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https://www.scribd.com/doc/29228110/GEOPHYSICALFLUIDDYNAMICSFOROCEANOGRAPHERSVonSchwind1980
08/03/2013
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Geophysical Fluid Dynamics for Oceanographers "', ) I
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PrenticeHall. Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632
library or Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Von Schwind, Joseph 1.
Geophysical fluid dynamics for
oceanographers.
Bibliography: p. Includes index,
1. Ocean currents. 2. Ocean waves.
3. Oceanatmosphere interaction. I. Title.
GC239.V66 551.4'7 7923599
ISBN 0133525910
Interior design and editorial/production supervision by STEVEN BoBKER Cover design: Edsal Enterprises
Manufacturing buyers: GORDON OSBOURNE and JOYCE LEVATINO
© 1980 by PrenticeHall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 07632
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or
by any means without permission in writing from the publisher.
Printed in the United States of Arnrk a
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 I
. PrenticeHall International, Inc., London PrenticeHall of Australia Ply. Limited, Sydney PrenticeHall of Canada, Ltd., Toronto PrenticeHall of India Private Limited, New Delhl PrenticeHall of Japan, Inc., Tokyo
PrenticeHall of Southeast Asia Pte. Ltd., Singapore Whitehall Books Limited, Welling/on, New Zealand
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( To Charles L. Taylor, a friend
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Contents
ONE
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Preface xi
Review of Vectors and ~artesian Tensors
11 Introduction, 1
12 Indicial Notation, 2
13 The Kronecker Delta and the Alternating Unit Tensor, 4 14 Addition and Subtraction of Vectors and Tensors. 5 15 1 he Dot Product of Two Vectors, 6
16 The Cross Product of Two Vectors, 6
17 The Gradient of a ~calar Field, 7,
18 The Divergence of a Vector Field, 9
19 The Curl of a Vector Function of Position, 9 110 The Dyadic Product, 10
111 The Double Dot:Product of Two Vectors, 10 112 The Sjngl~ Dot Product of Two Tennors. 10 113 The Dot Product of a Tensor and a Vector. 11 114 The Laplacian of a Scalar Field, 11
115 Matrices and Their Transpose, 11
116 Matrix Multiplication, 12
1.17 Tran.lorrnotion of Vectors and Tenlora Between Cartesian Coordinate Systems, 14
118 Principal Coordinates, 16
119 Two Integral Theorems for Vectors and Tensors, 20
vii
viii Contents
TWO Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics 21
21 Notation, 21
22 The Material Derivative, 22
2~ Lagrangian Versus Eulerian Representation, 22 24 Representation of a Fluid in Motion, 26
25 Kinematic Modes o! a Fluid, 30
26 Deformation and Vorticity Tensors, 32 2 7 Normal Deformation, 35
".. 28 Shear Deformation, 36 29 Rotation and Vorticity, 38
210 Summary of Relations Concerning Two~Dimensional
Rotation and Shear, 40
211 Relative Motion Analysis, 41
212 Kinematic Classification of Fluid Motion, 57 213 The Stream Function, 57
214 The Velocity Potential. 62
215 Laplacian Flow, 65
216 The Kinematic Boundary Condition, 66 217 Distribution of Variables, 69
218 The Continuity Equation, 75
219 ThreeDimensional Leibnitz Rule and
the Reynolds Transport Theorem, 77
220 Moving Cartesian Coordinate Systems, 78
221 Newton's Law of Motion on a Rotating Earth, 84 222 Volume Forces, 86
223 Surface Forces, 87
224 Symmetry of the Viscous Stress Tensor, 91 '" 225 The Momentum Equation, 93
226 Representation of the Viscous Stress Tensor and the NavierStokes Equation, 97
......... 227 The Hydrostatic Approximation, 101 228 The Vorticity Equati, .n., 102
229 Conservation of pO'(lni al Vorticity, 107 230 The Bernoulli Equa'of'! 116
231 Elementary Applice: jOri . of the Horizontal Equations of Motio!.. '20
232 Time Averaged Form o. the Momentum
and Continuity Equations for lnccmpresslble Flow, 134 233 Eddy Coefficients, 144
234 Differences Between the Eddy Coefficients, 152 235 Estimating the Eddy Coefficients, 153
236 Elementary Examples of the Application of
Eddy Coefficients. 171
/'
Contenls
T H R E E WindDriven Ocean Circulation 179
FO U R
F I V E
3.1 Int,oduction, 179
32 Sverdrup's Study of WindDriven Currents in a Ba;ociinic Ocean. 180
33 Westward Intensification of WindDriven Ocean Currents. 189
34 Munk's Theory of the WindDriven Ocean Circulation. 201
35 Oualitative Effects of the Nonlinear Terms in a Large Scale
Modol of a Western Boundary CUrlont. 218
The Hydrothermodynamic Equations of a Binary Fluid 225
41 Introduction, 225
42 Generation and Dissipation of Mechanical Energy, 226
43 Conservation of Total Energy, 231
i 44 The First Law of Thermodynamics, 234
I 45 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. 235 "6 Further Consequences of Kelvin's Hypothesis, 241
4. ;' Determination of the Thermodynamic Properties of Sea Water, 250
large Scale Ocean Waves in the Absence of Tida! Forces 255
51 Introduction, 255
52 The Long Wave Equations, 258 53 Waves of the First Class, 261 54 Plane Sverdrup Waves, 264 55 Plane poincare Waves, 274
56 Plane Kelvin and Proudman Waves, 280 57 Plane Rossby Waves, 287
Bibliography 293
Books for Supplementary Reading 297
Index 299
ix
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Preface
In teaching introductory geophysical fluid dynamics at the Naval Postgraduate School, I could not find a textbook to suit the needs of graduate students in my oceanography programs.
As is the case in many environmental science departments, the academic background of the students varied greatly. In most instances the students had absolutely no formal education in fluid dynamics beyond under . graduate general physics. Also, for most students, quite a few years had ~ .. passed since they had completed their undergraduate work. These difficulties· probably exist in other similar programs.
My problem was to find a textbook directed to the fluid dynamics of the ocean, suitable for beginning graduate students who were academically capable but "rusty," of sufficient mathematical complexity to be challenging but not overwhelming, and of such detail in exposition as to be convincing .. No available single text seemed to meet these requirements and consequently, as many teachers before have done, I began writing and distributing detailed lecture notes. These notes were well enough received so as to encourage me
to formalize the effort. This book is the outcome.
xi
xii Preface
The reader will find nothing original in the material covered. I have attempted to assemble and discuss the subject matter in what I believe to be a clear and cohesive manner, capable of being understood to persons with technical backgrounds even though they may have no formal education in theoretical physical oceanography. Further, it has not be my intent to exhaust any single topic, but to make available sufficient material, of a fundamental nature, to serve as an intelligent starting point for independent and more advanced study.
My debt to others is limitless: to my colleagues Robert O. Reid, from
whom a part of the material on the hydrothermodynamics of a binary fluid was obtained, Worth D. Nowlin, Jr., Jerry Galt, and Dale F. Leipper; to " the many students who have endured my lectures; to the dozen students who have allowed me to work out on the handball court the frustrations resulting from the sedentary job of authorship; to Carol J. Sams for typing the draft
./
of the text; and to my wife Catherine Ann.
lt was possible to write li,;s book due to the funding provided by the Naval Sea Systems Commanr,!, epresented by John F. Ropek. This most essential contribution allowed fe' ief from teaching duties and provided the time needed to put it all toget he] .
Joseph J. von Schwind Monterey, California
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ONE
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Review of
Vectors and Cartesian Tensors
_.__.__ .. __ .
11 Introduction
Physical quantities that are encountered in geophysical fluid dynamics can be categorized as scalars, vectors, or secondorder tensors. For example, we have as scalars such quantities as time, temperature, volume, and energy; as vectors the quantities of force, velocity, acceleration, and momentum; and as secondorder tensors the quantities of shear stress and momentum flux. One of the methods by which we can distinguish among these quantities is as
follows:
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Scalar = It, s, T
Vector = V, a, F (boldface) Tenser = <J>, :D (boldface script)
For Cartesian tensors in general (where a scalar can be considered as a tensor of order zero and a vector as a tensor of order one) it is possible to define four different kinds of multiplication: that of the usual arithmetic type and that ...,f three special types: the "dot" product >, the "cross" product X,
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2
Review of Vectors and (:artesian Tensors
and the "double dot" product :. Typically, we have (b) (8) = scalar
n » F = scalar
n x V = vector
rr : :D = scalar
The rules for d'?t~~miiiing the order of the result of any of these four operations can be summarized as follows:
Multiplication Type
Order of Result
None X
J.:
1:  1 1:2 1:4
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where L is the summation of the order of the terms entering into the operation. Thus, aB is of order 0 + 0 ~~ 0; n • F is of order 1 + I .2 =,0; Q x V is of order 1 I I  1 = 1; and ~r : :Dis of order 2 + 2  4. = o.
When it is stated that a certain set of quantities is a tensor of order n, it is meant that ways are available to specify its components with respect to any set of axes, and that the components with regard to any two sets of axes are related according to a transformation rule appropriate to tensors of that order. In general, a tensor of any order remains invariant and transforms into itself under a rotation of the coordinate system. The particular rules that apply will not be discussed at this point (see Section 117).
12 lndiclal Notation
l.
Let us introduce the unit vectors 11> 12, and 13, referred to the rectangular Cartesian axes shown in Figure II. Using classical vector notation, any vector, such as V situated at an arbitrary point in space P, can be written as
V = VIII + Vz12 + V313 (11)
where VI' V2• and V3 are the rectangular projections of V in the XI' Xz, and .'1'3 directions, respectively. The Cartesian components VI' Vz,and V3 may be represented in indicial (subscript) notation by the symbol VI (i = 1,2,3), where the subscript i is understood to take on the values 1,2, and 3 in that order. Therefore, the symbol VI represents the set of three Cartesian componcnt: V" V,.. and VJ ill the same order. In index notation VI is the symbol used to designate the vector V in ordinary threedimensional space. It completely characterizes and therefore represents the vector V. When particularly
Indicial Notation
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Fig. 11. Rectangular Cartesian axes in indicial notation.
II
appropriate we will still have recourse to the standard notation of i, j, and k as unit vectors referred to the rectangular Cartesian axes X, y, and z as. in Figure 12. In this case, entirely equivalent to (II), we can write
V = V_.i + Vyj + Vzk (12)
where again Vx, Vy, and Vz are the rectangular projections of V in the x, y, and z directions.
z
k
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1
O,} y
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Fig. 12. Rectangular Cartesian
axes in conventional notation. x
With the foregoing in, mind, we now introduce a shorthand notation for representing the terms of an equation and the equations in which they appear. These rules, which are valid for tensors of all orders, are the range convention and the summation convention. ' '. i.
Range Convention
Whenever a small Latin subscript occurs unrepeated in a term, it is understood to take on the values I, 2,3 (unless stated otherwise), the number of dimensions of physical space. We then .have a representation for a set of numbers, terms, or equations, For example,
FI = mal
(i = 1,2,3)
4 Review of Vectors and Cartesian Tensors
implies the single vector equation
F.l. + F212 + F313 = m(al11 + a212 + a31J)
or
= rna
or
Fxi + FA + :,1 = mea) + ayj + ask) or the three equivalent scalar equations.
It is then possible to define the order of a tensor as being equal to the
number of range indices appearing. Thus,
B = zeroorder tensor (a scalar, I component) FI = firstorder tensor (a vector, 3 components) 'rll = secondorder tensor (9 components)
(Ilk = thirdorder tensor (27 components)
The secondorder tensor 'rtl having 9 components can be written out as the array
'rll = [:~: :~: :~:]
'r31 "'32 'r33
where i stands for the number of the row and j stands for the number of the column. The square brackets are used here to distinguish between the 3 x 3 tensor and the 3 x 3 determinant of the tensor, which will be encoun
tered later.
Summation Convention
Whenever a small Latin subscript occurs twice in a term, it is understood to represent a summation over the range I, 2, 3 (unless stated otherwise). Thus,
3
'rll = L 'rll = "'11 + 'r22 + "33
1=.
It is to be "noted also that in this example the number of unrepeated subscripts is zero and application of the range convention tells us that "" is a scalar.
~3 The Kronecker Delta and the Alternating Unit Tensor
Two special tensors that appear repeatedly, because of the fact that many equations can be expressed more compactly through their use, are the Kronecker delta or unity matrix and the alternating unit tensor or permutation
" symbol,
The Kronecker Delta
" The Kronecker delta is a secondorder tensor symbolized by Oil and
defined as
if j = j if i;i:: j
(/3)
or
The Alternating Unit Tensor
The alternating unit tensor is of third order, symbolized by el}.' and
defined as
if ijk: =, 123,231,312 (all different indices and even permutations of 123)
if iik = 321, 132, 213 (all ditTerent indices and odd permutations of 123)
o if any two indices are alike
(/4)
+1
(11k = I
1 :4"Addition and Subtraction of Vectors and Tensors
The addition or subtraction of two Cartesian tensors of the same order is defined by
(15)
" here V U and W are all of the same order. Thisdcfinition implies
W IJ.' I) •• ,' IJ... . . .,
that the ac Iition or subtraction is to be earned out for each pair of cone
~ponding clements of VIj ... and UI}.: .. It is to be noted that the indi:es of each term of (15) are the same, thus satisfying the genera! reqUlremenL that all equations must be homogeneous in range indices.
Equation (15) clearly holds for vectors,
VI± UI= WI
or
V±u=w
the geometric interpretation of which is illustrated via the familiar parallelogram construction. For V + U = W see Figure 13, and for V  U = W
see Figure 14.
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6 Review of Vectors and Cartesian Tensors
Fig. 13. Parallelogram summing of two vectors.
<:
/ w v
I ./ I
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Fig. 14. Parallelogram subtraction of two vectors.
u u
1 5 The Dot Product of Two Vectors
The dot (or scalar) product of two vectors V and V, denoted by V • V, is a scalar defined by
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r • U = I V II V I cos 0 = VU cos ()
(/6)
where I V I, IV I, V, and U are the magnitudes of the vectors V and V defined as (Vr+ Vi + VDI/2 and (Ur + Ui + UDI12,respectively,and()istheangle (less than 180") between V and V. From vector analysis we recall that'
,
V· V = VIUI + VzUz + V3U3
(
or in index notation
V· V = VPi
To find the component of a vector Vi in a given direction, it is only necessary to take the dot product of the vector with a unit vector n, in the given direction. Thus, the component of VI in the direction of n, is Vln/> where 11, satisfies the condition
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n.n, 0= I
Finally, recall that the dot product is commutative, V·V~~V·V
is not associative,
(V • V)W =1= V(V • W)
but is distributive,
V • (lJ + W) =, (V • V) + (V • W)
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16 The Cross Product of Two Vectors
The crt's, (or vector) product of two vectors V and U. denoted by V x V, is a vector ,V that is normal to the plane defined by V and U and points in the direction of advance of a righthanded screw when rotated from V to V by the shortest route. The magnitude of W is given by
The Gradient of a Scalar Field 7
..L.
IWI = IVIIVI sinO
where e is the smaller of the two angles between V and V. From vector analysis it is known that the Cartesian components of Ware related to the Car ,
tesian components of V and Vas follows: 'r
WI = V2U3  V3Ul
')
Wz = V3UI  VIU3 W3 = VIUl  V2U1
and that
Using the permutation symbol fllk, (17) is written in index notation as
WI = fllkVPk (18)
The cross product can be geometrically interpreted in that the magnitude of W is just the area of the parallelogram defined by V and V (Figure
15).
w
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Fig. 15. Geometric interpretation of the cross product.
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I W I = area ofp3i"a1lelogram
Concerning the laws of algebra, the cross product is not commutative, V x V = V x V
is not associative,
lJ x (V x W) =1= (V x V) X W
but is distributive,
(v+V)XW=VXW+UXW
11 The Gradient of a Scalar Field
The gradient of a scalar function of position I{J(XI' X2, x3) in a region R is expressed as
(19)
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/8 /Review of Vectors and Cartesian Tensors
/'/ 'J~e the del operator (or nabla) is defined by
/ _ a a a
V=11a +12a +13a XI X2 X3
The del operator is a vector operator; it has components as has a vector and it cannot stand alone; it must operate on a scalar, a vector, or a tensor.
From (19) it is apparent that the gradient operation on a scalar can be expressed in. index notation as
Vrp = arp aXI
Consider a given equiscalar surface
rp(xl, X2, x3) = constant
By assigning different values to rp, a systematic set of surfaces are defined which describe the space distribution of the variable rp. As illustrated in Figure 16, the geometrical spacing of these surfaces, when drawn for equal
(/10)
Fig. 16. Equiscalar surfaces of a scalar function of position, ifJ. v
increments t,,¢, reflect the space ~?te of change of rp. It is readily shown that the gradient of ¢ is a vector whos.. d .recti on is normal to the equiscalar surface at a given point XI' X2, X3 and WI ich points in the direction of ascending values of ¢. Thus, suppose that dt .epresents a differential vector tangent to the equiscalar surface at the pou;t n question; that is,
dt = 11dx1 + 12dx2 + 13dx3
where dx!, dx2• and dX3 are related through the equation of the surface ¢(x1, x2, x3) = constant
Differentiating the preceding expression, we obtain
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The Curl of a Vector Function of Position 9
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which can be written as
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dt » vri' = 0
This states that Vrp is perpendicular to dr and therefore norrnal to the
equiscalar surface at the point in quesuon. .
The magnitude of Vrp represents the rnaxrmum space ruic 01 l hal\ge ,)1
if> at the point x I' x2, X). If n is the distance measured normal to the equiscalar
surface, then
dA. [( arp ) 2 ( arp ) 2 ( arb ) 2 .1' , " "
IVrpl = _'j!_ =  +  +
dn ax,' aXl ax) 
(
18 The Divergence of a Vector Field
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In classical vector notation the divergence of a vector function of position in a region R is defined as the scalar function of position,
di V . V V _. av, + av1_ av) (111)'
IV = . = aXI aX2i ax)
or equiva: 'ltly in index notation as
div V = aVi aXI
(112)
At this point of our discussion the divergence is purely a l11athcl~Jatical construct devoid of physical meaning. In a later section we will examine the divergence of the fluid velocity field; when so applied the operation takes on
definite physical significance.
19 The Curl of a Vector Function of Position
The curl of a vector function of position is a vector function of position and is defined as
I, curl V == V x V  a/ax,
12 1)
iJ/ax2 a/ax)
av.\ . 'JV2 Jk',),
. Jx;Jld ~ax; ..  "axz I)
(113)
Since the curl of V can be formally considered as the cross product of V and V, the operation can be expressed in terms of the permutation symbol
V V aVk
X = IOl)k ax,
(114)
10 Review of Vectors and Cartesian Tensors
( ( (
110 The Dyadic Product
Again, as with the divergence, the definition of (113) at this point is merely mathematical; later we will examine the curl of the fluid velocity field and then attach a physical meaning to the operation.
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If we adjoin two vectors V and U to form the combination VU, with no multip'ication sign of any sort, we have a dyad, another name for a secondorder tensor. The dyadic product VU is then defined as
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[VIUI VIU2
VU ~~ VzlJ, VzUz
V3UI V3UZ
(1/5)
I n general. the dyadic product VU is different from the dyadic product UV. Applying (l15) to the dyadic VY, we obtain
aVZ/aXI aVJiaXI] avz/axz aV1jaxz
aVZ/ax1 aV1/ax3
(H6)
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a secondorder tensor which in index notation is written as avl/axj.
111 The Double Dot Product of Two Tensors
Two tensors may be multiplied according to the double dot operation to produce the double dot or scalar product:
(1/7)
= (PI1DII 1 P12D12 + Pl3Dl3 + PzlDzl + PZZDZ7. + P21DZ3 f P3IDlI I PJ2DJ2 I P11Dll)
the result clearly being a scalar.
( (
112 The Single Dot Product of Two Tensors
The single dot product or tensor product of two tensors results from the multiplication of two tensors according to the single dot operation of
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(p • :D = PIjDjk
=, PilDlk + P1zD2k + r,»;
the result being a secondorder tensor.
(1/8)
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113 The Dot Product of a Tensor and a Vector
A tensor may be dotted into a vector, the result being a vector according to <P • Y = PI}Vj (119) = (PIIVI + P12VZ + P13V3)11 + (PZIV1 + PZZV2 + P23V3)12
+ (P3IVI + P32VZ + P33V3)13
Similarly,
Y • <P ~~ VJPJ1
(120)
,= (P"VI + Pz,Vz + P3,V3)11 + (P12V, + PZZV2 + PnV3)lz 1 (P'3VI + PZ3VZ + PJlV3)11
Clearly,
<p.Y:;toy·tp
unless the tensor <P is symmetric, by whit h we mean that Plj = Pjl'
114 The laplacian of a Scalar Field
If we take the divergence of the gradient of the scalar function rp, we obtain
(a a a) ( arp ~ aA.)
V· Vrp = aII + a1z + r:13 • r:It + a 11 + ~a 13
Xl Xz UX3 UXI Xl X3
__ a2rp azrp azrp
 axi + axi + axi
(/21)
. ~
_ azrp  ax;
='i,1zrp
/' where the symbol 'i,1z, called the Laplacian operator, has been defined as
'i,1Z == V. V
az az az
= axz + axl + i1x!
. , ,1 3
az = ax;
115 Matrices and Their Transpose
We have seen that the second ordertensor T,/fT) can be conveniently displayed in a 3 X 3 array,
(/22)
11
12
Review of Vectors and Cartesian Tensors
Thus, the nine scalar quantites associated with T can be writt . h'
. II d' /j,f1 en 111 w at
~s ca e a square matrix array, T, and it is occasionally convenient to treat
~ a.s such. The tensor TJj is called the transpose of Tij; or in matrix notation
1S the trans~ose of T. :he transpose is formed by interchanging rows and columns or by interchanging the two subscripts on each element. Typically,
_['TII TZI T31.J
r,  r., r.. r.,
TI3 TZl T33'
In a~imilar manner, a transpose can also be associated with the column matnx V, which is simply a method ofdisplaying the three Cartesian components of the vector V, to give the row matrix VT. If
(123)
(124)
then
(125) ~
116 Matrix Multiplication
~A licati f····
pp l.catlOn 0 the rules cono.rri'ng index notation cited in Section 12
permits us to write the expression
(126)
as
U, = Til VI + T12Vz + T13V3
aund letting j take on the values 1,2, and 3, we see that the components of , are
UI = TIIVI + TllVZ + TIJVJ UI = TIl VI + T22V1 + TI3V3 U3 = TJIVI + T32VI + T33V3
The indicial equation (126) could also have been written as a matrix equation, U = TV
(127)
or
(128)
Matrix Multiplii:illion 13
This illustrates the rule for multiplying a 3 X 3 matrix T into a J .' I column mairii V: each element in the first row ofT is multiplied by the correspunding element in the first column of V and the results summed to obtain the first row/first column element of the resulting matrix U; the remaining elements of U are obtained in similar fashion. It is seen then that the number of columns in T (three in this example) must be the same as the number of rows in V (three) ,'! d that the result will be a matrix having the number of rows in T (three) and the number of columns in V (one). For the particular case of (128), the product is the column matrix U representing the vector Ui,
Consider now the product
Uj= ViTI} (129)
which after summing over i yields
u, = VITI} + VITIj + V3T3j
a vector equation having the three components
UI = VITII + V2TII + V3T31 UI = VIT12 + VIT22 + V3Tn U3 = VITI3 + VZT23 + V3T33
we now might be tempted to write a matrix equation in the form
(130)
(131)
U '= VT
HoV!ever, it is immediately apparent that we have violated the rule for matrix multiplication, in that the column vector V does not have the same number of columns as the matrix T has rows. To rectify this, we can make V a row matrix through its transpose VT and then apply the rule of rows into c()iu:nn~;,
to obtain
(1·,32)
= [(VITI I + V2T21 + V3T31) (VJ12 + VIT22·j V3T32) (VITI3 + VITI3 + V3Tn)]
= [UI U2 U3]
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and thus obtain the same result as in (131).
From (126) and (127) we have seen that U, = TIFj can be written
as U = TV, where U and V are column matrices, while from (129) and (132) we have seen that Uj = VIT/} can be written as UT = VTT, where UT and VT are row matrices. This result can be formalized by asserting that, if the rules of matrix multiplication are to be used, the repeated subscripts of the indicial equivalent must be located adjacent to each other. Thus, if we want to write
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Review of Vectors and Cartesian Tensors
U) = VITI) as a matrix equation involving column matrices, we know that V must follow T (rows into columns), that in indicial notation the order of arrangement is immaterial (U) = VITI) = TIF,), and that U :;1= TV since the repeated subscripts i are not adjacent. To make them adjacent we can take the transpose of T (i.e., by changing T,) to T)I)' If, as in (132), UT = V'f, where UT and VT are row matrices, then we obtain the same components of
Ur by writing U = FV. where U and V are now column matrices. . i
1.17 Transformation of Vectors and Tensors Between Cartesian Coordinate Systems
Consider the two different Cartesian coordinate systems (XI' Xz, X3) and (.,;. x~, x;), as shown in Figure 17. Let (1,,) be the cosine of the angle between
the axes x; and x)' that is, '
(1,1) = cos (X;, x) = [:~: ::: :::] (133)
(1,31 ctn (1,33.
( 1 ( ( t (
Fig. 17. Two difTerent (primed and unprimed) Cartesian coordinate systems.
i
For example, elZ] is the cosine of the angle between the x~ axis and the X3 axis. Now the vector V has the Cartesian components V, in an unprimed system and V; in the primed system. It is easy to relate these two sets of Cartesian components, Vi and V;, since the projection of V onto the x; axis (giving V;) is equal to the sum of the projections of the V, components 011 the same axis. Thus,
VI (XIIVI 1 (l,I2Vz + i%11Vl
Transformation of Vectors and Tensors Between Cartesian Coordinate Systems
1& of.
(134)
!
".
(135) I Similarly, .
V; = (l,ZIVI + (l,zzVz .. ,L (l,13V3 V; = (l,3IV. + (l,3ZV~ + (l,33V3 • aU10fwhich can be written as the matrix equation
or
(136)
V'=AV
where A is the matrix (1,') and is called the rotation matrix. In indicia] notation
(135) can be written as °
V; = (l,IjV) (137)
Interchanging the roles of the primed and unprimed axes but otherwise repeating the same procedure, the unprimed components V, can be written in
terms of the primed components V; as .
VI = (1,1 IV; + !XliV; + (1,31 V;
Vl = (l,I2V; + (l,llV; + (l,3lV; V3 = (l,13V; + (1,23 V; + (l,33V;
(138)
or
(139)
V=NV'
or
V, = (I,)IV~ (140)
In terms of the row matrices VT and (V')T, the transformation equation of (139) can be written as
VT = (V')TA
(111)
We also observe that \
AN=I
(142)
and
NA=I
where I is the Kronecker delta ~')' A matrix having this property is said to be orthogonal.
From (140) we see that two vectors V, and U) transform according
to
V, = (l,mJ~ V) = (I,.P;'
16
Review of Vectors and Cartesian Tensors
Suppose that we let TI, and T~. equal the dyadic products VIU and V;"U~,
respectively. Then I
TI, = va, ;= Ilmll..,T~. (143)
which is frequently ta~en as the definition of a secondorder tensor; that is, _ a secondor~er tensor IS defined ,as a quantity whose nine components transfor~ according to (143). Theinverse of this expression is found by multi
plying through by Ilplll.,. Thu[, ' '
Ilpill., Tlj = Ilplllmlll.,Il'IT~. which from using (142) becomes
IIp/I..,TI) = 6pm6 •• T~. = T~. or, after renaming the indexes,
T:, = Illmll,.Tm• (144)
. In matrix notation the transformations of (143) and (144) can be
wntten as
T = AlTA
(145)
and
T' = ATAT
(146)
respectively.
118 Principal Coordinates
Consider the vector equation
(147)
where TI) is a symmetrical tensor, VI is some vector, and 1 is some scalar. !f ~ vector VI other than VI = 0 satisfies this equation for any value of 1, It IS called an eigenvector 'Of TI) and the associated value of 1 is called an eigenvalue. The matrix form of (147),
[~I ~z ~31[~1 [~l
r., TZl T13 Vl = 1 Vz
T31 T32 T33 V3 V3
represents the three homogeneous algebraic equations (Til 1)V1 + TIlVl + TI3V3 = 0 TllVI T (Tll l)Vl + T13V3 = 0 T31V1 + T31VZ + (T33 1)V3 = 0
(148)
(149)
Prmcipn! Coordinates
17
\
The condition that there are solution, other than the trivial one Vi I) is that the determinant of the coefficients be equal to zero:
det (Tij  1!5i) == 0
( ( ( ( ( (; (
( ( ( ( ( ( ( (
( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (
~
or
I'll  1 T1Z
TZI TZl  1
1'31 T32
(I50)
Evaluating (I50)" we have that
_13 + l11z  121 + 13 =,0
(151)
where
II = TIl + 1'22 + T33
lz = TIITzz + TzzT]3 + TIIT33  T12T21
 TZ3T31  1'131'31
13 = 1'IIT22T33 + T12Tz3T31 + T13T21T32
 TI3T22TJI  T12T21T33  T11T231'32
If we regard the elements of the tensor Til as known, (151) is a cubic in A and, it can be shown, as such has three real roots as long as TI} is symmetric. This cubic, called the characteristic equation, has the three roots (eigenvalues)
A(I), A(l\ and A(3). •
" Choosing one of these eigenvalues, say A!1J, and substituting into
(140), we can solve any two of these equations (only two of the three are independent) for the ratios VJV3 and Vl/V3, or the ratios of the direction cosines of V" namely (I,!!(I,3 and (1,2/(1,3' since
VI ,= (XF,/vr+TfTVi V1 = Ctz")Vr + Vi I Vi V3 = (l,3,.)Vr + Vi + Vi
Combinin these ratios with the requirement that af + (l,i + Cti = I
permits us to solve completely for the unit eigenvector ell), where ±e/l) = Illl1 + (1,212 + (1,)3
(I53)
(I52)
By repeating the operation with A (2) and A (3), we may determine the other two unit eigenvectors, ±ell) and ±ejl).
Now if the three eigenvalues are all distinct, that is, A(1) * A(2) * A(3),
then the three eigenvectors are mutually perpendicular. To show this we can
(
(
(
l
(
(
(
(
(
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(
(
(
(
(
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\
\
\
(
\
\
(
.~
, 18
Review of Vectors and Cartesian Tensors
write from (147) that
and
Tijey) ,= )yleI2)
Taking the scalar product of these equations by e12) and ell) and subtractihg,
we obtain '
and then rewriting after interchanging the dummy suffixes i andj in the second
term on the left to yield '
(TI}  Tjl)e;"e)2) ~~ (lW  1(2l)e)I)eI2) = 0
since Til is symmetric. So it follows that if 1(1) 7= 1(2), elll is perpendicular to e!2). This result may be extended to show that e!ll, ej2), and ej3) are all mutually perpendicular provided that no two values of lU) are equal.
Suppose now that we construct a new Cartesian coordinate system as in figure 18, in which the three unit eigenvectors are the three unit vectors.
. ~ ... '
Fig. 18. Three unit eigenvectors of the un primed Cartesian coordinates form unit vectors of primed Cartesian coordinates.
The rotation matrix A will consist of the elements (t,j = cos (x], Xl) as given in (133). Since eli), e~ll, and dl) are the components of a unit vector in the x; direction, eV), ei1), and e~3) the components of a unit vector in the x~ direction, and e;l), t'i3l, and e~3) the components of a unit vector in the x; direction. the rotation matrix written in terms of the components of the eigenvectors is
(154)
Principal Coordinates
19
A question we might ask at this point is: How does a matrix T, with elements T" in the (XI' X2, x3) coordinate system transform when referred to the (x;, x~, x;) coordinate system defined by the eigenvectors of T? To answer
this, consider (146),
T' = ATN
which when written out in expanded form is
[ '" e~1) 'I"f" T12 r'll" elZ) ,I"]
el
l' = ej2) ei2) e~2) T21 T22 T23 d.1) ei2) e&3)
ell) e&l) d3) T31 T32 T33 e~1) e~2) e~3) (155)
For the eigenvalues the defining equation is, from (147), T"e;n) = 1 (nlein)
(156)
where n = 1,2, or 3. Writing this out in turn in expanded form gives
[~:: ~:: ~::] [:~:l ~ [~::::~::] (157)
T31 T32 T]3 dn)_ . l(n)e~n)
But the lefthand side of (157) is equivalent to the product of the last two matrices on the righthand side of (I55). Combining, then, we have that
Multiplying this out and recalling that since the three vectors, ell), eJ2), and ep' are unit vectors and are mutually perpendicular that
ep)e)2' = eJ2'ep) = dl)ej3' = 0
and
we obtain
T' ~ [r ~'" L.]
Now, the set of coordinate axes formed by the three eigenvectors is called'
the principal coordinate axes of the symmetric tensor T. .
Previously, we assumed that the three eigenvalues were all distinct.
Suppose now that two of them, say 1(1) and 1(2), are equal while 1m is distinct. For this case it is possible to show that any two perpendicular vectors in the plane of ell' and ei2" which are both perpendicular to ep', combine with
(158)
~.
20 Review of Vectors lind Cartesian Tensors
ejl) to yield principal axes. Finally, given the case that all three eigenvalues are equal, then every mutually perpendicular set of axes constitutes a principal
set.
119 Two Integral Theorems for Vectors and Tensors
Several integral theorems, which are summarized below, are extremely useful in developing the equations of fluid dynamics. '
The divergence theorem states that if v is a closed region in space
surrounded by the surface A, then
J. V • V dv = Ln. V dA
(159)
where n is the outward directed unit normal vector. This result merely relates the integral of the divergence of a vector V throughout the volume v to the integral of the normal component of V over the closed surface A bounding the volume. The right side of (I59) may be written alternatively as
Lv. n dA or L v. dA or Lv, dA
Two theorems for scalars and tensors closely associated with the divergence theorem are
f. Vsdv = LnsdA
(160)
and
f V.: cP dv = f D· cP dA
. ~
(161)
The last relation also happens to be true for the dyadic product VU.
If A is a surface bounded by the closed curve C, then
Ln. (V X V)dA ,= tv. t dC
(162)
in which t denotes a unit vect.» tangent in the direction of integration along C, the dot product V • (is th:angential component of V along C, and n is the unit normal vector to Ai) t' re direction of advance of a righthand screw when it is twisted in the dire xi n of integration along C. Equation (162),
, known as the Stokes theorem, ' 'erts that the integral of the normal component of the curl of a vector V over any portion of a surface A is equal to the . ' line integral of the tangential component of V around the curve C bounding A. A similar relation holds for tensors.
TWO
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\ Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynanlics
_ ......
21 Notation
As discussed in Section 12, a vector can be written in the form of (II) as V = VIII + V212 + V313
(see Figure II), or as in (12),
V = V,.i + Vyj + V.k
(see Figure 12). If V is explicitly assigned the meaning of a fluid velocity, we may also write
V = ui + vj + wk
where u, v, and ware the x, y, and z components of V. In that which follows we will use, without further discussion, whichever of the foregoing representations  appears to be most appropriate. The reader should become mentally adept at operating with any of these equivalent forms.
21
~
,.
