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StevenKim,AlexKocharian

Mrs.Barnard
HonorsUSHistory
23October2015

PrimarySources
BOOKS
Bernstein,Jeremy.
Hitler'sUraniumClub:TheSecretRecordingsatFarmHall
.Woodbury,NY:
AIP,1996.Print.
ThisbookwaswrittenbyJeremyBernsteinin1996.Thisbookcontainstheconversationsof
NaziscientistswhentheUnitedStatesdroppedthefirstatomicbomb.Thisbookwaswrittento
showthepeoplethattheNaziscientistswerequitesurprisedwithhowfasttheAmericans
createdtheatomicbomb.ThisbookalsocontainsthesecretsoftheNaziatomicdevelopment
program.ThebookshowsthethemebecauseitexploredthoughtsoftheNazisabouthowtheUS
madethebomb,encounteredwaystotryandmaketheatomicbombmoreefficientlylikethe
UnitedStates,andthegermansexchangedinformationwitheachotheraboutthebomb.

Serber,Robert,andRobertP.Crease.
Peace&War:ReminiscencesofaLifeontheFrontiersof
Science.
NewYork:ColumbiaUP,1998.Print.
ThisbookwaswrittenbyRobertCreaseandRobertSerber.Itwaspublishedin1998.They
wrotethistoshowhowtheirlifewasaroundthetimeofWorldWarII.Thisisimportantbecause
asscientistswhowroteaboutthemselvesduringthewarisspecialasitwasahugeshiftin
scienceandalsocreationoftheatomicbomb.Thisshowsthethemebecauseitexploredtheir

livesasnormalscientistsduringthattimeandtheirinputintotheatomicbomb,encounteredthe
waythekeyfiguresofTheManhattanProjectwouldsuggestonhowtousetheatomicbomb,
andexchangedhisinformationandopinionoftheatomicbombintothisautobiography.

Truman,HarryS.,andRobertH.Ferrell.
OfftheRecord:ThePrivatePapersofHarryS.
Truman
.NewYork:Harper&Row,1980.Print.
ThisbookwaswrittenbyHarryTrumanandeditedbyRobertFerrell.Publishedin1980.This
bookisaneditedcollectionoflettersandjournalswrittenbyHarryTrumaninthetimeofwars
includingWorldWarIIandhisthoughtsconcludingthewar.ThisisimportantbecauseHarry
Trumanwaspresidentduringthetimetheatomicbombwashitsoknowinghowithappenedand
howitaffectedhimisgoodtoknowasthepresident.Thisshowsthethemebecauseitexplored
Trumansthoughtprocessoftheatomicbombsabilities,encounteredhispartakeindecidingto
usetheatomicbomb,andexchangedTrumansopiniontothebombtomanyothersintheform
ofletters.

Groves,LeslieR.
NowItCanBeTold:TheStoryoftheManhattanProject
.NewYork:Harper,
1962.Print.
ThisbookwaswrittenbyLeslieGroveswhowasanimportantfigureintheManhattanProject.It
waspublishedin1962.ThisbookshowsGrovesactualpathintheManhattanProjectandhow
muchharderitactuallywasthanshown.ThisisimportantbecauseLeslieGroveshadtakenpart
indirectingtheprojectandthisshowshowhehadtakenpartinitandwhyhisrolewasso
differentfrommanyotherscientistsinTheManhattanProject.Thisshowsthethemebecauseit

exploredhisthoughtsonwhattheatomicbombcoulddo,encountereddecisionsGroveshadto
maketokeepsomepartsoftheManhattanProjectinsecrecy,andexchangedhishardshipsabout
dealingwiththebomb.

CONFERENCEMEETINGS
SummaryofTargetCommitteeMeetingson10and11May1945.
1.
Dannen.com
.29May1995.
Web.20Sept.2015.<
http://www.dannen.com/decision/targets.html#a
>.
ThiswaswrittenonMay12,1945.Thisdocumentwaswrittentosummarizethemeetingofthe
TargetCommitteesdiscussion.ThisisimportantbecausetheTargetCommitteewasinchargein
goingoverhowandwhattargetthebombswillbedroppedonandthecommitteewentover
everythingthatthebombwouldaffectandwhatwouldaffectthefirstbomb.Itshowsthetheme
becauseitexploredthepossibletimesandplacesforthefirsttestingoftheatomicbombtotake
place,encounteredadecisionofhowtouseitsafelyandeffectively,andexchangedideas
betweenthemeetingmemberstodecidethelogisticsofthetest.

GOVERNMENTPUBLISHEDDOCUMENTS
UnitedStatesofAmerica.AECHeadquartersLibrary.Congress.
AtomicEnergyActof
1946(PublicLaw585,79thCongress)
.ByJamesE.Nuse.N.p.:n.p.,n.d.
Osti.gov
.Web.22
Oct.2015.<
https://www.osti.gov/atomicenergyact.pdf
>.
ThislawwasprimarilywrittenbyJamesE.Nusein1946.Thisdocumentwaswrittento
determinehowthegovernmentwouldcontroltheuseofatomicweaponsbetweentheirallies.
Thisisimportantbecauseifyoudontcontroltheuseofatomicweaponsthenitcouldleadto

massdestructionoftheworld.Thisdocumentshowsthethemebecauseitexploredthethoughts
ofkeepingtheabilitiesoftheatomicbombincheck,encounteredsuppressingtheusageofthe
atomicbomb,andexchangedinformationonmakingsuretheyareawareofwhatthebombcould
do.

UnitedStatesofAmerica.AssociationofManhattanDistrictScientists.
PreliminaryStatementof
theAssociationofManhattanDistrictScientists
.ByFrancisBonnerandIrvingKaplan.
NewYorkCity:n.p.,n.d.
TheGilderLehrmanInstituteofAmericanHistory
.TheGilder
LehrmanInstituteofAmericanHistory.Web.4Oct.2015.
<
https://www.gilderlehrman.org/historybyera/postwarpoliticsandoriginscoldwar/int
eractives/manhattanproject
>.
ThisdocumentwaswrittenbyFrancisBonnerandIrvingKaplanwhowerebothchemists.This
documentwaswrittenbythemtomakesurethattheofficialsmakingthedecisionofdropping
thebombareawareofthemistakesthatmaybemadeandwhatcanbeoverlookedeasily.Thisis
importantbecauseofhowdevastatingtheatomicbombsareandthefactthatusingthemwrongly
couldcausedestructionforthewholeworld.Itshowsthethemebecauseitexploredthethoughts
ofusingtheatomicbombincorrectly,encounteredtryingtohelpnotmakerashdecisionson
usingtheatomicbomb,andexchangedtheiropiniononwhatcouldhappen.

INTERVIEWS
Oppenheimer,JuliusRobert."TheDecisiontoDroptheBomb(1965)."InterviewbyFredFreed.
Oppenheimer,J.Robert"NowIAmBecomeDeath"
NationalScienceDigitalLibrary,

n.d.Web.16Sept.2015.
<http://media.awesomestories.com/media/user/e5173932b0.mp4>.
ThiswasaninterviewbyFredFreedinadocumentaryabouttheatomicbombin1965withJ.
RobertOppenheimerwhenspeakingonwhathethoughtabouttheatomicbomb.Oppenheimer
mayhavewantedtospeakofthisbecauseofhowhefeltafterhelpingcreatetheatomicbomb
andFreedmadethisdocumentarytoshowwhatwentthroughothersmindsaboutthedecision.
Thisisimportantbecauseitshowsthepointofviewofoneofthefoundersoftheatomicbomb
andhowhedidnotfeelwellaboutitanylonger.Theinterviewshowsthethemebecauseit
exploredOppenheimersthoughtsofthebombs,encounteredwhathethoughtaboutusingthe
firstbomb,andexchangedwordswithFreedofhischangeinopinion.

