531 views

Uploaded by api-299265916

- ANUBHA
- Measures of Central Tendency
- Hasil Spss Surya Jadi
- Stats Baird
- Statistics Term Paper FINAL
- copy of 16
- Mean, Median, Mode
- 08-MATH StatisticProject 18BelleS
- Handouts in Psy102
- Test Scores and School Size
- Design_Example of isolators.pdf
- nov. 8
- detailed lesson plan math 2
- Measures of Central Tendency
- Statistical Tests
- exam1
- Quants Project.docx
- MapleTa Quiz One CVEN2002
- 11. Lampiran Hasil Analisa Statistik
- 137074291.docx

You are on page 1of 12

Let's start off with some raw data (not a grouped frequency) ...

Example: Alex did a survey of how many games each of 20 friends owned,

and got this:

9, 15, 11, 12, 3, 5, 10, 20, 14, 6, 8, 8, 12, 12, 18, 15, 6, 9, 18, 11

To find the Mean, add up all the numbers, then divide by how many numbers there are:

Mean =

=

9+15+11+12+3+5+10+20+14+6+8+8+12+12+18+15+6+9+18+11

20

11.1

To find the Median, place the numbers in value order and find the middle number (or the

mean of the middle two numbers). In this case the mean of the 10th and 11th values:

3, 5, 6, 6, 8, 8, 9, 9, 10, 11, 11, 12, 12, 12, 14, 15, 15, 18, 18, 20:

Median =

11 + 11

2

= 11

To find the Mode, or modal value, place the numbers in value order then count how many of

each number. The Mode is the number which appears most often (there can be more than

one mode):

3, 5, 6, 6, 8, 8, 9, 9, 10, 11, 11, 12, 12, 12, 14, 15, 15, 18, 18, 20:

12 appears three times, more often than the other values, so Mode = 12

Number of

games

1-5

6 - 10

11 - 15

16 - 20

Frequency

2

7

8

3

(It says that 2 of Alex's friends own somewhere between 1 and 5 games, 7 own between 6

and 10 games, etc)

Example: If the only given are:

Number of

games

1-5

6 - 10

11 - 15

16 - 20

Frequency

2

7

8

3

The groups (1-5, 6-10, etc) also called class intervals, are of width 5

The midpoints are halfway between the lower and upper class boundaries

So, how does this work?

Think about Alex's 7 friends who are in the group 6 - 10: all we know is that they each have

between 6 and 10 games:

But it is more likely that there is a spread of numbers: some have 6, some have 7, and

so on

So we take an average: we assume that all seven of them have 8 games (8 is the average

of 6 and 10), which is the midpoint of the group.

So, we could make the table in a different way:

Midpoint

3

8

13

18

Frequency

2

7

8

3

Now we think "2 people have 3 games, 7 people have 8 games, 8 people have 13 games

and 3 people have 18 games", so we imagine the data looks like this:

3, 3, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 13, 13, 13, 13, 13, 13, 13, 13, 18, 18, 18

Now we can add them all up and divide by 20. This is the quick way to do it:

Midpoint Frequency

x

f

3

2

8

7

13

8

18

3

20

Totals:

fx

6

56

104

54

220

Estimated Mean =

220

20

= 11

To estimate the Median, let's look at our data again:

Number of

games

1-5

6 - 10

11 - 15

16 - 20

Frequency

2

7

8

3

The median is the mean of the middle two numbers (the 10th and 11th values) ...

... and they are both in the 11 - 15 group:

But if we need to estimate a single Median value we can use this formula:

Estimated Median = L +

(n/2) cfb

fm

where:

cfb is the cumulative frequency of the groups before the median group

L = 11

n = 20

cfb = 2 + 7 = 9

fm = 8

w=5

(20/2) 9

Estimated Median = 11 +

= 11 + (1/8) x 5

= 11.625

Again, looking at our data:

Number of

games

1-5

6 - 10

11 - 15

16 - 20

Frequency

2

7

8

3

We can easily find the modal group (the group with the highest frequency), which is 11 - 15

But the actual Mode may not even be in that group! Or there may be more than one mode.

Without the raw data we don't really know.

But, we can estimate the Mode using the following formula:

Estimated Mode = L +

fm fm-1

(fm fm-1) + (fm fm+1)

where:

In this example:

L = 11

fm-1 = 7

fm = 8

fm+1 = 3

w=5

Estimated Mode = 11 +

87

(8 7) + (8 3)

= 11 + (1/6) 5

= 11.833...

Our final result is:

Estimated Mean: 11

Estimated Median: 11.625

Estimated Mode: 11.833...

(Compare that with the true Mean, Median and Mode of 11.1, 11 and 12 that we got at the

very start.)

And that is how it is done.

Now let us look at two more special examples, and get some more practice along the way!

Continuous Data

Data can be Discrete or Continuous:

Discrete data can only take certain values, like our previous example (games owned)

Continuous data can take any value (within a range), such as length or weight

Continuous data can be treated in exactly the same way as discrete data, but with one

important difference.