" .I
( ( .( ( { (
( \ (
(
'1 .(
22 The Material Derivative
In general, a given thermal or kinematic property of the ocean (or atmosphere) depends upon both position and time. Consider the scalar quantity s = s(x,y, z, t). The total time rate of change of s is then given by
~+asb~h~+h~ ~n
ae ax dt ' ay dt az dt
where the differential displacements dx, dy, and dz are specified for the differential time dt. Now letting
dx u =: dt '
v =:!= dy, <it
IV =' dz  dt
be the components of the fluid velocity V in the x, y, and z directions at the point x, y. z ; the total derivative (21) has a meaning of such importance as to attach a special symbol to the operation. We thus define the operator D/ Dt such that
( (
~ (
( (
D ,a· =,+V.V
Dt ilt
(22)
or when operating on the scalar s, Q!.~~as+V.Vs
Dt at
(23)
( .(
Equation (23) is referred to as the material derivative of s (alternatively as the contoving ; substantial, convective, or particle derivative). The first term on the right is the local timerateofchange term; it represents the change of s with time at a fixed point x, y, z and will vanish if the field of s is not time dependent. The second term on the right, called the advectional or fieldrateofchange term, is associated with the motion of the fluid in a field where a gradient of's ex ists, In general, this term will vanish if (I) V"~ 0, (2) Vs .~ 0 (i.e., the field of s is homogeneous and at most is only time dependent), or (3) V is directed along equiscalar surfaces of s. We can attach a physical significance to the material derivative as the individual timerateofchange of the property s following a particular parcel of fluid.
23 lagrangian versus Eulerian Representation
/I. field of motion V can be described in two ways:
I. The Eulerian system seeks the description of the velocity at each point in spacetime through a direct specification V. This implies that
u == u(x, )" z, t)
I' = 1'(X, j', z, e)
IV = w(x, y, z, t)
22
is known. The variables x, y. z, and t are called Eulerian variables.
. 2. The Lagrangian system seeks the description of the particle position as time passes through a specification of the particle path (trajectory). This representation is familiar from particle mechanics. Suppose that at t = 0 the coordinates of a particular fluid particle are x = a, y = b, and z = c. At any later time t the flow is specified if we can give the coordinates x, y, and z of the fluid particle as functions of the Lagrangian variables a, b, c, and t. That is,
Lagrangian versus Eulerian Representation
or I
V = Vex, y. z, r)
x = x(a, b, c, t) y = yea, b, c, t) z = z(a, b, c, r)
or, alternatively,
(i ~!, 2, 3)
This representation is illustrated in Figure :'1.
Trajectory of a particular fluid particle
i
Particle position
at time 1 having coordinates x, y, z where:
x = x(a, b, c, I) y = yea, b. c, I) z = z(a, b. c, t)
t
Particle position at lime 1 = 0 having coordinates a, b, C
/'
Fig. 21. Lagrangian specification of fluid flow.
Frequently, a connection is sought between the Lagrangian displacement field x,(at> t) and the Eul~rian velocity field V,(x" t), where we take the Lagrangian reference time as t = 0 such that
a, = x/ai, 0)
First we note that the Lagrangian velocity field is given by
V ( t) _ ax,(a" Q
I a.; : at
Clearly, it is required then that
[V,(a" t)]La = [V,(xt(at• t), t)]Eu
23
(24)
(25)
(26)
(27)
24
Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluld Dynam~c_~
where the subscripts La and Eu refer to Lagrangian and Eulerian, respectively, and where XI is considered as a function of a., t. Then:
l. If the Lagrangian representation XI = xla" r) is given, the Lagrangian velocity is defined by (26), and to obtain the Eulerian velocity we must invert the three expressions XI ~~ xlah r) to obtain a, = al'Ch t) and substitute the result into the left ,side of (27).
2. If the Eulerian representation VI = VI(Xh t) is given, the Lagrangian velocity field cannot be obtained directly from (27) since we have no way to substitute for xl(al, t) in (27). However, combining (26) and (27),
we have that
~.
;1
;;;
,t
~
which is a set of three simultaneous partial differential equations in the i'i Langrangian form. These three equations, given a reference time and a set .,/ 'J
of initial conditions, can be integrated. 'i
Consider the following examples: if
1. Given the twodimensional Eulerian flow field }
t
t
~ ~
I'
~ ~ tl
~
1
,I
I,
~
;:.i
V(X r) _ ilxlal' t)
I I'  ilt
(28)
U = Uo(1  :::)
v = 0
(29)
which for "0 and h being cor strnts, is illustrated in Figure 22.
'/#//////////////«/1. ~//#flU0"//#m/« y =th
YL '
t Uo __ , \
x , ~
f ~/
~./
W#//####//#$//P'&//;r//'/#ffff###~ Y =h
Parabolic velocity
profile
Fig. 21. Flow field for (29).
From (28),
iJx(a, b, I) _ (1 _ yl)
ill  Uo hl
and
iJy(a, b, ,)  0
at 
L._
, ersus Eulerian Representation
25
., ,_
Integrating yields
X = Uo f (1  *;) dt + f'(a, b) y = g(a, b)
where/and g are functions of a and b to be determined. Rewriting, we have that
( ( ( ( ,(
(
X = uo( I  ~:)t + f'ta, b)
y = g(a, b)
Given the initial conditions that at t = 0, X = a and y =, b, we find that lea, b) = a and g(a, b) = b. Therefore, the Lagrangian equivalent of (29)
IS
( \ (
( (
• (
( ( ( ( ( \_ ( (
~ (
( bZ'
x(a,b,t) ="0 1 hZ)t + a
yea, b, t) = b
2. Given the Lagrangian equations of (210) we take the time deriva
(210)
tives:
ilx(a, b, t) _ (I _ ~~)
ilt  "0 hZ
ily(a! b, t) = 0
at
al1cf'~~bstitute to eliminate the Lagrangian variable b in the first of these to obtain the Eulerian equations
U = uo(1 ~1~)
v=o
In many cases it is not quite so simple to eliminate Lagrangian variables from the Eulerian flow equations; it might not even be possible to do so.
, Concerning the relative usefulness of these two representations, it
is clear that they are interchangable; the Eulerian to Lagrangian transformation requiring integration, the Lagrangian to Eulerian transformation requiring differentiation. In the majority of cases the Eulerian formulation is simpler, this being particularly true ifviscous effects are taken into account. It is also the more desirable in any case that can be reduced to a steadystate condition through the introduction of a moving coordinate system. An example of this is that of the flow about an object moving through a fluid at a constant velocity. By attaching the coordinate system to the object we reduce the independent variables from four, VI(XI, t), to three V,(xl)· In general, this is not possible in the Lagrangian system.
( ( { ( ( (
24 Representation of a Fluid in Motion
26
Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophvsicet Fluid Dynamics
The Lagrangian formulation is helpful in problems involving diffusion and mixing of mass attached properties. In this case we can "tag" the particles in terms of the characteristic quantities whose transport we wish to study.
We now introduce some methods for representing fluid flow, not all of which are of equal utility.
Streamline. A streamline is defined as a line which is everywhere tangent to the fluid velocity vector at a given instant of time. Thus, a set of streamlines merely indicates the direction of the flow at a given time; that is, they give the synoptic flow pattern. No number is associated with them and their spacing is quite arbitrary. Utilizing the Eulerian form of the velocity field representation, V = V(x, y, z, t), a streamline is defined from
t ( ,
j k
dx dy dz = 0
dr X V  0
(211)
where
dt = (dx)i + (dy)j I (dz)k
is a differential line element along a streamline (Figure 23). Writing out (211) in detail, we have that
u v w
( ( {
yielding the two equations
(212)
v
u
w
( (
These equations allow evaluation of the shape of streamlines for nontimedependent flow or at a given instant for timedependent flow when the time dependent terms in the equations for u, 11, and w equal a constant. For the nontimedependent case, streamlines and trajectories (for the definition of
"(
\
Streamlines at time t = I)
_
fig. 23. Streamlines, fluid velocity, and the differential line element.
Representation of a Fluid in Motion
27
a trajectory, see below) are identical. By fixing the time in the timedependent case we actually evaluate the trajectory equations, which for any particular instant are identical to the streamline equations. Take, for example, .the
flow field as given by ,
I u = Uo
v = Vo cos (kx  (11)
where uo, vo, k, and a are constant. We have then, from (212), for I = 11
dx dy
Uo = Vo cos (kx  at ,
or
Vo cos (kx  at , dx = Uo dy
and, upon integrating,
y = vOk sin (kx  u',) + C Uo·
where the constant C specifies any particular streamline at time t r
Trajectory. The trajectory or pathline of a fluid particle is merely its Lagrangian displacement history and as such is represented by the Lagrangian form of the displacement field equations, x, = x,(a" t). It is a line that is traced out in time by a given fluid particle.
Streakline. A line connecting all the particles that have passed a given fixed Eulerian coordinate position is called a streakline, a plume of smoke from a chimney being an example.
Fluid Line. Afiuid line is a line connecting fluid particles at a time tl which was identified at an earlier time to (Figure 24).
Examples of some of these concepts are illustrated in (I) Figure 25 for a flow pattern of straight, parallel streamlines that rotate at a constant rate, and (2) Figure 26 for inviscid flow past an infinite circular cylinder.
Fig. 14. Fluid line representation.
time t = to
time I = I)
28
Streamlines at time t == fO
Trajectories
I
Streamlines at '
time t= to+tJ.t
Streak line
/
, _ S~
.......  ~
.  . .
Streamlines at time t = to + 2.D.t
Fig. 25. Streamlines, tr ajectories, and streakline for a rotating flow.
Streamlines
(a) Short time exposure with dust in the fluid
o Trajectory
.~ "Y_~,, ~ ~   ~
Cylinder at time t = t)
Cylinder at time t = to
(b) Long time exposure with a fluid particle tagged
Fig. 26. Streamlines, trajectories, streaklines, and fluid lines for flow around an infinite cylinder: (a) Short time exposure with dust in the fluid; (b) long time exposure with a fluid particle tagged; (c) photograph of dye line; (d) a fluid line, paint a line of dye of any shape before cylinder approaches, photograph same dyed line at any later time; (e) cylinder moving at a constant velocity with coordinate system fixed in the cylinder.
Cylinder <it time f = fO
(c) Photograph of dye line
'i
~"
Fluid line at timet = to
Fluid line at time f = t)
Cylinder at time f = fO
(I
  _. ..
/ //,/
+ ...
\
Cylinder at time t = t)
I
... " (d) A fluid line, paint a line of dye oi any shape before cylinder
approaches, photograph same dyed line at any later time,
z
Streamlines, trajectories, and streaklines coincide
(e) Cylinder moving at a constant velocity with coordinate system fixed in the cylinder.
Fig 26. (Continued)
.I \
<
29
25 Kinematic Modes of a Fluid
A parcel of fluid can undergo, in general, three distinct types of kinematic behavior: translation, rotation (or spin), and deformation. The first of these, translation, is essentially the gross motion of the fluid parcel. Rigorously, translation is defined as the motion that the center of mass of a fluid particle undergoes. Superimposed on translation we have the possiblity of the relative motions of rotation and deformation. In general, the three phenomena are i ndependen t of each other; each can occur in the absence of the other (Figure 27). For example: (I) Consider the motion of the suspended seats
( ( «
y
y
_._. .. x .,'
(
r:::l /[_~.]
/
axes for
ascertaining rotation
._ x
( ( ( ( ,
( (
fa) Translation only
(b) Rotation only
}'
.(
.. x
(
(
(c) Deformation only (both normal and shear); reference axes defined in this case as those lines which bisect the angle between the diagonals of the parallelogram.
Fig. 2·7. Small two dimensional fluid parcel undergoing: (a) Translation only; (b) rotation only; (c) deformation only (both normal and shear); reference axes defined in this case as those lines which bisect the angie between the diagonals of the parallelo
\ I
~i
,
10
Kinematic Modes of 8 Fluid 31
of a ferris wheel. The seats have no spin and are not subject to deformation as they move along a curved path in space. (2) Particles of dust on a phonographic turntable are not deformed, but undergo both rotation and translation.
I Practically, it is difficult to find examples of fluid motion without
deformation since it is just this property that distinguishes a fluid from a solid; a fluid can be deformed without limit. In most fluid motions the three phenomena of translation, rotation, and deformation occur simultaneously.
Deformation can be of two distinct types: normal (dilatational or linear) deformation and shear deformation. In normal deformation the volume of the fluid parcel mayor may not change, but all motion of the boundaries of the parcel is normal to the surface of the fluid parcel. If the volume changes, the fluid is said to have undergone bulk deformation (i.e., divergence), while if the volume is constant, the fluid is said to have undergone pure stretching. In the case of shear deformation the volume is constant and the motion of the boundaries of the parcel is not normal to the fluid parcel surface. These concepts are illustrated in Figure 28.
(a) Normal deformation (either bulk deformation or pure stretching).
:
m
(b) Shear deforma tion
\ \

I' ___..

~ta
(e) Translation, rotation, normal, and shear deformation
Fig. 2·8. Deformation and the general mode: (a) Normal deformation (either bulk deformation or pure stretching); (b) shear deformation; (c) translation, rotation, normal, and shear deformalion.
26 Deformation and Vorticity Tensors
We have seen that deformation is always accompanied by a change in the distance between particles making up a parcel. In normal deformation the spacing between particles located on opposite faces of an elemental parallelopiped (or parallelogram in two dimensions) changes, while for shear deformation the spacing between particles located at opposite corners of
the parallelopiped change. '
When dealing with a solid undergoing deformation one is concerned with the amount of deformation (or strain). With a fluid, however, there is no limit to the amount of deformation which results from the application of an external deforming force; as pointed out in the previous section, this is a distinguishing property of a fluid. Thus, unlike a solid, a fluid seeks no equilibrium of strain due to the action of a given stress. For a fluid the rate of deformation (rate of strain) is the important factor. This rate can be evaluated in terms of the rate of change of distance between adjacent fluid particles and is characterized by a tensor, which is determined by the velocity field.
Consider two particles A and B, located very near each other, whose positions relative to some fixed reference 0 is given by the vectors x; and Yh respectively. The difference in positions A and B is denoted by the differential vector dx, such that
)'1 = x: + dX1 (213)
(Figure 29). The distance between the particles, denoted as L, is the magnitude of dx.,
v = (YI  X;)l = dX1 dX1 = dxi + dx~ + dx:
(214)
A
o
Fig. 29. Position diagram.
B
The time rate of change of L 1 S • hen
dLl = !("I _ xD(d)'1 _ dX;)
dt . dt dt
(215) . i
However, dx'udt and dyt!dt are " .erely the velocities of particles A and B, If we now let VI be the velocity of A; that is,
V =dx: 1 dt
(2i6)
I
32
( (
OefOlmation and VOT/iciIY Tensors 33
then by Taylor's theorem the velocity of the adjacent particle B is given in terms of VI as
( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (
dYI = V + aV'dx dt 1 ax] ]
Substituting into (215) yields
dV aVI
 = 2a dx.dx ,
dt x]
or the fractional rate of change of L is
I dL _ dX1 dx,a~ (218)
r dt  vax]
The quantity aVt/ax], a tensor representing the gradient o~ the velocity at point A, is called the velocity gradient tensor and has the rune components
'iW. aVt aVt
ax: aXl ax]
aV1 aV1 avz
a~ aX1 ax]
(jV] sv, av]
ax! aXl aX1
Now the velocity gradient tensor can be written as the sum of two tensors, one being sy"'rnetric and one being antisymmetric:
. aVI = _!_(~_!j + ~v]) + _!_(aVI _ ~V)) (2J9)
.. ax} 2 ax) (Jx1 2 ax) aXI
(
(
(
( ( (
(
( l
(
(
( ~,
(217)
(217)
whose components are _
aVt _!_(aVt + avz) .l(~Vt + ~V3)
~ ax! 2 axz aXt 2 ax] ax!
Symmetric _!__(avz + aVl) avz .l(aVl 1 ~V])
~ , = aXl 2 ax] C)x2
i tensor 2 ax! aX1
i l_/~V] + avt) l_(av3 + (wz) av]
~ 2 ~ax, ax] 2 ,axz ax] aX;
Ii (220)
'I
c·
~ and
t
~ 1 (av, IW;:.\ ; (~.~.]' _ ~~,!)
~ 0 2 ax;  ax;)
Antisym l_(aV1 _ av!) 0 .l(avz _ ~V3)
metric = 2 ax, aX1 2 ax] aX2
tensor l_(av] _ avt) l_(~ _ aVl)
0
2 ax, ax] 2 aXl aX3
(221) ( ( (
34 Basic Concept; and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
.. {
The symmetric tensor of (220) is called the deformation tensor (or rate of deformation tensor, strain rate tensor, rate of strain tensor, velocity strain tensor) and will be denoted by the symbol D,J,
D = .l(av, + (WJ) (222)
IJ  2 aXJ qx;
The antisymmetric tensor of(22I), called the vorticity tensor, will be denoted by the symbol elJ' i
( ( ( ( ( (
c, = .l(av, _ aVJ)
2 aXJ ax,
From (220) and (221) it is clear that DI} requires only six different quantities. for its specification while elJ requires only three. In the latter case, the three quantities are simply onehalf of the components of the vector that we will come to know as the fluid vorticity. The entire nine components, then, specify' the velocity gradient tensor,
(223)
( (
a aV, = D'J + ~IJ xJ
Returning to (217), substitution of (224) yields dU
dt = 2(DI} + el}) dXI dXJ
(225)
(224)
However,
( ( (
el}dx, dXJ = 0
this being a characteristic property of any antisymmetric tensor, which can be readily verified by writing out the expression in full. We have, then, that
dU
dt = 2DI} dx, dXJ (226)
confirming the fact that the rate of change of the spacing of adjacent particles of a fluid is governed by the deformation tensor alonethat the vorticity tensor plays no part in such a change.
In the following sections we will examine the physical significance of the deformation and vorticity tensors in detail; in preview however, we can state that:
I. The terms of the vorticity tensor measure the rigidbody rotation of a fluid particle.
2. The three major diagonal terms of the deformation tenser,
aVI aXI
determine the rate of normal deformation.
Normal Deformation
35
3. The remaining three terms of the deformation tensor,
I (aVI aV3) .l(aV2 + aV3)
"2 rrx; + aXI 2 aX3 aX2
determine the rate of shear deformation of a fluid element.
27 Normal Deformation
In this section, as well as the two that follow, the examples for the sake. of simplicity will be that of twodimensional flow. At t~e end. of each ~ectlOn the results will be generalized for the case of threedImenSIonal monon.
Consider an infinitesimal fluid parcel, as shown in Figure 210, where the fluid velocity components at point Xl' X2 are V I a~d V2 in the ~ I and X2 directions, respectively. Further, let us assume that VI IS not a function o~ X2 and V 2 is not a function of x I' so that the orientation in space of the. SIdes AB BC CD and AD are invariant. From Taylor's theorem the velocity of AB'is gi'ven by VI  (avl/axl)(dxl/2), of CD by VI + (avl/axl)(dxt/2), of AD by V2 _ (aV2/ax2)(dx2/2), and of BC by V2 + (aV2/~X2)(dx2/~)' to the first order. After a time interval dt, BC becorr P.S B'C' and Increases III length
such that
B'G' = dXI +a aVI dX1 dt XI
( aV2 dX2)
V2 + 
aX2 2
/
X2
(V2  ;H'i~. 2)
\ aX2 2
As viewed by observer translating with velocity (VI' V2)·
Fig. 210. Normal deformation of an infinitesimal fluid element.
36
Basic concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
Similarly, CD becomes C'D' and increases in length to
C'D' d . aV2d d
= Xl t  X 2 t
aXl
The fractional fate of change of volume (taking a unit distance in the Xl direction) is
I dv _ (A'B')(C'D')  (AB)(CD)
v dt  (AB)(CD) dt
_ (dxl + ~ dX2 dt)(dX, + ~ dx, dt)  dx, dXl
 ~I~l~
which upon neglecting higherorder terms reduces to
.L dv _ ('avr + aV2) (227)
v dt  ax, aXl
where v is the volume.
In the general case of threedimensional flow, (227) becomes
_!_ dv _ (av, + aVl + aVJ) (228)
v dt  ax, aXl ax)
the right side of which is merely the sum of the terms on the major diagonal of the deformation tensor DIj as defined by (222). It represents the normal deformation rate (dilatational or linear deformation rate) of the fluid element as well as giving physical ricaning to the divergence of the fluid velocity,
since (228) can be written lJJ
I dv
__ = V· V
v dt
(229)
This asserts that for a compre~sible fluid the divergence of the velocity gives the fractional rate of change of volume, a positive value representing expansion, a negative value representing compression.
28 Shear Deformation
Again let us consider an infinitesimal fluid parcel where the fluid velocity components at the point XI' Xl are VI and Vl (Figure 211). Now, however, we assume that VI is not a function of X I and Vl is not a function of Xl and that the gradient of VI in the Xl direction is equal to the gradient of Vl in the X I direction. The first requirement eliminates any normal deformation and the second eliminates any rotation. From Taylor's theorem, the component of the velocity of side AD in the XI direction is VI  (avl/axl)(dxl/2) and that of side BC in the XI direction is VI + (av,/axl)(dxl/2). Thus, CC'
./
Shear oetom.suoo
37
( I(
:(
If
:(
i( j
I
I
(
i( ( (
< (
\
(or AA', BB', or DD') after a time intervai dt is given by (a~r,/a\'2)(d_>:2/2) dt and the angular speed of CD (or AB) is
I
I(
( ( ( (
I ~
(
I / /
/ / 1+4 dx I /
L ':;:;~~r:.:
A' A • D' D
_ aVI dX2
'1aX2 2
As viewed by observer translating with velocity
(VI' V2)
Fig. 211. Shear deformation of an infinitesimal ftuid element.
(av I dXl dt) ,
aXl 2 _ oVr
dx~ dt  (hl
2
In a similar way, CC" is given by (avl/axr)(dx,/2) dt and the angular speed of BC (or A D) is avl/ax I' The rate of shear deformation is taken as the sum
of these two angular speeds, aVI/aXl + avl/axr
For the general case of threedimensional flow the rate of shear
deformation is specified by the three terms avr/axl + aVl/ax" aVI/ax3 + aV3/axl, and aVl/aX3 + aV3/aXl, which are twice the offdiagonal terms
of the deformation tensor of (220) or (222).
( ( .{ {
29 Rotation and Vorticity
(
In the discussion of shear deformation we made the assumptions that for twodimensional flow the fluid velocity component VI was not a function of XI' that Vz was not a function of Xz, and that the gradient of VI in the Xz direction was equal to the gradient of Vz in the x I direction. These conditions resulted in the fluid element undergoing only shear deformation. The upper right diagram of Figure 211 illustrates the fact that the bisectors of the angles i made by the diagonals of the fluid particle remain parallel to their original positions: thus, no rotation has occurred.
Consider now the case identical to that just discussed with respect to shear deformation with the exception that the space derivatives of VI i and V2 arc the negative of each other, that is,
aVI avz
 axz = aX;
Taking aV,laxz as positive, sides AB, BC, CD, and AD all rotate clockwise through an angle (avz/ax,) dt, or (aVIW"z) dt, in a time interval dt as seen in Figure 212. Here we then have no shear deformation (nor normal deformation), but only rotation about an axis through the center of the element and.
( ( ( (
( _( (
J )
<, ') c' I
I
oVI a iii
oX2 oXI '
o I'!
 > 0 ilx2
~J
As viewed by observer translating with velocity (VI' V2).
(
.. 
Nil. 212. Rotation of an infinitesimal fluid element.
38
,
f
t
I
I
f
,
Rotetron dna ~ o.uc.),
arallel to the Xl axis with an angular speed of aVI/~xz or aVzlaxl• Both ~f these represent a rate of rotation in the same sense 111 that. by conv.entlOn we ;ake counterclockwise rotation as positive and clockWIse rotation as
negative (Figure 213).
./
a VI lox 2 represents the rate of rotation in a negative sense (clockwise) of a line +*1 XI initiall a.ong the x2axis. in diagram a VI lilx2 > 0 and rotation is clockwise.
I I
oV2/oXI represents the rate of rotation in the positive sense (counterclockwise) of a line initially along the
X I axis, in diagram 0 V2 I ox I < 0 and rotation is clockwise
Velocity profile
as vie wed rela tive to coordinate system transla ting with point (XI' x2)
Fig. 213. Sense of rotation due to velocity gradients.
In general, a fluid is not rotating as a rigid body as was assumed in ?~r
I that is av lax doe~ not equal aVzlaxl in most cases, and It IS
examp e, ' I Z • • th I
therefore not possible to define an angular speed or velocity 111 e zula:
rigidbody sense. For a fluid, then, we use an av.erage ~f the tw.o ang~ ar
d Ij2(aV lax  av ja.>:z), the negative SIgn being required Sl~ce
spee s, z I I . . la 0 d negative
aVzlaxl > 0 results in positive rotation while aVI xz> pro uces .
rotation. We can now define the vorticity of the fluid about the Xl axrs as 'l
such that
40 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
For the case of threedimensional flow, we would expect to have rotation (or vorticity) about all three of the Cartesian axes and the preceding relation can be expanded to the three equations:
( = ~VJ __ ~V2
j aX2 aX3
(l = aVj _ ~V3 (230)
aX3 aXj
( _ aVl aVj
3  aXI  aXl
It is apparent that these car. bl represented as the single vector equation
~ 0.= 4111 + (21l t (313 (231)
/
where ~ is the vorticity vectori.nd 11, 12, and 13 are unit vectors in the x I" Xl, and X3 directions, respectively. Clearly, (231) is identical to (1 13); the vorticity is merely the curl of the fluid velocity vector
( == V x V (232)
or, in indicial notation,
(233)
Finally, it is seen that (I' (2' and (3 are, from (223), just twice the value of the three terms required to specify the vorticity tensor t!IJ"
210 Summary of Relations Concerning TwoDimensional Rotation and Shear
For the twodimensional flow situation the differential requirements on the velocity components are, in summary, as follows:
I. Shear deformation without rotation:
aVI _ avz = 0
aXl aXI
and
aVI+~_Vl=l=O
aXl dx,
2. Rotation without shear deformation; aVI _ aV2 =1= 0
aXl aXj
and
Reletiv» Maliun Auslvsis 41
3. Rotation and shear deformation;
av, aV2
. ,L ()
aX2  aXj
and
211 Relative MotIon Analysis
In this section we will examine and make an analysis of the character of the motion of a fluid in the neighborhood of a point in the fluid. To proceed, assume that the velocity of the fluid at a point P with positron vector XI at time t is VlxI, I), and that simultaneously th; ~c1~)City. a; an adJ~ccnt point Q with position vector (XI + rl) IS (VI 1 oJ J, Figure _14, Theil, to
the first order in r., at time t
( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (
JV,
or
(23/)
Fig. 214. Relative motion of
iadjacent fluid particles. x I
\\ have already seen that the tensor avt/axj, the velocity gradicllt tensor, cau be divided into two tensors, one of which is symmetrical and one of which is antisymmetrical. Therefore, we call write that
oV, = oV!') + oV}a) (2]5)
( ~ (
l
where
(2]6)
42
Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
and
'( ( ( ( ( ( ( '(
~v(al  ):
U I = """ (237)
DI} and !;,' bcing defined by (222) and (223), respectively, as the deformation tensor anti the vorticity tensor.
. D.1e first term on the right of (235), c5Vj'" can be written as the nega
tive ~radlcn.t of a .scalar fu~ction ,p. (Since we are dealing only with the sym i metric r()J~ ((1I1 of the motion, that portion being irrotational, ,p is actuallY' what w~ \\111 later call the velocity potential function, the negative gradient of 1\l11Ch gives the vclocity.] Thus,
~V(,)  D a,p
U I ', I, = 
a"
(238) ,
1\ here
<fJ .= !'k'mDkm
To verify (239) we can expand first on k to obtain
(239)
and then on III,
r (
( I i
rp ·~(1rfDll + !'I'zDI2 + t'I'3DI3 f !'Z'I D21 + !dDn + t'2'3D23
f 1'3' I D3I + tr 3'2 D32 + !ri D33)
the .negative gradient of which satisfies (238). ¢J(',) = constant defines a family of surfaces which are similar quadrics (i.e., family of ellipsoids, hyperboloids, or some special form of these); and from (238), c5V!,) is normal to the quadric passing through the point determined by".
. . Additional i.nsight can he gained as to the character of c5v!,) by con
"dcnng the Iollowinz. In terms of matrix notation (239) can be written as
( (
(240)
where r is a 3 thus,
mat rix. D is a 3 X 3 matrix, and r" is the transpose of r;
IDII DI2 DI3l/'I]
1:['1'2'31 D21 D22 D23 '2
D31 D32 D33 '3
The transformation (:1' the vector r from one Cartesian coordinate system to another can he written. as seen from 036), as the matrix equation
(24/)
i'  Ar
(242)
where the matrix A is the rotation matrix, which we have seen has as its members the direction cosines between the coordinate axes of the two systems. Recall, for example, that (%32 is the cosine of the angle between the ;3 axis and the '2 axis. Now multiplying both sides of (242) by the transpose of
A, AT, we get
ADN = [~(Il ~(2) ~ 1 =: 0
o 0 Am
where r5 is a diagonal matrix with the three eigenvalues A(1), A (2) , and A(3) on the diagonal. Using this, the velocity potential function ,p has the particu
/'Iarly simple form
where f I' f 2, and f 3 are the components of the vector r referred to the tilde coordinate system. We recognize (249) as that of a family of quadrics whose axes of reference coincide with the principal axes of the tensor DI}' Further
"ielative Motion Analysis
or
I
f
ATr = ATAr
which since A is orthogonal can be written, from (142), as ATi = r
and again taking the transpose to obtain
rT = (Arry = VA
Returning to (240), substitution of (243) and (244) results in ,p = tFADNi
Since D is a symmetric matrix, we have from (146) and (I58) that
or
'" ~ WN,][t' ~'"
which upon expansion yields
,p ~ .. t(A(I);t I A.(2)f~ + A(31fD
43
(243)
(244)
(245)
(246)
(247)
(248)
(249)
44
Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
more, it is readily verified tll.at
r;
(250)
o; :=. ct~~_;:Jlll1iDktn :::~ OkmDkm DJ..k
(
or
A'IJi A(2) I Am = aVk
aXk
which sratesthat the trace of a symmetric tensor IS Invariant under any coordinate transformation, the trace of DI} being the divergence of the
velocity.
From (238) we see that in the principal coordinate system the con
uibution oVi') to the relative velocity has the three components
(25/)
(252)
This means that any material line element near the position XI that is parallel to the, I axis (thus all points on the line element have the same '2 and '3 coordinates) continues to maintain its orientation but is stretched at a rate/' iJ II = A (I). Similarly, all material line elements parallel to the '2 and, 3 axes are being stretched at rates A(2) and A(3), respectively, without rotation (Figure 215). Any material line element not parallel to one of the, I' '2' or '3 axes will, in general, experience both stretching and rotation. This stretching and rotation, however, will be only to the extent required so as to maintain continuity with the pure stretching motion undergone by the line elements parallel to anyone of the principal axes.
Fig. 215. Symmetrical portion of relative motion of material line elements parallel to the principal axes.
r,
r: •

/;
~

't •

J '2
The contribution of oV;,) to the relative motion represents pure straining motion. The deformation tensor DI} is completely determined by the direction of its principal axes and by the three principal rates of strain A (I), A <2J, and A (]). Another way of looking at the symmetric portion of the relative velocity field is tha' a material surface element near point P (Figure 214) which initially is sphe ii II is converted into an ellipsoid with principal diameters which do not rr :a ! and having rates of extension proportional
4b
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
( . ;
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
\
(
\
I
\
(
(
~ to Act), 1(21, and l(J).lfthe fluid is incompresslbk, the: VuIUIlle: or the ellipsoid is constant (avJaxi = 0) and D" c~ O. On the other hand, if the fluid IS compressible, it is convenient at times to consider the pure SlraIIll11g monon as the superposition of an isotropic expansion, for which the rate of extenSl!ln of all line elements parallel to the principal axes is lDu, and a straining
motion without a change in volume as follows:
Dn D22 lDd DJ2
(25J)
where the first term Oll the right represents the isotropic' cxpan,illn and the second the nondivergeIlt straining motion, The velocity poteIltlal if> , from
(239), is then written
if> = J'I,/DI}  !OI}Dkk)  !r.r/j'jJ)" (251)
Returning to (237), we next examine that portion of the relative velocity field represented by the antisymmetric tensor ~'j' Since ~'J is antisymmetric, it has only three independent components and can be written as
or
(255)
where t. is the vorticity vector with componellts 'I' '2' and (3 and the fuctor of t is included so as to make the definition ~f ~I) as given ,by (233) compatible with the definition of the vorticity as being the curl 01 the velOCity 111 (232), The contribution then of the antisymmetrical part of the relative velocity aVlal to the relative velocity oVt is, from (237) and (255),
(2·56)
bv!al = 'J~I} c= 'Zfj)krJ'k or, in conventional vector notation,
(257)
oVC.) = t(r x ~) = Z(~ X r)
from which we see that oVc.) can be viewed as the velocity produced at the position r relative to a point about which there exists a rigidbody rotation
of angular velocity !~. ' '
To summarize it has been shown that to the first order 111 the hnear
dimensions of a small region surrounding the position X" the velocity field can be considered to consist of the superposition of:
46 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
I. A uniform translation with the velocity Vi(x,).
2. A pure straining motion characterized by the deformation tensor DI}' which in turn may be resolved into an isotropic expansion and a straining motion without a change of volume.
3. A rigidbody rotation with an angular velocity of 1:'i'
With this in mind, the fluid velocity at the point (XI + '1) may be: written to the firstorder as
where DIj and eJ are evaluated at point Xi'
To finn lip the concepts just covered concerning relative motion, we will analyze two simple examples in some detail.
First. consider the case of simple shearing motion in which plane layers of fluid slide over each other. The relative velocity aVI then is taken everywhere in the same direction and is assumed to vary linearly in magnitude with respect to the distance perpendicular to aVI• Let coordinate axes, as in" Figure 216, be chosen such that the velocity gradient aVllax, is nonzero only for i I,jc 2: that is. from (234),
aVI = ('2~' 0, 0)
(259)
( ( .( (
Also. from (239).
(260)
and from (233),
'i ~= (0,0,  ~~I)
(261)
To examine the various symmetric and antisymmetric features of the flow and to see how they fall out of the analysis, we can start with the
. (
VI /
t~
I /
t...;
I / .. .I
1/
(
0JI' XI
VI ~ VI(x2) V2=V3=O
Fig.216. Simple shearing motion.
Relative Motion Analysis
47
deformation tensor written as
D = _!_(aVi + aVi) = l;s ~s ~ol
ii 2 dX; aXI 0 0
where
From this and (241), rP is given by
if> ~ 11''''',] [~s
,I
238) we can obtain the symmetric component of the flo.w. directly ~~o: t~e negative of the gradient of rP, and in this particular case It IS not so complicated that we cannot see what it means. Thus,
aVI') = aarP = (1:'2S, 1:'IS, 0)
'1
(262)
a plot of which is shown in Figure 217.
'2
/
/
Fig. 217. Symmetric part of relative flow for simple shear.