JOURNALS
Stimson,Henry.
HenryStimsonDiary.
14May1945.DiaryEntries,May14and15,1945
ThisjournalwaswrittenbyHenryStimsonwhowasalawyerandsecretaryofwarwhoworked
underRooseveltandTruman.ItwaswrittenonMay14,1945.ThepurposeofStimsonwriting
thisdiaryatthistimewasbecausehewaswonderingifthebombwouldbeenoughwhen
meetingwithStalinorifitwouldevenbedone.Thisisimportantbecausetheirmeetingwith
Stalincouldprobablyonlybesuccessfuliftheatomicbombwasmadebythen.Thisdiaryentry
showsthethemebecauseitexploredthethoughtofmakingthebombtobeabletonegotiatewith
Stalin,encounteredthetimeconstrainttheyhadtobeabletomaketheatomicbombforthefirst
time,andexchangedwordswithacommitteeaboutS1.

Truman,HarryS.
HarryS.Truman,Diary
,July25,1945.25July1945.OfftheRecord:The
PrivatePapersofHarryS.Truman.
ThiswasapersonaljournalwrittenbyHarryTrumanwhowasthepresidentoftheUnitedStates
atthetime.HewrotethejournalonJuly25,1945
.Thisjournalentryexplainedabouthis
decisiontodroptheatomicbombonJapan.Thisdiaryentryshowsthethemebecauseitexplored
thethoughtsofTruman,encounteredthedifficultdecisiontoordertodropthebomb,and
exchangedinformationtotellthemtodropthebomb,butatleastnotfocusitonwomenand
children.

LEAFLETS
AB11.
6Aug.1945.AleaflettotheJapanesepeopletosurrendertosavethelivesofmore
Japanese.
ThisleafletwasapprovedbyHarryS.Trumanhimselftobedistributedtoahugenumberof
Japanese.ThisleafletwaswrittenonAugust6,1945.Itwaswrittentowarnnotonlythe
JapanesepeoplebutalsotowarntheJapanesegovernmentofthepowertheUnitedStates
possessed.ThisdocumentisimportantbecauseitshowsthatTrumangavethemachoiceto
surrenderandleaveorelsebehitwithanotherbomb.Thisshowsthethemebecauseitexploreda
chanceatanotheratomicbombbeingusedtoanadvantage,encounteredbeingabletousethe
bombasanotherthreat,andexchangedthethreatsofthebombontoaleafletforlesscasualties.

LETTERS

Einstein,Albert.LettertoFranklinD.Roosevelt.2Aug.1939.N.p.:n.p.,n.d.12.
US
DepartmentofEnergy
.Web.10Oct.2015.
<http://web.archive.org/web/20101122200818/http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/
einstein_letter_photograph.htm#1>.
ThisletterwaswrittenbyAlbertEinsteinknownasoneofthemostfamousscientistsevergiven
toFranklinD.Rooseveltwhowasthepresidentatthetime.ItwaswrittenonAugust2,1939.
ThisletterisimportantbecauseitallowedtheUnitedStatestoknowaboutwhatisgoingonin
Europeduringthewar.TheletterrelatestothethemebecauseEinsteinexploredtheuseof
uraniumtomanipulateandbuildthebomb,encounteredaproblemwithEuropetryingtobuilda
nuclearweapon,andtryingtoexchangeinformationtogettheUnitedStatestobuildoneaswell.

Feynman,RichardP.LettertoDepartmentofState.N.d.N.p.:n.p.,n.d.N.pag.
DailyMail
.
AssociatedNewspapersLtd,16June2012.Web.21Oct.2015.
<
http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2012/06/16/article216026113A40FBE000005DC125_63
4x637.jpg
>.
ThisdocumentwaswrittenbyRichardFeynmanwhoworkedontheManhattanProject.The
articlepostedwaspublishedonJune16,2012.ThisdocumentshowshowFeynmanwas
approachedbytheSovietUniontodiscussissues.ThisisimportantbecauseFeynmanwas
accusedofbeingaspyandbeingcontactedbytheSovietUnionstrengthenedthatcaseeven
thoughheturnedouttobeinnocent.Thislettershowsthethemebecauseitexploredthethoughts
ofthegovernmentintermsofspiestryingtogetaholdoftheatomicbomb,encountered

decisionsonwhetherornotFeynmanshouldmeetwiththeSovietUnion,andexchanged
informationwiththestateonifheshouldgoandtalkabouttheManhattanProject.

Stimson,Henry."LettertothePresident."LettertoHarryS.Truman.31July1945.
Henry
StimsontoHarryS.Truman,withAttachedDraftPressRelease
.N.p.:n.p.,n.d.N.pag.
TrumanLibrary
.Web.17Oct.2015.
<
http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/bomb/large/documents/ind
ex.php?pagenumber=1&documentdate=19450731&documentid=55&studycollectionid
=abomb
>.
ThisletterwaswrittenbyHenryStimsononJuly31,1945.StimsonwastheheadoftheWar
DepartmentduringthetimeoftheManhattanproject.HewrotethislettertoPresidentTruman,
andwasinformedthatthebombwouldbedroppedaroundAugust1stiftheycouldandmade
surehehascheckedthefeaturesofthebomb.Thisisimportantbecausehehastomakesurethe
useofthebombisbeingfulfilledbythetimethebombisdropped.Thisshowsthetheme
becauseitexploredthethoughtsofStimsonwhowasinahurrytomakesurethebombsabilities
havebeenmade,encounteredthedecisionofdecidingwhentodropthebomb,andexchanged
informationofthecompletionofthebomb.

Szilard,Leo."PetitiontothePresidentoftheUnitedStates."LettertoHarryS.Truman.3July
1945.N.p.:n.p.,n.d.1.
Dannen.com
.12June1995.Web.20Sept.2015.
<
http://www.dannen.com/decision/450703.html
>.

LeoSzilardwrotethispetition.Szilardwasaveryintelligentscientistwhoknewaboutthe
devastatingpoweroftheatomicbombs.ThispetitionwaswrittenonJuly3,1945.Szilardwrote
thispetitiontourgethePresidentoftheUnitedStatestonotusetheatomicweaponsinwar.This
isimportantbecausemanyothersincludingSzilardhaddisagreedwiththeuseshowingthe
mixedfeelingseveniftheyworkedonthebombthemselves.Thisshowsthethemebecauseit
exploredthethoughtsofusingthebombsabilitiesinwar,encounteredthedecisionofnot
wantingtouseitinthefirstplace,andexchangedthesameopinionofnotwantingtousethe
bomb.

Truman,HarryS.LettertoIrvKupcinet.5Aug.1963.MS.Independence,Missouri.Web.10
Sept.2015.
<
http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/bomb/large/documents/ind
ex.php?documentdate=19630805&documentid=74&studycollectionid=abomb&pagenu
mber=1
>.
ThisletterwaswrittenbyHarryTrumantoIrvKupcinetwhowasawriterfortheChicago
SunTimes.ItwaswrittenonAugust5,1963.TrumanwrotethislettertoKupcinettotellhimhe
appreciateswhatwaswrittenbyhimandtoreiteratehesavedmorelivesbydroppingthebomb
thanhewouldveifhehadnotdroppedit.Theletterisimportantbecauseitshowedhisopinion
onifthebombwasthecorrectchoiceandalsoshowedhisanswertoabigquestionwhetheror
notthebombcostmorelivesornot.Thislettershowsthethemebecauseitexploredhow
Trumanusedthebombsabilitiestostopthewar,encounteredTrumansthoughtsofusingthe

bombhowhedidascorrect,andexchangedtheinformationofthebombdroptoKupcinetwhen
hewouldnotusuallydisclosethattoothers.

