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# Olivier HERBIET Thermodynamique

## Exercice 4 : Premier principe – Energie interne

1. Considérons le système fermé constitué à l’état 1 par l’air du pneu (pression p0,
volume V0 et température T0) et l’air situé dans le réservoir (température T0), et à
l’état 2 par l’air du pneu après gonflage (pression p2 et volume V0).

Les trois équations d’états correspondant aux deux états initiaux et à l’état final
s’écrivent :

p 0 ⋅ V0 = n0 ⋅ R ⋅ T0 (1)
p1 ⋅ V1 = n1 ⋅ R ⋅ T0 (2 )

## p 2 ⋅ V0 = (n0 + n1) ⋅ R ⋅ T2 (3)

2. Le Premier Principe donne, compte tenu que le gonflage est adiabatique, le bilan
énergétique :
V0

∆U = W = − ∫p 1 ⋅ dV = p1 ⋅ V1 (4)
V0 +V1

## ∆U = n ⋅ C v ⋅ dT = (n0 + n1 ) ⋅ Cv ⋅ (T2 − T0 ) (5)

Calculons :

p1 ⋅ V1 = (n0 + n1 ) ⋅ Cv ⋅ (T2 − T0 )
 p 2 ⋅ V0 
n1 ⋅ R ⋅ T0 = (n0 + n1 ) ⋅ Cv ⋅  − T0 
 (n0 + n1) ⋅ R 
p ⋅ V − T0 ⋅ (n0 + n1 ) ⋅ R
n1 ⋅ R ⋅ T0 = CV ⋅ 2 0
R
C C ⋅n
n1 = 2 V ⋅ ( p 2 ⋅ V0 − T0 ⋅ n0 ⋅ R ) − V 1
R ⋅ T0 R
 R + CV  C
n1 ⋅   = 2 V ⋅ ( p 2 ⋅ V 0 − p 0 ⋅ V0 )
 R  R ⋅ T0
CV
n1 = ⋅ ( p 2 ⋅ V0 − p0 ⋅ V0 )
R ⋅ T0 ⋅ C P
p 0 ⋅ V0
n0 =
R ⋅ T0
p 2 ⋅ V0
T2 =
(n0 + n1 ) ⋅ R
Olivier HERBIET Thermodynamique
Exercice 4 : Premier principe – Energie interne

A.N. :

## V0 = 0.02m 3 / p 0 = 2.2 ⋅ 10 5 Pa / T0 = 293K / p 2 = 3.5 ⋅ 10 5 Pa / CV = 20.9 J ⋅ mol −1 ⋅ K −1

n1 = 0.764mol

n0 = 1.807 mol

T2 = 327.6 K ou 54.6°C

## 3. L’équation d’état d’une transformation Isochore s’écrit :

n ⋅ R ⋅ dT = V ⋅ dp

Donc :

(n0 + n1 ) ⋅ R ⋅ (T3 − T2 ) = V0 ⋅ ( p3 − p 2 )
(n0 + n1 ) ⋅ R ⋅ (T3 − T2 )
p3 = + p2
V0

A.N. :

T3 = 293K

p3 = 3.1 ⋅ 10 5 Pa ou 3.1bar

p3 < p 2

## Dans une transformation Isochore, la variation de la température entraine la variation

de la pression. Ainsi quand la température diminue, la pression diminue.

## 4. L’équation de la quantité de chaleur Q d’une transformation Isochore s’écrit :

QV = n ⋅ CV ⋅ ∆T
Soit
QV = (n0 + n1) ⋅ CV ⋅ (T3 − T2 )

A.N. :

QV = −1860 J