Since we are trying to understand how the mathematics rel.ates to. the
. ~ th . en coordinates Into
flow characteristics, let us proc.eed to trans orm f e gl~50) are found by
a principalaxes system. The eigenvalues of D, rom ,
48 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
solving the determinant
Dll  1 Dl2
D21 D221
D31 DJ2
which results in the characteristic equation
whose roots are
1 = ts, 0, ts Utilizing (I56), the eigenvectors are given by
n = 1,2,3
Applying this to the eigenvalue of 1(1) = JS, we have that
[0 ts
ts 0 o 0
or
tSe~l) = tSe\l) tSe\l) = _!Se~l) 0= _tSe\l)
In addition, we require the ';~g~nvector ell) to be of unit magnitude, imposing the condition
e!l)' = I
Solving this set of equations, we obtain
which is the first eigenvector, and as such, is the first row (OC11, OC12, OC13) of the rotation matrix of (133) and (I54), giving the direction of the principal axis designated by the bracked superscript (I) with respect to the 01 iginal axes designated by the subscripts I, 2, and 3. Continuing, for the second
eigenvector,
r ,
/
~ (
( ( (
( j
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
~
(
(
I
~ (
( ( ( ( ( (
'(
Relative Motion Anal('sis 49
or
e~2) = 0 e12) = 0
and
e(2)'  , 
which gives, upon solving,
the second row of the rotation matrix; the direction of the principal axis designated by the superscript (2) with respect to the original axes designated by the subscripts I, 2, and 3. For the last eigenvector,
yielding
tSe~J) = tSep) tSeP) = tSe~j) 0= tSe\3)
which, along with the condition for unit magnitude, gives the solution
(3)_ I e2  ";2
Putting all of this together, we have the com plete rotation matrix
  ,./201  ":.Jo!T °11
A = oc'J =
1 I
~ 7'2 °
_ v'" "
As a check on our work up to this point we can apply (146) lil the
form
D=ADN
where i5 is given by
o
_ [A.(1l
D = 0 o
A. (2)
o
(
50
Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
Substituting then for this particular flow, I
o
I
~2 0
o
o
o
I I 
::;2 0 v'T
I I
~2 0 ,.,/2
o 1_
o
o
.. I 2.7·'1S
" L
I I 
 ,.,/2· 0 ~2·
o
o
o
I 2.J2S 0
I 27"S
_ v L
~II) 0
Q.E.D.
o
'I 0 (XI}') which ant', suhst itut iug for (J,'I gives
I I
1, co ··~/T" + ~2'2
'2 = '3
I ~T
o J
_ I 1
'3 = ~L'I + ,y'L,z
and in the tilde coordinate system the velocity potential rp is, from (247),
rp Fro;:
Hr"z'l) IT o~ ~ j 1'::,]
!S r,
.(
f,elalive MoliOn AnalYSIS
,,[
which, as shown in Figure 218, plots as a family of hyperbolas in the r , '3 plane. Differentiating the rp expression, one obtains the negative of the symmetrical velocity components in the, I and, 3 directions,
aa~ = is',
"
a~ = is'3
a'3
respectively. These results show that we have a contraction along the, I axis, expansion along the, 3 axis, and that these axes are rotated 45° clockwise around the '3 axis from the, I and 'z axes, respectively, as shown in Figure 219. This, then, completes the analysis of the symmetric portion of the
relative flow.
Going on to the antisymmetrical part of the relative motion, we have
from (255),
lOS 0]
el) = _!..(aVI _ av}) = .L S 0 0
2 ax} ax{ 2
000
which we have seen gives for the components of the vorticity
./
o 1(1) 0 = [5
o 0 1(1)
To determine the orientation of the principal coordinates, we write (2·42) as
c{ = (0,0, S)
N
__________ ~~~~~~'3
. Fig. 218. Isolines of the velocity potential", with reference to the principal coordinates for simple shear flow and positive velocity
gradienl.
52 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
Fig. 219. Oriemation of principal axes and direction of symmetrical portion of motion for simple shear.
The antisymmetrical part l,ft'le motion is thus
oVjo) =~('Jk'Jrk = (tSr2' ~Srl' 0)
and is illustrated in Figure 2· ',0.
As a final check on our results, we can reconstruct the flow field from
its symmetrical and antisymmetrical parts as in Figure 221, to obtain the
original field of simple shearing flow.
As a second example, consider the fluid flow represented by the
deformation tensor
Fig. 220. Antisymmetrical portion of motion for the case of simple shear flow.
Helutive Motion AIIJI,'i'S
r
(
t
(
I
(
'(
( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (
i( '
I :(
( ( ( ( ( ( (
( (
'. <, L. F;/// ./~;"
~ l: /~ /
'~I/ i/
_'J __ 4'_JL~~ 'I
7 / J
/" / I
I , / I
'" / I
. / I
/,! /~'~
/
/
Symmetrical relative velocity compollellt, represents pure struuung motion
Antisymmetrical relative velocity component, represents rot.niou

Resultant relative velocity
Fig. 221. Symmetrical and antisymmetrical relative velocity curnponents representing pure slraining motion and rotation for a sim
ple shear flow.
which is nondivergent since DII = O. The eigenvalues of the m.iuix arc given by
1 I
1
I c,' 0
1
with the resulting characteristic equation
13  31  2 = 0
! whose roots are 1 = I, 1, and 2.
This example is a rather special case in that a multiple root (I)
exists. As we will see, this implies that there is only one unique principal axis of s ain, which is also an axis of symmetry for strain in the plane normal to that aAIS. This result is illustrated from a determination of the eigenvectors;
( ( ,{
54
Bssic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
for ).(1)  I (or equivalently for).(2) = I),
yielding the three equations
('~I) + e\l) = e\l) ell) + ell) = e~l) 1'\1) + e~l) = _ell)
which red lice to the single relation
e\l)f dl) + ell) =~ 0
a nd when combined with the condition for a unit vector,
points out the indeterminacy of the direction of the eigenvector obtained from the root(s), ).(1) c~, ).(2) :": I. ~
However, for ).'" 2,
( (
J
(
_(
J
(
j
o I o
or
d3) [ 1'13) = 2e\3) e\31 f e\3) = 2e~3) cP) I e~') 2e1')
which along with the unit vector condition reduces to
II hich sl;llc~ that the ""sine of the angle (54.8") between the f, axis and the 'I axis, between the fJ axis and the r2 axis, and between the r, axis and th~ r, aXIS, is 1/ ... /3 (Figure 222). Additionally, since ).(3) is positive while ..i(I) and _X 2) arc negative and equal, the fluid is undergoing expansion along the r J axis and Isotropic contraction in the plane normal to thisaxis, To vel ify this conclusion. we can make use of the property of the stream
Fig. 222. Principal axes for the
flow condition of example (b). '3
Relative Motion AnalYSIS
54.8°
function rp. As in the previous example, from f(2_47),
rp = _!fTDf
~"WN'J[i
which are the velocity components in the f I' f 2' and f J directions, respectively; /' and as asserted, represents isotropic contraction in the f /2 plane and expan
sion along the f J axis.
The family of quadrics represented by rp differ as rp is positive or
negative. For rp > 0, (263) is the equation of a family of hyperboloids of two sheets opening in the positive and negative f J directions. Sections parallel to the f / J and f 2f J planes are hyperbolas; the traces in the f /2 plane are circles. For rp < 0, (263) is the equation of a hyperboloid of one sheet: sections parallel to the i / J and i 2f J planes are hyperbolas, the traces in the f /2 plane again being circles. With r, taken in the direction of the axis of symmetry of the strain, let i be the radial coordinate in the plane normal to  this axis (f I and f2 are normal to f 3 but otherwise indeterminate). The quadric surfaces and the streamlines (which are everywhere normal to the quadric surfaces since oV!') is in the direction of the negative of the gradient of rp) in the F3F
giving
arp 
afl = rl
55
(263)
56 iJdsic Concepts end Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
plane would look as shown in Figure 223, where P is the material point of the medium relative to whicl <!"Ie streamline pattern applies. In other words, the material near point P ap;jea rs to be flowing relative to P, as shown. Also illustrated are lines of zero stain rate (or of zero fractional rate of separation) which join points having pa albI velocity vectors.
Lines of zero
.....
........... _

 ,
Isolines of q, > 0, section of hyperboloids of two sheets
Isolines of q, < 0, section of
hyperboloids of one sheet
Fig. 223. IsoIines of the velocity potential and streamlines for the flow field of example (b) as viewed normal to the " '3 plane.
On the other hand, viewed in the plane normal to the f l axis, the relative streamlines appear, as in Figure 224, as a convergent flow. Isolines of cp .in this special case are circles. For the more general case where A(1) and A(2) are both positive but :oot equal, they would be ellipses with principal
axes in the direction of; 1 at d '2'
Tile Str ca n: Funci/on 51
A method of classifying different types of fluid motion is according to kinematic (kinematics: treatment of motion without reference to particular forces or bodies) properties; for example, there are large classes (If motion dealing with divergenceless (incompressible) fluids, with irrotat:onal (zero vorticity) flow, and with deformationless (like that of solid bodies) motion. A >chelllalir diagram illustrating various special types of motion is presented in Figure 225. The size of the various blocks denotes the overall relative importauce . the amount of material available in the literature dealing with a given classification" the other hand, is in rough measure inversely propurtional to the area of th; appropriate block. The condition imposed upon each type of motion is stated under each title. Where overlapping occurs, more than one condition is imposed; for example, Laplacian flow represents that for v,hich both V x V and V • V are zero and is more extensively studied than any other in the classical iiterature of hydrodynamics. It is apparent, Iwwc:vcr, t hut it is merely a special case in the general scheme of possible kinematic beha vi or.
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
( ( ,
(
(
(
(
(
(
.(
( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (
Fig. 224. lsolines of the velocity potential and streamlines for the flow field of example (b) as viewed in plane normal to f3 axis.
Streamlines
Iso lines of q,
212 Kinematic Classification of Fluid Motion
i
~13 The Stream Function
If a particular fluid motion is twodimensional and nondivergenl, its velocity field can be represented by a single scalar function, the stream jimetion. Letting ~(x, y, t) represent this function, then
(
·l
(
General motion
~~
,
Jrrot"tioll_ll (V x V = 0)
(264)
(
{
I torn this we see that. assuming that I{! has continuous first and second dcrrvatl\cs, a llC'cC':ss<lry cfllH.litinn for the existence of the stream function is
that the fluid mouon he nondivergcnt since for t 1'0 I' . I fi
, \ ( tmenslOna ow
~.
Laplacian
('1 V = 0, vx V = 0)
Acoustical vibrations
I
I i Hydrostatics (V = 0)
. _jkD
I  I eformationless
I O. i (Dq = 0)
I _k/ iverge ntless (V  V = 0) I
I I
I I
L . . _l
._.______j
Fig. 22.'. Schematic diagram for the kinematic classification of fluid motions.
II
v = al{! ax
V·V
~_I! + ~1!_ = j_( __ al{!) + ~ (a'll) = 0
a.\ Jy ax ay ay ax .
! ne .:;,Ut;:dlll , UilL.lIulJ j:'_j
where
(265)
v .~ IIi! d Utilizing (264), it is seen that V can be written
v = _al{!i + al{!j
ay ax
= VI{! x k
(266)
Then
__ VI{! • V =  VI{! • ( "l1f1 X k)
_ (VI{! X VI{!) • 'k ~ 0
and from the definition of the dot product, at all' one time V must be normal to the gradient of I{!. But, since the gradient o: V is normal to isolines of I{!, we conclude that V is parallel to the tsolines of I{! and that isolines of I{! are therefore streamlines. Additionally, (266) states that the magnitude of the velocity is inversely proportional to the spacing of isolines of I{! provided that these isolines are constructed for equal increments of I{! (Figure 226). It is not generally true, however, that streamlines are isolines of I{! since streamlines can be constructed for divergent flow, for which case the stream function
does not exist.
k
y
Streamline
x
!J;3 >!J;2 > "'I
61/1'" !J;2 !J;I =';:3 !J;2
I VI = ~_!J; '" t>_"' where II = distance measured
all 611 normal to streamlines
Fig. 226. The relation between isolines of the stream function, streamlines, and nuid velocity.
A physical interpretation of the stream function results from the following considerations. The volume transport of fluid per unit z distance (having units of ([Iengthp /[timeJ)/[lengthJ) across any cylindrical surface
60 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Flurd Dynainics
connecting points P and 0 of Figure 227 is given by the line integral
f (."y,)
Q = V. ds
(0,0)
where V.,is the velocity component normal to the surface, The ddl'.rmination of Q is not dependent on the existence of the stream function; however, in general the quantity Q depends upon the path of integration. Now let Q I and Q2 be the volume transports per unit z distance across the surfaces whose projection on the x, y plane are curve I and curve 2, respectively
(Figure 227). Then
(267)
and
(268)
y
Curvel
/
/ ;Curve 2
/
/
/
/
/
",,/
_"
0(0, 0) _=;_..
Fig. 227. Projection of a right cylindrical surface in the x, Y plane.
___ X
Using the divergence theor
f. v . V dv = L 0 • V dA
(269)
where v and A designate integration over the volume and the area, respectively, the integral on the right of (268) can be transformed such that we
obtain
(270)
In this case the integral, since we are dealing with a unit z distance, is the counterpart of the volume integral of (269); that is, for a unit z distance the tis and V. of (268) are equivalent to the dA and (0 • V) of (269) and dv of (269) is equivalent to the d A of (270). In (270) the area over which the integration is to be carried out is that enclosed by the curves I and 2.
/'
The Stt e.un Fnnction 61
r
(
t
t
I
<
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
I(
!(
(
i(
I
, (
(
(
(
(
(
(
( Now it is dear that the condition of no dlvngttlc(; uj' liu\\' corresponds to the condition of Q, being equal to Q2' Furthcrm(l[(;, since the paths of integration for Q, and Q2 are arbitrary, it may be concluJcd ihut for V • V = 0, Q is independent of the path of integration. This iillplic, tliat for auy
given time dQ is an exact differential.
Since if is a function of only x and y at any given uurc,
U71)
is an exact differential. For V • Y , 0, then from (264), dVi .~c v dx ... 1/ dy
(27])
or
u d)'
the pat; ~~om point (0,0) to point (XI' )'1) being completely arbitrary. From Figure 2." .8 we see that
v dx  u dy =, V. cis
and, consequently,
(273)
y
Fig.228. Volume transport across arbitrary surface element.
I
i This asserts that the value of the stream function at the point (x I' ),,) is
associated with the volume transport between that point and a reference point; that the difference between values of VI of neighboring isolines at any given time represents the volume transport between those isolines per unit distance (for our case, per unit z distance). The volume transport between any two isolines of VI must therefore be constant, which is consistent with the observation that isolines of VI are streamlines and as such can have no flow across them (Figure 229).
( ( ~( (
62
Besrc Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
y
High '"
~!:l.Q' = "'J  "'2
!:l.Q= "'2 :/II
i Fig. 229. Relation between volume transport and isolines of the stream function.
low",
( .~ (
To <unuunrizc:
I. A '0 stream .function exists for each and every
bl twodimensional
mcomprcsst e flow, whether viscid or inviscid,
2. Lilies for which the stream functi . .
:1, A' . . '. Ion IS a constant are o,!reamlines.
t any given tunc III Cartesian coordinates,
(
a", ay
11
and, in general,
( (
.~ .( .( ) _l
J j
v, ~.~ ?_V!
all
where s is measured 90° I'
F. counterc ockwise from n as illustrated'
igure 230. ,In
y
Fig. 230. Relation between isolines of the stream function and the fluid velocity in the natural coordinate system,
_x
214 The Velocity Potential
If' a particular fluid motion is irrotation I .. °
PI' flo\\' in terms of a sinole scalar fu t~' 1~(tS possible to represent the field
e ," nc Ion 'I' .v, y, z; t) as
V .~. VrfJ
(274)
The Velocity Potential 63
or
(275)
at any given time t I' where <p is called the velocity potential. Unlike the stream function, which is applicable only to twodimensional, nondivergent flow, the velocity potential is defined for the threedimensional case. However, the necessary condition for the existence of <p that the flow be irrotational
requires that
I I
I
I
aw au ay .c az
au aw at = a:x
As is evident from (274), the fluid velocity is directed normal to the equiscalar surfaces of <p. its sense being toward low values of <p and its magni
tude given by
(27())
where n is the distance measured normal to the equiscalar surface at the point in question, If the equiscalar surfaces arc constructed for equal intervals of <p, then I V I is inversely proportional to the spacing of the surfaces. Figure 231 illustrates these concepts for the special case of twodimensional flow.
y
l
n
IVI= I~~I
s
"
t = t,
lltP = tP2  tPl = tPJ  tP2
High tP
/'
v
L ~x
Fig. 231. Relation between isolines of the velocity potential and the fluid velocity.
To gain further insight into the character of the velocity potential, as well as to substantiate the assertion of irrotalionality, we proceed as fol
lows. At anyone time the difTerential d<p can (,(e,expressed as .
d<p = £:i!: dx + a</J av +§)!_ dz
ox a),,' o z
which, from (275). can be written
d<p = (u dx + v dv f~ w dz)
(277)
(278)
64 Basic Concepts and Prin.Jples in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
Thus, if the velocity field is known, I/> at a poin t P(x 1> y" z,) can be evaluated from, the line integral
(279)
where the origin is taken as the reference point. In the light of the requircment that V. X V = 0, the path of integration is perfectly arbitrary. To prove this
we wnte (279) as
.1..( f (",y",,) f (X,,"",)
,/,X"YI,ZI)=  V·ds= V,ds
(0,0,0) (0,0,0)
(280)
V, being the tangential component of V along the path of integration and ds the differential line vector
ds = i dx + j dy + k dz
If, as in Figure 232, we consider two different paths, curve 1 and curve 2 /'
then the difference in the Y:!'les of I/> obtained from integration is ' <
1/>2  I/> I =  [ ((, "y",,) (V,)2 ds + f (x"Y,,',) (V,), dS]
. (C 0,0) (0,0,0)
=  f.', ds Applying Stokes' theorem,
f V • dr =, J.. (n • V X V) dA
y
Curve I
P(x" Yi' z,)
L
I Curve 2
/ / / / ./ _,,/
_,,/'
_
_
~~ ~x
Fig. 232. Integration of tangential component of fluid velocity
around a closed path. , ,
(281)
(282)
(285 )
to the last ilile_:,tl of (281),
¢2 . 1/>, = . L (n· V X V\ II
(2·83)
~ (
( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (
arbitrary path be uniquc ami sill..'.k·· from (283) necessitates that V x " tional as asserted previously.
To summarize:
I,,, ics arc the CUll Co, _,y integration along an _ require that ¢, q,2, which . , ,"at is, that the fluid film be inoIa'
where A • ,1It::".:.J of an arbitrary surf 1 and 2. It view of the desire that I~
I. The velocity potential exists if and only if the flow is irrotation; no other restrictions are required.
2. The fluid velocity is given at any pal ticular time by
V = VI/>
215 laplacian Flow
A twodimensional field of flow which is both nondivergent and irrolational can be characterized by either (or both) of the scalar functions IJI or 4>. This type of flow, bearing the name Laplace, has been extensively investigated and forms much of the bulk of the classical literature of hydrodynamics.
For twodimensional flow, the conditions implied by the ~iipu!ali()11
that V • V =, 0 and V X V ~ 0 are
au au
s,': ay
We have seen that the relations
all au
dy C.C dx
(204)
and
alJl u =Ty
satisfy the first of these, while
al/> U' ax
(206)
( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (
\.
Ii .,,~  ~1! ay
i
satisfy the second. In Laplacian flow both of (2~4) must be ~ali,lied silllul
taneously. Consequently, inserting (285) into the second part of (2~4) and (286) into the first part of (284), we find that the functions !fI and ¢ must satisfy the twodimensional form of Laplace's equauon.
V21J1 = 0
V21/> = 0
(107 )
a "secondorder, elliptic, partial differential equation. Also, since isolines of IJI are parallel to V and isolines of I/> are normal to V, it is clear that isolines of IJI
and I/> must be orthogonal, as shown in Figure 233.
(
}'
( ( (
• (
'/13> '/12> oJil «> «> ¢II
Fig. 2~3. Isolines of the stream function and velocity potential for I aplacian now .
216 The Kinematic Boundary Condition
At an impermeable boundary, a boundary across which there is no flux of matter on a macroscopic scale, the flow of fluid relative to the bound
b . ary
must e tangential. Examples of impermeable boundaries are the sur
faces of solid bodies adjacent to the fluid (the bottom and sides' of the o~ean when percolation is ignored) and free surfaces (the interface between a~r and water if we ignore evaporation and condensation or between immiscible fluids). If the boundary is fixed in space, the component of fluid velocity normal to It must be zero.
V· n = V. = 0
(288)
~\here ~ is I he unit normal vector to the boundary. However, if the boundary IS moving. the normal component of the fluid velocity at the boundary n:llst be equal to the v~locit~ of the boundary normal to itself. This applies II hetl.ler the interface IS solidfluid or a free surface. If we let V be the veloc~ty of the boundary and V be the velocity of the fluid at the boundary, the kinematic boundary condition is
(U  V). n = 0
(289)
. Equation (289) represents the kinematic boundary condition for the sl~eclflc case of an impermeable boundary. In those cases where a change of stat,e.of the fluid ~ccurs at the boundary, or where the boundary displays a selective permeab~IrIY, neither (288) nor (289) is rigorously applicable. A specific example IS the effect of an evaporative flux of water at the sea surface. T IllS process IS certainly impcrtant in thermodynamic nroblerns: however, in nc.uly all kinematic or dynamical problems the effect of'(fvapora~
tion can be ignored with regard to the kinematic boundary condition, We merely note here that for evaporation at the sea surface, (289) takes the form
p(V  V)· n = E
(290)
where p is the mass density of water and E the magnitude of the mass flux of water vapor emerging from the sea surface (having units of [rnassj'(llength]'
[time]).
For completeness we might note that if the fluid is viscous, an addi
tional boundary condition applies, the noslip condition of
(U  V) • s = 0
(291)
where s is the unit tangent vector to the boundary. Application of the kinematic and noslip conditions result in the fluid at the boundary having zero velocity with respect to the boundary itself.
Let us now direct our attention specifically to a free surface across which a certain physical or thermal property is continuous. For example, at the sea surface the temperature across the interface between the air and the sea water is assumed to be continuous. Anotherexample is that of pressure for those cases where the effect of surface tension can be ignored. Let flex, y, z, t) represent the field of this continuous property in fluid I and flex, y, Z, t) represent the field of this same property in fluid 2. Since the property is continuous across the free surface; then
fJ'<, y, z, t)  fl.(x, y, z, t) = 0
(292)
where the subscript b indicates that the function is to be evaluated at the boundary between the fluids. If the functionsf, and fl are known, this relation actually defines the equation of the boundary; il]at is,
F(x, y, Z, t) = fl.  f2' =: 0
(293)
is the implicit equation of the free surface. This equation states that at time t
.the point whose coordinates (x, y, z) satisfies it 'ies on the boundary. Since the boundary is moving, at some later time, say (t + dt), the point will have coordinates (x + dx, y + dy, Z + dz) such that they again satisfy the
relation
F(x + dx, y + dy, Z + dz, t + dt) = 0
'. ,.
which can be written in a Taylor series to the',jfst order as
F(x I dx i y + dy, z + d z ; t + dt)
F( , t) 1 aF(x, y:.3_._(2 d I. aF(x, y, z, t) d
x, J, z ; T ax x , ay y
+ aF(x, y, z, t) dz + aF(x, y, z, t) dt
az at
(294)
(295)
~O
,68 Basic Concepts and I tin iiples in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
Subtracting (294) from d~h) and dividing the result by dt yields aF + dx aF + dy aF + d= aF  0
Tt dt ax dt ay dt az 
or expressing this result in terms of the material derivative,
(296)
This result is not surprising in that it merely states that if we follow a fluid particfe on the boundary, it moves with the boundary,
An important application of this result is in the framing of the kinematic free surface boundary condition for gravity waves, We have stated that (293) is an implicit equation of the free surface. In wave theory this is generally written in the explicit form
z = '1(x, y, t)
(29J'j
where '1 denotes the function representing the elevation of the free surface above some reference plane at position (x, y) and at a time t as shown in Figure 234. Now from combining (293) and (297),
g(x, y, Z, t) == '1(x, y, t)  Z = 0
and applying (296),
D
Dt['1(x, y, t)  z) ce .. 0
~; + u 1_ ~~ + v 1_ ~  IV 1 ~~ 0
zrr z" oy z="
or, rearranging,
wi = a'1 + u 1 a'1 + v I a'1
z=q at z=q ax z=q ay
(298)
In this, the complete form of the kinematic free surface boundary condition, it is seen that the vertical velocity at the free surface 11'1,_. is not just the local rate of change of elevation a'1/at (as would be measured by a wave staff, for example), but also depends on the advection of the sea surface slopes.
Z = IJ(X, y, ) W////,'V/h/ff/h/ff/ff/./j///ffff/ff/ff//ff/,%i'/' Z = 0
Fig. 234. Definition diagram of free surface for gravity waves; explicit form.
Disl,ilH1Llvn of l/.Jria!.J!es 6n
As a final point it is observed that in SOIllC cases the nunlincar [crlilS of (298) are small compared with the linear terms and the approximation
I\' I,. :c~ ~1
is made.
217 Distribution of Variables
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
«
:(
(
(
(
1
Ie
I (
(
\
( ~
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
, l
\
l Let Q be an intensive measure (a quantity expressed per unit \lilllille) ofsome property q. For example, Q could represent:
I. The density p, where the property 'I is the mass !If; that is, the intensive measure of the mass is the density,
2. The momentum density pu, pv, or pl1', where the property q is the momentum Mu, M», or Mw; that is, the intensive measure of
the momentum is the momentum density,
q == Mu Q == Mu = pu
v
3. The concentration of salt ps or the concentration of \\,,:,'r p( I _ s) in a binary mixture, where s is the salinity expressed in mass of salt per unit mass of seawater (approximating seawater as a binary mixture) while the property q is the total mass of salt or water; that is, the intensive measure of the total salt or total water is the salt per unit volume or the water per unit volume, respectively.
Ms
q = Ms Q == v ~c ps
or
q == M(l  s)
Q == M(I_~_:_:~2 = p(1  ' v) V
Consider the elemental rectangular parallelopiped of Figure 235 with sides of length Ax, A)" and Az. We assert that the increase of the inieusive measure Q of the property q within the volume over a time interval At
can only be attributed to:
I. The advection of the property into the volume by the tluid velocity.
2. The diffusion of the property into the volume due to the existence of a gradient of the property.
3. The production of the property within the volume (i.e., the volume
acts as a source or sink for the property).
70
Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
B F Liz
QII  I ( aQII)
I QII + a; I1x
~~ /~
/
/ Lip
A Lix E
.r Fig. 2.15. Advccrive flux of a property in the .r direction of an elcmenial rectangular raralieloriped,
" ' We will examine the effect of each of these individually and then put
.,11 three together to rorm one equation,
Change of the Intensive Property Q Due to Advection Assume that the components of the fluid I it '
r ' . I ve OC1 y rn the x, y, and z
( rrecnons arc II. 1'. and I\' respectively With t th
. '  . respec en to the elemental
rectangular rMallel"111J1ed. we can write
inflo»: or property I »>
q across face ABC D == Qu,1y,1z,11 (299)
III time ,11
and lItili7.ing the Taylor series. to first order,
I inflovv or property 'I
. ~1 across f;f("e ErClI = (Qu + ~0! Ax),1y,1~,11 (2100)
.Intlllle;\( ax
Adding these last two expressions, we obtain 'nel inflow of rror]
erty q in the x __ aQu
~Iirection in lime ax,1x,1y,1z,1t
.interval ,1t (2101)
_ aQu
.  ox,1v ,11
\\ here v is the volume or the parallelepiped .
In it similar fashion, it is seen that
( (
• (
(
.' ( ..( _( .(
11("1 il1f1. ,(ill' of prop./ city q ifl the y
direction in time = interval Ar
(2,102)
and
[nel inflow of prop]
erty q in the z = _ aQII' ,1v ,1t
direction in time ()z
interval ,1t
Summing (2101), (2102), and (2103) yields
ll1el inflow of prop]
erty.q across all = _(aQU + aQv + aQW),1v,11
faces in time ,1t ax dy az
due to advection
Now if the amount of the property present in the volume at time I is Q Au, then at time (I I ,11), according to a Taylor expansion, the amount of the
property present will he
(2103)
(2/04)
Q ,1v + ~~ ,1v t' !
and subtracting we have that the
. net ill crease of =. eo
q within volume in time ='at,1v,11
interval ,11
 ..
The assumption that the only way that the amount of the property q can change within the volume is by advection allows us to equate (2104) and (2105), Doing so and canceling common terms results in
(2/fi»)
*' a_g + aQu_ + aQv + aQw = 0
al ax ay az
alternative forms of which are
f}2, It 7J At =. ot, t> .•
_ { cJ~~ ... C?~.~ +
()1,
aQ .1_ V • VQ + QV • V = 0 al
11
or
DQ + QV. V = 0 DI
(2106)
or
, (2107) ~
aQ + V. QV = 0 al
Change of the Intensive Property Q Due to Diffusion
The quantity Q can vary within a control volume, regardless of the existence of a fluid velocity, as a result of diffusion as long as there is a gradient of the property, It is known that, if one region has a higher concen
(1.R.I ~ +~.f~ \~b':qaf:::o If:
\. at (ft~~. 0M_ I;');:};' /'
72
Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
tration of a particular substance, random molecular motion (motion on a microscopic scale) will result in a transport, in a statistical sense, of the substance from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration. This is transport on a smallerthancontinuum scale.
. Ret~rning to our elemental rectangular parallelepiped, let us take the
fluid velocity V as zero and define a diffusive flux vector Fo(x,)', z, t) as the nonadvecrive transport of the property q through a unit area normal to the direction of the flux. For the x direction, then,
[inflow of property ]
~ a~ross face ABeD = Fo. Ay Az At In time At
and via a Taylor expansion
[inflow of property I
~ a~ross face EFGH =  (Fo. + at:· AX) Ay Az At ./
In time At
where Fo. is the x component of Fa. Adding these last two statements we
obtain ' '
[:;~~n;:~;i~~he x] __ aFQ, A
d. . .,  a LlU At
irection In time x
interval At _
Similarly, for the y and z d.rections,
(2IOB)
[net in/dl ' of ]
prope ty in the y directior, in tim, ~ Interval At
(2109)
and
[net inflow of ]
p~operty in t~e z = _ a F Q, Au At
direction In trrne az
interval At
(2110)
Then, taking (2108), (2 109), and (2110) all together yields

[;;~;n;:;;I~ o:cross J
all faces in time = (V· FQ) Au At
At due to diffusion
Recalling (2105), and assuming that the only way that the intensive measure of the property can change within the control volume is via diffusion, we
(2111)
[
I I I
I
~.
i
Dis/f/bution 01 Variables 73
obtain that
(2112) /l.
aQ + V • Fo == 0 at
Change of the Intensive Property Q Due to Production within Control Volume
If we let Rq(x,)', z, I) equal the net rate of prudlJctilln of the intensive
property and again recall (2105), but now assume that the only way in which the property can change is via its production within the vulurne, we obtain
(jQ ~_ RQ (21 iJ) *
at
* * *
Now, putting the foregoing together in that we allow for a (:han~e in Q to occur due to advection, diffusion, and gelleration, we llbtalll fWIlI (2107), q112), and (2113) the most general from of tbe disiribllli(i/l {~I
variables equation,
It
(2114) f
If the property that concerns us is a conservative Oll~ (i.e., one that can be altered through physical processes but not through chemical or bIOlogical ones), then no production can occur, Ro equals zero, and (2114) reduces to ,
aQ + V • (QV + F Q) ()
at
(2/15)
I
I
which states that the" local rate of change of Q is equal to the cllllvergt:nce
of Q due to advection and diffusion. .
At this point it seems appropriate to take time ttl culIIlIlcllt briefly
i on the form of the diffusive flux vector Fo· An cmpirical law g()VCflllng FQ
. that is frequently adopted is of the form
I Fo =' Ko VQ (li 16)
where K is the diffusivity coefficient for the particular property under investigation; Several specific but familiar forms uf [hi!; equation exist.
Consider the following examples:
! Transfer of Mass Due tv a COllcentratioll Gradient
, For the case of mass transfer due to a concelltration gradient, (2116)
takes the form
F, = K, V(ps)
(li 17)
where for this purpose s is the salinity of seawater cxpressed in mass per unit mass; ps is the concentration of salt in masS per unit volume; V(ps)
)
(
/ l
( ( ( ( ( ( (
r
j(
r I~
( ( ( ( (
i (
(
( ( (
i (
J {
) ( (
74 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
is the gradient of the concentration, the "driving force" in mass per unit volume per unit distance; K, is the diffusivity coefficient of salt expressed in area per unit time (physically, K, is the mass of salt per unit area per unit time diffusing past a point when the concentration gradient is one unit of mass per unit volume per unit distance); and F, is the diffusive flux of salt in seawater expressed as mass per unit area per unit time. In general, ps need not necessarily be the salt concention but could he the mass concentration of any substance. The equation for mass diffusion, of which (2117) is a specific case, goes under the name of the Fickian diffusion law.
Whell in (2115) we substitute ps for Q and F, for F'Q' we obtain the conservative 0/ salt equation,
aft~ + V • (psV + F,) ~. 0
(2118)'
( ( ( ( _( ( ( (
which states that the local rate of change of the salt concentration is equal to the convergence of salt due to advection and diffusion. Assuming, as we have been doing that seawater is a binary mixture of salt and water, the concentration of water is p(1 " 05), Defining Fw as the diffusive flux of water in seawater and substituting into (2115) yields the conservation of.water equation,
ap(1  s) ._
 I V • [p(J  s)V + Fw)  0 at
(2119)
which is physicaJly interpreted in the same manner as (2118). From these last two conscrv arion equat ions plus the equation of continuity (which will be developed ill Sect ion 218) it can readily be shown that the two diffusive fluxes are related by
F, = Fw
(2120)
Condnctivc Transfer of Thermal Energy Due to a Temperature Gradient
Fell the conductive transfer of thermal energy due to a temperature gradient, (211 Ii) is written
(
h ~ c VT
(2121)
where T is the absolute temperature; VT is the spatial temperature gradient expressed in absolute degrees per unit length, the "driving force"; c is the coefficient of thermal conductivity expressed as energy per unit time per absolute degree per unit distance; and h is the energy flux due to thermal conduction expressed as energy per unit time per unit area, Equation (2121) is the h:niliar lotn irr law otItcat conduction.
,lfOlllr'llllll/l lirll/I/i'r Dt«: to I 'rlocit y Gradients
An example or the relationship of the transfer of momentum to the \el(lcity gradient is Ih:1t of Newton's law of viscasitv, which for fluid flow in
The Continuity Equation 75
the x direction is written
au Tyx = P, ay
. . radient ex ressed in units of distance ~er u~it
where aujay IS the velocity g ., fP "." I'S the dynamic VISCOSity
. di t e the "driving orce , ,..
time per unit IS anc,. I' I' d by tirne: and T is the shear
f unit area mu tip re ,yx
expressed as a orce per. t d i the x direction on a surface
. f unit area) exer e m
stress (shearing orce per . f ter y Alternatively the shear
h f id i the region 0 grea. ,
of constant)' by t e UI m f t m in the negative y direction
stress can be thought of as the flUXI 0 x mfomenpuer unit area or as momentum
d 'valent y as a orce
and can be expresse equt id h t b (2 122) is said to be New
." it f e Any flul tao eys  .
per unit area per un.1 irne. I esentation of the shear stress m
tonian; we will consider a more genera repr
(p, >0)
(2122)
a later section.