Truman,HarryS.LettertoMr.Cavert.11Aug.1945.
PresidentHarryTrumanDefendsAtomic
BombingofJapan
.N.p.:n.p.,n.d.1.
Shapell.org
.Web.22Oct.2015.
<
http://www.shapell.org/manuscript/trumandefendsuseofatomicbombagainstjapan
>
ThisletterwaswrittenbyHarryS.TrumanonAugust11,1945.Hewrotethislettertothe
generalsecretaryofTheChurchesofChristinAmerica.Trumanstatesthattheactionsofthe
JapaneseatPearlharbormakestheactionsoftheatomicbombjustified.Theonlywaytoget
themtotalkisbybombingthem.Hedefendedhisactionsandsaidhehadtousetheutmostforce
todealwiththebeast.Thisisimportantbecauseitshowswhytheatomicbombdecisionwas
justified.ThislettershowsthethemebecauseitexploredwhyTrumanthoughttheatomicbomb
wastherightchoice,encounteredadecisiononusingtheatomicbombcorrectly,andexchanged
hisopiniononPearlHarborandwhathappenedafter.

MEMORANDUMS
Conant,JamesB."InterOfficeMemorandum."
LettertoDr.VannevarBush.
14Dec.1942.
N.p.:n.p.,n.d.13.TheNuclearSecrecyBlog.Web.24Sept.2015.
<
http://blog.nuclearsecrecy.com/wpcontent/uploads/2012/03/1942ConanttoBushonB
ritishparticipationinbombproject.pdf
>.
ThismemorandumwaswrittenbyJamesB.Conant.ItwaswrittenonDecember14,1942.This
waswrittentoexplaintoDr.VannevarBushthattheUnitedStatesmightnotneedtheBritishin

theprojectanymore.Thisisimportantbecausesincetheyarebuildinganatomicbomb,allying
withtheBritishmayleadtoanarmsracebetweenthemlater.Thisshowsthethemebecauseit
exploredallthedisadvantagesofstillhelpingBritain,encounteredthedecisionofallowing
BritaintogainknowledgefromtheUnitedStates,andexchangedwordsonhowtheUnited
Statesweresuperiorinknowledgeandresources.

Groves,L.R."MemorandumtotheChiefofStaff."
LettertoChiefofStaff
.30July1945.
Dannen.com.N.p.,30July2015.Web.19Sept.2015.
<
http://www.dannen.com/decision/bombrate.html
>
.
ThismemorandumwaswrittenbyLeslieRichardGroveswhowastheheadoftheManhattan
Project.ThememorandumwaswrittenonJuly30,1945.Thisletterwaswrittentoinformthe
chiefofstaffofhowthetestingofthefirstatomicbombwent.Theletterisimportantbecauseit
showstheeffectivenessoftheManhattanProjectandhowwelltheprojectturnedout.Itshows
thethemebecausetheyexploredhowwelltheprojectisdoing,encountereddifferentwaysto
makethebomb,andexchangedinformationonhowtheprojectwasdoing.

Harrison,GeorgeL."MemorandumforSecretaryofWar."
LettertoSecretaryofWar.
28June
1945.N.p.:n.p.,n.d.1.AtomicBombandtheEndofWorldWarII.Web.7Sept.2015.
<http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB162/3a.pdf>.
ThisletterwaswrittenbyGeorgeHarrisonwhowasaspecialassistanttotheSecretaryofWarin
WorldWarII.TheletterwaswrittenonJune28th,1945inWashingtonD.C.Theletterwas
writtentoinformtheSecretaryofWarthattheInterimCommitteehasapprovedtheuseof

atomicbombsonJapanwithoutnotice.Thisshowsthethemebecauseitexploredthepossibility
oftryingtousetheatomicbombwithoutJapanknowing,encounteredawayofmanufacturing
materialfortheatomicbomb,andexchangedinformationonthebuildingandpoliticalpartsof
theatomicbomb.

"MemorandumDiscussedwiththePresident."(1945):13.
Nsarchive.com.
Web.19Sept.
2015.
<
http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB162/3b.pdf
>
ThismemorandumwaswrittenonApril25,1945.Thedocumentwaswrittentoprovethatthe
presidentwasinformedproperlyofalltheManhattanProjectinformation.Thisisimportant
becausethisdocumentgoesoveralltheinformationofhowtheatomicbombmightaffectthe
worldoncedeployed.Thethemeshowsbecauseitexploredthethoughtofmakingthebomb
successfullytoaffecttheworld,encounteredthedecisionofusingthebombtobecomea
destructivepower,andexchangedwordstothepresidentsoheknewalltheinformationonthe
atomicbomb.

MISCELLANEOUS
ConclusionofTelegramNo.940
.2Dec.1944.VenonaDocument.Moscow.
ThiswasadocumentfoundmadebytheSoviets.ItwasreceivedonDecember2,1944.This
documentwaswrittentotryandgatherinformationabouttheManhattanProjectasaspy,but
wasfoundandtranslatedandlaterapprehendedKlausFuchsastheculprit.Thisisimportant
becausetherewereSovietspiestryingtotakeinformationfromtheUnitedStatestobeableto

buildtheatomicbombfaster.Thisdocumentshowsthethemebecauseitexploredthepossibility
ofaspytryingtogetthebombbeforetheUnitedStates,encounteredhisdecisiononbeingable
tolearnhowtomakeabombfromtheUnitedStates,andexchangedinformationonthebomb
withtheSoviets.

InstrumentofSurrender
.2Sept.1945.Japan'swrittensurrenderofWorldWarII.
TheJapanesewroteandagreedonthetermsstatedinthedocument.Thisdocumentwascreated
andsignedonSeptember2,1945.WithouttheManhattanProject,theUnitedStateswouldhave
hadtoinvadeJapan,killinghundredsofthousandsofJapaneseandAmericansandwouldhave
takenmanymonthsforthewartoend.InsteadtheUnitedStatesendedthewarquicklywithout
thecasualtiesofAmericansanddroppedthetwoatomicbombsonJapan.Thisforcedthe
Japanesetosurrenderandcreatethisdocument.Thisisimportantbecausewithouttheatomic
bombmanymorewouldhavediedthanhowmanyhaddiedbecauseofthebomb.Thisshowsthe
themebecauseitexploredthethoughtsofwhytheatomicbombmadeJapansurrender,
encounteredthedecisiontosurrenderdueto2bombsdropped,andexchangedinformationabout
theirsurrenderbecauseofthebomb.

NEWSPAPERARTICLES
Barron,James."AManhattanProjectVeteranHadaUniqueViewofAtomicBombWork."
Editorial.
TheNewYorkTimes
.TheNewYorkTimesCompany,26July2015.Web.15
Sept.2015.

ThiswaswrittenbyJamesBarronwhoisaneditorfortheNewYorkTimesinterviewinga
ManhattanProjectveteranBenjaminBederson.ThiswaswrittenonJuly26,2015.Barronhad
wrotethistoshowtheessenceofNewYorkersandtheirpastexperiences.Thiseditorialis
importantbecauseittellsBedersonsperspectivewhowasinthetimeandhowhebelieveditwas
therightdecision.Thisshowsthethemebecauseitexploredanotheronesthoughtsonthe
constructionofthebomb,encounteredhisworkandwhathedidonthebomb,andexchanged
wordswithhimabouthowhebelievedthebombdropwascorrect.

