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EPR 2203

Language Arts B

Sharjah Womens College

Teaching Methods for the Primary

School Teacher A

Done by: Aysha Ahmad

ID number: H00283490

Cover page ......
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What is TPR? .
How is TPR method works? .





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The benefits and laminations of the
TPR method in the UAE


Content Page

Language teaching methods help a lot of teachers to elicit the best method
that makes teaching second language more flexible, comfortable, and the
process of learning language easier for the students. Using TPR method is a
good model to teach beginner students in English as a second language
rather than using the traditional method because it is fun, interested, and to
teach them the basic of the language. In this report, I will inform approach
known as a total physical response.
What is TPR?
TPR is kind of method that happened through the coordination of teacher
talking and action from the student, which that means the development of
language enhanced by physical movement. (Harmer, 2007)This approach
created by Dr. James J Asher, Professor of Psychology at San Jose University
in California who developed in the late 1960s with 30 years of researches in
the laboratory.
As well, it is behind many theories such as; childhood language acquisition
theories, the right brain/left brain divide, and lowering stress and the
affective filter. (Shearon)
How is TPR method works?
The idea of TPR is same as the way that the child acquiring the first
language from his parent, for instance, parents gives a command for the
child, and he physically responds to do the action. So that prove that child
cannot speak with his parents but understand them before picking up the
words through the action and listening to the sounds and patterns that
around the child. (Pesce) Teacher can use TPR inside the classroom by
following steps:

1- Teacher gives the command for students such as; raise your hand or
stop writing.
2- Teacher demonstrates the action by model it. For example, when she
said, raise your hand she raises her hand.
3- After that, teacher repeats the word or phrase.
4- Students respond physically doing the action when they are listening
to the command from the teacher.
5- Some students will follow the command but
dont speak until feel confident.
The process of the TPR method moves step by step
until child use the target language freely which that
similar to the process of scaffolding. According to
Bruner theory who pointed out that subject matter
should be represented in terms of the child's way of
viewing the world and learn. (Jerome Bruner's
Theory of Development: Discovery Learning &

you give command I

I give command
I say and model
I listen
you you

In the first step, the role of the teacher is saying the

target language for students, to support learning the second language. The
teacher can use the picture, realia, and object to facility the target
language due to help visual learners to grasp the target language easily.
On the other hand, students are observing and listening to the teacher.

In the second steps, the teacher demonstrates the word or phrase for
students by model it. For instance; she said the phrase close the door then
she will do the action physically. When the teacher did this step students,
make a connection between the language and body conversations which
that necessary to make a meaning for what they heard.

In the third step, what apparent is drilling that come from the teacher to
scaffolding the child learning. Consequently, the teacher gives the command,
and the students respond physically because they understand what they
heard. This step is similar the process of acquiring the first language when
parents give a command, and the child responds physically without using the
language. For example, father says give me water the child respond to his
father by giving him the bottle of water. (Frost R, 2004) So the emphasizing
of TPR is on the listening comprehension.
In the forth step, students will follow the commands that come from the
teacher and dont speak until they feel confident and have elements that
support them like, feeling happy and have low of anxiety. According to
Krashen theory who pointed out that people gained the second language if
their affective filters are low enough and find the organizing physical action
in the classroom assistant them to do this. When all students respond to the
command and comprehend it, at that time students can give the command
to each others. (Shearon) Briefly, the teacher is active director while
students are actors and imitator to hem/her. Also she/he decides what she
wants to teach, demonstrate and models the new materials
Language comes up with TPR:
As well as, TPR include a lot of repetition and drilling of language so the child
can pick up many vocabularies and simple structure of grammar but complex
grammar it could be difficult to use it with TPR. Teacher can integrate other
methods with TPR to demonstrate the complex structure of grammar due to
facility the learning. According to Asher who pointed out that TPR methods
should integrate it with other methods to support the child learning. (Harmer,
The errors of language could face any learner so with TPR method student
can correct it by listening and drilling with the teacher. If teacher noticed that
students make an error during the oral communication, she/he does not
correct the errors but repeat the phrase or work again in true form to make
the child aware of his mistake. The correcting of mistake must be carried out
in an unobtrusive manner due to make the child feel, free of stress to pick up
the language.

Activities associated with TPR:

1- Imperative drills for instance; giving commands like give me my

2- Integrate it with presentation slide, for example teacher put pictures

with following question from her for instance, who is jumping? then
students point on the person and jump or smiling action then jump or
smile and so on.
3- Construct verb in Tenses past/present/future and continues aspects
for instance (I went to park; I get up at 7:00 am).
4- Used in classroom language by telling the language of the action
such as (stand up, open the notebook, eyes with your teacher)
5- Storytelling- Puppets.
6- TPR songs and finger plays. (Frost R, 2004)

The benefits and laminations of the method:

Any method has two faces with advantage and disadvantage, the
advantages of TPR is:

Engaged children to move around the class which that is great for
kinesthetic learners who need more action or hands-on activities
It is fun and interested.
Stop using translation.
Students can learn the language faster with-free of stress.

Improve the child listening skill through paying attention to the


Develop the communication language very well

On the other hand, they have some disadvantages with TPR method such

Child will have less opportunity to say his own thoughts in a creative

It is difficult for shy students.

It is narrow because everything cannot explain with TPR especially

complex structure of grammar.

TPR method in the UAE School:

Many Emirates students cannot speak the English language until they
graduate and the reason is return to the lack of using various kind of
methods in teaching the second language. I recommend, choosing an
appropriate method for beginner learners of English second language which
is, TPR because, it helps the students to gain the second language easily
without any effort or stress in the first year of their learning. It has a lot of
interesting which that necessary element to keep child learns.
In my teaching practice experience, I noticed that most of the students
cannot use the English language during the activity because the teacher
used PPP method which is bored and narrow not allowing them using the
language to speak.

From my opinion, children like physical activities such as, moving, make
hands on activities rather than writing and reading to develop their
language. PPP method is the teacher centered so, teacher time talking is
more. Consequently, students cannot use simple words between each
other to communicate inside classroom. TPR help children to pick up the
language and understand it then use it between each other which that
necessary to keep them engaged, passion for learning, have fun,
memorable and don't find English tricky.

Frost R. (2004). Teaching English: Total Physical Response TPR. Retrieved November
5, 2015, from British Council, BBC:
Harmer, J. (2007). How to teach English. England : Longman .
Jerome Bruner's Theory of Development: Discovery Learning & Representation.
(n.d.). Retrieved 11 11, 2015, from
Pesce, A. (n.d.). DM? CLT? TPR? 6 Most Popular ESL Teaching Methods, And Which
One You Should Be Using. Retrieved 11 5, 2015, from
Shearon, B. (n.d.). Total Physical Response. Retrieved 11 8, 2015, from