218 The Continuity Equation
. f ass forms the basis of what is called the
The law of the conservatIOn. 0 rna: d thematically by the continuiry
. . I .r ; I' 't)1 and IS expresse rna .
prtnctp e OJ con tnUl, f . of the fluid mass
. . I t tes that the rate 0 mcrease
equation. The pnncip e s a b. I t the difference between the
contained within a given space must e equa 0
rates of influx and efflux. of m~s. k the mathematical manipulations
To show generaht~ an yet e:fn consider seawater to be a binary
from becoming overly tedIOUS. let us adg. ted as before by subscripts s
. ., faIt and water, eSlgna
fluid consisting 0 s. f h f . d v of arbitrary but fixed size and and W. Consider a finite volume 0 t e UI . f mass the only way in
. h .' I of the conservatIOn 0 ,
shape. Adopting t e pnncrp e 'thin the volume can change
/which the mass of salt and water, M, and Mw, WI ". I vary but their
. dari M nd M can in genera ,
is by input across Its boun an.es. , a . w
variation must be in accord WIth the equations
dM, = J n· p,V, dA
dt A
(2123)
and
tl'!!<f_ = J n· PwVw d A
dt A
'. . I t the surface A of the volume
where n is the outward directed unit norma 0 fl ectors of salt
, V and p V are the mass ux v '
v. In these two equations p, , w .": r.. . . . the particu
d . arc the actual densities oft.re two species in
and water, p, an p" I velm'itles of salt and water. By total
lar seawater, and V, and V ... arc the = , " j" .
. . 1 the diffusion velocity of each. pecies, defined by
velocity, we meat
" F ~
C, === p~ Cw == p(1 _ s)
, (2124)
(2125)
76
Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
plus what we generally call the velocity of the fluid (which is actually the mass average velocity of the individual species). Summing (2123) and (2124)
yields
dM dM, su; J
dt = dt + (ft = , An' (p,V, I PwVw) d A
(2126)
where M'is the total mass of fluid within the volume. However, the mass average velocity or fluid velocity, V, is by definition
I
V=, (p,V, + PwVw) p
Substituting this in (2127), we have
~ f¥ 0= _. Ln. p V dA
Alternatively, the time rate 0 change of mass within the volume can be
(2127)
(2128)
written
dM d 1
dt = dt v p du
or, since the volume is fixed, as
dM = f ap do
dt vat
where Leibnitz's rule has been invoked (see the following section). Equating (2128) and (2130) and using the divergence theorem to transform the
surface integral results in
(2129)
(2130)
1 ('lr + V • p V) dv ~, 0
Since the volume is arbitrary, the only way that this result can in general be satisfied is that the integrand vanish,
(2131)
ap
__ + v , pV ~ 0
at
(2132)
which is the differential form of the continuity equation. We can write this another way by expanding the dot product,
~f!_ + V • V P + pV • V = 0 at
and applying the definition of the material derivative,
Dp + pV' V = 0
Dt
(2/33)
which states that the fluid can only be divergent less if the material time rate of change of the density is zero.
./
Three.Dimensio .. al LeibnilZ Rule and tl«: Reynulds T{ampoll (liu(/Io',,,
,
Equ.::\ion (2.133) permits a greater insight into ihc relutiou hdl"C(;II,
incompressibility and nondivergence. A ftuid is said to be Illcumplcssible If the density following the fluid motion does nut changc ; that IS,
Dp = 0 (2114)
Dt
The continuity equation then reduces to V·V'c~O
(2JJ5)
Incompressibility, as expressed by (2134), does (jot imply rhut the density field of the fluid is both uniform in space and con,tanl in time; that b merely one possibility. It is possible instead that the local rate ufch.lIlg.: of11,c density
is the negative of its field rate of change,
~f!_=v.vp at
,219 Three_Dimensionalleibnitz Rule and the Reynolds Transport Theorem
Without proof, the Leibnitz rule for the differentiation of an integral is
d fP(r) Ipar dP" (') )"a ) 1'6)
dt ft», t) dx = at dx + I(P(t), t) dt  j(a t .t (It (.'
,,(I) "
One can obtain a useful integral form of the continuity equation by
making use of the threedimensional analogue to (2136). Again without
proof. iff(x, y, z, t), then
't!_f IdV=f n·UfdAI J' ¥rdv (2137)
dt o(r) A(r) 0(')
where vet) denotes any arbitrary volume whose boundaries move with the
arbitrary velocity U(x, y, z, r). '
If we consider an arbitrary volume of fluid whose bllllnJallcs move
with the fluid velocity, U V, and replace f by pf, then (2137) becomes
!!..f pfdv C~ f n· pfV dA I f ~:fdV
dt vir) A(.) v(r)
( (
; ( ( ( ( (
Using the divergence theorem, this converts to
1r f pfdv = J'" (at! + V· pfV) .Iv
V{l) lI(t)
The integrand on the right~hand side upon expansion can be wrill.:n
f(~ + V· pv) + P(frI v , VI)
(2./38)
It)
a as«: Concepts and Principles in Geophysical flUid Dynamics
1 he first term in parentheses vanishes in view of the co tinuit .
'1'1 tl d n lIlUI y equation
w dll e ie secon can be expressed as a material derivative Thus (2 138)'
re uces to' ,
7
d [ 1 Dr
a, pI do .» p ,_.,_ dv
• dr) vir) Dr
(2/39)
7
remembering here that the boundaries of the f •
,I .: . I' . f . vo urne move with the fluid
Ii oc ttl. urt iermore. under this condition there can be no t t ;
ncr I I I b lari an oc no ne mass ran sport
: ( '.s ie ounc aries, thus conserving mass within the ' I· F' II
identifvi d . I . f YO urne. Ina y,
J Ing p IJ as I( entrca to dM, an alternative form of (2139) is that of
;% r fdM = J iV dM (2140,)
.M M I
I~)r a volume of mass til whose boundaries move with the fluid I it
Equations (2139) and (2140) are two forms of th R ,Udl ve OCI ~. theorem, . e eynot s transport
( ( . (
\ {
220 Moving Cartesian Coordinate Systems
Tn t~is s~ctioll we .will examine in detail the relations between inertial~nd noninertinl Cartesian coordinate systems Und r th I
. . . e. e atter type we first
consider (lilly translation, second only rotation and third th bi
of translation and rotation ,e com matron
( ,
i(
Tlilllslilting Cartesian Coordinate Systems
, With reference 10 Figure 236, consider a point in space P which is
l,ocate~ by I he two vectors rand r with respect to the origins of two Cartesian
coordinate ,,";1(,1115 () and 0'· and let 0' be I t j b h .
. oca ec y t e vector h With
(
r y
(
.j
()
/
Fig. 236. Definition diagram for translating Cartesian coordinate system.
respect to O. Then
(214/)
which can be written in terms of the Cartesian components of r, r', and h as
y ~" y' + h,
z ,~' z' 1 h,
(2/42)
Now if we regard the origin 0 as fixed (inertial), the origin 0' as translating (no rotation) with respect to origin 0, and the point P as moving with respect to both coordinate systems, the velocity of P given by differentiation of(2l41)
is
v =~ dr = dr' ,I dh
 dt dt r dt
(2143) I
or
(2144)
where V is the velocity of P relative to 0, V' is the velocity of P relative to 0', and Vh is the velocity of 0' relative to O. Differentiating a second time, we obtain the relation between the relative accelerations,
(2145)
or
a = a' + a,
in which a is the acceleration of P relative to 0, a' is the acceleration of P relative to 0', and ah is the acceleration of 0' relative to O.
Newton's equation of motion holds in the inertial coordinate system, .
0, and if we designate the force per unit mass acting as F m' then
:
(2146)
If 0' is moving at a constant velocity relative 10'0, then a, equals zero, and
(2147)
which states that Newton's equation of motion holds in any coordinate system moving with a uniform velocity relative to an inertial or fixed coordinate
system; that both coordinate systems are then inertial. '
Rotating Cartesian Coordinate Systems
Consider the two coordinate systems (x, y, z) and (x', y', z") of Figure 237 whose axes are rotated relative to one another and whose origins coincide. The units vectors l, j, and k are associated with the unprimed system
.'
80
Basic Concepts and Princlpj,S in Geophysical Fluid Dynam;cs
)'
i'
~; v..
k p I
k'
z
Fig. 237. Definition diagram for rotated Cartesian coordinate sys
tem.
x'
z'
and the unit vectors l', j', and k' are associated with the primed system. A position vector r can be expressed as either
r = xi + yj + zk (2148)
r = x'i' + y'j' + z'k' (2149)
The equations relating the two coordinate systems are obtained by taking the dot product of either the primed or unprimed unit vectors with (2148) and (2149) and equating the corresponding results. For example, working with the dot product of the unprimed vectors; (i • r), (j • r), and (k • r),
we get
or
x = x'(i' • i) + y'(j' • i) + z'(k' • i) y = x'(i' • j) + y'(j' • j) + z'(k' • j) z = x'(i' • k) 1 y'(j' • k) + z'(k' • k)
The dot products of the unit vectors are the cosine of the angles between the corresponding axes; for example,
(2150)
(i' • j) ~= I i' II j I cos (J = aX'y
where (tx,y is the cosine of the angle between the x' axis and the y axis. Equations (2148), (2149), and (2150) do not require that r be drawn from the origin of the coordinates; since we are dealing with free vectors, analogous formulas apply in terms o" :lJ.e components of any other free vector, A.
Next we consider 1 ue case where the two coordinate systems are rotating with respect to eac 1 ( .her. Since the time derivative of a given vector A will be different in the t 10 systems, we denote djdt as the time derivative with respect to the unprime' , oordinate system which we will regard as fixed and thus inertial, and d'[dt as the time derivative with respect to the primed coordinate system which we will consider as rotating and thus noninertial.
./
This distinction is made for vectors only; there is no COffC,plllldillg ililihiguily associated with the time derivatives of scalars (Ilumerical quaut itics l their time derivatives will be denoted by djdt, which has the sallie mc.uung ill all
ccordinate systems. Let A be given by
Moving Cartesi;;fI Cuvf.iflldte Spleifls
or
A z : = A;i' + A~j' I A:k' Differentiating each of these,
dA = dAxi + dAy r . t dA'k
dt dt dt J dt
and
q:~ =c= dA~i' + dA~j' + dA:k,
dt dt dt dt
From (2152), we can also obtain the formula for ,,/"[ in terms of the primed components, but now the unit vectors i', j', and k' have time derivatives since they are moving relative to the unprimed system. Thus,
dA=d1~i'+dA~j'+dA~k'+A'0.~ I A,l/f t A,l{!" (2155)
dt at dt dt x dt ) d: , tit
Now 'let us designate as OQ the axis, through the origlll, about which the'prlmed coordinate system rotates with an angliLIi vo.:",,:ity w (Figure ,238). TL 1rimed derivative of a vector B at rest ill the pi imed system is
Fig. 238. Definition diagram for a rotating vector.
Q
\
o
81
(]I5/)
(
(
.
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
:. (
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
( (2152)
(2153)
(2154)
 B(t + l:.t)
(
(
(
'(
{
(
(
'\
(
(
(
(
( I.
I
( !4
( I
,:,
," 82
Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysicsl Fluid Dynamics
zero. From the figure it is seen that for the unprimed system,
I.1BI = (B sin O}(ru .1t)'" ' I
.1t' M
In the limit, and considering the definition of the vector product, dB
dI = 00 x B (2156)
Subst!tuting (2154) for the first three righthand terms in (2155) and then applying (2 I 56) to. the time derivatives of the unit vectors I' J" and k' we
obtain ' , ,
dA d'A , .
(j{ = dt + A,,(OO x I') + A;(oo x j') + A~(oo x k')
o.r
dA d'A
d =+ooxA
t dt
(2157)
T.his is the fundamental relation between time derivatives for rotating coordinate systems. To. find the second time derivative, we take the derivative of (2157) and apply (2157) to A and d'A/dt. Thus,
d2A d (d'A) dA doo
([jT = dt dt + 00 x dt + dt x A
~
( II
( I;
t d (
I, (
I ( .
I {
I (
I ,{
I (
I
(
I {
.
. (
,., ( .( ~ ( ~\_
or, finally.
d2A d'2A d'A
dfz' = (H2 + 200 x dt + 00 x (00 x A) + ~T x A
(2158)
Note from (2157) that the primed and unprimed derivatives of any vector parallel to. the axis of rotation are the same; specifically,
doo d'm
(Ji = dt (2159)
whe~e as previously the vector 00 is the angular velocity of the primed system relative to. the unprimed system.
~t. is appropriate now to. apply the results of (2157) and (2158) to. the position vector r of (2148) and (2149)"
~ d~ ~
dt == £ + 00 x r (2160)
Moving Cartesian Coordinate Systems
83
where d'lr/dt 2 is the acceleration of the point P relative to. the primed system; 00 x (00 x r) is the centripetal (toward the center) acceleration of the point P in rotation about an axis (the magnitude of the accelera tion is rolr sin e; Figure 239); 200 x d'tldt is the Coriolis acceleration, which is present only
when the point P and thus position vector r is moving in the primed system; and doo/dt x r is the acceleration resulting from a change of direction or magnitude of 00 and is zero. for a constant angular velocity.
wx(wx r)
Fig. 239. Orientation of the centripetal acceleration vector.
c
If we suppose that the unprimed coordinate system is inertial, and that therefore Newton's second law holds, we have in the primed system that
d'2r dt doo
 = F  00 x (00 x r)  200 x d  d x r
~2 m .. t t
(2162)
/'
where Fm is, as before, the force acting per unit mass , This result is an equation of motion similar in forrn to. that of Newto.n.The second term on the right, 00 x (00 x r), is now referred to. as the centrifugal (away from
the center) acceleration, In summary, we see from (2162) that we can treat a rotating coordinate system as if it were fixed through the introduction of the centrifugal acceleration, the Coriolis acceleration.and the acceleration arising from changes in the direction or magnitude o.f the rotation.
Translating and Rotating Cartesian Coordinate Systems
Coordinate systems in simultaneous translation and rotation relative to. each other can be treated by using(2141) to. represent the relation between the vectors r andr' relative to. the origins 0 and 0', not necessarily coincident, In substituting r' for rin (2160) and (2161) and the result for dt'[dt and d2r'/ dt 2 in (2143) and (2145), we obtain for the position, velocity, and acceleration of a point P with respect to. co.o.rdina~e systems in both relative transla
84 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical FllJid Dynamics
tion and rotation the following: r = r' + b
dr = d'r' + 00 xr' + db dt dt dt
and
d2 d'? ' d' , __! = __ r + 00 X (00 x r') + 200 x _r
dt " dt2 dt
+ doo x r' + d2b
dt dt?
221 Newton's Law of Motion on a Rotating Earth
(2163) (2164)
(2165)
Of the various forms of the equation of motion derived in the previous> section, that of(2165) applies most closely to our interest concerning relative motion over the earth referred to a coordinate system fixed relative to the earth. Substituting F", for d2r/dt2 in this last result and rearranging, we~btain
d'2r' d't' dt2 = Fm  00 X (00 x r')  200 x dt
_ doo x r' _ d2h
dt dt?
With reference to the coordinate system of Figure 240, for geophysical purposes, what we must consider is the rotation of a relative coordinate system at a constant angul ir velocity 0 about an axis located at a distance
n
t
y (north)
Earth
Fig. 240. Noninertial coordinate system fixed relative to the earth.
(2166)
Newton's Law of Motion on a Rotating Earth 85
~ (
( ( ( (
I, (
!~ (
~ ( . ./ (
(
I'
, (
( ( ~ (
I
(
( ( ( (
R from the center of the relative system. Now we can make the following physical identifications of the terms in (2166): d't'[dt is equal to V, the velocity of point P as measured relative to the x, y, z coordinate system ,<I nuninertial system) with origin 0 and fixed with respect to the earth; d'2r'/dt 2 is then equal to d'V/dt, the acceleration of point P as measured in the (x,)" z) coordinate system; 00 is the angular velocity of rotation of the earth on its axis, this will specifically be assigned the symbol 0; dooj,jl is dO/dt, the time rate of change of the earth's diurnai rotation, taken for our purposes at this point as being equal to zero; and d2h/dt: !§ the ~cce!e_r~!iQlI Qfth~ ~lfjgi~ Q.m.!!ltin_g from its motion in a circle of radius I R I and is therefore equivalent to 0 X eO x R). The quantity 0 x R, the peripheral velocity of the point 0, is directed toward the east. It is readily verified that 0 x R is identical to n x rEo The magnitude of 0 x rE is OrE sin (n/2  0), which is simply OrE cos 0, but rt;Cos 0 is ~,ual to R. Thus, the magnitude of 0 X rE is equal to that of o x R and .he direction is the same. In view of the foregoing, we can rewrite
(2166) as
\ d'V = F _ 0 X (0 x r)  20 x V \
, dt m
(2167)
where since
rE + r' = r
we have replaced the two terms 0 x (0 x r') and 0 x (0 x fE) by its equivalent 0 x (0 x r). In the future we wiil, as a matter of convenience, drop the prime from d'V/dt and write, instead, dV/dt with the understanding that by·this we mean the acceleration of point P as measured in the (x, y, c )
coordinate system.
For our particular interests in fluid motion, since dV/til is the accel
eration of a particular particle of fluid, it can be replaced by the material derivative DV/Dt, thus making it possible to write (2167) as
( , (
( (
I( j ( ( II (
!
~~ = F",  n X (0 X r)  20 x V
(2168)
or, equivalently,
~~ + (V • V)V = F ..  0 x (0 X r)  20 x V
(2169)
or in indicial notation as
0aV, + VJ ~VI = F .. ,  E'JkEk ... "flJOmr.  2f,JkOJVk
t UXJ
These results will be temporarily put aside while we investigate the form of the F ... term, that is, its representation as the sum of volume and surface
forces per unit mass.
(2170)
I (
( ( ( ( (
In general, volume forces are long range in nature and are proportional to the amount of mass present. Frequently, they are expressed as forces per unit mass or accelerations. The only volume force that concerns us here, is that of gravitational or Newtonian attraction. Other volume forces exist; those of an electromagnetic nature, which may act when the medium carries an electric charge or an electric current, and centrifugal and Coriolis forces associated with motion referred to accelerating coordinate systems as in (2168).
If we let gE' gM, and gs be the absolute gravitational attractions (as given by Newton's law of universal gravitation) on a unit mass due to the earth, moon, and SUIl, respectively, then the differential gravitationalforce
dF acting on the differential mass dM having a volume dv is ~.~
I
dF = p(gI< + 1M + gs) do
, , .
222 Volume Forces
,; ,
I l
The forces acting on an element of a continuous medium may be of two kinds: (I) volume (or external or body)forces are those which can be regarded as reaching inW the medium and acting throughout the volume, and (2) surface (or internal or contact) forces are those which are to be regarded as acting on an element of volume through its bounding surface. In this section we will discuss the character of the former and in the next section that of the latter.
• •
or
dF = pg. dv
(217/)
where g. is the vector sum of gE, gM' and gs. Writing the force on a per unit volume basis and aligning the z axis of our coordinate system along the direction of g. (this condition will be slightly modified a little later), then the gravitational force per unit volume, dF/dlJ, is
dF
dv = pg. = pg.k = F,
(2172)
or, in indicial notation,
(2173)
A force field is said to be conservative if the net work done on an object when moved through a closed path is zero; that is, the force field F(x, y, z)
is conservative if ' .
'(
( I~ , I
(
I (
( 1
r .
'l_
(2174)
for any closed path contained in the field of F. A property of a conservative force is that it can always be expressed in terms of the gradient of a scalar function of position. it can be shown that F" the gravitational force per unit
86
Surtsce r ot ces
bl
volume, or g., the gravitational force per unit mass, are conservative and as such can be expressed as
g. = VX.
(2175)
or since our coordinate z axis is aligned with g, , the magnitude of g. is given by
dX • g. =Tz
(2176)
and from (2172),
F, = pVX.
(2177)
x. is called the absolute gravitational potential and has units appropriate .to those of energy per unit mass. Equation (2176) can be integrated to obtain
(X.)2  (X.)1 = r g. dz
Taking (1'.)1 arbitrarily as zero at Zlo also equal to zero (say mean sea leve!), gives us
X. = f>.dz
which permits x. to be physically interpreted simply as the potential ene~gy per unit mass by virtue of an object's relative position in the earth's gravitational (Newtonian) force field.
zzasurrece Forces
Next we examine the character of the surface forces acting on the boundaries of a volume of fluid v. These forces are distinct from the volume forces in t~at the latter act at long range while the former act at short range; they are forces acting between the fluid particles immediately adjacent to one side of the surface and those particles immediately adjacent to the other side. Consider a small area increment of a surface, ~A (Figure 241). The force exerted by the fluid particles exterior to the volume upon this element will be denoted by P ~A. The vector P is the stress (expressed as a force per unit
Fig. 241. Definition sketch for surface forces.
P6A
88
Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
area) at the point in question. This stress is in general inclined with respect to a normal to the surface; it will have both normal and tangential components. An example of a possible normal component is that which we refer to as the fluid pressure. In fact, this is the only surface force acting under hydrostatic conditions (V = 0). However, if the fluid is in motion, then shearing stresse: can exist and P is no longer normal to AA. in that which follows, we will adopt the sign convention with reference to the normal compon~nt of the stress P such that tension is taken as positive and compression as negative.
Hydrostatic pressure is independent of the orientation of the surface upon which it acts. The stress P, however, does depend in general on both the location and the orientation of the surface AA as well as on time. Let D be the outward unit normal to the small element of surface. Then
P = :JV, y, Z, D, t) = P(r, D, t)
To determine the form of 1 he, dependence of P on D, consider the volume.>: shown in Figure 242, shap.idin the form of a tetrahedron, three of whose faces are normal to the thre, c=ordinare axes and whose fourth face is determined by the unit normal n and whose area is AA. There exist three cornpo
x
Stress (a vector acting on the positive side of the coordinate surface normal to the X, Yo, zaxis, respectively)
Outward normal to the coordinate surface normal to the
X. Y, zaxis, respectively (they are the negative components of the outward unit normal n)
Fig. 242. Stress acting on a tetrahedral clement.
.~: <
Surface Forces
89
nent stresses acting on each face. Assuming equilibrium, the total of the nine coordtnatesiresses acting on the coordinate surfaces along with the force P AA and te body force pg. dV must sum to zero. The component stresses acting on the positive sides (If the three coordinate surfaces define a stress tensor PI)' where i and j take on the values x, y, and Z independently. We will not take the time to prove it, but it can readily be shown that PI} obeys the transformation law with respect to coordinate axes for a Cartesian tensor of order two. The components of the stresses Px" PYI> and P" are taken as positive in the direction of the positive normals nx, ny, and n, to the coordinate surfaces.
We can now write that the
[total force on the 1
coordinate face J = tLzLJPx,
normal to the x axis
However, from geometrical considerations, tLzLJ = n, AA
where n, is given by
n = n .. i + nyj + n,k
and AA being the area of the inclined face. Similar expressions hold for the other two coordinate surfaces, thus permitting us to write the total forces acting on the surfaces as nxPx1 AA, nyPy, AA, and =n.P, AA, all of which are vectors and whose sum is simply niP,} .1A, following the summation convention of indicial notation. Now summing all the forces acting on the tetrahedrort,
,; e.
(2178)
If we designate by L some typical linear dimension of the element, say the average length of its sides, then the volume is of the order of the magnitude of V or of O(Ll). On the other hand, AA is of O(L 2). If we allow the element to become arbitrarily small, we have from (2178),
P,  n'PI}  p(g.)P(L)
which as L + 0 reduces to
PJ = njPI} (2179)
~t the point (x, y, z). This equation relates the stress vector P, at a point corresponding to the direction of nJ to the stress components PI} at the point; it tells us that the system of stresses in a fluid is not so complicated as to require t; compilation of a table of the function per, n) at any given instant of time, bi, that the stresses depend rather simply on D through the nine components of P,lr,). Moreover, since the quantities are components of a tensor,
'(
(
(
'/ (
(
I (
), (
(
t (
(
t' (
(
(
(
r (
(
(
I (
!
(
(
(
(
(
{
(
,{
(
(
(
(
l
l ( (
any equation we derive with them will be true under any rotation of the coordinate axes.
In the special case of hydrostatic conditions, P is always normal to the surface ~A, and is independent of the orientation of the surface. Consequently, the hydrostatic stress (P), can be expressed as
(P), = po (2180)
I
90 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
or
(2181)
( ( ,
(
where the negative sign is introduced since the hydrostatic pressure p is to be taken as a positive quantity and our previously adopted convention for P was that tension is to be positive. From (2179) and (2181), we can derive a hydrostatic stress tensor, (P'J)o,
(Pj)o = n'(P'/)o = +pn I
( (
( ( ( (
and thus obtaining
rp 0 OJ
(P,,)o = 0 p 0
L 0 Op
It is convenient to introduce the Kronecker delta and write (21.82) as
(P,,)o = P~'I (2183)
Now, defining T'I as the anomaly of the stress tensor from the hydrostatic condition, we assert that
(2182)
(2184)
or
(2185)
The anomaly T'I is known as the viscous stress tensor.
Finally, returning to the arbitrary volume 0 of Figure 241, we see that acting on the area A of the volume the net surface force is given by,
{net surface force] = L P dA
and substituting from (2179) yields
tPldA = Ln,p"dA
Using the divergence theorem, we obtain
J P dA = J. er., do
I ax;
A •
and therefore
[net surface force] = ap" (2186)
per unit volume ax,
or, in terms of the hydrostatic pressure and the viscous stress tensor,
[net surface forCe] = _ a p + aT" (2187)
per unit volume ax, ax,
224 Symmetry of the Viscous Stress Tensor
l ~~}
It is our purpose at this point to show that the nine components of the viscous stress tensor are not all independent. Figures 243 and 244 show elemental cubical parallelopipeds at whose centers, point 0, the viscous stresses c., act. For reasons of clarity, the first of these figures shows only the viscous stresses acting on the positive faces of the parallelopiped while the second shows all the viscous stresses exerted on the element, but only those which act in the x direction are labeled. Examining now the cross section of the
Fig. 243. Components of the viscous stress tensor acting on the positive surfaces of an elemental parallelopiped.
92
Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophvsical Fluid D'vnairilcs
z
OTZX Az .
T +1 "",
IX OZ 2 <;
y
x
OTzx Az
T _
zx oz 2
Fig. 244. Components of the viscous stress tensor acting on all the surfaces of an elemental parallelopiped.
parallelopiped in the plane z = 0, we see that since the normal stresses and gravity forces act through the center of the element, only the shear stresses act so as to produce a torque about the z axis. The force couples shown in Figure 245 will tend to rotate the element about the z axis. Ifwe let, be the
L
T  OTyX Ay 1~ Ay h I
yx oy 2 2 ~ 0 y ~
OTyx Ay Tyx+
oy 2
x
ilTxy Ax "'xy + ax T
Fig. 245. Shear strese. acting on the surfaces of an elemental parallelopiped which)!' duce a torque about the z axis.
The Momentum Equation
93
( ( (
, (
( l (
I ( ~ i (
(
radius of gyration of the parallelopiped about the z axis, then ] = IIIr1
and from Newton's second law for rotation,
F = ]a, = mri«
(2188)
in which] is the moment of inertia, F the resultant torque. 111 the mass of the body, and a, the angular displacement in the counterclockwise sense,
so (2188) for our particular element is written
mr" d2(J = (T ~TxY !J.x + T _ aTx, AX)(AY Az) ~:~
dt? x y ax 2 x y ax 2 2
(Tyx + a;;x !J.{ + s : _ ~;; Ai')(AX Az ) ~d'
(
! \ (
I: (
(
(
(
(
( which since
m = p!J.x!J.y!J.z
reduces to
Now, , is of the order of magnitude !J.x and !J.y, and if the angular acceleration is to be finite, then in the limit as Sx > 0 and Ay  0, we must have that
I ( (
In a similar manner, by examining the torques in the y, z plane (i.e., about the x axis) and in the x, z plane (about the y axis) we would find that in general
TI] = Tl/
(2189)
that is, tl'c. the viscous stress tensor is symmetrical and therefore consists of only six .liffetent components, three of which are of a normal type and
three of which are of a shearing type.
( ( ( ( (
I (
(
225 The Momentum Equation
The Eulerian equation of motion giving the relationship between the field variables p and V is obtained directly from Newton's second law. This equation is merely a statement of the principle of the conservation of linear momentum and is frequently referred to as the momentum equation. We have at hand from the previous discussions all the parts required to formulate this conservation statement; it remains now only to assemble them.
We have as the second law, equation (2169),
~j + (V. V)V + 0 X (0 X r) + 20 X V = r, (2169)
(
(
(
( "
j~
(
(
(
'(
'\
(
(
'(
(
{
(
(
\
(
~ I
(
.(
:(
\
I
, .. (
c{
,(
(
,,(
(
/\
." 94
Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
MUltiplying through by the density p yields
p ~; + p(V • V)V + po. x (0. x r) + 2pO x V = F. (2190)
where F, is now the net force per unit volume. The contributors to the net force per unit volume are the body force per unit volume, which from (2177) can be written in terms of the absolute gravitational potential as  pVXa, and, from (2186), the surface forces per unit volume, aPliax" or, alternatively, V • (p, Now putting all together into (2190),
p ~; + p(V • V)V + po. x (0. x r) + 2pn x V
(2191)
= V • (p  pVX.
Some simplification results from combining the centripetal acceleration and the Newtonian attraction in the form
g== VXaO x (0. x r)
(2192)
where g is the acceleration of gravity (or just plain "gravity") of the earth at the latitude 8. The absolute gravitational vector go' for an assumed spherical C;J rth, is directed toward the exact center of the earth, while the centrifugal acceleration vector  0 x (0. x r) is directed outward and normal to the earth's axis of rotation (Figure 246). The direction of the resultant vector g is that assumed by a plumb line at the latitude (); it is the "local down." It can be shown that the centrifugal force is also a conservative force and as such it too can, like the Newtonian attraction, be represented as the gradient of a scalar force potential. Further, the sum of two or moreconservative force fields is also a conservative force field, which means that the acceleration of gravity can be written
g= VX
(2193)
where X(x, y, z, t) is called the geopolentiai. Additionally, from now on we
 n x (n x r)
n x (n x r)
/ /
/ / /
I
;' IJ
Fig. 246. The relationship between Newtonian acceleration and the acceleration or gravity.
The Momentum Equation
95
, /
will take the direction of the z axis of our relative coordinate syste~ as bein,g in the direction of g, that is, along the direction of the local vertical. .Thls does not constitute a serious compromise since g and g. are almost collm~ar due to In x (0. x r) I being much smaller in magnitude than I g. I· Using (2192) and (2193) in (2191), we obtain
pay + p(V. V)V + 2pn x V = V· (p  pVx (2194)
at
The result may also be written in terms of the hydrostatic pressure p and the viscous stress tensor Til (= 3') from (2185),
p av + p(V • V)V + 2pn x V =  Vp + V .3' pVx at
(2195)
If we multiply the continuity equation of (213~) by V an~ add the result to (2194), we obtain Newton's law in its most basic form, which st~tes that the time rate of change of momentum is equal to the net ~orce actm~. For our particular case all the quantities are expressed as being per unit
volume. Proceeding,
(2196)
apv + V • pVV = 2pn x V ""p + V· 3' + pg
at
The two terms V • pVV and V • 3' are, of course, not simple di:ergences ~ue to the tensorial nature of pVV and t; however, the physical mterpr~tat~on of these terms is analogous to that of V • pV in the equation of contmu~ty. Recall that V • pV represents the rate of loss of m~ss (a scal~r .quantIty) per unit volume of fluid due to advection by the fluid flow. SlmJ!a.rly, the quantity V • pVVis the rate of loss of mo~entum (a vector q~antIt~) per unit volume of fluid due to advection. In detail, then, we can physically interprete the individual terms of (2196) as follows:
I. apv/at is the local time rate of increase of momentum, per unit volume of fluid.
2. V. pVV is the time rate of momentum gain due to advection,
per unit volume. .
3. 2pn x V is the time rate of momentum gain due to the action of the Coriolis force, per unit volume.
4.  Vp is the time rate of momentum gain due to the action of the
pressure force, per unit volume. .
5. V • 3' is the time rate of momentum gain due to the 'action of viscous forces, per unit volume.
6: pg is the time rate of momentum gain due to the action of the gravity force, per unit volume.'
96
Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical F~uid Dynamics
It is possible, of course, to write any of the foregoing results as three component scalar equations or as one vector equation in indicial form. For
example, since
j k n X V = 0 n, n,
u v w
= (wny  ufl,)i + ufl.j un,k
= (wn cos ()  vn sin ()i
+ (un sin ()j _ (un cos ()k
we can write the three component scalar equations of (2195) as follows:
I. xcomponent equation,
au au au au 2 () . ()
at + u ax + v ay + w az + w n cos _ 2vn sin
= _.l_ ap + .l_(~r:xx + ar:,% + ar:",)
pax p ax ay ax
2. ycomponent equation,
av av av av 2 . ()
at + u ax + v dy + w az + un sin
= _.l_ ap + .l_(ar:x, + ar:" + ar:,,)
p ay p ax ay az
3. zcomponent equation,
aw aw a,} aw ()
_ + u  + v _  ,~ w   2un cos
at ax 0) .. I az
__ 1 ap + .l_(ar:xz + ar:" + ar:,,) _
_ .?7Z P ax ay az g
Similarly, since
and
(2196) in indicial form is
pav1 + apvlv, = 2PE n V _ap + ~  pg6
at ax, I}~~' k aXI ax, 13
(2197)
(2198)
(2199)
(2200)
226 Representation of the Viscous Stress Tensor and the NavierStokes Equation
( ( (
Empirically, it is known that the viscous stress is proportional to the local velocity gradient. Thus, for the case of simple shear where, for example, v = w = 0 and at most u = u(y, t) we have Newton's law of viscosity,
equation (2122),
( (
"
I (
~: ( (
(
au
'ry" = P Ty
where the proportionality constant P is called the dynamic viscosity. Fluids that obey this law are said to be Newtonian. This result, however, is not general enough in that it applies only to the flow of a thin lamina of fluid contained between two flat, parallel plates. For complex flows, with the fluid moving in all directions, something more general is required. A general form for the tensor r:1) can be established in the following way. Only when there is a relati 'e motion between various parts of the fluid, when different fluid particles rr, we with different velocities, do processes involving internal friction occur. It is reasonable, then, that 't'l depends on the space derivativesQL!!!<:_~e!oc!!y and that there be no terms in r:i} which are independent of these derivatives, since it is obvious that 'C" must vanish for Vi uniform. Second, 'CII must vanish when the entire fluid is uniformly rotating; in such motion no ,internal friction acts. For uniform rotation with an angular velocity 0>, the velocity V is equal to the vector product 0> X r. Thus,
(2122)
I I (
, (
I
(
I (
. ( ( ( (
j k
(
,
V = 0> X r = w" co, io,
(2201)
x y z
= (w,z _ w,y)i + (w,x  wxz)j + (wxy _ w,x)k
~ ( (
( ( ( ( ( (
or
w = wxy _ w,x
Now, then, the sums (av,jax, + aV,/ax,) are linear combinations of the derivatives av,/ax, and vanish when (2201) applies. Hence, r:,} must contain just these symmetrical combinations of the space derivatives of the velocity. Following Stokes and others, it is apparent that the most general tensor of order two satisfying all the conditions above is that of a linear combination of the deformation tensor and the divergence: namely,
(2202)
97
\
•
(
(
(
(
(
t
•
(
(
;(
(
(
( I
( ,
( I"~
i
(
(
(
(
(
(
\
{
I
 (
(
(
J
~(
( 98
Basic Concepts and Principles in G80physical Fluid Dynamics
where the coefficients v and v', having dimensions of [Iength)l/[time), are called the kinematic shear viscosity and the kinematic bulk viscosity. These kinematic viscosities are related to the dynamic viscosities through
v = E_ p
v' = p.'
p
(2203)
Sometimes v, p. and v', p.' are referred to as the first and second coefficients of viscosity. The combination of (2202) of course satisfies the requirements that To be symmetrical and reduce to (2122) for the case of simple shearing flow.