Laurence,WilliamL."AtomicBombofNagasakiToldbyFlightMember"
The

NewYorkTimes
9Sept.1945:n.pag.Print.
ThisnewspaperarticlewaswrittenbyWilliamL.LaurenceonSeptember9,1945.Theauthoris
ajournalistwhosawthebombingtakeplace.Thisarticlewaswrittentotellthestoryoftheplane
andcrewwhodroppedthebomboverNagasaki.Hegivesaneyewitnessaccountofwhatthe
crewdidthatdayassoonastheytookoff.Thisisimportantbecauseaninsighttothepeoplewho
droppedthebombcanhelpthereaderunderstandthedroppingofthebombmore.Thearticle
showsthethemebecauseitexploredLawrencesthoughtsandothersduringthatday,
encounteredtheirdecisiononbeingreadytousethebomb,andexchangedinformationtoeach
otheraboutwhattheyweredoing.

McNeill,David."HowISurvivedHiroshimaandThenNagasaki."
Independent
.Independent
DigitalNewsandMediaLtd.,26Mar.2009.Web.13Oct.2015.

<
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/howisurvivedhiroshimandashandth
ennagasaki1654294.html
>.
ThisarticlewasgivenbyDavidMcNeill.ThisarticlewaspublishedonlineonMarch26,2009.
ThisarticlewaswrittentoshowsomeonewhohadsurvivedthebombingsofJapanandhisonce
inalifetimeexperiences.Thisisimportantbecauseamansurvivinganatomicbombisunheard
ofandwecanknowsomeonesactualthoughtsofbeingavictim.Thisshowsthethemebecause
itexploredthethoughtsof
TsutomuYamaguchiwhosurvivedtworadiationexposures,
encounteredhisconsciousdecisiononhowandwhytheatomicbombshouldntbeused,and
exchangedinformationonhisownopinionaboutthebomb.

"U.S.DropsAtomicBomb."
TheBerkshireEveningEagle[Pittsfield]
6Aug.1945,54thed.,
sec.1:114.Archives.com.Archives.Web.10Sept.2015.
<http://www.archives.com/genealogy/newspapersatomicbomb.html>.
ThiswaswrittenbyTheBerkshireEveningEagleinPittsfield.ItwaspublishedonAugust6,
1945.Thepurposeofthisarticlesauthorwastocatchareadersattentionandinformthereader
ofWorldWarII.ItwaswrittentoshowwhathadtakenplaceinJapanandwhathappenedbefore
thattocausethisbombingtohappen.Thisshowsthethemebecauseitexploredwhatthey
thoughttheatomicbombwaslikeasifitwere20,000tonsoftnt,encounteredthereasonoftheir
decisiontoattackHiroshima,andexchangedtheirinformationoftheatomicbombtothereader.

PICTURES

AtmosphericDispersionBeginsinHiroshima
.1945.Hiroshima,Japan.
AtomicBombMuseum
.
Web.22Oct.2015.<http://atomicbombmuseum.org/effects/himat_03.jpg>.
ThisphotographwastakeninHiroshima,Japanin1945.Thispicturewastakentoshowthe
blackrainfalluponHiroshima.Thisblackrainheldupto200differentkindsofradioactive
deadlytoxins.Thisisimportantbecauseitshowshowdevastatingthebombingwasandwhyit
wasdeemedblackrain.Thispictureshowsthethemebecauseitexploredtheotherfeaturesof
theatomicbomb,encounteredtheusageoftheatomicbombatthattime,andexchanged
informationofhowthebomblookedlikewhendetonated.

BigThreewithStaffsaroundtheConferenceTable
.N.d.Cecilienhof,Germany.
MissouriDigital
Heritage
.Web.22Oct.2015.
<http://cdm.sos.mo.gov/cdm/singleitem/collection/trumanlib/id/2108/rec/1>.
Thisphotowastakenin1945.Thisisaphotographoftheconferencebetweenthethreeallied
powersleaders.ThisisimportantbecausethisconferencewaswhenPresidentTrumantells
StalinthattheUnitedStateshadaweaponofmassdestruction.Thepictureshowsthetheme
becauseitexploredthepossibilityoftheUnitedStateshavingabombbeforeanyoneelse,
encountereddecisionsonannouncingthebombwasmade,andexchangedinformationtoStalin
andothersthatthebombwasfinished.

ChalkRiverLaboratory.
1945.Ontario,Canada.
NationalResearchCouncilCanada.
Web.25
Sept.2015.

<
http://drdn.cistiicist.nrccnrc.gc.ca/eng/view/image/?id=97a2fb253d2a41d2a25a41
1b02ae4fef
>.
ThisisapictureofoneofthemanylabsusedtohelpwiththeManhattanProjectinCanada.The
UnitedStatesandCanadahadanagreementthattheCanadianswouldprovidethechemicals
neededtomakeatomicbombs,andtheUnitedStateswouldcreatethem.Thisrelatestothe
themebecauseitexploredanewsettingtoconductexperiments,encounteredthestrugglesofthe
setbacks,andexchangedinformationwiththeotherUnitedStateslaboratories.

DesperateSurvivorsinNagasaki
.1945.Nagasaki,Japan.
AtomicBombMuseum
.Web.22Oct.
2015.<http://atomicbombmuseum.org/effects/nagasaki_003_004.jpg>.
Thisisapictureofafamilywithlittletonopossessions.Takenin1945Nagasaki,Japan.This
photographshowsthelastingeffectsupontheJapanesepeople.Theirhomesdestroyedimpacts
themjustasmuchasthelastingeffectsofradiation.Thisisimportantbecauseitshowshowthe
bombwasviewedbyJapanandnottheUnitedStates.Thisshowsthethemebecauseitexplored
thethoughtsofJapaneseandtheirhardships,encounteredtheaftermathofdecidingtousethe
bomb,andexchangedinformationontheeffectsofthebomb.

ExaminingtheTrinityTestSite
.1945.LosAlamos,NewMexico.
AtomicArchive
.Web.3Oct.
2015.<
http://www.atomicarchive.com/History/trinity/g5_p2.shtml
>.
ThispicturewastakenatLosAlamos,NewMexicoin1945.Thispictureshowsthemostfamous
andinfluentialpeopleoftheManhattanProject,Dr.OppenheimerandLeslieGroves.The
photographshowsthetwomencommunicatingabout,andexaminingtheTrinityTestsite.This

isimportantbecauseitshowedthattheatomicbombwassuccessfulandhadpower.Thepicture
showsthethemebecauseitexploredtheabilitythateventhefirstatomicbombwasabletohave,
encountereddecisionsonexaminingthesitetobetterunderstandhowtomakeanatomicbomb,
andexchangedinformationwitheachotheraboutthesite.

FatMan.1945
.
TheFirstAtomicWeapons.ByCareySublette
Web.17Sept.2015.
<http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Usa/Med/Fmmus.jpg>.
ThispicturewasobtainedfromCareySubletteasthewebsiteauthor.Thisisapicturewastaken
in1945.Thispicturewastakentoshowtheotheratomicbombwhichwouldbelaterusedto
droponJapanknownasFatManinsteadbecauseofitsfatlook.Thisisimportantbecauseit
wastheotherbombthatwasdroppedinNagasaki,JapanonlythreedaysafterdroppingLittle
BoyonHiroshima.Thispictureisimportantgivesanotherinsightanddetailtohowtheatomic
bomblookedduringthistimeperiod.Itshowsthethemebecauseitexploredhowmuchthe
atomicbombcanbeexpanded,encounteredonwhattocodenameit,andexchangedinformation
withthispicturetoshowthecompletionofthebomb.