Example: You grew fifty baby carrots using special soil. You dig them up and

measure their lengths (to the nearest mm) and group the results:

Length

(mm)

150 - 154

155 - 159

160 - 164

165 - 169

170 - 174

175 - 179

180 - 184

185 - 189

Frequency

5

2

6

8

9

11

6

3

The clue is "to the nearest mm".

Similarly 159.49 mm is rounded down to 159 mm (and also be placed in 155 - 159).

So lengths from 154.5 up to (but not including) 159.5 get placed in 155 - 159

And so for continuous data "155 - 159" has two types of numbers at the beginning and end:

the lower class boundary of 155 and the upper class boundary of 159

the lower class limit of 154.5 and upper class limit of 159.5

Note that the upper class limit of one class interval is the lower class limit of the next class

interval.

So, how does this affect our calculations?

But the Median and Mode now have L = Lower class limit (rather than Lower class

boundary)

Mean

Length

(mm)

150 - 154

155 - 159

160 - 164

165 - 169

170 - 174

175 - 179

180 - 184

185 - 189

Midpoint

x

152

157

162

167

172

177

182

187

Totals:

Estimated Mean =

Frequency

f

5

2

6

8

9

11

6

3

50

8530

50

fx

760

314

972

1336

1548

1947

1092

561

8530

= 170.6 mm

Median

The Median is the mean of the 25th and the 26th length, so is in the 170 - 174 group:

n = 50

cfb = 5 + 2 + 6 + 8 = 21

fm = 9

w=5

(50/2) 21

9

= 169.5 + 2.22...

= 171.7 mm (to 1 decimal)

Mode

The Modal group is the one with the highest frequency, which is 175 - 179:

fm-1 = 9

fm = 11

fm+1 = 6

w=5

11 9

(11 9) + (11 6)

= 174.5 + 1.42...

= 175.9 mm (to 1 decimal)

Ages

Age is a special case.

When we say "Sarah is 17" she stays "17" up until her eighteenth birthday.

She might be 17 years and 364 days old and still be called "17".

In other words, even though "age" is a continuous variable (time), we treat it as discrete.

Example: The ages of the 112 people who live on a tropical island are grouped

as follows:

Age

Number

0-9

10 - 19

20

21

20 - 29

30 - 39

40 - 49

50 - 59

60 - 69

70 - 79

80 - 89

23

16

11

10

7

3

1

A child in the first group 0 - 9 could be almost 10 years old. So the midpoint for this group

is 5 not 4.5

The midpoints are 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75 and 85

Similarly, in the calculations of Median and Mode, we will use the class boundaries 0, 10, 20

etc

Mean

Age

0-9

10 - 19

20 - 29

30 - 39

40 - 49

50 - 59

60 - 69

70 - 79

80 - 89

Midpoint Number

x

f

5

15

25

35

45

55

65

75

85

Totals:

Estimated Mean =

20

21

23

16

11

10

7

3

1

112

3360

112

fx

100

315

575

560

495

550

455

225

85

3360

= 30

Median

The Median is the mean of the ages of the 56th and the 57th people, so is in the 20 - 29

group:

L = 20 (the lower class boundary of the class interval containing the median)

n = 112

cfb = 20 + 21 = 41

fm = 23

w = 10

Estimated Median = 20 +

(112/2) 41

23

10

= 20 + 6.52...

= 26.5 (to 1 decimal)

Mode

The Modal group is the one with the highest frequency, which is 20 - 29:

fm-1 = 21

fm = 23

fm+1 = 16

w = 10

Estimated Mode = 20 +

23 21

(23 21) + (23 16)

10

= 20 + 2.22...

= 22.2 (to 1 decimal)

Summary

For grouped data, we cannot find the exact Mean, Median and Mode, we can

only give estimates.

Estimated Median = L +

(n/2) cfb

fm

where:

cfb is the cumulative frequency of the groups before the median group

Estimated Mode = L +

fm fm-1

(fm fm-1) + (fm fm+1)

where:

For continuous data use limits (rather than boundaries) for median and mode

- ANUBHAUploaded byguptaanubha
- Measures of Central TendencyUploaded byHelner Taghap
- Hasil Spss Surya JadiUploaded byhaikal1971
- Stats BairdUploaded bykenebook
- Statistics Term Paper FINALUploaded byJamal Hossain Shuvo
- copy of 16Uploaded byapi-240724606
- Mean, Median, ModeUploaded byape21
- 08-MATH StatisticProject 18BelleSUploaded by18BelleS
- Handouts in Psy102Uploaded byGrace Cadag Lamano
- Test Scores and School SizeUploaded byDavid Croushore
- Design_Example of isolators.pdfUploaded byAlexander Gómez Llallahui
- nov. 8Uploaded byRonan
- detailed lesson plan math 2Uploaded byapi-243860050
- Measures of Central TendencyUploaded byTeena Thapar
- Statistical TestsUploaded byAtul Tripathi
- exam1Uploaded byJordan JabbyJoe Koffy
- Quants Project.docxUploaded byMadhur Chopra
- MapleTa Quiz One CVEN2002Uploaded byShean Hee
- 11. Lampiran Hasil Analisa StatistikUploaded byFariza Andriyawan
- 137074291.docxUploaded byhanif
- Uji HomogenUploaded byIrfan Syahroni
- 1Uploaded byDoynitza Leca
- Continuous Probability Distribution.pdfUploaded byDipika Panda
- 9_math_imp_ch14_4 (1)Uploaded bysanjit0907_982377739
- SparkNotes_ GRE_ Data AnalysisUploaded byscribd_sandeep
- stat project part 2 march 2014 chris beck redoUploaded byapi-252059564
- reflectiveUploaded byapi-351776914
- var moodledata temp turnitintooltwo 467911691 pbl logistics projectUploaded byapi-287972143
- OutputUploaded byAdnan Hidayat Prihastomo
- AnalogyUploaded bymgoldiieeee