Turning to v and v', it turns out that the value of one is not completely independent of the other. One possible relation between them was given by Navier and Stokes, but Eckart (1947) has shown that the NavierStokes relation is only a limiting case of a more general expression. Specifically, through application of the second law of thermodynamics, Eckart has shown that
v>O The limiting condition on v',
v'> j;;
(2204a)
v' = 'v
(2204b)
represents the celebrated NavierStokes relation, and substitution of (2204b) into (2202) and then in turn into the momentum equation gives the result known as the NavierStokes equation. Proceeding in this fashion, we find from (2202) that
(2205)
Differentiating yields.
( ~I_ pv azv, + 1 pv a (aVI)
\ ~ ax! 'r rx;;rx;
\
which is written in vector notation as
(2206)
I 1
 V • rr = vv', V +  vV(V • V)
P 3 .
(2207a)
Using the vector identity
V x (V X V) = V(V • V)  v2V . we find that (2207a) can be rendered as
I 4 1
ji V • rr = TVV2V + "]vV X (V x V)
(2207b)
These two forms, (2207a) and (2207b), are particularly useful since we see from. the former that for nondivergent flow the viscous force per u~it v?I~~e
Representation of the Viscous Stress Tensor and the NavierStokes Equation
99
reduces to p.vzV; while for irrotational flow the latter reduces to 4(p.V1V). Returning to (2206), substitution into the indicial form of (2195), the momentum equation. yields
p aaVI + pVJ ~+ 2PflJknJVk
t uXJ
(2208)
ap azvl ", azvl i:
=  3:: + p. "3::T j ~ __ p. a z  pgul3
UX1 uXJ J xJ
or, using (2207a) in the vector form of the momentum equation,
p ~ + p(V • V) V + 2p n x V
= Vp + p.VzV + tp.V(V. V) + pg
Equations (2208) and (2209) are two forms of the general NavierStokes equation.
At this point, having arrived at many mathematical formulations, we
might take some time to see how close we are to having a deterministic set of equations, a set consisting of as many equations as there are unknowns. In general, our independent variables are the three space coordinates and time. We are required to find the dependent variables u, v, w, p, and p and as such we will need a total of five equations for the five unknowns. I!1 physical oceanographyitis fre9.!lentlL~~Il_I!1~_c!_t!!~t th~ f1uid_.isi_,!cQlTlpressihl~Under this assumption, the NavierStokes equation of (2209) yields th.efollowing three component equations:
(2209)
./1. xcomponent equation,
~ + u aOu + v aau + w aau + 2wn cos e ' 2vfl sin e
at x y z'
_ 1 ap (aZU g~ aZU)
/iUx +v axZ+ayl+azZ
2. ycomponent equation,
av av av av 2 . e
at + U Ux + v qy + w (1z + un sm
1 ap (azv. azv aZV)
= /iqy + v rxz. + Tyl + azz
3. zcomponent equation,
aw aw aw aw 2 . e
Or + U Tx + v Ty + w Tz' un stn
1 ap (aZW azw aZW)
= /iaz + v Txl + ayr + Tzl  g
(2210)
(22Jl)
(2212)
10() Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
Also available are continuity equation expressing the conservation of mass, which we have seen for incompressible flow is
~: + u * + v ~: + w ~? = 0
and the statement of the conservation of volume, au + av + aw_ 0 Tx dy az
(2/34)
(2135)
,
thus giving us five equations in five unknowns.
If incompressibility is not assumed, then additional independent relations must be called upon, since (2134) and (2135) will not be true. In that event we may have the NavierStokes form of the momentum equations,
DV
P Dt + 2pfi x V = Vp + p,V1V + lJlV(V. V) + pg
and the general form of the ~!)I tinuity equation, D/
.; + pV. V = 0 D,
(2209)
(2{33)
giving a total of four equation with five unknowns. The inclusion of some form of an equation of state,
p = pes, T,p)
(2213)
is possible, but the price we must pay is the introduction of the two additional independent variables, s (salinity) and T(temperature). The score at this point is equations 5, independent variables 7. One additional independent equation, which fortunately introduces no additional variables, is that of the conservation of salt,
~s + V. psV + V. F, = 0
(2118)
where the diffusive flux vector F, can be replaced using the Fickian diffusion equation of (2117). Score: equations 6, independent variables 7. As a seventh expression, we cannot call upon the conservation of water equation since it is not independent of (2118) and (2133); however, it is possible to apply the distribution of variables equation to the conservation of thermal energy.
The heat "content" of a mass of fluid m can be written as me,T, where c, is the specific heat and T the absolute temperature, and the heat content per unit volume is pe,T. If this heat content per unit volume is treated as a conservative property, that is, we assume (1) no thermal sources or sinks and (2) that the only way thermal energy can be transferred is via conduction and advection, then in (2115) Q can be replaced by pe,T to give
a
di(pe,T) + V • (pe,TV)  V • (eVT) = 0 (2214)
/'
The Hydrostatic Approximation 101
where Fourier's law of heat conduction, (2121), has replaced FQ. Treating c, as a constant, expanding, rearranging, and employing the continuity equation results in
p(~: + V • VT)  e'V2T = 0
where c' = clc ; Score: equations 7, independent van abies 7.
These few relations=f l) (2134), (2135), and (2210) through (2212) for incompressible flow, and (2) (2118), (2133), (2209), (2213), and (2215) for compressible flowconstitute what we understand to be the basic equations of dynamical oceanography. In theory, given proper initial and boundary conditions they can be solved for the field variables as functions of the Eulerian variables x, y, z, and t.
(2215)
227 The Hydrostatic Approximation
Under certain conditions the zcomponent equation of the equation of motion (2212) can be greatly simplified. First, it may be possible to drop the frictional terms, especially for large or synoptic times scales, since it is thought that for such circumstances frictional dissipation is of a secondary importance. Thus, we write for the z component,
Dw _ 2ufi cos e = _ _!_ ap_ g (22/6)
Dt P az
~.convenient technique for estimating the magnitudes of the various terriinn a governing equation for a particular type of motion is that of scale analysis or scaling. In scaling, the typical expected values of (I) the magnitudes of the field variables, u, v, w, p, p, T, s, for example; (2) the amplitudes of the fluctuations in the field variables; and (3) the characteristic length, depth, and time scaIe~ov(:!~_ili£h th(;!~ fluctuations occur, are specified. These typical values are then used to compare the magnitudes of the various terms in the governing equations.
For oceanographic, midlatitude, synoptic scales the characteristic value of'the field variables can be taken as follows:
Horizontal velocity scale, U,.., 101 cm/sec Vertical velocity scale, W,.., 101 cm/sec Length scale, L ,.., lOR ern
Depth scale, H ,.., 106 cm
Horizontal pressure fluctuation scale, !!.P ,.., 106 dynes/em? Vertical pressure fluctuation scale, !!.P./H ,.., 101 dynes/em! Time scale, L/U,.., 106 sec
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102 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
Considering disturbances centered at a latitude e of 45°, we find that 1= 2n sin e = 2n cos e ~ 104 sec "
Substituting these scales into (2216) yields
I Dw 2uncos e I ap
1 DF pqz g
UW IU VP.
L pH g
101 102 103 103 which shows that to a high degree of accuracy the pressure field is in hydrostatic equilibrium. In summary, then, for midlatitude, synoptic scale motions we can use as the vertical equation of motion the hydrostatic equation as given by ,
ap
Tz = pg
(2217)
228 The Vorticity Equation
Let us return now to the Stokes form of the viscous stress tensor 'as given by (2202),
(aV/~ av) 'I: aVk
T,) = pv a + . + pv UI) !C'"
x) XI UXk
the space derivative of which yields
aT" = pv a (.av)) + pv a_(aVI) + pv'J ~(aVk)
ax; s; ax; . dX) rx; I) 'Ox) di;
or, equivalently,
(2202)
v . rr = p(v + v')V(V • V) + pvV2V Substituting this result into (2195), the equation of motion, gives
DV .
DI + 2n x V + (J.Vp + Vx = VV2V + (v + v')V(V • V)
(2218)
where (J. is the specific volume, 1/ p, and recalling that v and v' are the first and second coefficients of the kinematic viscosity whose values are restricted by the conditions that v 2 0 and v' 2 iv for any real fluid satisfying the second law of thermodynamics. Equation (2218) is basically a statement relating the time rate of change of the velocity to all the things that caiiaricL such a change, such as the Coriolis fOrce,the'pres5un: force, the gravitational force, and the viscous forces. We have seen that this equation is IIlerelyalorm of Newton's second law or of the j,rinclple of the coriseivatipIl_?f_lin~;:
The Vorticity Equation 103
momentum. We might logically expect that a similar equation could be formulated that would express the principle of the conservation of ~ngular momentum in terms of the applied torques. Such a result can be obtained by taking the curl of the equation of motion; but first it is expedient to do a
small amount of rewriting. . .
The material derivative, through use of the vector identity
(V X V) X V = (V • V)V  V(tlvI2)
can be rendered in the equivalent form
DV = av + + (V. V)V = ~ + V(tlvI2) + ~ X V (2219)
Dt at ut
where ~ is the vorticity (i.e., the curl of the velocity). Substituting into (2218),
sv + V(x + 11 V 12) + (~ + 2n) X V + (J.Vp at
= vV2V + (v + v')V(V • V)
!
Before taking the curl of this result, we not~ severa.1 thin~s that will simplify the process. First, the curl operation is commutative with scalar opera~ors such as the partial derivative with respect to time, a/at, and the Laplacian, VZ. Second, it will be recalled that
V X VB = 0
(2220)
where B is any scalar function; and third, that
V X «(J.Vp) = V(J. X Vp + (J.V X Vp = V(J. X Vp
sine(; Vp X Vp is equal to zero. Applying these facts, the curl of (2220) is
~ + V X (~. X V) + V(J. X Vp = vVz~ (2221)
/'where ~., the absolute vorticity, is taken as the vector sum of the relative vorticity ~ and the planetary vorticity 2n; that is,
~. == ~ + 2n (2222)
Equation (2221) is one form, albeit not the Jilost useful ~orm, of the ~eneral vorticity equation. To put it in a more useful f.J~n, we begin by expanding the second term on the left,
V X (~. X V) = (V • V)~.  (~ •• V)~l :_ V(V • ~.) + ~. V ~ V We see that the third term on the right is zero since
V • ~. = V • (~ + 2n) = 0
owing to the twofold fact that n is taken as being invariant in space and time and the divergence of the curl of a vector, in this instance V • (V X ~), is zero. Additionally, we can, because .of the invariant character of ~'. In (2221) substitute a~.;at for a~/at and Vz~ for VZ~. Accordingly, the vorticity
104 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamic~
equation may be rendered in the form
~ 
at" + (V • V)~. = (~.' V)V  ~.(V • V)  Va. x Vp + v'72~.
or
0;;; = (~ •• V)V  l;..(V • V)  v« x Vp + VV1~.
(2223)
a more useful form of the general vorticity equation. Physically, (2223) asserts that the rate of change of the absolute vorticity following a fluid particle is equal to the sum of the four terms on the right, each of which may be regarded as a torque (actually as a torque per unit of inertia, this being equivalent in rotation to a force per unit mass in translation). The first of these exists if variations in the fluid velocity (speed or direction) occurs along vortex linesa vortex line being a line that is everywhere
./
parallel to the local vorticity vector (the vortex line is to vorticity what a streamline is to the velocity). This term is called the tipping and stretching term. The second term of (2223) occurs only if the fluid is compressible and
is called, fittingly enough, the divergence term. The third term, called" the solenoidal term, exists only for baroclinic conditions (that is, the fluid density must be a function of properties other than just pressure; seawater, for example, has a density which in general depends upon salinity and temperature as well as pressure). The last term, the viscous torque term, results from the torque produced by the viscous stresses within the fluid. We will examine each of these in a little more detail so as to arrive at a truly physical under
standing of their nature.
The Tipping and Stretching Term, (~ •• V)V
This term gives vorticity changes a distinctive character in that no counterpart to it exists in the equation of motion. It, like all of those in (2223), is expressed as a time rate of change of vorticity and its meaning
becomes evident when we write
(~ a' ' V)V = 1 ~.llim f;'Q'
PQO
(2224)
where P and Q are two neighboring points on a local vortex line and i5V is the velocity of the fluid at Q relative to that at P (Figure 247). Either term in this equation, when divided by 1 ~.1, becomes a fractional time rate of change of vorticity. The corresponding contribution then to the fractional time rate of change of vorticity on the left of (2223), that is, either (l/1~. J)a~.lat or (III ~.I)D~.I Dt, is identical with the fractional rate of change of the material line element vector extending from point P to Q, which is the meaning of lim i5V/PQ, P and Q bein, :egarded now as material points. We can PQO
The Vorticity Equation 105
p
·11
1 I' .,
Fig. 247. Schematic for the vorticity tipping and stretching term.
think of ~. behaving like a material line element coinciding for an instant with a section of the vortex line. A portion of the change in ~., its direction, coming from the rigid rotation of the line element due to the component of W normal to ~., the tipping part of the term, and a portion being a change in ~., its magnitude, coming from the extension or contraction of the line element due to the component of i5V parallel to ~., the stretching part of the
term.
The Divergence Term, I;.(V • V)
The term l;..(V • V) accounts for changes in the moment of inertia due to changes in the density (distribution of mass) of the fluid. If V • V > 0, then we have positive divergence and the fractional rate of change of the density following the fluid is negative, since from the continuity equation
_l__Qp_=V·V p Dt
A decrease in the mass per unit volume for the parcel results in an increase in its radius of gyration, which, in turn, since I = mr+, increases the moment of inertia. If the angular momentum is to be conserved, the angular velocity (or vertic".') must decrease. We see that positive divergence results 10 a decrease oi the absolute vorticity. For a negative divergence (i.e., a convergence), we obtain through this term an increase in the absolute vorticity. This same effect is employed by a skater doing a spin. The skater starts t~rn~ng with arms extended and then pulls them in close, whereupon the splOnlOg increases. By drawing in the arms, the skater is actually decreasing the moment of inertia; then to keep the angular momentum the same, the angular
velocity increases.
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The Solenoidal Term, v« )( V P
A possible arrangement of level surfaces, isobars, and isosteres (surfaces along which a., the specific volume, is a constant; equivalent to .t~e surface along which the density is a constant, an isopycnal) for a barochmc
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Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
Increasing p Increasingp
Increasing (J(
z
Net horizontal pressure force
Fig. 248. Distribution of level surface. isobars ad' .
baroclinic fluid. ", n isosteres In a
~u~ is shown ill. Figure 248. For the barocIinic situation, the slope of the ISO ars a.nd the isosteres are not the same as they would be in the urel barotropic case, where the specific volume is a function of onl the ressur y _1 hus, we have the result that the solenoidal term (a SOlenoiX tralr . lIe. is a cell bounded in two dimensions by two isobars and two isostere: I~: :
Vp, equals zero for a barotropic fluid For the two t . I' ),
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a eve surface, w~ note that the pressure at D, PB, is greater than the pressure
at A, PA' If a .vert~cal plot of the horizontal pressure force distribution were :onstr~cted. It might appear as in Figure 249. As shown, the downwardincreasing net pressure force will tend to produce a vertical velocity profile
z
Counterclockwise .rotational tendency
;;: 'yO .. shear
\ 0._ . or JCJ!y vector In y direction
Fig. 249. Verticat distribution of the net horizontal pressure force for the baroclinic fluid of Fig. 248.
Net horizontal pressure force
ConserV8CI01I 0/ r'otenuet "Otl/~'/IY
with shear. This velocity gradient wiII tend to produce vorticity (or rotation). The vorticity vector in this particular case will be directed in the  y direction as a result of the counterclockwise rotational tendency.
The Viscous Torque Term, vV21;.
The term VV2~. represents the rate of change of vorticity due to the molecular diffusion of vorticity. This term is exactly analogous to that of VV2V in the equation of motion, in which it represents the contribution to the acceleration due to the diffusion of velocity or linear momentum. Of similar form is the term in any equation representing he balance of a conservative property. For example, if in the conservation of salt equation of (2118) we su bstitute the Fickian diffusion law of (2117), we obtain the term  K, V2(pS), which represents the rate of change of salt due to the molecular diffusion of salt and which is analogous to the viscous torque term. Finally, we can state that since all components of the velocity V are transportable quantities, so are all the spatial derivatives of the velocity V, and since the vorticity is a function of these spatial derivatives, so also the vorticity is transportable.
229 Conservation of Potential Vorticit,i
From the results of Section 228 it is possible t.) derive an important equation first developed and fruitfully employed by Rossby in 1940. As a starting point, we have the vorticity equation,
:
~7 = (I;. • V)V  I;.(V • V)  VIX X Vp + VV2~. (2223)
Consider this result in the light of the following initial assumptions: /
I. That the fluid is homogeneous throughout so that IX is a constant,
resulting in the solenoidal and divergence terms of (2223) being zero.
2. That the fluid is frictionless so that v is zero, resulting in the viscous torque term being zero.
Under these assumptions, (2223) becomes
~ + (V • V)I;.  (I;. • V)V = 0
and from the definition of the absolute vorticity can be written
;; + (V. V)(~ + 20)  [(~ + 20) • V]V = 0
(2225)
where, as previously, ~ is the relative vorticity and 20 the planetary vorticity. Recalling that we have defined the Coriolis parameter f as being equal to
108 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
2!l sin {}, we can write the vertical component equation of this result as
a~, a a a
Tt + U ax (C + f) + v a/C + f) + w a/" + f)
. aw aw
c ax  (Cy + 2!l cos () dy
(C + f) ~; = 0
(2226)
Now, under the additional assumptions that:
3. Since the fluid is homogeneous and frictionless, the horizontal velocities are independent of the depth, yielding that aujaz and avjaz are both zero.
4. The vertical velocity is small and the horizontal scale is large,
so that the spatial derivatives of the vertical velocity, awjax and aWjay, are small compared to the other remaining terms and therefore can be ./ approximated as zero, we see that Cy and C are zero.
Then (2226) reduces to
D(C + f) _ (C + f) aw = 0
Dt ' az
Integrating this result in the vertical yields
f'O D f'O a
r __ ~ D/C + /) dz  , __ ~ (C + f) a; dz = 0
where z = 0 is the top and z = h is the bottom of a vertical column. Since the integrand of the first term is not a function of z, this reduces to
D
h D/" + /)  (C + f)(wl,~o  wi ,h) = 0
and following the fluid column,
h g/(I f)  (C + f) ~; = 0
Dividing by h2 and combini .• g erms we finally obtain that
!2(C + f) = 0
Dt h
(2227)
where the quantity in parentheses is called the potential vorticity and the equation expresses the principle of the conservation of potential vorticity; specifically, that following a fluid column potential vorticity is conserved.
As an illustration of the usefulness of (2227), we can point to the following examples.
Stationary Column of Fluid with Vertical Stretching and Shrinking
From (2227), for a stationary column with f constant, we see that a change in the thickness of the column h will produce a corresponding change in the relative vorticity component C. Thus, positive stretching results, in the Northern Hemisphere, in an increase in both hand", thereby producing cyclonic or positive relative vorticity (counterclockwise rotation). This cyclonic vorticity is produced by the deflection of the inflowing fluid by the Coriolis force (see Figure 250). Similarly, shrinking of the column results in the outflowing fluid being deflected so as to produce clockwise rotation and therefore anticyclonic or negative relative vorticity. This effect is confirmed by (2227) in that a decrease in h will produce a proportional decrease in " so that overall the potential vorticity will be conserved.
Finish
Start
Start I _J
I I Finish
~~~~
Fig. 250. Production of relative vorticity in a stationary column of fluid by stretching and shrinking (for the Northern Hemisphere).
Column of Constant Thickness but with Changing latitude
Consider a column of fI uid of constan t thickness in the Northern Hemi~phere and for convenience having a relative vorticity C of zero. If the column moves north, the planetary vorticity f increases and to conserve potential vorticity the column must begin to acquire clockwise rotation and thus anticyclonic or negative relative vorticity. In effect, the fluid column of constant thickness in moving poleward is moving into a region having a greater planetary vorticity and thus appears to develop clockwise rotation. For
109
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110 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
displacement equatorward, the fluid column moves into a region of decreasing planetary vorticity and in so doing appears to acquire counterclockwise rotation, or positive vorticity. Again this result is confirmed by application of (2227).
Zonal Flow over an Infinite Ridge
This example of the application of the principle of conservation of; potential vorticity is considerably more complicated than the two previous examples, but both the techn que of solution and the solution itself are deemed to be sufficiently valuable to dwell on a bit. Suppose initially that we have pure zonal flow from west to east over a ridge of infinite horizontal I extent north and south (Figure 251). Under assumed steadystate conditions, :
z
t ;()'
jLx
U I = constant
Fig. 25!. Elevation for zonal flow over an infinite ridge.
streamlines and trajectories are identical; and since the potential vorticity is conserved following a fluid column and the fluid column follows a trajectory, we conclude that the potential vorticity is conserved along a streamline. That is,
(2228)
where F(IJI) is a to be determined function of the stream function IJI, at a distance from the ridge such that w can be taken as essentially zero. This relation merely states that for IJI a constant (i.e., along a streamline), the potential vorticity equals a constant. The derivation of (2227) assumed that the fluid is incompressible and assures the existence oflJl. The relative vorticity C, can be written as
~ _ av au _ aZIJI aZIJI _ m
I.,  (Jx  Ty  ~ + ayZ  v HIJI
in which we take the Laplacian as being twodimensional; substitution into (2228) yields
Conservation of Potential Vorticity 111
(2229)
In order to represent the Corio lis parameter / as a function of our independent variables x and y, we make what is known as the betaplane approximation. It is assumed that on the tangent plane / is a linear function
of y,
/=/0 + fiy
(2230)
where j', is the value of/at the latitude 00 of the origin of the relativecoordinate system. Differentiating the Coriolis pal aineter, defined as
/= 2Q sinO
where t e is the radius of the earth. As an example, at a latitude of 45°,
fi is 1.62 X 1013 cmI/sec. ,
Now in the upstream flow region designated by the number I, where
u = 41 and v = 0, integration of
alJl u = ry
we have that
df _ df dO _ d(2Q sin 0) dO = 2Q cos 0 dO dy  dO dy  dB dy dy
But, from Figure 252, we can write that
redO = dy
and therefore
fi=2QcosOo rE
v=~
Fig. 252. Definition diagram for making the beta plane approximation.
dy
Tangent plane
(2231)
z
112 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
and upon substitution in (2229),
F(V') = b + py = 10  PV'/u, (2232)
h, h,
Thus,/(V') has been expressed in terms of the parameters of the problem, and additionally we have obtained an express on that is applicable over region 2, downstream of the ridge. For region 2, then, combining this result
with (2229), one obtains
V~V' + (/0 + py) _ 10  PV'/u,
h2  hi
or the secondorder, nonhomogeneous, linear, partial differential equation
(2233)
where
A particular solution, V'2, to (2233) is clearly
: [r (h2  h ,) P ]
V'2 = k)O h,  Y
The homogeneous equivaleLt d (2233),
'i'~V' + k2V' = 0
(2234)
(2235)
is the twodimensional form of the wellknown Helmholtz equation, solutions of which are generally found through the separation of variables. Alternatively, a shortcut can be utilized due to the observation that V' should be linearly dependent upon y; that is, streamlines should essentially repeat themselves in the y direction. Proceeding, then, it is assumed that the solu
tion, V'" to (2235) is of the form
V', = (y + c)X(x) (2236)
where c is a constant to be determined. Substituting back into (2235),
d2X
(y + c) dx2 + P(y + c)X = 0
or
d2X+PX=0 dX2
whose solution is of the form
X = A cos kx + B sin kx
where A and B are constants. Using this result in (2236), we obtain V'I = (y + c)(A cos kx + B sin kx)
/'
(2237)
Conservation of Potential v orucitv 113
To evaluate the constants A and B we avail ourselves of the requirement that there be continuity at the ridge:
aV' UI = Ty
To find the value of the constant c, which merely establishes the relative numerical value of the streamlines, we can require that V' = 0 at x = 0, y = O. In so doing, we find that
The essential features of the streamlines, as shown in Figure 253 for the
and combining this with (2234) we have the general solution to (2233), V' = V'z + V', = (y + c)\A cos kx + B sin kx)
at x = 0
and
aV' =0 ax
at x = 0
Application of the first of these to (2237) gives UI = (A cos kx + B sin kx  £~)
and therefore
at x = 0
A = £2  UI Application of the second continuity condition yield l key + c)(A sin kx + B cos kx) = 0
which requires that
at x = 0
B=O
Inserting these results into (2237),
V' = (y + c)[ (£2  UI )cos kxJ + i2[/0(h2 h. h ')  PyJ
and therefore
Rearranging yields
'II _ _ _ [ (h"  hl)( r + P )] cos kx  1
T  uI1 UI hI )0 Y P
(2238)
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(2240)
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114 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
PY/fo
( ( (
C \ (
( (
U1 > 0
h2 = 0.91h1
Fig. 253. Streamlines for uniform eastward flow over a northsouth ridge.
0.2 
case of hz = 0.91h" can be obtained readily when one approximates (2240) as
( ( t ( ( (
{ ( (
t
.~
(2241)
where
1=/0 + py
(2242)
( \ < (
y being the average value of y along any given streamline. The streamlines then differ in shape from each other only to the extent of the change in scale induced by the ratio 1110.
It is possible to physically interpret the behavior of the fluid in the following manner. Assuming that upstream to the ridge the relative vorticity of the fluid is zero, the bottom topography provides relative vorticity at the ridge itself by shrinking the fluid column, thereby causing the outflow to be deflected by the Corio lis force so as to produce anticyclonic rotation. This induced anticyclonic rotation is the cause of the flow turning toward the south (Figure 254). The wavy character of the streamlines downstream of the ridge is due to the nonuniforrnity of the Coriolis parameter. In traveling south, the fluid moves through a region of decreasing I and to conserve potential vorticity, (, must become more positive (less anticyclonic). As the r~ye vorticity decreases in magnitude, the curvature of the strea~ii~decreases until at the latitude fJz, corresponding to Iz .= _ch2)the.r.~lative v<:>.r.tJ£i!y_~nd the curvature are both zero. Still continuing, because of its momentum to move into a region of decreasingj, the fluid starts to acquire cyclonic relative vorticity and consequently starts to curve to the left, eventually moving due east, at which point its time rate of change of relative vorticity, D(.I Dt, is zero and (, is a maximum positive. Continuing to curve to the left, the
( .~
D~z = 0 ,. = minimum < 0
Dt ,)Z
D~z>O Dt
II/hI => constant
D~z < 0 Dt
~z = 0
f2/h2 = constant
?~% >0 Dt
Ridge
D~% .
Dr = 0, ~z = maximum > 0
Fig. 254. Variation of relative vorticity along a streamline for uniform eastward flow over a northsouth ridge, plan view.
fluid now begins to move with a northward component of velocity and thus in the direction of increasing planetary vorticity. To conserve potential vorticity, (, begins to decrease, with the result that the curvature of the streamline decreases. As earlier on the way southward, when the flow reaches the latitude fJz, the relative vorticity and curvature are both zero. Continuing its northward motion, anticyclonic vorticity increases along with the resulting curvature to the right until the flow is once again due east at latitude fJ" at which point the relative vorticity has achieved its maximum anticyclonic value and the curvature is maximum in magnitude. The flow continues then to oscillate around the parallel of latitude, fJz, corresponding tolz such thatlzlhz = 1,/h, = constant.
Finally, returning to (2240) and the definition of the wave number ~, we see that the wavelength L of the oscillation is given by
L = 2: = 2n(~::) ,/z
which for a latitude of 45°, a u, of I mlsec, and (h,  hz)« h, comes out to approximately 1600 km. Also from (2240), the southward excursion of the streamline passing through the origin is Icmd by solving for y when IjI = 0 and kx = n, yielding
I·t d 2/o(h,  hz) 2 ' .. fJ (h,  hz)
amp I u e = T 2h, _ hz = 'E tar, 0 2h,  hz
For a streamline originating at a latitude of 45°, this excursion is equivalent to a range of latitude of 2(h,  hz)/(2hI  hz) radians, or approximately 1050 km or 9's" of latitude for the case of hz = 0.9Ihi.
230 The Bernoulli Equation
Clearly, the complete form of the equation of motion is mathematically very complicated; general solutions to it are difficult to come by. As a matter of fact, it is not possible to g, ncrate a general solution to it and then evaluate the resulting constants by appli;:ation of a set of boundary conditions. Solutions can be found only by considering special cases and utilizing special techniques. In this section we will ,:xamine one such special case.
We can start with justc iout any of the previously obtained forms of
the equation of motion. Taking, for example (2195), and assuming that the
flow is frictionless, we get
av
_ + (V 0 V)V + 2n x V = rxVp Vx
at
(2243)
Proceeding now to integrate this statement along a streamline using the dif/ ferential vector element dr, as shown in Figure 255 [recalling that the dot product of the terms of (2243) with dr gives their value along dr),
f ~ 0 dr + f (V 0 V)V 0 dr + 2 f (n x V) 0 dr
/'
(2244)
=  f rxVp 0 dr  f v» 0 dr
z
n
1
v
~~y
Fig. 255. Schematic for integration along a streamline.
x
To put this in a simpler form, we observe first that 2 ~ (n X V) 0 dr = 0
since the vector n x V is perpendicular to the vector dr, dr and V always being coincident. Second, it is possible to write (V 0 V)V as (VoV)v=!VIVIZV X (V X V)
and finally, all terms of the form VB 0 dr can be transformed as
t
(
The Bernoulli Equation 117
VB 0 dr = (aaBi + aBj + JBk) • (i dx I j d)'! k d::)
X ay Jz
_ aB dx + ~ dv + ~B dz
 ax ay' az
= dll
for any particular time if B is timedependent.
Utilizing all of this in (2244), one obtains
f ~~ 0 dr + ~ f V I V 12 ~ dr  f [V X (V X V)) 0 dr
=  f rxVp 0 dr  f Vx • dt
( ( ( I (
(
. ( ( (
! (
(
or
f ~~ 0 dr + } f dV2  f [V X (V X V) 0 dr
(2245)
= frxdP  idX
Now V X (V X V) is actually V X ~, and from the definition of the cross product, is a vector perpendicular to the plane of V and ~ and as such has no component along the streamline; therefore,
( :~ ( (
I (
V X (V X V) 0 dr = (V X ~) 0 dr = 0 Additionally, from (2193),
g= VX
or
I ( i (
I
l
! (
( ( I (
( \
gk = _dXk dz
AlI of this results in (2245), reducing to, assuming that g is constant,
f ~ 0 dt + tVZ + i rx dp + gz = F(t) (2246)
along a streamline, the most general form of the Bernouili equation.
Special forms of the Bernoulli equation that might be more familiar
ar~ discussed next.
SteadyState Flow
For steadystate conditions, JV/Jt = 0 and (2246) becomes
tV' + f rx dp + gz = c' (2247)
where c' is a constant having a particular value along any given streamline.
(
( ( ( (
( ( .(
{ ( ( ( (
(
. ( ( ( ( (
Steady Flow and Uniform Density
If the flow is steady and the density is constant, one obtains
~.v2 + ap + gz = c' (2248)
Irrotational Flow
If the flow is irrotational, a velocity potential ¢> exists and' the first term of Bernoulli's equation can be rewritten as
f~~ . dt = f~~¢>· dt = f v(~) . dt =  f d (~) = ~
Substituting in (2246) yields
a_~ + ! V2 + f a dp + gz = F(t)
at 2
(2249)
where F(t) is a function of time for timedependent flow or a constant, c, for the nontimedependent case. In either case the function or the constant is the same for every point within the fluid. We will presently show this to be
true.
lrrotational, Steady Flow of a Homogeneous Fluid
If the fluid is homogeneous and the flow is steady and irrotational, we obtain the most familiar form of Bernoulli's equation, what might be called the engineering form,
tV2 + ap + gz = c
(2250)
.\ .(
A .\ .(
( ( .(
(
.1
where each term is expressed as energy per unit mass. Dividing through by the acceleration of gravity, g, the terms will all have units of length and as such are referred to as "heads," being, from the Jeft, the velocity head, the pressure head, and the elevation head, the sum of which equal a constant for all points in the fluid
In the remaining portion of this section, it will be shown that the
F(t) of (2249) is the same throughout the fluid. Assuming that the fluid is incompressible and inviscid and neglecting the Coriolis acceleration (the latter is not essential but simplifies the manipulations), the equations of motion from (2210) through (2212) are
au au au. au I ap dt + II dX + v dy t IV Tz = 'p dX
av j. u av + v av + w av = _ _!_ ap
at ax ay az p ay
aw I aH' I all' + aw I dP
dt T U dX r v ay w (1z = p az  g
(2251)
118
The Bernoulli Equation 119
, I
Since the motion is irrotational,
au aw _ 0 aw av  0
uzrx ry(1z
(2252)
and a velocity potential ji exists such that
a¢> a¢>
u =  ax v = Ty
(2253)
From the fact that
then
I aV2 I a ( 2 + 2 + 2) _ au + av f aw
Tax = T ax u v w  II ax v ax  w ax
and similarly,
(2254)
Substituting (2252) and (2253) into (2251), we obtain _j_(a¢» + u au + v av + w aw = _ _!_ ap
at q;x ax ax ax p ax
_ a (a¢» + u au + v av + w ak: ?' _ _!_ ap
at Ty ay ay ay '" p ay
a (a¢» au av aw " I 'ap
at az +uaz+vaz+waz='pazg
./
and application of the three equations of (2254) to this result gives us
a (a¢» I aV2 _ I ap  at 'Ox + 2 ax  p Tx
a (a¢» I aV2 _ I ap  at Ty + TTy  Ii Uy
./
_j_(a¢» + _!_ aV2 = _ _!_ ap _ g
at az 2 az p az
If the first of these is multiplied by dx, the second by dy, and the third by dz and added, we have
a (a¢> a¢> a¢» (I aV2 I aV2 I aV2 )
Ft Txdx + aydy + az dz + 2'ax dx + 2' Tydy + 2' Tzdz
= _ _!_(ap dx + ap dy + ap dZ)  gdz
p. ax ay az
For anyone given time ¢>, V, and p are functions of only the position
l
120 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
coordinates, and thus the three terms in parentheses in the preceding equation are the perfect differentials of r/>, tV2, and p. Rewriting, then,
a (I) I
at(dr/»+d2V2 +ji(dp)+gdz=O
and upon integrating with respect to distance in any direction,
 f d(~~) + f dn V2) + f ~ dp + f g dz = F(t)
where F(t) is some arbitrary function of time and plays a role similar to that of a constant of integration. The final result can be written
_~ + ~ V2 + f (J. dp + gz = F(t) which for any given time t is identical to (2249).