HiroshimaAreaThatSustainedDamageinFirstAtomicAttack.
1945.Hiroshima,Japan.
The
AsiaPacificJournal:JapanFocus.
Web.24Sept.2015.
<http://japanfocus.org/data/hiroshima_targets_map.png>.
Thispicturewasobtainedfromjapanfocus.org.Itwastakenin1945.Thereasonsomeonehad
obtainedthispictureistoshowtherangeoftheatomicbombinHiroshima.Thisismostlikely
sincetheU.S.aretryingtohavefewercasualtiessotheyhavetoknowtherangeandhowmuch

itactuallydestroyedintotal.Thisisimportanttotheprojectbecausethereisalookonhowthe
militaryhandledthebombing.Thisshowsthethemebecauseisexploredtheatomicbombstrue
abilities,encounteredhowtheyhadusedthebombtofulleffect,andexchangedinformationof
therangeofthebombwiththisphoto.

LittleBoy.
1945.
TheFirstAtomicWeapons.ByCareySublette
Web.17Sept.2015.
<http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Usa/Med/Lbmus.jpg>.
ThispicturecamefromCareySublettewhoistheauthorofthiswebsite.Thispicturewastaken
in1945.Thispicturewastakenandalsoputonthewebsitetoshowthephysicalfeaturesofthe
atomicbombandshowedwhyitwascodenamedLittleBoycomparedtothebiggeratomicbomb
FatManwhichwouldbothbedroppedonJapan.Thisisimportantbecauseitshowedwhat
wouldlatercauseadevastatingamountofdeathsinJapan.Thepictureshowsthethemebecause
itexploredtheabilitiesoftheshapepossiblefortheatomicbomb,encounteredonwhatto
codenameit,andexchangedinformationwiththispictureonthecompletionofthebomb.

U.S.NationalArchives,RG77AEC.
1945.
TheAtomicBombandtheEndofWorldWarII.
Web.14Sept.2015.
<http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB162/hiroshima3.jpg>.
ThispicturewasavailablebyTheNationalSecurityArchive.Thepicturewastakenin1945.The
reasontohavethispictureonthiswebsiteistoshowtherangeoftheatomicbombon
Hiroshima.Thispictureisimportantbecauseitallowedpeopletoseehowbigtheatomicbomb
canimpactacityandwhyitshouldnotbemessedwithintheslightest.Thispictureshowsthe

themebecausetheyexploredtherangeofthedestructiveweapon,encounteredonactually
havingtousetheatomicbomb,andexchangedtherangeofthebombtowhoeveraccessedthe
picture.

1945.MarianaIslands.
WarHistoryOnline
.Web.3Oct.2015.
<
https://www.warhistoryonline.com/wpcontent/uploads/2014/05/B29s_of_the_462d_B
omb_Group_West_Field_Tinian_Mariana_Islands_1945.jpg
>.
Thisphotographwastakenin1945.ThelocationofwhereitwastakenwastheMarianaIslands
belowJapan.ThepictureshowsarunwaywithmanyB29bombersonin.Theaircraftinthis
picturewasofthesamethatdroppedtheatomicbombsoverHiroshimaandNagasaki.Thisis
importantbecauseitshowedtheUnitedStateswerereadytodropthebomb.Thispictureshows
thethemebecauseitexploredusingtheatomicbombatnotice,encounteredtheplanesdutyof
usingtheatomicbomb,andexchangedinformationoftheplanesusedtodropthebomb.

POLITICALCARTOONS
Nast,Thomas."WeHaveCometoStay."
TheAndersonIndependent
8Aug.1945:A4.Print.
ThispoliticalcartoonwaspublishedonAugust8,1945.TheartistofthecartoonisThomasNast.
Thiscartoonwasmadetoshowhowtheatomicbombdepicteddeathandhowtheywerenot
goingtogoawayanytimesoon.ThatisimportantbecauseThomasNastwasknownforputting
upcontroversialcartoonssoputtinghisopinionoftheatomicbombmayturnheadswhoreadthe
newspaper.ThisshowsthethemebecauseitexploredthethoughtsofNastandothersaboutthe

atomicbomb,encounteredwhattheuseoftheatomicbombwillbring,andexchangedhis
negativeopinionaboutthebomb.

Orr,Carey."TheFellowWhoLightedtheFuse."
TheChicagoTribune
8Aug.1945:1.Print.
ThispoliticalcartoonwasbyCareyOrrwhowasacartoonist.Thiswasshowninthenewspaper
onAugust8,1945.OrrhaddrawnthiscartoontoagreethatJapanhadsetthemselvesupforthe
bomb.Thecartoonshowsthethemebecauseitexploredthatitwastherightdecisiontomakethe
atomicbomb,encounteredthedecisiontousethebombtostopJapaneseattacks,andexchanged
opinionintheformofacartoononwhostartedthebombattacks.

SPEECH
Roosevelt,FranklinD."DayofInfamy."7Dec.1941.
NationalArchives
.Web.20Oct.2015.
<
https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/dayofinfamy/images/infamyaddress1.gif
>.
ThisspeechwasbyFranklinD.Rooseveltwhowasapresidentatthetime.Thespeechwas
writtenonDecember7,1941.ThespeechwaswrittentotellaboutthepremeditatedPearlHarbor
attacksfromJapan.Thisisimportantbecauseafterthishappened,questionsaboutusingthe
atomicbombonJapantostopthemcomesintoplaymoreoftenandifoftenusedasareasonwhy
theatomicbombingwasacceptable.Thisshowsthethemebecauseitexploredthethoughtsof
havingtotryandmaintainpeaceandlaterusingthebombtodothat,encountereddecisionson
whattodowiththeJapanese,andexchangedhisopinionabouttheattacksandwhyitneedstobe
dealtwithandlateriswiththeatomicbomb.

SecondarySources

BOOKS
Bird,Kai,andLawrenceLifschultz.
Hiroshima'sShadow.
StonyCreek,CT:Pamphleteer's,
1998.Print.
ThisbookwaswrittenbyKaiBirdandLawrenceLifschultzwhoarebothauthorsofbiographies
andinformativebooks.Itwaspublishedin1998.KaiandLifschultzhadwrittenthisbookas
theybothwriteabouthistoryandwantpeopletoknowhowitchangedtheEarth.Thisbookis
significantbecauseittellshowpeoplethoughtaboutthebombingsbeforeandstillpeoplethink
aboutitnowanditisimportanttoknowwhatpeoplethink.Thisshowsthethemebecauseit
exploredhowmuchtheUnitedStatesknewabouttheatomicbombcomparedtoJapanwho
knewnothing,encountereddecisionsonwhattodowiththebombandwhentouseit,and
exchangedmanydifferentaccountsaboutwhytheatomicbombwasgoodandbad.

Brown,Andrew.
TheNeutronandtheBomb:ABiographyofSirJamesChadwick.
Oxford:
OxfordUP,1997.Print.
ThisbookwaswrittenbyAndrewBrownwhoisanauthorwhowroteaboutJamesChadwick
Thiswaspublishedin1997.TheperspectiveofAndrewBrownmustbetoinformothersof
Chadwickandthesciencebehindtheatomicbomb.Brownisknownforhissciencebiographies.
ItisimportantbecauseithelpstolearnabouthowJamesChadwickmadeacquaintanceswiththe
fathersofTheManhattanProjectandwhyitwasimportanthediscoveredtheneutron.This
showsthethemebecauseChadwickexploredthepossibilityofaneutroninanatom,encountered

realwaystomakeanatomicbombpossible,andexchangedinformationofitinareporttothe
militarycommittee.

