of
rupture is determined by loading a prismatic concrete
beam specimen.
The results obtained
are useful because
concrete is subjected
to flexural loads more
often
than
it
is
subjected to tensile
loads.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Flexural Strength (Cont..)

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Factors Affecting Compressive Strength


w/c or w/cm ratio (inversely related to concrete strength and
directly linked to the spacing between cement particles in the
cement paste)
Type of cement
Use of supplementary cementitious materials
Type of aggregates
Quantity and quality of mixing water
Moisture and temperature conditions during curing
Age of concrete
Rate of loading during the cube or cylinder test (*the measured
compressive strength of concrete increases with increasing rate of
loading*)
Size of specimen
Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

What Affects Concrete Strength

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

StressStrain Characteristics
Typical stressstrain curves of normal weight concrete of various grades, obtained
from uniaxial compression tests, are shown in Fig. Such a mathematical definition of
stressstrain curve is required for non-linear analysis of concrete structures.

Typical stressstrain curves of concrete in compression (a) Concrete with normal weight
aggregates (b) Normal weight vs lightweight aggregate concrete
Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Modulus of Elasticity
The modulus of elasticity of concrete is a key factor for estimating the
deformation of buildings and members as well as a fundamental factor for
determining the modular ratio. The Youngs modulus of elasticity may be
defined as the ratio of axial stress to axial strain, within the elastic range.
When linear elastic analysis is used, one should use the static modulus of
elasticity. Various definitions of modulus of elasticity are shown in Fig. (in
the following slide).
The dynamic modulus of elasticity of concrete corresponds to a small
instantaneous strain. It has to be used when concrete is used in

structures subjected to dynamic loading.


Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Modulus of Elasticity (Cont..)


Tangent Modulus of Elasticity
The instantaneous rate of change of stress as
a function of strain. It is the slope at any point
on a stress-strain diagram.
Secant Modulus of Elasticity
Ratio of stress to strain at any point on curve in
a stress-strain diagram. It is the slope of a line
from the origin to any point on a stress-strain
curve.
Poissons ratio
It is defined as the ratio of lateral strain to the
longitudinal strain, under uniform axial stress.
Widely varying values: Range of 0.15
0.25.
Both NSC and HSC: use 0.2.
For lightweight concretes: It has to be
determined from tests.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Durability of Concrete
Deteriorating concrete structures not only affect the productivity of the

society but also have a great impact on our resources, environment, and
human safety.
The deterioration of concrete structures is due to the main emphasis
given to mechanical properties and the structural capacity and the
neglect of construction quality and life cycle management.
Strength and durability are two separate aspects of concrete; neither will
guarantee the other. A durable concrete is one that performs satisfactorily
in the working environment of anticipated exposure conditions during its
service life.
Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Durability of Concrete (Cont..)


Factors Affecting the Durability of Concrete
1. Environment
2. Concrete cover to the embedded steel*
3. Quality and type of constituent materials
4. Cement content and w/c ratio of concrete

5. Degree of compaction and curing of concrete


6. Shape and size of member

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Durability of Concrete (Cont..)

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Durability Criteria as per IS 456- 2000

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Curing
Very necessary for strength and durability of concrete structure
Do not start plastering before completion of Brickwork curing.
By Hessian Clothes for columns & sides of beams
Ponding on flat horizontal surface.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Strength and Curing

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Ready Mix Concrete

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Concrete Mix Design (IS 10262:2009)


Step 1
Determine Target mean strength of concrete as:
ft = fck + k. s
where, ft = target mean compressive strength at 28 days,
fck = Characteristic compressive strength of concrete at 28 days,
k = usually 1.65 as per is 456-2000
s = standard deviation.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Concrete Mix Design (Cont..)


Specified and Target Mean Strength

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Concrete Mix Design (Cont..)

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Concrete Mix Design (Cont..)


Choose the right w/c ratio

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Concrete Mix Design (Cont..)


Relationship Between
W/C and Permeability

Neville (1995) Properties of Concrete


Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Concrete Mix Design (Cont..)


Step 2 (Selection of Water-Cement Ratio)
Choose w/c ratio against max w/c ratio for the requirement of durability.
(Table 5, IS:456- 2000).
Make a more precise estimate of the preliminary w/c ratio corresponding to
the target average strength.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Durability Criteria as per IS 456- 2000

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Concrete Mix Design (Cont..)


Adjustments to minimum cement content for aggregates other than 20 mm
nominal max. size aggregates as per IS 456: 2000.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Concrete Mix Design (Cont..)


Step 3
Estimate the air content for maximum size of aggregate used.

Approximate Entrapped Air Content

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Concrete Mix Design (Cont..)


Selection of Water Content
Water Content is Influenced By:

Aggregate size

Aggregate shape and texture

Workability required

Water cement ratio

Cementations material content

Environmental exposure condition

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Concrete Mix Design (Cont..)

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Concrete Mix Design (Cont..)

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Concrete Mix Design (Cont..)


Step 4 Calculation of Cementations Material
Calculate the cement content from W/C ratio and final water content arrived after
adjustment.
Check the cement content so calculated against the min. cement content from the
requirement of durability. Adopt greater of the two values.

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Concrete Mix Design (Cont..)


Step 5 Estimation of Coarse Aggregate Proportion
For W/C ration of 0.5 use following Table

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Concrete Mix Design (Cont..)


Correction in Coarse Aggregate values

The table specified for W/C ratio of 0.5


1. For Every +0.05 change in W/C ratio: -0.01
2. For Every -0.05 change in W/C ratio: +0.01
3. For Pumpable Mix : -10 %

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Concrete Mix Design (Cont..)


Step 6 Combination of Different Coarse Aggregate Fraction
It can be done based on IS 383

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Concrete Mix Design (Cont..)

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Concrete Mix Design (Cont..)


Combined Grading of CA & FA

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Concrete Mix Design (Cont..)


Step 7 Estimation of Fine Aggregate Proportion

a Volume of Concrete = 1 m3
b Volume of Cement = (Mass of Cement / SG of Cement) * 1/1000
c Volume of Water = (Mass of Water / SG of Water) * 1/1000
d Volume of Chemical Admixture (2 % of Mass of cementations material) = (Mass of
Admixt. / SG of Admixt) * 1/1000

e Volume of All in Aggregates = [a - ( b + c + d )]


f Mass of Coarse aggregate = e * Volume of

coarse aggregate * SG of coarse

aggregate * 1000

Mass of fine aggregate = e * Volume of fine aggregate * SG of fine aggregate *


1000

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Proportions for Nominal Mix Concrete

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Example for Nominal Mixes

Grade of Concrete: M 20
Total Aggregate (CA + FA) per 50 kg cement: 250 kg, FA of Zone II (say)
Water content: 30 lit per 50 kg cement
w/c ratio= 30/50= 0.60
Considering FA: CA= 1: 2, Sand= (250 X 1)/ 3= 83 kg
Coarse Aggregate= (250 X 2)/ 3= 167 kg

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Example for Nominal Mixes

Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

References
ACC Concrete Manuals
N Subramanian-Basics of Concrete
CONCRETE BASICS: A Guide to Concrete Practice-Cement Concrete &
Aggregates Australia
Bureau of Indian Standard Codes (BIS Codes)
American Concrete Institute (ACI)
www.cement.org
www.concrete.org
Concrete Technology- M S Shetty
Properties of Concrete- A M Neville

Videos for Reference:


Fresh Properties of Concrete
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fafSGNna-gY
Hardened Properties of Concrete
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eYfbypCnDfo
Instructor: Mr. J S Kalyana Rama

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

BITS Pilani
Hyderabad Campus

THANK YOU!