231 Elementary Applications of the Horizontal Equations of Motion
/
The equations of motion have, up to this point, been derived and discussed in a general way. As a demonstration of their utility, in this section we will apply our results to solve some special, but useful, oceanographic flow problems of both a frictionless and frictional nature. These special cases successfully explain certain typical features of large and smallscale motions of different types found in the ocean. To recapitulate, the equation motion for
incompressible flow from (2218) is
DV
Dt + 20 x V + (J.Vp + Vx = VV2V
(2255)
If it is assumed that the fluid motion is essentially horizontal (twodimensional), we can adopt the hydrostatic equation in the vertical and the scalar
component equations of (2255) are
Du .fv = Dt
Dv +Iv=:
Dt
(2258)
(2256)
(2257)
These three equations are the starting point for our consideration of inertia currents, geostrophic currents, and Ekman winddrift currents.
/
\
(
I
(
I
(
I
(
{
f
(
[
•
(
!
l
•
I
(
I
(
(
I
(
(
t
( i
(
!
I,'
:~ Inertia Currents
If the flow is considered to be frictionless, (2256) and (2257) indicate that the accelerations on the left are balanced by the acceleration resulting from the horizontal pressure gradients. These gradients may result, for example, from an Inclination of the sea surface in a homogeneous ocean due to the effect of a wind stress. Let us assume that, once having been set up, they vanish. The accelerations on the left of (2256) and (2257) then sum to
zero, giving
(2259)
and
(226IJ)
Dv + ji 0
Dt U =
That is, the acceleration of any water particle is balanced by the Coriolis acceleration; flow under such a condition is said to be an inertia current.
To determine the form of the velocities u and v, and thus the character of inertial flow, we can combine (2259) and (2260) by differentiating the
former with respect to t,
D2u _ fDv = 0
Dt2 Dt
Assuming f constant, and substituting this result in (2260) we obtain the differential equation in II,
whose solution is of the form
II = A cos ft + B sinft
where A and B are constants. After imposing the initial condition that II 0 .at t = 0, we see that A ~= 0 and therefore
(2261 )
u = B sinft Substitution of this into (2259) yields
v = B cosft
(2262)
These two results tell us that the current velocity V is of constant magnitude since
(2263)
121
(
l ·
( ( ( '7 I (
i
'\ t (
( (
(
( ( ( (
( (
\ (
1 \
(
(
\ (
{
'
122 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
The trajectory of a fluid particle is determined by integrating (226J), x = f (8 sinJt)dt + B'
=  } B cos ft + B' = ; + B'
and (2262),
y = f (B cos ft) dt + BO
= } 8 sinft + B" = J 1 8" and eliminating t by squaring and summing the result, (x _ B')l + (y _ B")2 = (~) 1
(2264)
This is the equation of the circle oj inertia with center at x = B', y = BO, and of radius VI! Because the force that produces the radial acceleration is the Coriolis force, which in the Northern Hemisphere acts to the right of the velocity, the motion around the inertia circle is clockwise or cum sole ("with the sun "), as shown in Figure 256. Taking TJ as the time required by a particle, traveling with the speed V, to complete one full circle of radius r,
T/ = 211:r = 211: = 11:
V J Osin e
where 1'/ is called the inertial period. At the equator, 0 = 0 and TJ is infinity; at the poles. 0 == 11:12 and TI = 12 hours. Also, since 211:1(0 sin 0) is the period of revolution of a Foucault pendulum at latitude 0, the inertial period is, therefore, onehalf of a pendulum day. Finally, for purposes of comparison, for a current of 2 knots we obtain the following;
Diameter of Inertial
Latitude (deg) Period (hr) Circle (nautical mil
90 12 7.6
60 14 8.2
30 24 15.3
0 00 00
 Geostrophic Currents (Nonhomogeneous Ocean)
For a frictionless, unaccelerated current flowing horizontally with the only external force being that of gravity, it follows from (2256) and (2257)
(2265)
Elementary Applications of the Horizontal Equations of Motion 123
.
./ "
/ ,
/ /\
I r \
, / ,__ Circle of inertia
v~ /;
Coriolis a,,,~Ieration
Fig. 256. Inertia current in the Northern Hemisphere.
that for the horizontal coordinate directions tl.e components of the Coriolis force balance the components of the pressure g 'adient force; that is,
1 ap JV="3":: p ox
and
I ap fu== pqy
If these are squared and added, the result can be written as
*=JPV
where
and
(2266)
(2267)
ap == [(ap) 1 (ap)lJI/1
Un Tx + (1y
"The equilibrium of forces expressed by (2267) states that the Corio lis force must be exactly opposite to the horizontal pressure gradient force, which in turn requires that the horizontal current vector V be parallel to the isobars and, in the Northern Hemisphere, in such a direction that, facing in the direction of the flow, the higher pressure is to the right. Taking 0 as negative in the Southern Hemisphere, the higher pressure is then to the left when facing downstream (see Figure 257). This type of current is called a geostrophic current and the equilibrium of forces expressed by (2267) is called geostrophic equilibrium.
A formal solution to the differential geostrophic equations can be obtained in the following way. Integrating the hydrostatic equation of (2258) from the surface down to some depth z, we obtain
p.  Po =  s: pg dz = g s: P dz
124 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
Low pressure
~ Isobars _
~ '"
I I
I High pressure I
I I
I : V
Low pressure
V
Coriolis force
I I
P
~ ~
, Pressure
I gradient
, force
pl
Pressure gradient
force I
pI
p
Fig. 257. Distribution of forces and current for geostrophic flow.
where p, is the pressure at depth z, Po the pressure at the surface (z =''0), and g has been taken as constant. No loss of generality results by taking Po as zero; therefore, we may write the last equation as
v, = g S: pdz
/
'Now, with reference to Figure 258 and through application of a Taylor expansion, it is possible to write p, at a point x and p, at a point x + dx
as, respectively,
(p,L = g S: p .Iz
and
Slope = ih1 ax
Sea surface
Po ________  ,    Level surface
I
I I I
I
I I
. I I
Z  l           T    Level surface
I I
I I
x x+dx
P
Fig. 258. Definition schematic for development of geostrophic equation.
Elementary Applications of the Horizontal Equations of Motion 125
L
f '~
~
, . ( , ( ,(
( ( t (
'( ( ( (
where Po, the density above the level surface z = 0, is taken as a constant. Subtracting yields
(a fO '
(P,)x+dx  (p,)x = g ax , p dZ) dx 1 Pog dn
or
ap, a fO J'l ax = g ax , p dz + Pog ax
where thl.·irst term on the right represents the baroclinic contribution to the horizor,:al pressure gradient and the second term represents the barotropic contribution. Inserting (2268) into (2265), we find tha,t
(V = L _g__ fO P dz + Po _K_ aa'l . pfax , p f x
(2268)
where for ,all practical purposes we can take Po! P ::::: I for all depths. Letting z = 0, this result then reduces to
g a'T
Vo = 7 ax
where Vo is the current at z = ° and is referred to as the slope rurrent or the barotropic cllrrent. It is merely that portion of the absolute current which results from sea surface being inclined with respect to the level surfaces. We can now write that the relative or baroclinic current, that portion of the absolute current whose source is the variation of the fluid density due to temperature an'd salinity differences, is given by
a fO
v,  Vo = :.r ax , p dz
(2269)
In a similar way, for a sea surface having a slope component in the y direction, it is readily shown that
a fO
II,  110 =  :.r OJ , p dz
I
I~
it
I(
I( I
It
'I(
L
,
(2270)
where the lefthand side is the y component of the relative or barocli.nic curren t. Equations (2269) and (2270) then permit computation of the relative geostrophic current at any depth within the fluid from a knowledge of the
densi ty field.
: It is possible to reduce these last two equations to the more practical
'form, at least as far as actual computations are concerned, discussed in many introductory oceanography textbooks. We can begin to do so by writing
(2269) as
g fO~
v,  Vo = pf • ox dz
, .... I:
(
126
Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
1 (
( ( ( ( ,
( ( (
where jJ is taken as the average density in the vertical column. Introducing the specific volume 1%,
g JO al%l g (0 al%
1',  1'0 = jJf ux dz =  jJf ,_ pZ rx dz
, ~,
and applying the hydrostatic equation, (2258), to the integral, we obtain. g JP' aa.
v,  Va = jJf Prxdp
p.
. I jP' al% . I a jP'
= T rx dp = Y rx 1% dp
p~ P.
(2271)
in which integration and differentiation were rearranged via the assumption that the slope of the isobars are so small that they can be neglected. The integral on the right side of (2271) is the known expression for the dynamic height D, defined as
fP'
D = a dp
P.
substitution of which results in the familiar form
I so 11,  Va = TTx
and similarly, starting with (2270),
1 a jP' I so
u,  Uo = T~ P. a dp =  / di
When written and applied in finitedifference form, these equations permit calculation of the relative or baroclinic component of the geostrophic current.
Consider briefly the case, shown in Figure 259, of two isobars Pl and pz within the fluid having an inclination of 1'1 and 1'z with respect to level surfaces. Then, from application of (2272) we can write that
'
(2272)
(2273)
(2274)
where v I and Vz are the y components of the fluid velocity at depths z I and Zz, L is the horizontal distance between the two hydrographic stations A and B, and the subscripts 011 the integrals refer to the two stations. This relation was first derived by Sandstorm and HellandHansen in 1903 and is known as the HellandHansen formula. The physical meaning of(2274) is readily apparent if the integrals are converted back to integration with respect to elevation through application of the hydrostatic equation to give, on the right,
/ l[(f'  gdzt  (f'  gdz)J
Elementary Applications of the Hor/l'Of./al Equations of Motion
127
Station A
I
____ ~ Level surface
I I I
Isobar P2
Fig. 259. Schematic diagram for application of the HellandHansen formula,
which for g a constant reduces to
IL[(zl  zZ),4  (z ,  zzhl
This is merely equal to gl/ times the slope or the isobar PI relative to the isobar Pz. Observe also that the quantity in the square brackets of ~227~) is the negative of the area between the 1%,4 and I%B curves for the stations in the interval from PI and pz (Figure 260).
/ In concluding this discussion, it should again be noted that the
geostrophic current can be considered as being composed of two parts: one that is dependent on the slope of the free surface and is called the slope
:
p
Fig. 260. Relationship between rJ.P plot and the HellandHansen formula.
128 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
current, and one that is dependent on the internal density distribution and is called the relative current. Of these two, only the relative current can be determined from observations of the density distribution, since in general the added slope of th,e isobaric surfaces due to the piling up of water cannot be directly observed. To arrive at the absolute current, either the absolute pressure field or the absolute velocity must be known at one level between two adjacent hydrographic stations. The possibility exists of (I) finding the depth if it exists, where the currents become zero, called the depth of no motion, through direct current measurements, or (2) making a direct determination of surface currents t::;ther of these methods encounters considerable difficulty.
Ekman WindDrift Currents (,he Ekman Layer Equations for a Homogeneous Ocean)
Pure winddrift currents are the result of the drag exerted by the wind/, in passing over homogeneous water. Horizontal pressure gradients are not considered; the only driving force is that of friction in the form of the wind stress applied at the sea surface and the frictional coupling between individual layers of water. The necessary conditions for pure winddrift currents is that the ocean must be assumed infinitely deep and unbounded in the horizontal. Additionally, it is taken that the wind field is uniform in that it is of constant speed and direction everywhere. Under these conditions, no water will pile up near coasts or in the open sea; no slope of the sea surface will therefore develop. It was Ekman in 1902 who first considered the nonaccelerated (stationary) drift currents in this idealized ocean.
The equations of motion for Ekman winddrift currents from (2256) and (2257) take the form
(2275)
and
(2276)
where u = u(z), v = v(z), and friction resulting from vertical shearing stresses is introduced through the kinematic viscosity coefficient, v, assumed constant. For a thin layer of fluid, these equations specify a balance between the frictional stress acting on the upper surface of the layer, the frictional stress acting on the bottom surface on the layer, and the Coriolis force. The situation is illustrated in Figure 261 for the two topmost layers.
To obtain a solution to (2275) and (2276), we begin by differentiating the first of these, with respect to z, twice. Thus,
d2v . d'u
fdz2=vdz4
Elementary Applications of the Horizontal Equations of Motion
129
Wind stress force
~~/{ ) // A/
/ \
// \ V
/ \
// /
M
\
Frictional drag force
Top frictional drag force ~
/~T\
I~ ~ ~~,
Coriolis force
V
Bottom frictional drag force
Top Layer
Second Layer
Fig. 261. Balance of forces acting on fluid for Ekman winddrift currents.
which after substituting from (2276) results in the differential equation whose solution we seek subject to appropriate boundary conditions, namely
d+u (f) 2
+  u=o
d z? V
(2277)
Assuming a solution of the form
(2278)
substitution into (2277) gives
(k4 + ~22)Aeh = 0
from which it is seen that
Solving for k, we obtain
i where i = ./ 1. Also,
k = ±(l ± i)(f)I/2 = ±I ± i
2v H
(2279)
I.
since
(_1)1/4 = ±ft
and where H is defined as
_ (2v) 1/2
H= 7
(2280)
)
.( ,
r ~
~
f
\
~
i
( V
i<
!(
j. il
k /( ,(
( 1(
(
I (.
(
/
'
\ (
( (
130 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
Substituting for k from (2279) into the assumed solution of (2278;, we obtain the general solution
I
~ .
. ( !
«
(
,
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
t
~
(
~ i'
i
~
(
(
I
(
(
\
(
{
l_ u = A le(l +/)./H + Ale(I +I)./H + A le(lil.1H + A4e(I/)./H
where the constants A I' A 2' A l> and A4 can be evaluated from the boundary conditions. i Under our original assumptions, the required four boundary con
ditions are:
I. The wind stress, r, on the sea surface is, from Newton's law of
viscosity, equation (2122), given by
(2281)
r dul
r =v
dz .=0
(2282)
where r' == t] p and
dvl
O=v
dz .=0
(2283)
where, without loss of generality, the x axis has been aligned in the direction of the wind.
2. At great depth the flow goes to zero such that ul.=_~ = 0
(2284)
and
(2285)
Now (2282) and (22R4) can be applied directly to the general solution for u given by (2281); while (2283) and (2285), which are conditions imposed on v, can be converted to conditions imposed on u through (2275).
We will now summarize the boundary conditions. From (2282),
dul r' dz._o=V
(2286)
from (2275) and (2283),
(2287)
from (2284),
(2288)
and from (2275) and (2285),
d2ul
2 =0
dz .=_~
(2289)
Equation (228R) makes it immediately apparent that our solution cannot
Elementary Applications of the Horizontal Equations of Motion 131
contain negative, real exponents, and consequently Al = A4 = 0, yielding the solution
(2290)
u = Ale(l+il./H + A3e(lil./H Differentiating with respect to z, we obtain
du _ 1 + i A (I+lJz/H + 1  i A e(lil./H
dz  u Ie u l
and evaluating this result at z = 0, we obtain
dul =.£_ = {I + i)AI + (I  i)Al
dz~_o v H
(2291)
(2292)
[It is seen from (2291) that the condition on the second derivative, as specified by the boundary condition of (2289), is satisfied since no negative, real exponents exist.] The third derivative of u is given by
dlu _ (I + i\l A e(l+il./H + (I  i)l A eOil./H
d z?  H) I H l
Recalling that
(2293)
(I + i)l = 2(1  i)
and
(I  i)l = 2{l + i) and evaluating (2293) at z = 0, we find that
2(1  i)AI  2(1 + i)Al = 0 Hl
or
A 1 iA .,jl = I + i I = Ittl
Inserting this in (2292) gives the result that
AI = r~~C;~
Combining these last two equations with our solution for u as expressed by (2290),
_ r'H[I i (I+il./H + 1 + i Oil./BJ
u  2v =r:' 2·e
and rewriting,
r' H (el./H + e_ I./H el./H  eIz/H)
u = e·/II + ~
2v 2 2i
or
«n ( z .  Z)
U = _e·/H cos + sm
2v H H
132 Basic Concepts and Pri/:c/£Ies in Geophysical flpid Dynamics
Finally,
1:' HI· (Z 1t )
u=_.J2ve'Hsm H +4
Application of (2275) results in the equation for v,
. (2294)
1:'H ( )
v = ::721/'IH cos iI + : (2295)
These equations, (2294) and (2295), give the velocity components of a pure winddrift current as a function of the depth. To begin an examination of the meaning of our results, consider the case for which z = O. Thus,
_ 1:'H. 1t
ul,.o=uo =~vsm4
! _ 1:' H 1t
V •• 0 = Vo = ~v cos 4
and
VI = V  ( 2 + 2)1/2 1:'H
.0  0  Uo Vo = ~ v
(2296)
./
Consequently,
Uo = Vo sin : = ~Vo Vo=Vocos: =~Vo v, = ~Voi  ~Voj
and therefore, as shown in Figure 262, the surface current vector, in the Northern Hemisphere, points in a direction 45° cum sole to the wind direction. Our solution, however, is only valid in the Northern Hemisphere, since in the
Wind
U "VI V
020
_VI
voT Vo
Hg. 262. Surface current in Northern Hemisphere for Ekman wind
drift.
Elementary Applications of the Horizontal Equ3tions of Motion 133
Southern Hemisphere the latitude, e, is taken as negative and, from (2280), H is consequently imaginary. A solution valid for the Southern Hemisphere is obtained if the direction of the y axis of the coordinate system is reversed. This being done, we then find that, for the Southern Hemisphere, the surface water moves in a direction 45° to the left of the wind direction.
Next let us examine the case for which z = =nl], It follows that
I_or . • 31t __ V .. n u s= .H  r oe sin 4  oe SIn 4
and
I V . 31t V . 1t
V ,=.H =  oe cos4 = oe cos 4
which indicate that at this depth the current vector has decreased to e:" times the surface velocity (= Vo/23), but has also changed direction and is exactly opposite (Figure 263). In general, from (2294) and (2295), we conclude that the current vector between the surface and the deeper layers turns continuously cum sole while its magnitude decreases exponentially. These characteristics are shown in Figure 264, where the current vectors
y
Wind
U·'1fH
( ( ( ( (
Fig. 263. Current direction at depth z = xH for Ekman wind·drift in the Northern Hemisphere.
F1g. 264. Ekman spiral for wind drift in the Northern Hemisphere.
y
i(
(
"( I
'( I
r : r'
( r
( i
~.
! (
~(
(
(
't
,~,
(
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( '\
(
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1
1
~~
'(
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,", 134 Basic Concepts and Principles in GeophysictJ/ Fluid Dynamics
have been drawn for equal depth intervals. Projected on a horizontal plane the end points of the vectors form the logarithmic spiral known as the Ekman spiral. In our model, having taken an infinitely deep ocean, the velocity approaches zero asymptotically; however, by far the more significant currents are found above the depth z = 7tH. This depth was called by Ekman the depth offrictional resistance, since for all practical purposes the fluid below this depth is unaffected by the surface wind. From the definition of (2280), it should also be noted that H is independent of the wind stress but does increase with an increasing viscosity coefficient and with decreasing latitude. A t the Equator, H approaches infinity. It also follows that the surface current is proportional to the wind stress.
To obtain some feeling for the numbers involved, consider a typical example for which, = pt' = I dyne/em 2,J = 0.7 X 104 sec " «() = 300N), and v oc to cm2/sec. These give
(2v) 1/2 (2 X 10 )1/2
H = f = 0.7 X 10 4 cm 2 = 5.3 m
r ,'H 540
~ 0 = ,y'Tv = 10,y'T = 38 cm/sec
VnH= V17.2m= L5cm/sec
Finally. of particular significance to the oceanographer is'the mass transport resulting from the Ekman current. We obtain the mass transport components Sx and S., having units of [mass]/([time][length)), by multiplying the velocity components u and v as given by (2294) and (2295) by the density p and integrating from z = 00 up to z = O. Proceeding then,
s, 0= f_~ pu dz = :!tv f_~ e,IH sin (iI + f) dz = 0
and
_ fO p,'H (0 ,IH (z 7t) ,H2
S, = _~ pv dz =  ,y'2 v J~ e cos H + 4 dz = Tv
Since Sx = 0, the net mass transport in the Ekman layer is given solely by S, and is thus directed 90° cum sole to the direction of the wind in the Northern Hemisphere.
232 TimeAveraged Form of the Momentum and Continuity Equations for Incompressible Flow
Most natural and engineering flows are of a turbulent. character rather than being laminar. The Glossary of Oceanographic Terms (Baker et aI., 1966) gives as the definition for laminar flow; "A flow in which the fluid moves
TimeAveraged Form of the Momentum and Continuity Equations 135
smoothly in streamlines in parallel layers or sheets; a nonturbulent flow." Turbulent flow is then defined as: "A flow characterized by irregular, random velocity flucuations"; and for turbulence: "i\_~~_e_o(_fluid flow in whic~ the instantaneous velocities exhibit irregular and apparently random fluctuations, so thatin_prac,ti_<;e_ o_nly statistical properties can be recognized an~ subjected to analysis. Thesefluctuations often constitute major deformations of the flow and are capable of transporting momentum, energy, and suspended matter at rates far in excess of the rate of transport by molecular diffusion and conduction in a nonturbulent or laminar flow." In geophysical fluid dynamics nonturbulent flow is the exception, not the rule. Waves, tides, ocean currents the boundary layer of the earth's atmosphere, cumulus clouds, flow in rivers' and canals, ship wakes, and aircraft wakes all represent fluid motion of a turbulent type. The list is almost endless,
It has been stated (Tennekes and Lumley, 1972) that a precise definition of turbulence is difficult to come byihat it is best described by its properties. For example:
Iri"egularity. All turbulent flows are random, thus making a deterministic approach impossible; statistical methods must be employed.
Continuum. The smallest turbulent scales are macrosopic rather than microscopic, and therefore turbulent flow can be treated as a continuum phenomenon subject to the equations of fluid mechanics.
Dissipation. In turbulent flow the viscous shear stresses result in the kinetic energy of the fluid being converted to internal energy by performing deformational work; bringing to mind the verse attributed to L. F. Richardson:
./
Big whirls have little whirls that feed upon their velocity And little whirls have lesser whirls and so on to viscosity.
Diffusivity. The diffusity of turbulence causes rapid mixing together with greatly increased rates of transfer of momentum, heat, and mass. For exa~pIe, turbulence greatly increases the transfer of energy between atmospheric winds and the ocean currents.
Large Reynolds Numbers. The Reynolds number is defined as the ratio of the inertial forces, DV/ Dt, to the viscous forces [tiV2V + tvV(V • V)]. From a dimensional analysis of the NavierStokes equation, similar to that done earlier in the case of the hydrostatic equation, it is found that the Reynolds number = LV/v, where L is a characteristic length, V the magnitude of a characteristic velocity, and v the kinematic viscosity. Turbulent flows always occur at large Reynolds numbers.
136
Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
Turbulent Flows Are Flows. Unlike viscosity, which is a characteristic of fluids, turbulence is a feature of fluid flows in that it is not governed by the molecular properties of the fluid. The dynamics of turbulence are the same in all fluids.
Now in solving oceanographic problems through the use of the momentum 'equation (or of one of its forms, say, the NavierStokes equation), the results obtained can only be judged as to their validity by comparison with actual observations. Since, in general, we are concerned with fluid velocity and velocity changes, we can most directly verify our procedures by making velocity measurements. Since most naturally occurring flows are of a turbulent nature, the question arises as to exactly what velocity is to be measured. Clearly, we should measure the same velocity as that described by the equations we have used. If we have applied the NavierStokes equation, the velocity described is the one associated with small (macroscopic, yet not microscopic) fluid elements. Not only would we in practice encounter difficulty in making measurements of such small elements, but in the prevailing turbulent conditions, we usually are not (or cannot be) interested in all of the fine details of the motion. Rather, we are interested in the mean values of the parameters of the problem, the mean being taken over some time scale small with respect to the phenomenon of interest to us, but large with respect to the time scale of the turbulence. We want to use mean velocities (and pressures, temperatures, salinities, and densities) and therefore require that all of our defining equations be written in average form rather than in what we may call their point proper) .orrn.
Before we proceed w th this equationaveraging process, we will digress briefly to consider wh at is meant by mean values and fluctuations. Consider, as an example, the .·~r al sequence of temperatures, T, as recorded by a rapidly responding sensing element at some fixed point in the ocean. 'Figure 265 illustrates the detailed record of T and the running average T, which is a smoothed version of the temperature and depends on the time as well as the period of sampling or the averaging interval. (In general, of course,
T
x, y, z fixed
Fig. 265. Illustrating the relationship between the point value of a variable, T, and the mean value, t.
,/
\
TimeAvereqed Form of the Momentum and Continuity Fqueuons
137
(
both T and T are functions of the position coordinates .v, ,I', a ml z.) Specifically,
i I
i(
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( > I
(
(
<
(
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,(
f r(
( ,
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 I 1"+'"
T =:0 fM T(t) dt
Io!J.t
(221)7)
represents a running average at some fixed point based on an averaging interval of 2M. In general,
T = T(x, y, z, 10' 2.&t)
Geometrically, (2297) means that, having obtained a record of T at some fixed point over a period of time, the areas between the curve 1'(1) and the time axis .1 e measured over an interval of time 2M, centered at t = 10, This result is u . en used to construct average temperatures such that the areas above T = t are equal to the areas below this same line. Thus, it is possible to define the anomaly of the temperature from the running average as
T'=:oTT
(22W1)
A plot of T' would appear as in Figure 266, where the average value of T' itself will vanish (i.e., T' = 0).
T'
Fig. 266. Plot of the anomaly of Tversus t.
(
Now, if the temperature T is to be characteristic of the temperature as a whole, the averaging interval 2M must be long enough to ensure that an adequate number of fluctuations is included; however, the adoption of a ,very long interval would quite likely remove important changes which are taking place in the temperature. All of the foregoing discussion, although applied specifically to the temperature, holds for any of the other field variables that may concern us, such as u, v, w, s, p ; and p, For each of these the average of the anomaly from the running average is zero (e.g., ii' = 0), but it cannot be asserted a priori that mean values of the squares and products of anomalies are necessarily zero. For example, the product of T' and !J' in general will not vanish (i.e., T'u' =I= 0). For this particular example, it can be said that there will exist a net sensible heat transport associated with the turbulent fluctuations. If T'u' ¥ 0, T' and u' are said to be correlated. In the case ofT'u' = 0, the two variables are uncorrelated. Figure 267 illustrates
( f ( (
l
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(
138 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
r r
u' U'
Fig. 267. Comparison between correlated and uncorrelated fluctuations.
/( ( ( ( ( (
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.,,(
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( \
this concept; the left pair of diagrams show the case where the fluctuating variables have the same sign for most of the time and T and u' are correlated, while the right pair show the uncorrelated situation. A measure for the extent'" of correlation between the two variables T and u' is the correlation coefficient, rr .• , obtained by dividing 1"u' (the covariance of T and u) by the square root of the product of (T)2 and (u')2 (the variances of T and u),
(
T'u'
r r .»  [==("""T""'" )"'2(""U""')""2 ]::1/"72
a dimensionless quantity that will always lie in the range
I ~ rr .• ~ I
Statistically, rr." is a measure of the fraction of the variance of T (or of the fraction of the variance ofu) that is related directly to thatofu(T), 1fr;' .• = I, the variables T and II are linearly dependent; if 'rr .• = I, there is a perfect positive correlation between T and u (i.e, an increase of one variable results in a linear increase of the other); if rT •• = I, there is a perfect negative correlation. However, r T •• is a useful measure of the strength of the relationship only in a linear sense. When rr .• = 0, the two variables are said to be uncorrelated even though they may be closely related, but where the relationship is not linear. Also, no causeandeffect relationship between the variables is implied.
In 1895 Reynolds formulated a set of rules of approximation in the calculation of mean values. Although they are not universally applicable they are good approximations for situations where the fluctuations are numerous and random:
7ImeAveraged form of the MomenlUm anu LUllliIlUilY ;::<JUdI/VIlS
l..l:i
1. Quantities that have already been averaged may be taken as constants in subsequent averaging,
<t) = t <tu) := til (2299)
where the angle brackets, <.), have the iden.ical meaning as the overbar as defined by (2297).
2. Averaging obeys the distributive law,
 aT at (2300)
T+u=T+il ss :»:
x ax
Using these, then, we obtain
t = ci + T) = <t) + <T) = t + i: from which is obtained that t: = 0, as stated previously. Also, Tu = «t + T)(il + u'»
= <til) + <tu') + <Til) + <Tu')
(2301)
= til + Tu'
If vectors, such as velocities, are multiplied and averaged, the term vy, involves nine components, one of which typically is
V 1 V 3 = V J; 3 + V~ V;
the last quantity not necessarily being zero even if V 1 and V 3 are zero.
TimeAveraged Continuity Equation
Let each point property be represented, as in (2298), as the sum of its average and a fluctuating or turbulent component,
II == il + U' v == ij + v'w == W + W'
p ==p + p'
p ==p + p'
s = s + s'
(2302)
/Substituting into the continuity equation,
~ + V. pV = 0
we obtain
fr(P + p') + :/P + p')(il + u') + t (p + p')(ij + v')
'+ i_(p + p')(w +:w') = 0 az
Averaging, we obtain
f' '4' a I f,·,41 a
_1_' (p + p') dt + _ =: (p +,n')(il + u') dt
2At Ft 2M ax i'
Ll. tolU ta.dt
1'0+4' a I f'"H'" a  rv r r: r
+ _1 a (p + p')(ij + II') dt + 2.1.t '. Tz (p + p )(w + w)dt = 0
2M .41 Y '0 t~f
140 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
which yields, upon application of the rules of averaging, ~ «p _}_ p'» + ;x«pu) I (pu') + (p'u) + (p'u'»
+ ~«pv) + (pv') + (p'v) + (p'v'»
+#Z«pw) + (pw') + (p'w) + (p'w'» = 0
or
~(P + p') + ;x(PU + pu' + p'u + p'u) + t(PV + pi? + p'v + p'v')
+ ;z(PW + pw' + p'w + p'w') = 0
 a 
p'v') + az(pw + p'w') = 0
a p + a ( _ I '') + a (  7ft Ux pu  p u ay P
In fluid dynamics the relative I.:ctuations of density, IIp/ p, are usually negli ,/ gible as compared with the relative fluctuations of the other variables (e,g" Ilu/u, so!», Swlw), and the approximation is generally made that p' ~ 0, The last equation above then reduces to
(2303)
or
ap 
__ + v. pV = 0
at
(2304)
which is the averaged continuity equation, having the same form as the point continuity equation except that u, 11, and ware replaced by the averages
U, ii, and W.
TimeAveraged Equation of, Motion for Incompressible Flow
For incompressible flow the xcomponent equation of the fundamental form of the momentum equation of (2196) can be written
apu a a a
Tt + ax(puu) + a/puv) + a/puw)  pfv
(2305)
_ ap (aZU azu aZU)
 OX + P axz + ar + ail
where the additional Coriolis term 2pwQ cos () has been dropped, as is usual, and where the viscous stress tensor has been replaced as in (2207a). Again, let each point property be replaced by its average and a fluctuating component as given in (2302), with the exception that p' ~ 0, as was assumed in the
TimeAveraged Form of the Momentum and canunuitv Equations 1'''
derivation')' the averaged continuity equation, after which the entire equation is averaged;Thus for the first term,
I f"U' a u a I f"+AI  ,
21lt ,,_A' %t dt = at 2M ,,AI p(u + U ) dt
= ~ «pu) + <pu'» = ;t (pu)
(2306)
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1 (
(
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,f
I
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Applying this process to the other linear terms of (2305), essentially similar results are obtained:
I f"+A' I f"+Al
21li pfv dt = 21li pf(v + v') dt = pfv
1041 le&
___!__ f"+Al ap dt = a _1_ flo+AI (jJ + p') dt = ap 21lt ,,Al OX OX 21lt 1061 ax
(2307a)
(23U7b)
and
I f"+Al ( az az aZ)
21lt ,,_A' P axz + ayZ + ail u dt
az az aZ) I f"+At 
= p(axz + ar + azZ 2M ,,At (u + u') dt
az u azu aZU)
= p(axz + ar + azi
Averaging the nonlinear terms is only slightly more complicated. For example,
(23U7(')
I f"+A' a a I f'·+.11
2M a (puv) dt = a 2M p(u + u')(v + v') dt
,,AI y Y ,..1'
= ;/<puv) + <puv') + <pu'ii) + <pu'v'» (2307d)
a (  + , ')
= dy pu» pu v
Similar relations hold for the other two remaining nonlinear terms of (2305). Putting all of this together, then, the averaged xcomponent momentum
equation is
fr(PU) t fx(pUU + pllu') + ~(PiiV + pU':;'))
( ( ( ( ( (
i 3
, , __ ,,', ,1'.
+ r(puw + pu w )\ p, v z
(2308)
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(
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A
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.(
A
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•
~
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.(
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4... 142 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
To put this result in the more frequently used form, the average form of the continuity equation, (2303), is multiplied by ii,
a a p I a ~ + u iJJ!.! + u a ;w = 0
Tt ax uj z
and subtracted from (2308) to give
au + u au + v au + w au  fv
at frX ay az
_ I ap J1. (a2u ,a2u a2ii)
 Ii dX + Ii ail" a:? + az2
I[a( , ')+ a( , ')+ a( , ')]
Ii ax pu u qy pu v Tz pu w
(2309)
Averaging the .1' and zcomponent point momentum equations in the same! manner results in
au + u au .  ai +  ai + fat ax t v qy w az u
= _ _!_ ae + 1£ (ali + a2i + a2i)
p dy p ail a:? Tz2
I[a(,,) a , a]
Ii Tx pu v + a/pv'v ) + Tz(pv' w')
and
aw +  aw j _ aw +  aw Ui u ax  v ay W az
_ I aft J1. (a2W alw a2W)
 lidz + Ii d? + d?" + Tz2  g
I [a ( , ') + a ( , ') + a  ]
Ii ax pu W qy pv W Tz(pw'w')_
Combining these three scalar equations into one vector equation yields
(2311)
(2312)
which is the averaged form of the equation of motion and is called the Reynolds equation for incompressible, turbulent motion. This result is seen to have the same form as the incompressible point equation except that a verage properties now appear in place of point properties and an additional term, called the eddy (or turbulent or Reynolds) momentum term, associated with the turbulent velocity fluctuations is added.