Christman,AlbertB.
TargetHiroshima:DeakParsonsandtheCreationoftheAtomicBomb.
Annapolis,MD:NavalInstitute,1998.Print.
ThisbookwaswrittenbyAlbertB.ChristmanwhowroteaboutDeakParsons.Thebiography
waspublishedin1998.ChristmanwouldwritethistotellabouthowimportantDeakParsons
waswiththeHiroshimabombing.ItisimportantbecauseParsonswasakeyfigureontheEnola
GayandhelpeddroptheLittleBoyonHiroshima.ThisshowsthethemebecauseParsons
exploredtheatomicbombbyhelpingtestouttheequipment,encounteredtheresponsibilityof
havingtodroponeoftheatomicbombshimself,andexchangedinformationonhowthe
Hiroshimabombinghadwent.

Frank,RichardB.
Downfall:TheEndoftheImperialJapaneseEmpire.
NewYork:Random
House,1999.Print.
ThisbookwaswrittenbyRichardFrank.Itwaspublishedin1999.ThereasonforFranktowrite
thisistoshowadifferentperspectiveoftheatomicbombingsinJapan.Thisisimportantbecause
thepointofviewisalwaysshownfromAmericassideandmanystillareunsureofwhyJapan
didnotsurrenderafterthefirstatomicbombhit.thebookshowsthethemebecauseitexplored
thethoughtsoftheJapaneseandhowtheyhadtoomuchpridetobelievetheatomicbombwould
takethemdown,encounteredtheirdecisiontonotsurrenderwhentoldtoandwaspreparedto

keepfightinginwar,andexchangedJapanswordsofsurrendertotheUnitedStates,butonly
afterthesecondonehadhit.

Gonzales,Doreen.
TheManhattanProjectandtheAtomicBombinAmericanHistory
.Berkeley
Heights,NJ:Enslow,2000.Print.
ThisbookwaswrittenbyDoreenGonzales.Itwaspublishedin2000.Thebookwaswrittento
tellaboutthebackstoryofGermany,America,andJapanandshowswhytheUnitedStatesgot
thebombfirst.ThisisimportantbecauseitshowsthatitwasnotjusttheUnitedStatesmakinga
bombbythemselves.Thisbookshowsthethemebecauseitexploredthethoughtsofthree
differentcountriesandmanyotherimmigrants,encountereddecisionsonwaystomakethebomb
moreefficiently,andexchangedinformationofthebombbetweenmanyimportantscientists.

Gonzales,Doreen.
TheSecretoftheManhattanProject
.BerkeleyHeights,NJ:EnslowPub.,
2012.Print.
ThisbookwaswrittenbyDoreenGonzales.Itwaspublishedin2012.Thisbookwaswrittento
showtheproblemsandpeoplethatwerebuiltuparoundthebombandwhytheproblemsstill
continueasanationtoday.ThisisimportantbecauseGonzalestriestoportrayhowalthoughit
wasanimportantinendingthewar,itstillhasalingeringstruggletodaywestillhavetoface.
Thebookshowsthethemebecauseitexploredthethoughtsofearlierscientistsbackthenandthe
thoughtsofGonzalesnow,encounteredwhateffectwouldusingtheatomicbombhavebackthen
andnow,andexchangedtodaysopinionswiththereader.

Lanouette,William,andBelaA.Silard.
GeniusintheShadows:ABiographyofLeoSzilard:The
ManBehindtheBomb.
NewYork:C.Scribner'sSons,1992.Print.
ThisbiographywaswrittenbyBelaSilardandWilliamLanouette.Itwaspublishedin1992.The
purposeofthisbookistoshowhowimportantLeoSzilardwasevenifhewasnotmentionedas
muchassomeothers.ThisisimportantbecausetheknowaboutTheManhattanProjectyoualso
havetoknowmorethanjustthepresidentandEinstein.Thisshowsthethemebecauseit
exploredhowSzilardthoughtabouttheatomicbombinseveraldifferentwaysinhislife,
encounteredadecisiononhavingtohelpmaketheatomicbomb,andexchangedknowledge
upontheUnitedStates.

Newman,RobertP.
TrumanandtheHiroshimaCult.
EastLansing:MichiganStateUP,1995.
Print.
ThisbookwaswrittenbyRobertP.Newman.Itwaspublishedin1995.ThereasonforNewman
towritethisbookisbecausehetrulybelievesthattheatomicbombwasthecorrectthingtodo
andheargueshispoint.Thisisimportantbecausetherearemanyaccusationsthatthebombing
wasanactofracismornotcompletelyjustifiedandNewmandisagrees.Thebookshowsthe
themebecauseitexploresNewmansthoughtsandwhyhebelieveditwasthecorrectthingwith
evidence,encounteredcounterargumentsonhowtohaveactuallyjustifiedthesituationwiththe
atomicbomb,andexchangedhisknowledgeinhisproatomicbombbooktopersuadeyouitwas
correct.

Norris,RobertS.
RacingfortheBomb:GeneralLeslieR.Groves,TheManhattanProject's
IndispensableMan.
SouthRoyalton,VT:Steerforth,2002.Print.
ThisbiographywaswrittenbyRobertS.Norris.Itwaspublishedin2002.ThereasonforRobert
NorristowritethisbookisbecauseasamanwhoworkswithnuclearweaponryhepraisesLeslie
Grovesforwhathedoes.ThisisimportantbecauseGroveswasoneoftheleadingrolesinThe
ManhattanProjectsoknowingwhathereallydidissignificant.Thebookshowsthetheme
becauseitexploredhismassivecontributiontotheatomicbomb,encounteredawayto
understandtheatomicbombandhowitisbuilt,andexchangedopinionsofbeingbeatenby
somethingbiggerthantheycouldhaveimagined.

Ottaviani,Jim.
Fallout:J.RobertOppenheimer,LeoSzilard,andthePoliticalScienceofthe
AtomicBomb
.AnnArbor,MI:G.T.Labs,2001.Print.
Rhodes,Richard.
TheMakingoftheAtomicBomb
.NewYork:Simon&Schuster,1986.Print.
ThisbookwaswrittenbyRichardRhodes.Itwaspublishedin1986.ThereasonRhodeshad
writtenthisistoshowalotoftheemotionalsidewhilethemakingoftheatomicbombtook
place.ThisisimportantbecauseitshowshowtheworkersinTheManhattanProjectdidnothave
thesameopinions.ThebookshowsthethemebecauseitexploredthethoughtsofSerberandhis
takeonwhathethoughtandwhatothersuntoldaccountsthought,encounteredthedecisionof
notgoingtoameetingabouthowhefeltabouttheatomicbomb,andexchangedwordswith
manyinvolvedinTheManhattanProjectandshowedwhathehadsaid.

Rummel,Jack.
RobertOppenheimer:DarkPrince.
NewYork:FactsOnFile,1992.Print.

TheauthorofthisbiographyisJackRummel.Itwaspublishedin1992.Thereasontheauthor
wrotethisbiographywastoinformothersofnotjustwhatOppenheimerdid,butalsohowhe
experienceditandhowitaffectedhim.Thisisimportantbecausetoknowwhatitwaslikeinthat
timeyoualsohavetoknowhisthoughtsandexperiencesonwhathadhappened.Thisshowsthe
themebecauseOppenheimerexploredhowhecouldusetheLosAlamosLabtocreatethe
atomicbomb,encounteredtheuseofthefirstatomicbomb,andexchangedhismixedfeelings
abouttheatomicbombslaterinhislife.

Sheinkin,Steve.
Bomb:TheRacetoBuildandStealtheWorld'sMostDangerousWeapon
.
NewYork:RoaringBrook,2012.Print.
ThisbookwaswrittenbySteveSheinkinwhohadformerlywrittenhistorytextbooksbefore
writingregularhistorybooks.Itwaspublishedin2012.Sheinkinwritesthistoshowthestartof
theracetofinishthefirstatomicbombandhowitprogressed.Thisisimportantbecauseto
knowmoreabouttheatomicbombrace,morehastoalsobeknownontheotherparticipating
nations.Thebookshowsthethemebecauseitexploredthethoughtsofothernationstryingto
makethebomb,encounteredothernationsdecisionsonhowtomakeanatomicbombthe
quickest,andexchangedinformationonthebombusingspies.