- 1 asset accountsUploaded byapi-299265916
- 2 liability accountsUploaded byapi-299265916
- reversing entries part 2Uploaded byapi-299265916
- financial ratio analysisUploaded byapi-299265916
- 2 managerial vs financial accountingUploaded byapi-299265916
- 4 accounting principlesUploaded byapi-299265916
- 2 qualitative characteristics of financial informationUploaded byapi-299265916
- 3 income statement examplesUploaded byapi-299265916
- 3 accounting standardsUploaded byapi-299265916
- 3 standards of ethical conduct for management accountantsUploaded byapi-299265916
- 2 income statement formatUploaded byapi-299265916
- 3 stockholders equity accountsUploaded byapi-299265916
- 1 what is managerial accountingUploaded byapi-299265916
- financial tableUploaded byapi-299265916
- 5 expense accountsUploaded byapi-299265916
- 1 introduction to adjusting entriesUploaded byapi-299265916
- 1 how to prepare an income statementUploaded byapi-299265916
- 3 adjusting entry for accrued expensesUploaded byapi-299265916
- 8 adjusted trial balanceUploaded byapi-299265916
- 6 adjusting entry for depreciation expenseUploaded byapi-299265916
- 2 how to prepare a statement of ownerUploaded byapi-299265916
- 3 how to prepare a balance sheetUploaded byapi-299265916
- 8 correcting entriesUploaded byapi-299265916
- 4 adjusting entry for unearned revenueUploaded byapi-299265916
- 5 adjusting entries for prepaid expenseUploaded byapi-299265916
- closing entriesUploaded byapi-299265916
- reversing entries part 1Uploaded byapi-299265916
- post-closing trial balanceUploaded byapi-299265916
- 2 adjusting entry for accrued revenueUploaded byapi-299265916
- 7 adjusting entry for bad debts expenseUploaded byapi-299265916

- Voorhees - 0211.pdfUploaded byelauwit
- 1. Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor With Fuzzy Controller a ReviewUploaded byricardo_bentox6138
- Gastrointestinal Physiology I (1)Uploaded byRaxter Er
- Paper- Ictericia en Perros y GatosUploaded byMandy Arriagada
- False Friends List.docxUploaded byCamila Veilchen Oliveira
- Seismic Analysis and Design of Hospital Building-libreUploaded bypaarth93
- Catalog Locomotive Cooling SolutionsUploaded bysksingh03
- Travel With Krish_Rishap Lava LolegaonUploaded bySumit Ghose
- Stress Analysis on CrankshaftUploaded byChanduReddy
- RFET ANALYSIS.pdfUploaded byAfiq Hashim
- Astral PlaneUploaded byAnonymous OwiutM4l
- Yamaha XVS95EUploaded byJuls Campos
- Chemcad CCTherm Guide.pdfUploaded byPaul Rivas
- Beam Anal FinalUploaded byFeigyl Miro
- Plant as a Bio RobotUploaded byRajesh Kesapragada
- Brother Ck35 User GuideUploaded byservicer
- 245339070-Method-Statement.docxUploaded byAliKaya
- Limiter6 ManualUploaded byMark Kuloba
- IRJET-Performance Analysis of Electric Bike using Battery and SupercapacitorUploaded byIRJET Journal
- 15.1 FundamentalsUploaded byAnonymous GhskOM48D
- 32- Fresh Air Newsletter OCTOBER 2007Uploaded byAaron Edwards
- Weight Watchers Points GuideUploaded byZahra Shikara
- 1de2 Ling 2001 Life.at.the.cell.LevelUploaded byFrancisco
- Error & Truth - MatilalUploaded byAnonymous gJEu5X03
- Lect5 Detachable Fastener Bolt Nut Locking FoundationUploaded byPramodVerma
- Belarus in Figures 2012Uploaded byMarko Simić
- Andrea Lugli Feverfew Mar2010 FinalUploaded byCPP-library
- Husam's Reconstruction of Schaefer's Formula of Visibility of Crescent Of Luna [Revised]Uploaded byAHLUSSUNNAH WAL JAMAA"AH [ASHA:'IRAH & MATURIDIYAH]
- Psionic PsupervillainUploaded byTanja Watz
- 91c4c Lazada Case Study-En 1Uploaded byVincentTK