TimeAveraged Equations Expressin~/the Conservation of Salt and of Heat
If the same averaging techniques are applied to the point f~r~ of the conservation of salt equation as have just been used on the continuity and momentum equations, it should be possible to obtain a consiste~t result appropriate to application on a larger than continum scale. Returmng then
to (2118),
aps + V 0 (psV + F.) = 0 at
(2118)
where, as earlier, s is the salinity and F, is the nonadvective flux of salt due to diffusion. Rewriting this to
p(* + V 0 Vs) + s(~ + V 0 iJV) + V 0 F. = 0 (2313)
the second term in parentheses is the continuity equation and as such is equal to zero. Further, if we assume that the molecular diffusion is negligible, an assumption that will be justified by later results, then (2313) becomes merely
as + u as + vas + was = 0 (2314)
Tt Tx qy Tz
Substitution of the average and fluctuating quantities of (2302) and timeaveraging the entire equation gives for the first term
_1_ f'o+At as tit = a _1_ f"+At (s + s') tit = ~ 211t J,,At Tt Tt 2111 J,,At t
for the second term
I J,' +At a I J",+At a
_ • u1::tlt =  (u + u')Tx(s ; /)tlt
211t ,,At ox 211t ,,At x
// = _1_ J",+At (ii as + u as' __ ·c u' as + u' as') tit
211t Tx ox' Tx ox
I.AI
= (u*) + (u*) + (u'*)+ (u'~~) = u* + u'*
and relations similar to the last equation for the remaining terms. Putting it all together, we obtain
(as u as + vas + waS) + (;;us' + ~ + w' as') = 0 (2315)
Tt + Tx qy s: ox dY az
Now, for incompressible flow
s,(aU + av + aw) = 0
Tx qy Tz
143
144 Basic Concepts and Prmciples in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
or
I 1"+t.l [ , a ( +' t a ( ') , a ( ')]
21lt s ax u u . s a v + v + s a W + w dt = 0
tot.l Y z
{s' ~) + {s' ~:) + {s' ~~) + {s' ~~) + {s' ~;) + {s' a~:~) = 0
;au' + :a:il + ~ 0
s ax s Ty s Tz =
Adding this zero quantity to (2315), it follows that for incompressible flow
as +  as  as  as [a  a  a ]
at u ax + v ay + W az =  ax(s'u') + a/s"v') + j1z(s'W') (2316)
and that again the average form is similar to the point form of an equation [compare (2314) with (2316)] except that the variables are expressed as average quantities and the additional fluctuation terms appear. These last three terms are the eddy (or turbulent or Reynolds) diffusivity terms and arise ,/ from the nonlinear advective quantities in the original point form of the
equation.
Starting with the distribution of variables equation as applied to the
temperature of the fluid, (2215), and assuming that molecular conductivity
is negligible, we have that
et er sr er
dt + u ax + v ay + W az = 0 (2317)
The similarity between (2314) and (2317) is obvious and permits us to write an average version from direct analogy to (2316). Thus,
~f + ii aT + v aT + IV aT at ax ay az
(2318)
= [:)T'U') + ~(T'v') + :/T'w')]
where the terms on the right of the equation are the eddy (or turbulent or Reynolds) conductivity terms. The equation as a whole merely expresses the conservation of heat for turbulent flow in the absence of radiation and when
neglecting molecular conductivity.
233 Eddy Coefficients
Reyonolds Stress and the Eddy Viscosity
The last quantity in 1 «ntbeses in the Reynolds equation of (2312), _ pV;V~, is called the Rey ic ds stress tensor (in honor of the original developer of the theory) anc ',' II be deisgnated by
(2319)
Eddy Coe.fflcients 145
( t (
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( ( ( (
T[) is clearly a stress, having units of force per unit area, and is a symmetric tensor with a total of nine components, only six of which are independent,
[PV'I VI pV~ V~ PV'I V;] T[} =  pV~V~. pV;V; pV;V; LPV;V~ pV;V; pV;V;
Alternatively, in terms of an x, y, z coordinate system,
[PU'U' pI/v' pu'w' j
T[} =  pv'u' pv'v' pv'w'
pw'u' pw'o' pw'w'
The three diagonal components of .[} are normal stresses and the offdiagonal ones are shear stresses. The Reynolds stresses can be considered as a component of a total mean stress tensor, SI}" For laminar flow the viscous stress tensor TI} is given by (2205), which for incompressible flow reduces to
\ \ ( ( ( (
i(
I(
i f I
(
( (
I ( ( ( (
·1
I
, (
TI) = p(~~; + ~)
After substitution of mean and fluctuating quantities and time averaging, 1:1} becomes the mean viscous stress tensor, il},
 _ I1(aVI + ~)
TI}  I'" a a
», XI
(2320)
The total mean stress can now be defined as the sum of the Reynolds stress and the mean viscous stress,
(232J)
or
S = p(aVI + av}) _ V'V'
I} ~ aXI PI}
A better understanding of the physical meaning of the stress components T[} is4)btained from a consideration of the simple flow situation shown in Figure 2~68. The stress component .;x = .~>=  pu'v' can be interpreted as the transport of x momentum through a surface normal to the y axis.
In the case of
ii = ii(y) ii = IV = 0 dii ~ 0
dy /'
i
It can be shown that u'v' =;c 0; fluid particles with a turbulent fluctuation
v' > 0 will travel upward and arrive at a layer y + Ily from a region where a smaller mean velocity u prevails. In general, they will retain the velocity of their origin u and will thus give rise to a negative fluctuation component II' in the layer y + Ily. Conversely, particles of fluid with a turbulent fluctuation
(
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(
(
(
~
(
C
t
(
(
/(
(
(
(
'(
(
,(
(
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~
(
 .\
<. 146
Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
y
u "'u(y)
Fig.268. Transport of x rnomen, tum ill the y direction due to: turbulent velocity fluctuations.
i v' < 0 will travel downward and arrive at a layer y  ~y and thus give rise' to a positive fluctuation component u' in the layer y  ~y. On the average, ' then, a positive v' is usually associated with a negative u' and a negative v.' is usually associated with a positive u', Thus, it is to be expected that the timeaveraged quantity u'o' will not only be different from zero but will in fact, be negative. The Reynolds shearing stress orr x =  PII'V' will b{ positive for this example, as is the appropriate laminar shearing stress fl(dll/dy).
The introduction of the Reynolds stresses provides considerable insight into the general mechanism of turbulence. However, the mathematical difficulties stili remain in that no universal, analytic method is known whereby these stresses can be expressed in terms of the mean velocities and their derivatives. Most of the progress made in relating theory with observation involves the introduction of certain plausible but empirical relations between the turbulent stresses and the mean flow. A rational theory does not exist. It is possible, in practice, to actually measuee the velocity at a fixed point and to calculate the fluctuations from the mean and then deterr.iine the Reynolds stresses by time averaging. For example, Reichardt (1938) determined, i? the laboratory, II?, SXy/ p, and r.» (the correlation coefficient) for flow rn a rectangular channel. Figure 269 shows the plot of u'v', which is equal to 1:~y/ p, the turbulent shearing stress divided by the density. Its value goes to zero at the center of the channel due to symmetry, whereas its maximum occurs near the wall, showing that turbulent friction has its largest value there. The dashed line Sx) P shows the variation of the total shearing s~res~ ac.ross the channel which was obtained from the measured pressure distribution and independently of the measured velocity. The difference ~etween these two curves gives the ratio or the laminar stress to the density
1: xi p. Over most of the section the two curves nearly coincide, showing that almost all of the shearing stress is cue to turbulence. They diverge near
28
~
~ 24
N
E
~ 20
Q,
;.,
'<I" 16
I~
12
8
4
0 Eddy Coefficients 147
0.4
0.3
0.2
(.75
1.0 CL
0.25
0,50
Y HI2
Fig. 269. Measurement of the Reynolds stress (u'v'), total stress (Sxylp), and correlation coefficient (r •. ,.) for flow in a rectangular channel, after Reichardt, 1938.
the boundary, u'v' decreasing to zero, owing to fact that the turbulent fluctuations die out near the wall.
Now several semiempirical relations have been widely used to relate
the turbulent stresses with the mean flow: Boussinesq's eddy viscosity theory, 'Prandtl's mixinglength theory, Taylor's vorticitytranspo~t theory, von Karman's similarity hypothesis. Only the first of these will concern us. In turbulence two coefficients of viscosity can be defined (ignoring the bulk or second coefficient of viscosity, u', since it does not appear in the incompressible form of the equations): one real and the other apparent. ~irst, we have the molecular viscosity u ; second, we have the molar coefficient. By analogy with the form of Newton's viscosity relation, Boussinesq in 18:7 introduced the concept of relating the turbulent stress to the shear I strain
rate. By analogy, the Reynolds stress becomes '
, aVI
1:1} ex ~ uXJ
or
(2322)
148 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
where A, the coefficient of proportionality, is called the turbulent coefficient of viscosity or the eddy viscosity, analogous to, but crucially different from, the molecular viscosity. The molecular viscosity is a property of the fluid and usually varies slowly with the state parameters of the fluid; the eddy viscosity is not a physical constant of the fluid but rather depends upon the type and scale of the motion considered, its degree of stratification, and interactions between them, and often varies considerably from one part of the fluid to another. It assumes different values for the same location at the same time when the time scale of the averaging process is changed. There is no known simple connection between the magnitude of A and any of these factors. The best that can be done is to make measurements for a number of different situations, estimate the value of the coefficient for these situations, and then hope that we can identify similar classes of motion to which we can attach an eddy momentum exchange coefficient that is at least of the proper order of magnitude. Application to a flow of such empirically determined results helps to get at important features of the motion and permits analytical and numerical solution of some of the forms of the equation of motion. This approach is, of course, merely a pragmatic one; it does not represent ~ real increase in our knowledge of the physical processes of turbulence. All that can be said with some certainty about the coefficient of eddy viscosity is that:
1. It's magnitude increases with the scale of the phenomenon under investigation,
2. It's magnitude is greatest where velocity shears are greatest.
3. It's magnitude isle is for momentum exchanges in the vertical as compared with tile horizontal due to the vertical stability of the ocean.
In recognition of these conclusions it is desirable to modify (2322) and take different eddy exchange coefficients for each of the coordinate directions, this being especially true for the vertical. Thus, using (2319), we assert that the eddy momentum term of (2312) can be written as
a (V'V') a (A aVI)
ax P I J = ax ~J (fX
J J J
_i__(A aV1)+_i__(A aV1)+_i__(A aVI)
 ax, ~'ax, aX2 ~I aX2 aX3~' ax)
(2323)
or for situations in which we may wish only to distinguish between the vertical and the horizontal exchanges,
a ( V'V') _ a (A aVt) + a (A aVI) (2324)
ax;PIJaxJ Hax;J_I.l OX; "trx;
it being understood that the XJ axis is vertical.
Eddy Coefficients ,49
As given in (2322), the eddy viscosity coefficient, A, has units of [massjjlength]" j [timer lor, more physically meaningful, of {[mass][Iength]1 [timelJ [length]: 2 (momentum per unit area), exactly those of the dynamic molecular viscosity. u. Analogous to the kinematic molecular viscosity defined as v = u] p, a kinematic eddy viscosity,
K = A" ~J P
(2325)
has been defined and called the austauschkoeffizient iaustausch or exchange coefficient) by Wilhelm Schmidt (1917), a pioneer worker in this field. This form of the momentum exchange coefficient has the same units as v, [length]? [timejl
In ' ctions that follow we will examine several different flow situations for which, by appropriate simplifications, we are able to calculate values of the viscosity coefficients. We will see that for geophysical scales, the coefficients may be of order 102 g/cm/sec for Av and 106 g/cm/sec for AH in oceanographic problems (see, for example, Sverdrup et aI., 1942; Defant, 1961; Kamenkovich, 1977). These are to be compared with the order of magnitude of 102 g/cm/sec for the molecular viscosity. For turbulent flow then the Reynolds stresses and the turbulent friction terms will, in general, be orders of magnitude greater than the mean viscous stresses and their associated forces. For turbulent flow the viscous forces can be ignored with negligible error and the timeaveraged equations of motion, equations (2309) through (2311), can be written after application of (2324) as:
au +  au t  au +  au 1
7Ii u ax  v ay W az  v
1 aft I [a au a aii a aii
= Ii ax + Ii aAAH Tx) + Ty( AH ay) + qz (AI' (11) ]
(2326)
(2327)
(2328)
(2329)
\
( f (
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1 I
t
I
(
~
I.
I
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( Eddy Diffusivity and Eddy Conductivity Coefficients for Incompressible Flow
The eddy diffusity terms of the timeaveraged form of the conservation of s~lt equation .for incompressible flow in (2316) have their origin in the nonlinear advective terms of (2314). Similar to the eddy viscosity quantities, they depend upon the type and scale of the flow and are not a physical constant of the fluid. Additionally, they depend upon the distributicn of salin~y within the flow. When multiplied by the density p, terms such as =s'u', =s'o', and s'w' represent the flux of salt across a boundary just as the eddymornentum term of (2312) represents a flux of momentum across a boundary. It is possible to obtain estimates of this salt flux due to turbulence through a timeseries measurement of s and Vi; this has at times been done. As a matter of convenience, however, the same technique is frequently applied for the turbulent diffusion of salt as was applied for the turbulent diffusion of momentum, specifically, that of characterizing the process through the application of an eddy coefficient. Thus, it is assumed that ;
r as s I ex: ~
or
(2330)
where K,(x,) is the (kinematic) eddy diffusivity coefficient for salt having the components K,(x1), K.(xz), and K.(X3) for eddy diffusion in the three coordinate directions with units of [lengthj'[time]:". Similar to K the austausch coefficient, K,(xJ, is a function of the type and scale of the motion as well as the distribution of s. Because of the inherent stability of oceanic stratification, it is usually only possible to distinguish between vertical and horizontal exchanges such that
, , K( )as
su=.HTx
=rrt K(H) as
sv=. qy
s'w' = K,(V) ~
Substituting these into (2316), the timeaveraged conservation of salt equation for incompressible flow becomes
as ,  a.~  as  as
'Ot 1 II (r~ I l' ay + W'JZ
= ;~( K,(If) ~:) + ~ (K,(H) *) + #Z(K,( V) ~;)
\
(
150
(2331)
(2332)
or, in indicial notation,
, )
as  as a [ \ as]
~ + Vi ~ = ~ K,(x,; ;lxi
Estimates of the saline eddy diffusion coefficient are fairly numerous (see, for example, Sverdrup et aI, 1942; Defanr '961; Kamenkovich, 1977), and unfortunately, fairly diverse. Lateral coefficients generally are of the order of 105 or 106 cmz/sec, while vertical coefficients appear to be of order 101 cmz/sec. On the average, then, for the open ocean, and on a geophysical scale, a ratio of K,(V)/K,(H) of magnitude 106 to 107 appears to be a fair estimate. On the other hand, the molecular Fickian diffusion coefficient is of order 10 5 cmz/sec, justifying the assumption of the negligibility of the molecular process in the derivation of (2316).
Turning now to the timeaveraged form of the distribution of variables
equation when applied to the temperature, equation (2318), we face the same problem of representing the eddy conductivity terms which we have just faced in the representation of the eddy momentum and eddy diffusion terms of (2312) and (2316), respectively. Again, these quantities depend upon the type and scale of the flow and the distribution of the variable (in this case the temperature). Quantities such as =T'u', =T'v', and =T'w', when multiplied by pc, where c is the specific heat, will have units of energy flux (energy per unit area per unit time) and represent the flux of energy due to conductivity in turbulent flow. This is exactly analogous to quantities such as ps'u' , ps:v, and psw', representing the turbulent flux of salt and pu'u', pu'o', pu'w', and so on, representing the turbulent flux of momentum. Again it is possible to obtain estimates of the heat flux through a timeseries measurement of T and Vi' but, in general, resort is taken in the introduction of a plausible but empirical relation between the turbulent conductivity and the mean temperature gradient, namely //
(2333)
or
(2334)
where Kr(xJ is the (kinematic) eddy conductivity coefficient having components Kr(xl), Kr(xz), and Kr(x3) in the three coordinate directions and, like the eddy diffusivity coefficient, having units of [Iengthp[timejI. As inthe case for the other eddy coefficients we have examined, it may be impossible to do more than to distinguish between the horizontal and the vertical exchanges, so that similar to (2331),
i:
l
152 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid DynaiTiics
T'u' = KrlH) ~:
Tv' =  KrlH) ~ T'w' = KrlV) ~f
Substitution of these into (2318) yields a practical form for the timeaveraged conservation of heat equation,
(2336)
or, in indicial form,
(2337) /'
The order of magnitude of the eddy conductivity coefficients is about the same as that for the eddy diffusivity coefficients, that is, KT(H) of order lOS to 106 cmz/sec, KT{V)/KT(H) of order 106 to 107 cmjsec (see, for example, Sverdrup et ai, 1942; Defant, 1961; Kamenkovich, 1977). These can be compared to the molecular equivalent (laminar flow) of order 103 cm2/sec and again we see the justification for dropping the molecular conductivity term in the derivation of (2318).
234 Differences Between the Eddy Coefficients
It might appear that the eddy exchange coefficients for momentum, salt, and heat should be the same, since all of them are properties of the exchanged mass. Certainly, they have many things in common: they are all defined in a similar empirical fashion, they all are a function of the type and scale of flow, they all depend upon the distribution of the property, and they behave in the same way with respect to vertical versus horizontal transport due to the stability of oceanic stratification. We will see later that it may be useful to assume that two of them, salt diffusion and conductivity of heat, in special instances are equal. However, all three can be equal only in the case of the immediate and complete mixing of all the properties. It is possible through qualitative reasoning to show that, in general, momentum is the more readily transferrable of the three. When fluid elements change position, the change may be only temporary. For such a temporary change, the macro
"
(2335)
Estimating the Eddy Coefficients 153
scopic element being displaced by the turbulence from its mean position will, because of collision, immediately exchange momentum with the fluid elements in its new surroundings, At the same time, some salt and heat exchange may occur, but these exchanges take place by the much slower process of molecular diffusion across the boundaries of the element. Thus, the larger elements rapidly exchange momentum in the new locality, but only slowly exchange salt or heat, since the surface area to mass ratio is small. A water parcel in random motion may exchange a large fraction of its momentum but only a small fraction of its salt or heat. This argument is borne out by actual flow measurements, which yield eddy viscosity coefficients larger than the coefficients of salt and heat.
, 1
• 11
2"35 Estimating the Eddy Coefficients
Putting the Reynolds stresses, the eddy diffusivity terms, and the eddy conductivity terms in a form analogous to that of the viscous stresses, as in (2325), (2330), and (2334), respectively, permits (after additional simplifying assumptions) analytical solutions to be found for (2329), (2333), and (2336). In fact, for the case where the coefficients are constant, the solutions are identical in form to those determined for viscous and/or laminar flow. To obtain numbers from these solutions, the magnitude of the various coefficients must be estimated through empirical methods. A general procedure' for obtaining such estimates is: (I) reduce the complexity of (2329), (2333), or (2336) so as to model some relatively simple process typical of a particular situation in the ocean; (2) solve the resulting equations assuming that the coefficients are either constants or of some mathematically tractible form; (3) measure the field variables, V" s, and i: predicted by step 2; and (4) determine values of the eddy coefficients that will best fit the predicted values of the field variables to the observed values of the field variables. Naturally, such empirically derived coefficients' may not be applicable under environmental conditions different from those under which the field measurements were made, but they will at least furnish a guide to the acceptable range of magnitude of the coefficients in dynamically similar situations.
In most of the remaining portion of this chapter we will examine a number of examples of the evaluation of eddy coefficients; the examples are not meant to be allinclusive. In particular, attention should be directed to the way in which the magnitude of these coefficients depends upon the direction of the ed, flux (smaller across horizontal surfaces than vertical surfaces), upon the p.operty exchanged (larger for momentum transfer than either salt or heat), and upon the scale of the motion (increase with scale) or the distribution of the variable.
(
t
(
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(
(
t
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Estimating the Eddy Viscosity for the Vertical Exchange of Momentum
One simple model that utilizes a vertical coefficient of eddy viscosity is that of Ekman wind drift. Earlier, in (2280), we defined the depth of frictional influence, H, as
= (2V) 1/1 H_ f
(2280) ;
,
where l' is the kinematic molecular viscosity. The problem, as originally posed in Section 231, considered laminar flow. For the more general case of turbulent flow, the results are identical except that the vertical austausch coefficient, Ko, replaces v wherever the latter appears. Thus, the depth of! frictional influence is now given by
(2338)'
Various investigators have empirically related H to the surface wind speed;'
for example, Thorade (1914) postulated '
H(meters) = 7.6 W (m/sec)
n_jsin (j
for wind speeds, W, in excess of 6 m/sec and
H(meters) = 3.67 [W(m/sec)p/2
n_jsin 0
for winds speeds less than 6 m/sec. Assuming that these expressions are reasonably accurate, the austausch coefficient can be estimated by substitution of (2338) to obtain Kv(cm2/sec)::::: 4.3 [W(m/sec)F for W> 6 m/sec, K,.(cm2/sec) ::::: [W(m/secW for W < 6 m/sec. Admittedly, these results can only be considered as crude and applicable only in the surface layers of the ocean, but they do provide a measure of Kv. For example, if W =c 3 m/sec, K,. ::::: 27 cm2/sec; if W = 10 m/sec, Kv cz 430 cm2/sec. Durst (1924), based on wind speeds from 7.5 to 9.8 m/sec, made some calculations for various regions of the three oceans with results ranging from about 250 to 1300 cm2/sec for Ki:
Another approach is based on the assumptions that conditions are stationary in time but vary both horizontally and vertically, and that both lateral frictiou and the nonlinear terms of the acceleration are negligible. Consider (he small parallelopiped of fluid bounded by two horizontalsurfaces a distance t\;: apart ill (he vertical, two vertical planes perpendicular to the current a distance apart Av, and two vertical planes parallel to the current and a distance b from each other (Figure 270). The horizontal forces acting on the fluid inside the parallelepiped must balance since there is no acceleration.
154
i:.SliI1Jilllllgiilt;1 cauy LVt::JULit:1iJIS j J~
(F+ tJ.F)btlX
phM FL:_Z_=;;;r====tJ.::;;X== __ ....Jr(p Hp)bM
Fbtu
Fig. 270. Horizontal forces acting on fluid inside a parallelopiped.
Thus,
b t\z t\p + b t\x t\F = 0
where t\F is the difference in the horizontal stress between the top and bottom horizontal surfaces. In the limit,
_ap + ~ = 0
ax o z
The pressure at any depth z' is given by equation (2268),
a d 10 a
E = P g _!1. + g P dz
ax 0 dx " Ox
(2339)
(2268)
where Po is the density at the surface. Substituting from (2339), we obtain
. !:;
,/
and integrating from z' = z'' up to z' = 0 yields
fo sr a fO "010 a
 sf" dz' + Pog;b dz' + g I'.. aP dz dz' = 0
z" uz ux r" .. rr.' r' X
F,,, + r, + Pogdd1J.z"  gl;"l" ~ dz dz' = 0
x 0 . 0 ox
where Fo is the surface value of F, and z" is any depth. Taking Fo ~ 0 and substituting the eddy stress for F, .. , we get, utilizing (2322),
(pK v aaii) = Pog <!,}1 z" g 1'''1'' aa I!. dz dz' (2340)
z z·, ox 0 '0 x
Jacobsen (1913) applied this result to the mean conditions of the Kattegat to obtain the values of K; shown in Table 21. The first, second, and fourth
156
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Estimating the Eddy Coefficients 157
columns were obtained from field observations. The value of dl[/dx was determined by assuming that F,,, = 0, where ali/az = 0. From (2340), then,
dn I I'" I" ap r
d =~~" T:: dz dz
x PoZ U 0 ox
Then taking z" approximately equal to 17.5 m and
(2341)
I 117.1 rn I" a
_ I: dz dz' = 19.9 x 10 1 ern
Po 0 0 ox
it follows from (2341) that
dl1 = 19.9 X 1O~~ = 1 I x 107
dx 17.5xIOlcm .
approximately. The calculated values of K; due to the special nature of the Kattegat are not all that significant in themselves, but the technique for
the application of (2340) is instructive.
I' L' (
t ._ (
.! ( (
1 ( (
(
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, ( (
Estimating the Eddy Viscosity for the Horizontal Exchange of Momentum
Assume that only lateral friction is important, that flow IS purely zonal, that a longitudinal balance exists between the lateral friction force and the horizontal pressure gradient force, and that the eddy viscosity coefficient is constant. The horizontal timeaveraged equations of motion,
(2326) and (2327), reduce simply to
dp d ( dli)
 dx + dy AN dy = 0
having taken the fluid acceleration and the Coriolis force as zero and Ii = Ii(}') only. Intt.Jating with respect to y,
(2342)
f ( dli) f dp
d AN dy = dx dy + C
or
Integrating again yields
lr
Ii = L J!. + Cy + C' 2ANdx
where C and C' are constants of integration. Now if b is the halfwidth of the.current and taking that Ii = 0 at y = ±b, we get that
C = 0 C' = _!!:..... dp
2ANdx
lI
and therefore
158 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Hurd Dvnemics
, '
(
'7
(
'(
.... ,
r (
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
r(
,/(
(
(
'~(
(
/(
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.(
I
.(
I
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'( I
I
.(
(
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' (2343)
In 1940, Montgomery and Palmeri applied (2343) to find a maximum estimate of the lateral eddy viscosity for the Equatorial Countercurrent of the Atlantic (see Figure 271). From hydrographic data, the slope of the sea was determined to be 3.8 X 108, so dp/dx = 3.8 X 105 g/cm2/secZ, approximately, while from dynamic calculations iio = 65 cm/sec. The width of the countercurrent was estimated as 300 km, so that b = 1.5 X 10' em, Substitution in (2343) results in AH = 7 X 10' g/cm/sec, which is considered to be a very rough maximum estimate but, nonetheless, agrees well with
other estimates.
y = 0 fI====  x
Fig, 271. Arrangement for estimating the lateral eddy viscosity via Montgomery and Palmen, 1940.
Estimating the Eddy Diffusivity for the Vertical Exchange of Salt
In the case of a stationary distribution of salinity, as/at = O. If the mean current is strictly zonal and mixing occurs mainly in the vertical (i.e., the h?rizontal advection of salt is balanced by the vertical diffusion of salt), the timeaveraged conservation of salt equation for incompressible flow, (2332), reduces to
y=+h
J' = "
North Equatorial Current
(2344)
where for si mplicity K", is used for the vertical kinematic eddy diffusion coefficient for salt rather than the previous K,(V), Integration over z between =0 and z' gives
1
Equatorial Counter Current
~
South Equatorial Current
('. _ as asj"
I. U ax dz = Kv., (JZ
• r, Iro
which if there is an extreme of sat the depth zo, reduces to I J"  as
(Kv, ,)" = (as/az),. U Tx dz
"
(2345)
Thus, values of Kv, may be obtained at any depth z' from a numerical integration of the right side of (2345) over the range from Zo to z' given a salinity extreme at depth zo, the current velocity as a function of z, and the salinity distribution as a function of x and z,
Table 22 illustrates the application of (2345) as made by Jacobsen
(1913) to observations at two stations, A and B, in the Kattegat, a distance of 47 km apart with Zo = O. Again, because of the shallow nature of the Kattegat, the actual values of Kv are not that significant as compared to the application of the technique.
Now if, in the region of interest, there is no extreme of S, it is
still possible to obtain an estimate of the average value of the vertical eddy diffusivity by assuming that it is not a function of z (i.e., by taking aKy,,/az = 0). Equation (2344) then becomes
_ as aZl U ax = Kv, Tzl
or
(2346)
As an example, Montgomery (1939) applied this result to the Equatorial Current of the Atlantic. In passing from longitude 55°W to 25°W, the salinity was found to decrease from 36.9% to 36.0%. Thus,
as _ 0.9%; __
Tx  3.3 X 108 cm  2.7 X 109 %;/cm
Observations yielded the estimates that
,/
azs 0/
~zz = 2.3 X 10' _/IlO_ o z: em?
ii = 30 cm/sec
so that
K, = (30 / ) 2.7 X 1O9/%cm  03" Z
v,» cm sec 2.3 X 10' %/cm2  .  cm /sec
Proudman (1953) gives a simple graphical method for the estimation of Kv.s/u from a vertical salinity profile with or without an extreme. Suppose that Figure 272 represents the mean of the vertical distribution of salinity at two stations A and B with the line AB being in the direction of the current. Points A and B denote the salinities at a given depth at the respective stations; point P is the average of the salinities A and B. It is the midpoint of line AB. Two lines parallel to APR are drawn, one at a depth Jz less than z and one
!' \
Estimating the EddV C oetticients 161
,'0
. '" 0 a> N .... co iii
~~ r, 0 co M M
:.." 0 ~ 0 0 0 0 z
'" E 0 0 0 0 0 0
~~
s
~ E
... 0 0 'it; 0 co 0 0 ~
...  0 0 N N cO M 0 6 s f,.
q, x  ~ z + [jz  .....
Ci) '<til~~ I I I I ~ ~
... I I * I
0
II>
Cll
c:: z . .
q, It) It) It) It) It) It) It) . B
~ , .. ~ It'? M CD r N N "!
I,) ..;~ 0 0 0 M M
~ 0
... (
q, z liz
.!:!
... (
.. ~
Q) '0 Average salinity curve
::
x '" 0 co Cl! a> M N M 'it; li,is ' (
II> ~ .. 0 oj N oj oj M
~ E ~ ~
... I N N N ~ It) ~
.. '<ti~ ~ , , I I , I (
~ ,I'> ~ /
... ~ Fig. 272. Proudman's graphical method for estimating Kv.1 out i' (
c:: I
. ! ' 9 _~ of a salinity extreme .
~ at a Jz greater than z. Let J",s be the difference in salinity between points A (
... ,.
II> ~ '0
0 Q) and B, J_s the difference in the average salinity between depths z  Jz (
0 .. co q .: ~ a> "!
x E oj cD oj i
::.. c ~ :; and z, J+s the difference in the average salinity between depths z + oz and
... " I ~ I I ~ , (
.~ '<) ~ I ,
:. '<ti~~ z, Jx the horizontal distance between the stations, and let all derivatives be
.~
.. r
~ I'> evaluated at P. (
~
Cl From the average salinity curve, t
::..
:g It) It) It) It) It) It) It) J  ' as J. + als (JZ)l + als (OZ)l (
, .. ~ N ~ N N M 0 ~ __  *s  Tz z Tz2 2 Tzl6
~ ~~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 _
II> I I I
~ 15  ' as 15 + als (JZ)l als (JZ)l (
...
... .s=:  Tz z TzZ2  Tzl6
0 (
c:: al M
It)
0 c:~ e .... ~ It) q ~ co ~ a> From the Taylor series and to the second order
.~ g ~ cO oj oj M cD oj I, (
... (I 0 :::.
q, N N N N
.§ "'~ c al
ii) '" J+s + J_s = (JZ)l az~
... E (
.. , .. 0
~ <i ~
II> c:~ ~ M CD It) It) CD .... M ~ Also, considering changes in the horizontal at depth z, (
~ .g ~ cO cO cO oj 0 M cD cO
... .=
... N N N N
"'~ 15  • as J (
0 ii) e;;
li> ..... "'s = Ox x
"'1() ;;;
Q."I !
E .., '0 'it; q co co .... It) It) CD Substituting into (2346) yields
q, , Q) c
)oC~ r.:.~ r It) 0 i 0 cD ,..: ,..: Q) (
~ c:: I ~ ~ ~ 'i ., Kv I as/ax J",s/ox
E I I I .0 (2347)
~ .~ ~ 0 t' = OlS/aZl = (4S+s + 4S_s)/(I5Z)l
0
, ... to (
.... <II ..,
::r all of which can be determined without having to actually draw the average
~ ~ .. (
iii~ q s q It) q It) 0 III q 0 curve.
"I: .111 .~ E 0 It) ,..: 0 N cD r 0 :;
.,_:;; I I , ~ ~ ~ ~ N 0 If point P corresponds to an extreme of salinity, either maximum or
... ~ I I I I I C/) (
minimum, and if we are willing to take J_s = J+s as an approximation,
160 (
(
l, \
(
(
I
(
(
(
(
(
.( I·
(
(
( I
!
II
( I'
( 162 Bssic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
(2347) simplifies to
(2348)
Application of (2347) is illustrated by Defant (1936) for a salinity minimum in the Antarctic Intermediate Current. Table 23 details the procedure for the five stations A, B, C, D, and E, 1000 km apart, with bZ = 200 m. With U approximately 2 cm/sec, this would yield values of Kv, ranging from
4 cm2Jsec to 1.4 cm2/sec.
TABLE 23. Example of the Estimation of the Eddy Diffusivity Coefficient for the Vertical Exchang8 of Salt Via Equation (2347)
Salinity (%) at Station:
A
8
c
D
E
z + 200 m 34.20
z 34.18
z  200 m 34.22
34.27 34.40 34.45 34.51
34.21 34.29 34.34 34.38
34.28 34.44 34.49 34.54
~
,
0.05 0.12 0.05 0.05
0.04 0.08 0.11 0.12
0.06 0.11 0.15 0.16
0.50 0.63 0.19 0.18
4 4 4 4
2.00 2.50 0.76 0.72 (
(
(
(
( ,
{ ..
{ I I (
( I
I I
Jxs (%) J.s (%) L~(%)
Jxs
0.5 + J.J
(Jz)2/0X (ern) Kv,,lu (em)
Source: Defant (1936); in Proudman (1953).
Another simple graphical method for the estimation of Kv.,/u is given by Proudman (1953) using isohalines in a vertical section containing the current. Three isohalines for s  !o,~, s, and s + !bS are shown in Figure 273. The points P _, P, and P + mark the intersection of a horizontal line with the isohalines. P _T, Q+PQ _, and RP + are vertical lines and. TPR is a tangent to the isohaline s at point P. Let bX represent the distance.P .P +, b+Z the depth
interval Q.p, b_z the depth interval PQ_, .
bZ = Q+Q_ = b+Z + b_Z
and
b'Z'= P_T + RP+ Take all derivatives as being evaluated at P.
I
.~
Estimating the Eddy Coefficients 163
z
+ ~x
I I I
~~5x···~
Fig. 273. Proudman's method for estimating Kv .• from three isohalines.
At P the salinity along the tangent is not changing, so we may write approximately
~ _;_ as ~ + as~,  0 os  ax ox az u Z 
(2349)
/1:0 the second order, salinity changes along Q+PQ_ are approximately
I ~_ . as ~ I azs( ~ )2
"2 os = Tz o iz + "2 Ui2 u+z
and
I ~_ . as( ~) I a2s( ~ )2 2 os = Tz u_Z +"2 az2 u_Z
Adding,
If we accept that b+Z is about equal to b..:Z, then
164 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical fluid Dynamics
and we see that
as/az _ (JZ/2)2 awaz2  ;Lz  l5+z
Combining (2346), (2349), and (2350) gives
Ky" _ I J'z (JZ)2
ii  4 l5+z  l5_z rx
(2350)
(2351)
This construction breaks down in the case of point P corresponding to a maximum or minimum of the vertical salinity profile since one of the points, Q+ or Q_, does not exist. A new construction is made with line Q+PQ_ again vertical but with points Q+ and Q_ located on the same isohaline (Figure 274). As before, Jx represents the horizontal distance P .P +> J +z the vertical distance Q+P, J_z the vertical distance PQ_, and & the sum
(J+z + o_z). Evaluating all derivatives at P yields /
. . as ~ ,IS = Txux
and
z
Fig. 274. Proudman's method for estimating Ky •• from three isohalines with a low salinity tongue in the vertical section.