Szasz,FerencMorton.
TheDaytheSunRoseTwice:TheStoryoftheTrinitySiteNuclear
Explosion,July16,1945
.Albuquerque:UofNewMexico,1984.Print.
ThisbookwaswrittenbyFerencSzaszwhowasahistoryprofessor.Thiswaspublishedin1984.
ThiswaswrittenbecauseasahistorianwhotaughtUShistoryandWorldWarIIhewouldwant

towriteaboutoneofthemostimportanteventsofWorldWarII.Thisisimportantbecausewhat
tookplacewouldchangeweaponryandthewarindrasticmeasures.Itshowsthethemebecause
itexploredhowSzaszinterpretedthethoughtsofthepeopleatTrinitythatday,encounteredhow
theybelievedwasthebestwaytouseanatomicbomb,andexchangedtheopiniontakenabout
thefirstatomicbombwiththereader.

Weber,Mark."WasHiroshimaNecessary?"
TheJournalofHistoricalReview
.Vol.16.N.p.:
n.p.,1997.411.Print.
MarkWeberwrotethisarticle.ThisarticlewaswrittentoshowthatthebombingsofJapanwere
unnecessary.WebergivesmanydetailsonhowthegovernmentoftheUnitedStatesandBritain
knewthatJapanwastryingtofindawaytosurrender.Thisisimportantbecauseheexplains
manyoftheUnitedStatesgovernmenthadknowledgeofthesedetailsandevenwithheavy
resistancetostopthebombingsfromscientistsandpeaceactivistsalike,theUnitedStatesstill
proceededtodropthebombs.Thisshowsthethemebecauseitexploredthethoughtsofthe
UnitedStatesgovernmentonthebomb,encounteredtheirdecisiononusingthebombtostopthe
war,andexchangedinformationwiththegovernmentonthestatusoftryingtogetJapanto
surrender.

VIDEOS
World'sFirstAtomicBomb
.HistoryChannel,2015.
World'sFirstAtomicBombManhattan
ProjectDocumentaryFilms
.6Aug.2015.Web.1Oct.2015.
<
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8kFr5zTxsUM
>.

ThisvideowasmadebytheHistoryChannelbutputuponlineonAugust6,2015.Thiswas
madetoshowhowthefirstatomicbombwasevermade.Thisisimportantbecausea
documentaryisabletogivemorebackgroundontheproject.Thisdocumentaryshowsthetheme
becauseitexploredthethoughtsofhistoriansandwhattheythoughtaboutit,encounteredhow
thedecisionofmakingthebombwasmade,andexchangedinformationwiththehistorianstothe
watcheraboutthebomb.

WEBSITES

"AtomicDiplomacy19451952."
AtomicDiplomacy19451952MilestonesOfficeofthe
Historian
.N.p.,n.d.Web.03Oct.2015.
<
https://history.state.gov/milestones/19451952/atomic
>.
ThisisawebsitefromtheU.S.DepartmentofStateOfficeoftheHistorian.Thiswebsitewas
createdtoinformthereaderofhowtheManhattanProjectinfluencedpoliticalrelationsafterthe
bombings.ThisisimportantbecausetheatomicbombsmadefromtheManhattanProjectmade
theUnitedStatesasuperpower.ThisgreatlyincreasedtheUnitedStatespoliticalinfluenceover
everyoneintheworld.Thisshowsthethemebecauseitexploredthethoughtsofwhatcould
happenifmoreatomicbombsareusedsoitgavetheUnitedStatesmorepower,encounteredthe
decisiontonotinterferewithAmericabecauseofthebomb,andexchangedinformationofwhy
thebombwasstillimportantafter.

Bellis,Mary."HistoryoftheAtomicBombandTheManhattanProject."
About.comInventors.
About.com,n.d.Web.07Sept.2015.

<http://inventors.about.com/od/astartinventions/a/atomic_bomb.htm>.
ThiswaswrittenbyMaryBellis.ThereasonforBellistowritethisisbecauseherexpertiseison
inventorssoitmakessenseforhertowriteaboutoneofthemostimportantinventionsever.
ThisisimportantbecauseitsummarizedwhatTheManhattanProjectwasandwhowasin
chargeofit.Thisshowsthethemebecauseitexploredwhytheythoughtaboutmakinganatomic
bomb,encounteredhowtomakethebombusinguranium,andexchangedscientificinformation
onwhattodotosuccessfullymakeit.

Conca,James."WhyDidWeMaketheAtomicBomb?"
Forbes
.ForbesMagazine,7Dec.2013.
Web.10Oct.2015.
<
http://www.forbes.com/sites/jamesconca/2013/12/07/whydidwemaketheatomicbom
b/
>.
ThisonlinearticlewaswrittenbyJamesConcaonDecember7th,2013.JamesConcaisawriter
forthewebsiteForbes.Thisarticlewaswrittentoshowhowmuchofanadvancementthe
Germansmadeinatomicfusion.Thisisimportantbecauseitpromptedmanycountriesincluding
theUnitedStatestostartworkingontheirprograms.TheUnitedStateshoweverwastheleading
forceindevelopingtheatomicbombduetoitshighresourcesandamountofscientists.This
showsthethemebecauseitexploredthethoughtsofcountrieslearningabouttheGerman
discoveryofatomicfusion,encounteredthecountriesdecisionsonmakingthebombthefastest,
andexchangedinformationabouttheresourcesneededforthebomb.

Dag,O."Hiroshima,Nagasaki..."
TwoAtomicBombsWhichWereDroppedonJapan.
Web
ServiceCentre,n.d.Web.17Sept.2015.
<http://orwell.ru/library/articles/ABomb/english/e_japan>.
ThisisainformativewebsitemadebyO.Dag.ThereasonforDagtomakethiswebsiteisto
informothersaboutthelogisticsoftheatomicbombsthatdroppedonJapan.Thisisimportant
becauseitshowsinformationliketherangeofthebombs,theweightandsize,andtheeffectsof
it.Thisshowsthethemebecauseheexploredtheabilitiesthattheatomicbombwascapableof,
encounteredawayofanalyzinghowtheyusedtheatomicbombs,andexchangedwithusersof
thewebsiteinformationofthestatisticsofthebomb.

"EnricoFermi,ArchitectoftheNuclearAge,Dies."
History.com
.A&ETelevisionNetworks,
n.d.Web.04Oct.2015.
<
http://www.history.com/thisdayinhistory/enricofermiarchitectofthenuclearagedi
es
>.
Thiswaswrittenbyhistory.com.ThiswaswrittentotelltheaccomplishmentsofEnricoFermi
beforehedied.AsahistorysitethisisimportantbecauselearningaboutFermiandwhathedid
fortheManhattanProjectisverygoodtoknow.Thisshowsthethemebecauseitexploredthe
possibilityofanuclearchainreactionforabomb,encounteredadecisiononnowmakinga
bombafteranuclearchainreactionwasmadepossible,andexchangedinformationonabomb
beingpossible.

"GlennSeaborg."
AtomicHeritageFoundation.
N.p.,n.d.Web.10Sept.2015.
<
http://www.atomicheritage.org/profile/glennseaborg
>.
ThiswasaminibiographymadebytheAtomicHeritageFoundation.Theauthorhadwrittenthis
totellaboutGlennSeaborgandhowhecontributedinTheManhattanProjectbecauseasa
foundationforthehistoryoftheatomicbombSeaborgwasanimportantfigure.Thisisimportant
becauseSeaborghadfoundoutawaytomakeplutoniumandthatwaywasusedforfuelforthe
bombs.ThisbiographyshowsthethemebecauseSeaborgexploredawayofextracting
plutoniumfromuranium,encounteredawaytouseplutoniumtomakefuelfortheatomicbomb,
andexchangedinformationtouseforTheManhattanProject.