(2352)
(2353)
I
Estimating the Eddy Coefficients 165
approximately. These last two equations give two slightly different approximations for ±Js, since J+z and J_z are in general different. Taking an
intermedial~ approximation,
( ( { ( ( (
( {
( ( , (
I (
( ( (
I ( (
( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (
~_,a2S(Oz)2 os Tz2 2
and substituting it and (2352) in (2346), we get Kv, _, I (.5Z)2 ii 4Jx
(2354)
(3355)
Estimating the Eddy Diffusivity for the Horizontal Exchange of Salt
Cases of stationary lateral mixing can be handled in a manner simiiar to that of the stationary vertical mixing discussed in the preceding section. The coordinate system can be oriented such that the mean current, designated as u, is in the direction of the x axis and the assumption made that the only mixing that need be taken into account is horizontal and transverse to the
current. Thus, (2332) reduces to
ii as _ j__ (K as) (2356)
ax  ay H.I ay
where for simplicity KH" is used for the horizontal kinematic eddy diffusion coefficient for saIt rather than the previous K,(H). Equation (2356) may be
written as
ii as _ K a2s aKH., as
ax  H" ay2 + ay ay
Assuming that consideration be restricted to situation' KH"
is constant (aKH.,/ay = 0) or where the salinity along .1 i, ,,,l'V':"': to
the current is either a maximum or a minimum (as/ay = U), this result
reduces to
(2357)
and the methods discussed following (2346) may be utilized by merely replacing z with y. For example, Proudman (1953) applied the graphical technique typified by (2355) to the vertices of the mean isohalines of the Irish Sea, it being known that the salinity there is practically independent
of depth. Writing (2355) as
(2358)
he obtained, after the substitution of values of Jy and Jx scaled directly from a he eontal isohaline chart, values of KH• ,Iii ranging from 2.1 x 105 ern to 9.6 X 05 cm. Taking an average value of 5 x 105 ern and with
(
166
Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
"
(

(
(
( i
'(
'~
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
'(
(
( u = 0.5 cm/sec, Proud man obtained an estimated value of 2.5 x 105 cm2/sec for KH.,·
Estimating the Eddy Diffusivity from TemperatureSalinity Diagrams
Jacobsen (1927) suggested a method for using temperaturesalinity (TS) diagrams in the calculation of eddy diffusion coefficients for the case of variable vertical mixing in the absence of a current. Proudman (1953) details three additional problems to which the same approach may be applied. It should be apparent from the previous sections that similar techniques could be employed using temperature data (in the absence of appreciable radiation) to estimate the eddy conductivity coefficient, KT, as was described in using salinity data to estimate the eddy diffusion coefficient of salt. It is to be expected that the conductivity coefficient as determined from the temperature distribution will be, in general, different numerically from the salt diffusion coefficients as determined from the salinity distribution, even though the turbulence is the same. This is true since the eddy coefficients depend, not only upon the turbulence, but also upon the distribution of that which is being diffused. In certain specially simple circumstances it may be assumed that the mechanism for mixing is the same for both salinity and temperature, that the eddy coefficients depend only upon turbulence, and that K, and KT are therefore equal. Four of these simple cases have been examined by Jacobsen and Proudman.
Let us then assume that the coefficients of eddy diffusion are the same when determined from the salinity as when determined from the temperature. As a consequence, they will be the same when determined from any linear combination of sand f. Let these coefficients be designated as
Kv., = KV,T == Kv
'( ; (
(
'\
.( ,
" \
/( f
r{ {
~I
"l .' \
i
and
KH" = KH,T == KH
For a maximum or minimum in the TS diagram, four cases can be considered
simultaneously, They are: '
I. Stationary vertical mixing in the presence of a horizontal current (i.e., horizontal advection is balanced by vertical diffusion), for which 'the fundarncutal differential equations are, from (2332) and (2336),
 as a (K as)
u ax = Tz vTz
(2359a)
and
 si a ( a1\ u 'J.~ = az «; az)
(2359b)
I
(
I
~.
tSllllJdLJO£j LI/I,;, .... UUj __.,
2. Stationary lateral mixing in the presence of a horizontal current (horizontal advection balanced by horizontal diffusion), for which the
fundamental equations are
(2360a)
and
(2360b)
3 Variable vertical mixing in the absence of a current (local rate of change is due to vertical diffusion), for which the fundamental equations are
as _ ~(K as) (236/a)
at  az vaz
and
(2361b)
4. Variable laterial mixing in the absence of a current (local rate of change is due to horizontal diffusion), for which the fundamental equations
are
as _ a (K as)
at  Fy Hay
(2362a)
and
st _ !.(K af)
at  ay Hay
For each of these cases we require two TS curves:
a. For case I, vertical TS diagrams through two stations, say A and
/B, a distance Jx apart and such that the horizontal line AB connecting them
is parallel to the mean current ii (see Figure 275, case I). ,
b. For case 2, horizontal TS diagrams at the same depth a distance Jx
apart, both transverse to the mean current ii,'Jnd passing through points A
and B (see Figure 275, case 2). ",' ,
c. For case 3, at the same location, vertical TS diagrams at two dif
ferent times, say tA and tB, differing by a time 'interval Jt (see Figure 275,
case 3),
d. For case 4, at the same location, horizontal TS diagrams. at two
different times, tA and tB, differing by a time interval Jt (see Figure 275,
case 4).
(2362b)
The points of the TS diagrams correspond to points in the sea, and in cases 3 and 4, at one of two different times. For example, Figure 276 shows the TS plots for the two stations, A and B, and point P corresponds to a
168
Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamif~
Station B
Station A
Vu vStatiolT B
I =1
I I
I I
I I
K flxl
I I
z
y
I I fflx\
I I
1 I
I u I
1 I
I 1
I 1
TsproLr T~file for
Station A Station B
along this line along this line
TSprofile through Station A at a depthz=zl
TSprofile through Station B at a depth z = zl
(a) Time fixed
(b) Time fixed
y
z
, 1
I 1
1 1
1 I
1 lit___...,
1 I
1 I
: I
i I
1
I 1
I 1
}...lil~
1 1
I I
I 1
I 1
1 I
J I",
TSprofile in the TSprofile in the
horizontal at horizontal at
time I = IA time I = 18
TSproflle in the vertical at time 1= IA
TSprofile in the vertical at time 1=18
(c)
(d)
Fig. 275. Data required to obtain estimates of eddy dilfusivities from IS diagrams.
specific depth at station A. Incase 4, the point Q corresponds, on the other hand, to a specific point on the line in the sea at time t = l s
Assume that we want to find the diffusion coefficient at point P for
case I. With the aid of Figure 277 we define a new coordinate F such that the Faxis is normal to point Q and goes through point P. The F distance between P and Q is designated of. A line tangent to the B curve at point Q (perpendicular to the Faxil intersects the A curve at points Q+ and Q. In case 1 (or case 3) let Oz dr ,l(te the difference in depths between the points
/'
in the sea corresponding to Q + and Q _. (In cases 3 and 4, let 0 y denote ~ the distance along the line in the sea between the points corresponding to Q. and Q_.) Now the F coordinate of any point R(s, t) on the Faxis is
F = FI + F2 (2363)
I
Estimating the Eddy Coetticierus
)/,%
\
(TS)A(1'5)s,
Fig. 276. Two TS diagrams and the F, z or F, ,v coordinate system.
F
y, z
\
IR(S.1')
1 1
\;11
\ I
\ I
\ I
\ 1
\\
(so,'fo)~~~~ s
Fig. 277. F coordinate of any point R on tne Faxis.
lwhere
FI == (t  to) sin (J, Fl = (S  so) cos (J,
Multiplying (2359a) by cos (J" (2359b) by sin (J" and adding,
_ (as at.) a [K (as at,)]
u ax cos (J, + Tx sm (J, = az y az cos (J, 1 ejz Sill (J,
169
(2364)
( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (
. C
( ( (
i(
( ( ( ( ( ( ( (
C
(2365)
170 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
The term in parentheses on the left side, from (2363) and (2364), is equal to aF/ox; the term in parentheses on the right side is equal to aF/oz. Thus,
 aF 0 ( aF\ u ax = Uz KJ'TzJ
or
,
(2366~
Since the z axis and the Faxis are orthogonal, of/az = 0, and (2366) reduces to
_  of/ox K;  u a2F/az2
(2367)1
Proceeding in a manner similar to that used to establish (2355) and with all! derivatives referring to point P, .
JF= of Jx ax
(2368)
and
.( (
( j
I { I
{ I
( I
. ~ I
.I: F . .l. 02F(_.I: )2
o : 2 az2 U_Z
Jz =' J+z + J_z Taking J+z as approximately equal to J_z,
(~) 2 • :![(J+Z)2 + (J_Z)2]
and since JJ' is equal to J_F,
2JF :_ JJ + J_F . _l~(JzF
4 uz2 .
Substituting (2368) and (2369) into (2367) yields I _(JZ)2
x; = gU Tx
(2369)
(2370)
(
J
_(
\.
.\ I l
for else I. Equation (2370) allows us to make an estimate of K from a knowledge of the average horizontal velocity between the two stations, the horivontul distance between the two stations, and the difference in depth between the two points Q+ and Q_ determined from the pair ofTS diagrams as in Figure 2,7(,.
If the same analysis is carried out for the remaining three cases, we
would obtain: for case 2,
Elementary Examples of the Application of Eddy Coefficients 171
(2371)
for case 3,
(2372)
and for case 4,
(2373)
236 Elementary Examples of the Application of Eddy Coefficients
Lateral and Vertical Heat Conduction for a Stationary Temperature Distribution in an Ocean at Rest
Neumann and Pierson (1966) give an excellent discussion of Sverdrup'S (1939) example of the elementary application of eddy coefficients to a problem involving the gross features of the temperature distribution in the ocean. Consider a meridional crosS section extendin; {rom the North Pole to the South Pole of an ideal ocean covering the entire earth. Assuming that the ocean is at rest everywhere and that no changes occur in the zonal (x) direction, stationary temperature conditions are possible if, from the conservation
of heat equation (2336),
/
o ( of) 0 ( of\
oy KH,T oy + Uz KV.T oz) = 0
where KH,T' and KV,T are the horizontal and vertical eddy conductivity
.coefficients, as before. Equation (2374) merely states that under the assumed conditions the meridional thermal diffusion (or heat conduction) balances the vertical thermal diffusion. Taking the two conductivities as constant, we obtain the defining ditTerential equation
02f 02f
KH,T oy2 + KV,T OZ2 = 0 (2375)
(2374)
Even though our ideal ocean was assumed to be at rest in relation to largescale average flows (u ,, v . '; iv .C 0), the eddy conductivity coefficients are assigned values of the same order of magnitude as are presumed to hold in the actual ocean. For boundary conditions, Neumann and Pierson wrote
that
at z = 0
(2376)
172
Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
where ±b is the meridional distance between the equator at y = 0 and either pole, y = ±b, z = 0 is the sea surface, and T'; is the temperature at either pole taken as constant with depth. Equation (2376) is in agreement with the general situation wherein the absorption of solar radiation by the surface layers of the ocean results in a heat gain in equatorial regions and a heat loss in the polar regions. No general solution of this boundary value problem was attempted by Sverdrup. Clearly, it is not fully posed, since only three boundary conditions (the temperature along the sea surface and along the two verticals at the poles) are specified, whereas four are in fact required (the fourth being the temperature distribution along the bottom). However, direct substitution readily verifies that a solution of (2375) is
T(y z) = T + T cosh a(z + D) . ny
, p 0 cosh aD cos 2b
(2377)
where z =  D is the bottom and
_ n =~~
a = 2b"j KH,TI KV,T
Notice that for this very simplified model, the stationary temperature distribution along a meridional section depends not upon the individual values of KH,T and KV,T but rather upon their ratio. Neumann and Pierson took this ratio as KH,T/KV,T = 107 and, with b = 10,000 km, arrived at a value of a = 0.497 kml. Figure 278 is the computed temperature section for an ocean of 6000 m depth when the temperatures were taken as To = 25°C and T'; = O°c. The solution is symmetrical about the equator.
Neumann and Pierson point out that the distribution arrived at shows similarities with some important observed facts. In both model and real ocean: (I) strong vertical temperature gradients develop in the upper levels of the ocean in tropical regions with the gradients decreasing in the lower levels, and (2) at any depth the vertical temperature gradient decreases
90° 80° 70° ',0' 50° 40° 30°
0
\
1 ,
"
"
~ 2 ,
,
,
,
..c:: 3 ,
0. ,
., ,
0 4 ,
,
5 "
0.5°
6 0° 25° 15°
§§~~IO°
Fig,278. Meridional temperature distribution due to eddy heat conductions in an idealized, motionless ocean. From Neumann and Pierson, Principles 0/ Physical Oceanography, PrenticeHall, Inc., 1966, p. 405. Reprinted by permission.
/'
5° 4°
3°
173
Elementary Examples of the Application of Eddy Coefficients
(
poleward with the fluid approaching homothermous conditions at higher latitudes. At any rate, the important result of Sverdrup's crude model is that it illustrates how some major stationary features of the gross temperature distribution of the ocean can be explained without recourse to fluid advectionthat these features can be explained solely as the result of eddy heat
conduction resulting from mixing.
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
C
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
t_ l Salinity Tongue in an Ocean at Rest
In a manner analogous to the previous example, Sverdrup et al. (1942) and Defant (1961) considered the case of an ocean at rest with no advection but with horizontal and vertical salt diffusion (twodimensional). A stationary salinity distribution is possible if, from the conservation of salt
equation (2332),
(2378)
where tl'~ horizontal diffusion has been assumed to be in the x direction only and .~ H,I and Kv" are the saline eddy diffusion coefficients. Taking the
coefficients as constanrs,
(2379)
At x = 0, let the boundary condition for the salt distribution in the vertical be
(238U)
_ A nz S = So + tss cos 2h
where 2h is the thickness of the layer of fluid having an upper boundary at z = +h and a lower boundary at z = h. Take the boundary conditions at
these upper and lower boundaries to be
s == constant = So
at z = :Lh
(2381)
A solution for this boundary value problem is
_ + A ox nz S = Sc use cos 2h
(2382)
where now
(2383)
Again the salinity distribution depends upon the ratio of the diffusion coefficients and not on their individual values. Sverdrup, taking KH../Kv" = 9 X 107 and h = 300 m, obtained the distribution shown in Figure 279.
Neumann and Pierson (1966) point out that this example shows that tonguelike distributions of salinity (or, for that matter, any conservative property) may be explained on the basis of diffusion effects alone, that no horizontal advection is required. It is a natural temptation for the oceano
(
Along with others, Defant (1929) and Thorade (193 I) examined the distribution of a conservative property, S, for several simple cases when both advection and diffusion occur. Assume again that the distribution of the property is stationary, that mixing occurs only in the vertical, and that the x axis of our coordinate system points in the direction of a current having a velocity ii so that v ,= w = O. Writing a conservation equation similar to (2332) or (2336) and simplifying for these conditions, we obtain that
o as _ a (K as)
ax  az v,s az
174 Basic Concepts and Principles in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
{ ( ( ( (
'( (
Fig. 279. Tonguelike distribution of salinity in a vertical section due to diffusion alone with boundary conditions of (2380) and (2381). From Sverdrup, Johnson, and Fleming, The Oceans, PrenticeHall, Inc., 1942, 1970, p. 504. Reprinted by permission.
grapher to attribute such tongues to a current, with the resulting advection of relatively high or low salinity water into another body of water. !
TongueLike Distributions of Salinity Resulting from Diffusion and Advection
(2384)
(horizontal advection is balanced by vertical diffusion), where Kv•s is the vertical eddy diffusion coefficient of the particular property. Taking Kv.s as constant, (2384) becomes
.ss a2s
"s: = Kv,s ax2 (2385)
First, take the boundary conditions such that the current has a uniform velocity ii c. 110 both in the horizontal and vertical between the upper and lower boundaries at z = ±h. Assume that the distribution of S at x = 0 is given by
 ttz
S == So cos 2h (2386)
so that S 0 at the boundaries z ±h. A solution to (2385) is then
I
(,Z
. ,
S S rX n z
= oe cos 2h
(2387)
where
 n? Kv•s (2388)
r == 4!1oh2 
Figure 2!1O(a) illustrates the resulting tonguelike distribution of S.
.c + II
..
llffffftfl fffffliffl
/'
11111ltttttlltfllffll
.c I
II ..
175
~
.0;: .0;:
+ I
:tttltfff fffttttt.~
85 0 8 58
0
N 0 N
5 5
...: * * ~ ~ ...:
0 0 0
N N 0
0
V'l 8
o v
8
o N
" __ o ...... ..L.LJu.L..L....JL..:h...,.l.l..1..LL1u.J.1J 0
o
8
176
o o o
""
,...._
e
,/
Elementary Examples of the Application of Eddy Coefficients 177
Suppose that the current, instead of being constanl and uniform, was represented by the equation
so that u = Uo at z = 0 and u = 0 at z = ±h. The resulting distribution of S is then identical in form [see Figure 280(b)] to that shown in Figure 280(a);
that is, ano. n~r tonguelike distribution results.
Cleari_, then, the appearance of the distribution of the property will
be identical in form for the case represented by (2382) (no current with twodimensional diffusion in the horizontal and vertical) or for the cases of uniform flow with vertical diffusion, as given by (2382), or with a symmetric current having an axis of maximum velocity; in all instances tonguelike distributions result and no definite conclusions can be drawn as to the
currents.
( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (
C
(
( (
( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (
_ 'ltZ U == Uo cos 2h
(2389)
\ (
l
{
(
(
(
(
( ;
I,
'(
(
,~, .... P
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
'\ ~:.
THREE
WindDriven Ocean Circulation
31 Introduction
It is now our intention first to examine in detail three theoretical investigations JSverdrup (1947), Stommel (1948), and Munk (1950)] that are concerned with only one particular aspect of the problem of the general circulation of the oceans: the relation of the permanent features of the horizontal circulation patterns to the distribution of mean atmospheric winds. These linear studies act as an introduction to the topic of bounded flow in a rotating fluid of enormous Reynolds number (the number resulting from dividing the terms involving inertial accelerations or forces by terms involving the viscous accelerations or forces). The practical applicat.on of these idealized mathematical studies to the circulation of real oceans lies in the fact that they act as building blocks to an understanding of mort' modern theories of dynamic oceanography involving nonlinear approaches aud eventually, to attempts to combine winddriven and thermohaline components in one model. They cannot be considered as ends within themselves, only as steps along a path whose end has not yet been reached.
Sverdrup (1947) demonstrates how an almost geostrophic flow over
179
180
WindDriven Ocean Circulation
the major part of the oceans can be balanced locally by the stress imposed by the wind, but that such a flow cannot describe a closed circulation pattern. Stommel (1948) shows that the latitudinal variation of the vertical component of the earth's rotation vector is essential to complete the flow through a reproduction of the western boundary currents of the oceans, local regions of high relative vorticity. Munk (1950) succeeds in explaining many of the major, aswell as some of the minor, details of the general circulation through the use of the more realistic wi rd stress data of Reid (1948) and by the inclusion of lateral (horizontal) [rdional force of a Newtonian form.
Finally, in the last section of this chapter we look at, qualitatively,
the effects that may be expected from an inclusion of the inertial terms of
the equations of motion.'
Before continuing, it is well to review the properties of geostrophic
and Ekman wind drift currents (Section 231):
Geostrophic currents: a balance between the pressure gradient force
and the Coriolis force, unaccelerated, the pressure force being due to the surface slope (barotrophic component) and the internal mass distribution/' (baroclinic component), barotropic (slope) current plus baroclinic (relative)
current producing the total geostrophic current; ,/
Ekman winddrift currents: a balance between frictional forces and
the Coriolis force, unaccelerated, depth of frictional influence typically 20 to 100 m, in the Northern Hemisphere the current vector between surface and deeper layers turns continuously clockwise while its magnitude decreases exponentially, net mass transport 900 to the right of the wind.
32 Sverdrup's Study of WindDriven Currents in a Baroclinic Ocean
We begin with the equations of motion in the form au + u au + v all + w au  {v
at ax ay az'
=  ~ ~~ + ~ [:x ( AH ~~) + 1Y ( AH ~;) + %z ( Av ~~) ]
av, au au aI'
at + 11 ax + v ay + II' az + fu
= _ _J_ ap + _!_[_g___ (A aV) + _g___ (A aV) + i_ (A aV)]
p ay p ax H ax ay Hay az vaz
(2326)
(2327)
and
ap
az = pg
(2217)
, ,
Sverdrup's Study of WindDriven Currents in ;j nerocuruc LiL'"all
where the overbars have been dropped for convenience and the hyJrostatic approximation has been adopted in the vertical. Assume that:
( ( ( ( ( (
i( I (
( ( ( ( ( (
( ( (
d (
( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (
;(
I. The flow is stationary,
2. The nonlinear terms are small SO that the field accelerations are given by
au au au 0
u ax + v dy + W az =
av + av + av 0
U3':': V.,,: wa =
ox oy z
Pragmatically, we are stating that the nonlinear terms are difficult to deal with mathematically.
3. Lateral friction is negligible in that the derivatives in the horizontal are much smaller than those in the vertical,
What we have said is that we require some friction, but that lateral friction is not significant as compared to vertical friction.
With these simplifications, (2326) and (2327) reduce to
ap a ( aU)
ax = pfv + az Avaz
(31)
and
ap a ( aV)
ay = =pfu + az AvdZ
(32)
I~ these equations a balance between the lefthand term and the first term to the right of the equal sign represents geostrophic flow, while the two righthand tern' represent Ekman wind drift. Physically, the equations merely assert the t.,e horizontal pressure gradient is balanced by the Coriolis force and the frictional stress exerted on horizontal surfuces
Note that (31) and (32) involve horizontal d~nVal!\'es or only the
first order, and consequently place severe restrictiollS upon possible lateral boundary conditions. We cannot expect to satisfy more than two, one on x and one on y. Our model, then, will be that of a corner of the ocean. On the other hand, these equations are of second order in the vertical derivatives, and boundary conditions at the ocean surface and bottom can be imposed.
182
WindDriven Ocean Circulation
The next step is to integrate these equations in the vertical, thus making it possible to deal with the general case of a baroclinic ocean without a detailed specification of the vertical density distribution. Sverdrup assumed that at some moderate depth in the ocean, the horizontal pressure gradient vanished, that the barotopic and barocIinic pressure gradients balance each other, and that, therefore, the horizontal velocity goes to zero well before the bottom. The bottom frictional stress is thus zero and the ocean does not "know" anything about the seafloor topography. When vertically integrating, this permits a depth z = d to be taken such that ul,_d and vl._d are zero while d is kept small enough that the flow is uninfluenced by the bottom topography_ Now define a new function P:
ap j'o a ap fO a
a == aP dz a = aP dz
x d X Y d Y
( (
( ( ( ( '"(
(33):
Since the horizontal velocity vanishes at, and below, the depth z = d, the integrals
,5., == fO pu dz d
(34)
represent the components of the net mass transport by the currents.i.As horizontal boundary conditions, we specify that the lateral stress components
at the surface, z =~ 0, and at the depth, z = d, are •
Av au I = 'f Av au I = 0
az ,0 x az ,d
A avl  0
v"dz ,_d 
(
,
(
( i
{
,1 I
i I
{
,(
,{
cl
\
,{
A
l (35)
Av~1 ='Cy
oz .1' .. 0
where r; and 'Cy are the x and y components of the wind stress. Integrating (31) and (32) from z = d up to z = 0 and introducing (33), (34), and
(35) yields
(36a)
(36b)
the terms of which are quite familiar. Omitting the stress components, these equations relate the mass transport to the density distribution; or, assuming homogeneous water in hydrostatic equilibirum (ap/ax =ap/ay = 0), they give the mass transport by pure winddriven currents as determined by
Fk ma n.
I f equations (36) are crossdifferentiated and subtracted, thep.essure
related terms are eliminated and a vorticity tendency equation results. Thus,
from (36a).
_alP = af s + faSy .i, ~'Cx ax ay ay y ay' ay
Sverdrup's Study of WindDriven Currents in a Baroclinic Ocean 183
and, from (36b),
azp _ fas% + a'Cy
"JXTy   (Ix ax
since aflax = 0 because of the choice of our coordinate system (x coordinate to the east, y coordinate to the north), Subtracting the second equation from
the first, we obtain
af s + f(asx + asy) + (a'C~ _ a'Cy) = 0 ~ y h ~ ~ h
(37)
Physically, the first term accounts for changes in vorticity due to meridional flow, the second accounts for changes in vorticity from stretching due to the horizontal divergence of the mass transport, and the third accounts for the
vorticity added by the wind torque,
Now for steadystate conditions there can be no net convergence
or divergence of mass without flow over a variable depth; that is,
as% + asy  0 (Ix Ty
for a/at = 0 and d = constant. Mathematically, this can be shown by starting with the continuity equation
(38)
~ + V. pV = f)
which for steadystate conditions reduces to
apu + apv + apw == 0 Tx Ty az
Integrating in the vertical from z = d up to z = 0,
a fa a fa fa a
ax pu dz + T pv dz + :: dz = 0
d Y d d
and applying the definitions of (34),
asx + asy + pw 1'0 = 0
ax ay ,_d
Taking w 1,0 = W I,d = 0, this result, called the vertically integrated form of the continuity equation for steadystate conditions, reduces to (38).;
I n view of this, (37) becomes
af s + (a'C~ _ a'Cy) = 0
ay y ay ax
(39)
which is frequently referred to as Sverdrup's curl equation from the fact that _(a'Cx _ a'Cy) = curl 1:
ay ax z
: .. \
184 WindDriven Ocean ",reu/ation
where curl, is the z component of the curl operation. Thus, (39) is written alternatively as
(310)
and expresses a balance between the planetary vorticity due to motion in the meridional direction and the wind stress curl. Physically, since steady state is specified and since no frictional mechanism is provided to dissipate vorticity, water flowing to the north, for example, will acquire negative relative vorticity due to an increase of planetary vorticity to the north in the absence of any outside source of relative vorticity. Thus, it is apparent that no change in relative vorticity can occur at a point if we continually advect in water from the south, add positive relative vorticity from the wind stress, and continuously advect it out to the north.
For simplicity, assume that all the winds are zonal (i.e., ry = 0).
From (310),
s = _drx/ay
y df jd y
where aflay has been replaced by dfldy, From Figure 31, dy = R. dO
where R. is the radius of the earth, and since / == 20 sin 0,
df df dO 20 cos 0
dy = dO dy = R.
Thus, (31 I) finally becomes
S __ arx ( R. )
» :" Oy 20 cos 0
(311)
(312)
(313)
As an aside, note that if the zonal winds do not vary in the northsouth direction, arx/ay = 0 and Sy= 0; that is, there is no net meridional mass transport; the Ekman transport is balanced by the geostrophic transport.
Sx' the net mass transport in the x direction, in the case of purely
(1
z
Fig. 31. Variation of the Coriolis parameter with latitude.
./
Sverdrup's studv of WindDriven Currents in a Baroc/inic Ocean 185
zonal winds is found from substituting (313) in the integrated continuity equation, (38),
or
(314)
This result can satisfy boundary conditions at only one meridional boundary. Sverdrup introduced the kinematic condition that II at the eastern boundary is zero, U Ixo = 0, and therefore Sx Ixo = O. Integrating (314) from x ~~ L to x = 0 (Figure 32) yields
fe ss, _ 1 [ fO aZrx fa arx J
L ax dx  2U cos 0 R. L ayZ dx + tan 0 L ay dx
and then
1 [R fO aZrx dx + tan 0 fa drx dXJ
20 cosO • J. ayz' L ay
(315)
Jndicatin: average values by use of the overbar, (315) can be approximated as
I S ( L) h.x fR dZr x + t 0 ar x]
x x = _ = 20 cos oL • ayl an ay
(316)
where S; is the zonal component of the net mass transport through a column of depth d and of unit width at a point with coordinate x = Land latitude 0; it has units of [mass]/([time][length]). It is apparent that S; is related to the average value of the gradient and the curvature of the zonal wind stress in
y (north)
Integrate
along here
Eastern boundary of ocean
~ax+
_~ l" x (east)
x=L
x=O
Fig. 32. Integration for the determination of net zonal mass transport, s..
\'
l' •
186
WindDriven Ocean Circulation
.( ( ( ( .(
( .( r( {
{
the northsouth direction between the point in question and the west coast. Sverdrup (1947) and Reid (1948) successfully applied these results in a study of the equatorial currents of the eastern Pacific Ocean. Comparison was made between transports determined using Sverdrup's theoretical approach and those calculated from actual oceanographic data obtained by the Carnegie in 19281929 and by the Bushnell in 1939. Both Sverdrup and Reid conclude, that the predominant features of the distribution of mass and of mass; transport can be accounted for semiquantitatively in terms of the wind stress; alone. The details of the study are not within our present interest. '
Reid points out that countercurrents (a current flowing adjacent to the main current but in the opposite direction) have long been recognized from ships' records in each of the equatorial oceans. Stockman (1945) has' shown that a sufficient lateral variation in the velocity of a wind of constant, direction can give rise to a countercurrent directed opposite to the prevailing; wind. This situation is readily illustrated by a simple qualitative application' of (316). Assume that the wind is zonal and constant at any latitude and that. the profile is sinusoidal, as shown on the left of Figure 33. From a consideration of the "sign" of ar)ay or a2r)ay2 at the latitudes for which one of them is zero, it is possible to obtain the "sign" of the eastwest transport, Sx, qualitatively from (316). For example, along the latitude e, correspondingIo Y .1'" we see that ar)ay < 0 and a2'r.,jay2 = O. From (316), S,:;» 0 or the net zonal mass transport will be to the east. If this type of reasoning is repeated along the wind profile curve, S; will appear schematically, as shown to the right in Figure 33. We see here then that the sinusoidal wind stress, always directed to the west, results in a region where the transport is directed to the cast; that is, a countercurrent results.
Stommel (1957) has given a clear description of a very simple Sverdruptype system: that of a homogeneous ocean, bounded by an eastern coast, and acted upon by a zonal wind stress. Figure 34 illustrates the resulting solution. The winds, represented by the heavy, shaded arrows above the sea surface, arc zonal and exert a stress similar to the distribution of the Northern Hemisphere westerlies and trade winds over the actual ocean. The open arrows in the thin upper layer of frictional influence indicate horizontal transport in the Ekman layer (pure wind drift) and are everywhere proportional to and to the right of the wind. Between the maximum westerlies and the maximum trade winds there exists a downward motion of water resulting from a convergence of currents in the Ekman layer. To the north of the maximum westerlies and the south of the maximum trade winds, the vertical motion is upward, owing to the divergence imposed by the wind drift. From the bottom of the Ekman layer to the bottom of the ocean the vertical velocity component diminishes linearly to zero. At the latitudes of the maximum winds this vertical velocity is zero, A steadystate geostrophic current system can be constructed such (hat it matches by its field of divergence and convergence,
A .(
( ( (
(
( I
(
J (
( _( (
;; ~~I
':;",
{
t
0
V y
Sverdrup's Study of WindDriven Currents in a BaroC/inic Ocean 187
I
sl)
y (north)
o /\
aT,,/ay > 0
I a1T,,/ayl ·0
'" /
'" I
I aT,,/ay = 0
0 I a1T,,/ayl > 0
/\ \
~"I N \
N '"
'" '" \ aT,,/ay < 0
y =y
'" '\"\ a2T,,/ay2 '" 0
\
\
Vk,,/ay '" 0
0 Ja2T,,/ay2 <0 x (ea
V I
~"I N
N '" /
'" '"
/ aT,,/ay > 0
'" / a2T,,/ay2 '" 0
I
I aT,,/ay '" 0
0 \ a2T,,/ay2>0
/\
"'"1 N \
.... '" \
'" '" ~ aT,,/ay <0
a2T,,/ay2 '" 0 ... _ " c  "
g t::
Fig. 33. A countercurrent resulting from a lateral variation of the wind stress.
because of the meridional variation of the Coriolis parameter, the field of convergence and divergence imposed by the Ekman layer, and that will, satisfy the eastern coastal boundary condition. Thus, at midlatitudes (between the westerlies and the trades), the sea surface sloping downward to the east results in a geostrophic flow to the south; whereas north of the weste~lies and south of the trades, the sea surface sloping up to the east results III a geostrophic flow to the north. The northsouth slope of the sea surface (do.wn to the north and to the south of midlatitudes) resulting from the mounding
o
/\
""I '" '"
o V
Wind stress profile
(a)
Ocean surface at eastern boundary
Wind drift convergence Trade winds
o 8 0
\i ,~s \ rlies
® ,,;C¢ ®
Wind drift divergence
r0
I I •
rr1
h0_J
\
s
" Geostrophic convergence
Geostrophic current due to downward slope of sea surface to the north
Geostrophic divergence Geostrophic current due to downward slope of sea surface to the east
(b)
Fig. 34. Sverdruptype solution in a homogeneous ocean. Stommel, 1957, from Neumann, Ocean Currents, Elsevier Publishing Co., 1968, p. 243.
188
/
Westward Intensification of WindDriven Ocean Currents 189
due to winddrift convergence and divergence, produces an eastward current along the latitude of maximum westerlies and a westward current along the latitude of maximum trades. Note that the northsouth sea surface slope is zero at the eastern coastal boundary. so that the eastwest geostrophic current at the boundary is zero, as required by the boundary condition. In Figure 34(a) the curved lines with the arrows on them are isobars; the arrowheads indicate the direction of the geostrophic flow (independent of depth).
33 Wes~:",ard Intensification of WindDriven Ocean Currents
In the last section we saw that Sverdrup investigated winddriven circulation in a central to eastern ocean region. The fluid was taken to be baroc1inic and a solution was obtained for the mass transports. The basic physics of this model are such that it balances the local vorticity added by the wind the northsouth transport of mass in the presence of a variable Coriolis parameter. We also noted several important deficiencies in this model, speci
fically:
I. Limited boundary conditions (the ocean could not be closed).
2. Intense horizontal gradients of flow cannot be represented, since all quantities involving such derivatives (i.e., au/ax, au/ay, etc.) were dropped on the way to obtaining the differential equations
(31) and (32).
"Now in viewing the general oceanic winddriven circulation, one of the most striking features is the intensification of currents near the western borders. The Gulf Stream, the Kuroshio, and the Agulhas Current are examples. The physical reason for this bias in the circulation pattern remained obscure up until the recognition by Stornmel (1948) that local regions of high relative vorticity must be present to complete the flow. It is now our intent to achieve an understanding of the physical mechanism behind western boundary currents through paralleling Stommel's investigation.
To physically represent the phenomenon of westward intew,ilication,
it will clearly be required to introduce at least one additional physical process into the basic equations of Sverdrup; it seems reasonable that additional friction be tried. Bottom friction is approximately zero, since a level of no motion above the topography of the bottom was assumed. The other possible type of friction is lateral friction, or drag, against the sides of the ocean. But before examining the analytic details, let us look at the problem qualitatively
from the viewpoint of vorticity.
Suppose that we have the wind profile as shown in Figure 35. This
distribution will cause the ocean to rotate clockwise, thereby producing
( ( { ( ( ( (
( _." (
(
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