"JosephStalin,(18791953)."
PBS
.PBS,n.d.Web.10Oct.2015.
<http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/bomb/peopleevents/pandeAMEX69.html>.
Thisonlinearticlewasfoundonpbs.org.PBSisanonprofitorganizationwhichstrivestoteach
peopleonmanydifferentiatingtopics.ThisonlinearticleexplainsofhowTheManhattanProject
influencedStalinandhisrule.Thisisimportantbecausetheatomicbombsmadefromthe
ManhattanProjectmadeStalindemandthattheSovietUnionmakestheirownbomb.Heput
forthsomanyresourcesandmoneyintocreatingtheatomicbombsasquicklyaspossibleto
countertheUnitedStates.ThisshowsthethemebecauseitexploredthepossibilityfortheSoviet
Uniontomakeabomb,encountereddecisionsonenteringtheracetofinishtheatomicbomb
first,andexchangedhisopiniononwhathethoughtaboutAmericamakinganatomicbomb.

"KeyIssues:NuclearWeapons:History:PreColdWar:ManhattanProject."
KeyIssues:Nuclear
Weapons:History:PreColdWar:ManhattanProject.
NuclearAgePeaceFoundation,
MediaTemple,n.d.Web.25Sept.2015.
<http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/keyissues/nuclearweapons/history/precoldwar/ma
nhattanproject/>.
ThisinformationwascreatedbytheprojectoftheNuclearAgePeaceFoundation.Thiswas
writtentoinformhowTheManhattanProjectstartedandwhohadfoundedit.Thisisimportant
becauseitstartedwhentheyrealizedtheyhadtotryandbuildanatomicbombbeforeNazi
Germanyorelsetheywouldmostlikelyhavetosurrender.Thisshowsthethemebecauseit
exploredmakinganatomicbombbeforeGermany,encounteredawayonhowtomakethe
projectmoresuccessfulwithmultiplefactories,andexchangedmaterialsinbetweenfactoriesto
makeanuclearbomb.

"KlausFuchs,(19111988)."
PBS
.PBS,n.d.Web.10Oct.2015.
<http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/bomb/peopleevents/pandeAMEX54.html>.
Thiswebsitewasmadebytheeditorsofpbs.org.PBSisanonprofitorganizationmadetogive
outknowledgeoftopics.Thiswebsitearticlewaswrittentoinformthereaderaboutthelifeof
KlausFuchs,asovietspy.ThissovietspyworkedwithotherscientistsontheManhattanProject
andgaveawayitssecretstotheSovietUnion.ThisisimportantbecauseitshowstheManhattan
Projecthadinterferenceswithcompetingnations.Thisshowsthethemebecauseitexploredthe
thoughtsofaspygivingatomicbombinformation,encountereddecisionsontryingtosteal

informationontheatomicbomb,andexchangedinformationwiththescientiststotheSoviet
Union.

"LeoSzilard."
Bio.com.
A&ENetworksTelevision,n.d.Web.09Sept.2015.
<http://www.biography.com/people/leoszilard9500919>.
ThisarticlewascreatedbytheBio.comeditorswhosemaingoalistoinformothersofimportant
peopleinhistory.ItwasaboutLeoSzilardslifeandhisinfluencewithAlbertEinsteinandThe
ManhattanProject.ThisisimportantbecauseasweknowEinsteinwaskeyinpersuadingothers
inTheManhattanProjectandSzilardwasoneofthemenwhoconvincedEinsteintotellthe
presidenttobuildanatomicbombwhilealsohelpingtoresearchtheatomicbomb.Thisshows
thethemebecauseitexploredhowSzilarddecidedtostudytheatomicbomb,encounteredaway
totryandallowthebombtobemade,andexchangedinformationwithEinsteintogethimtotell
thepresidenttobuildtheatomicbomb.

"LeslieR.Groves."
LeslieR.Groves
.N.p.,n.d.Web.03Oct.2015.
<
http://www.ushistory.com/pages/h1626.html
>.
ThiswebsitewasmadebyUSHistorysite.TheauthorcreatedthiswebpagetotalkofLeslieR.
Grovesentirelife.ThiswebpagewroteofhisroledoingtheManhattanProject.Itstatesthathe
wastheheadoftheproject,makingeverysingledecisionandhadahugeamountofpowertodo
almostanythingpossibletocompletetheatomicbombs.Thisisimportantbecausehisrolewas
seenasunnecessaryorcontroversialbysome.Thisshowsthethemebecauseitexploredthe

thoughtsofLeslieGrovestryingtohelpwiththebomb,encounteredGrovesdecisionsofusing
hispowertomaketheatomicbomb,andexchangedinformationofhowitneededtobefinished.

Long,Doug."ALBERTEINSTEIN."
AlbertEinsteinandtheAtomicBomb.
DougLong,n.d.
Web.17Sept.2015.<
http://www.douglong.com/einstein.htm
>.
ThiswasanonlinearticlewrittenbyDougLong.LongwantedtogiveinformationonThe
ManhattanProjectashehadstudiedallaboutitandwrotethisoneabouthowAlbertEinstein
wantedtoallowtheatomicbombtobebuilt.ThisisimportantbecausewithoutEinsteins
influencetheatomicbombmayhaveneverbeenbuiltofwouldhavebeenbuiltafterGermany
hadfinishedtheirs.Thisshowsthethemebecauseheexploredthechanceofmakingtheatomic
bombtotakeawaythreats,encounteredadecisionontellingRoosevelttomakethebomb,and
exchangedwordsofregretaboutthebomb.

"OttoHahn,LiseMeitner,andFritzStrassmann."
OttoHahn,LiseMeitner,andFritz
Strassmann|ChemicalHeritageFoundation
.ChemicalHeritageFoundation,n.d.Web.
15Oct.2015.
<
http://www.chemheritage.org/discover/onlineresources/chemistryinhistory/themes/ato
micandnuclearstructure/hahnmeitnerstrassman.aspx
>.
ThiswebsitewasmadebytheChemicalHeritageFoundation.Thiswaswrittentoshowhow
theseGermanscientistswereimportanttomakingnuclearstructurecorrectly.Thisisimportant
becauseitwasnotjustthescientistsintheUnitedStatesthatinfluencedeverything.Thisshows
thethemebecauseitexploredthepossibilityofsplittingauraniumatom,encounteredadecision

onhowtousethattomakeabomb,andexchangedthisinformationasthewholeworldgothold
ofitanddecidedtomakeabombthemselves.

"TheManhattanProject."
Ushistory.org
.IndependenceHallAssociation,n.d.Web.03Oct.
2015.<
http://www.ushistory.org/us/51f.asp
>.
ThisisawebsiteonUSHistory.org.Theauthorspurposetowritethiswebsiteistoinformof
howtheManhattanProjectstarted.ThescientificCommunitywasinformedthattheGermans
wereattemptingtocreateatomicweapons,thesescientiststhenurgedtheUnitedStates
governmenttoalsoworkonthedevelopmentofatomicweapons.Thisisimportantbecausethis
showedthestartoftheManhattanProjectandtheprogressthathappenedduringit.Thewebsite
showsthethemebecauseitexploredthepossibilityofbeingpersuadedtomakeanatomicbomb
beforeGermany,encounteredwaysonhowtostartmakingthebomb,andexchanged
informationwiththegovernmenttostartmakinganatomicbomb.