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Teri Sparks

Courtney Allard
Period 6
Japanese Attack On Pearl Harbor

Annotated Bibliography
Primary Sources
Air Raid, Pearl Harbor! Recollections of a Day of Infamy. Annapolis, MD: Naval
Institute, 1981. Print. Air Raid, Pearl Harbor. This is No Drill Testimony by
Captain Logan C. Ramsey, U.S. Navy
Captain Ramsey had gotten a call from a staff duty officer saying that they had
sunk a submerged submarine. While he was waiting for the authentication of the
message, he stood with the staff duty officer as a plane was taking a nosedive on
Ford Island. Then, the plane pulled up and away after completing the dive. Not
noticing that the plane had dropped a bomb. They all realized this was not a drill
and that its a Jap. We chose this article because it shows the exchange of the
sudden attack between the officers of watching the plane drop bombs.
Cutting the Red Tape, adapted from the Interview of Admiral Holloway. By: Paul
Stillwell, 12, September 1980
Due to the attack on Pearl Harbor and the U. S. entering the war, many people still
had a cautious approach about weapons developing and approaching. The attack
really had a big impact on people. There had been two major reactions-disbelief
and shock. At first people had a hard time believing that the Japanese would do
something like that.
Gods Divine Will, published as Pearl Harbor Postscript, U. S. Naval Institute
Proceedings, December 1966, p. 126

As bad as our losses were at the Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941-they could
have been devastatingly worse. Instead of the ships being sunk in the Pearl
Harbor they could have been sunk in the deep sea, which would have meant that
they could have lost more people. The author encountered the realization of a bad
situation could have gone even worse.
I Dont Think theyd be such Dammed Fools By Rear Admiral William Waldo Drake,
U. S. Naval Reserve (retired) 15 June 1696
Admiral William Drake was in the Navel Reserve. Admiral William was talking
to Joseph Harsch, who was a correspondent for The Christian Science Monitor
and had been covering for the war. Joe said to Admiral William that Japan had just
moved into Indochina and the Camranh Bay area. He asked who Admiral thought
would be next to been attacked. Admiral William did not know. Then Admiral
William stated, I dont think theyd be such damned fools. If they attacked Pearl
Harbor. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor took place the day after this
interview. (Exploration)
Last Man Off the California, published in U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings, June
1978, p. 97.
Theodore Masons communication officer has orders to put a man back onto the
California. Lieutenant Proctor chose Mason to go in with guns and a gas mask
and portable radios. A cheerful voice came over the radio saying, Im going to
send a boat over to take you off. We have reports the California is about to
capsize, and I dont want to lose that valuable radio gear. This article showed the
exploration of the California and the soldier who went to explore it.

The Cheer-Up Ship, published in comment and Discussion, U. S. Naval Institute

Proceedings, September 1973
Days before the attack, the battleships at Pearl Harbor had been replacing things
in their ships with stronger equipment. Right after all the battleships have been
repaired, the Japanese attacked on December 7, 1941. The three battleships those
were able to get under way-the Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. The
Nevada did not blow up or sink.
The Navy Was Not Ready for War, published in Barometer, Naval War College
Review, September-October 1980, pp. 82-83. Published with the permission
of the Naval War College.
The Commander in Chief U.S fleet, Admiral J.O. Richardson wanted to talk to
Commander Carney. He went on telling him of all the things wrong with the U.S
Navy and basically saying that the Navy was not ready for war. Carney was
devastated after hearing this news. He eventually explored the Admirals
reasoning and agreed with him on his decision.
The President Faces War, adapted from the Reminiscences of Frances Perkins, Volume
VIII in the Oral History Collection of Columbia University
On Friday December 5, the president, secretary of war, and secretary of the Navy
had a regular cabinet meeting. In December 1941, Roosevelts cabinet assumed
that the Japanese would strike. However, he did not know when or where. He also
did not know if the U. S. would be involved in the war or not. This is an example
of exploration.

Letter, FDR to Ambassador Joseph C. Grew, January 21, 1941
The United States Ambassador to Japan Joseph C. Grew wrote to President
Roosevelt in December of 1940. He wanted to know all of the information

Roosevelt had on Japan. Franklin replied saying that Europe and Japan

were in a

single world conflict. After this exchange of information and

beliefs, the Pearl

Harbor bombing was in action a year later. This document shows

us how much of

a surprise the bombing was.

Memorandum, Harry Dexter White to Henry Morgenthau, Jr., April 4, 1941
On April 4, 1941 Harry wrote to Treasury Secretary Harry was stating his fears of
the Navy Department that had to defend the United States in war, while Japan had
growing petroleum reserves. Japan was also unable to produce oil. Harry White
explored a way to prevent war by offering free trade in oil that also avoids direct
confrontation with Japan.


Government Publications

Japan'sDecisionforWar:Recordsofthe1941PolicyConferences.Translatedan edited
There were about 62 conferences held in Tokyo between March and December to
prepare for the exchange of the bombing at Pearl Harbor. There were records of
57 Liaison Conferences, which were every few days to talk about foreign policy.
5 Imperial Conferences, where the Emperor made decisions that were most


Washington: GovernmentPrintingOffice,1943.
The Portsmouth Star. FDR, Cabinet Discuss Jap Attack. 104 Killed, 300 Wounded
Honolulu, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii attacked By Jap Planes By Richard L. Turner
Portsmouth, Virginia, Sunday, December 7, 1941
Japanese Declaration of War follows actual attack on bases. Japan had declared
war on the United States and president Roosevelt was going to ask Congress for a
declaration of war. Before he could, Japanese planes bombed Honolulu Pearl
Harbor without warning. America was not ready for this horrid encounter. This
surprise attack took a hardship on everyone.

The Providence Sunday Journal, Japanese Bombing Honolulu350 Dead, U.S Warship
Afire December 7, 1941
This newspaper article informed readers if the information on the attack. It was
written on the day of the attack, December 7, 1941. According to the article,
Britain is expecting to be attacked soon. This newspaper article shows encounter
because it presents the impact that the people of Hawaii have faced. About 350
citizens died due to the attack. Also three U.S ships were attacked.
World War II: U.S Studios Resources at Oxford. December 7, 1941: Japanese Attack on
Pearl Harbor. The Washington Post Japan Declares War against the U.S
This newspaper article informs readers of information about the historic event. It
also warns citizens that the United States will be entering the war. The newspaper
article states that the United States was attacked without warning and was faced
with heavy damages and loses. The newspaper article is an example of encounter
and exchange. Encounter because the United States now has be deal with all the
damages, and now prepare of war. Also exchange because the U.S now needs to
figure out how they are going to deal with the damages and get back at Japan.
Personal Narratives
theattackwasonitsway. Hull reported: "Nomura's last meeting with me was in
keeping with the ineptitude that had marked his handling of the discussions from

the beginning. His Government's intention, in instructing him to ask for the
meeting, at one o'clock, had been to give us their note a few minutes in advance
of the attack at Pearl Harbor. Nomura's Embassy had bungled this." - Vol. 2, p.
1097. They had tried to warn them about the attack but the message had never
happened. This encounter would have been very important so that Hawaii would
be prepared for the bombing.
Battleships West Virginia and Tennessee burning during the attack of Pearl Harbor
These pictures in this source showed us the outcome the Pearl Harbor took


the bombing by Japan. Many boats and civilians took hard casualties. The author
is trying to get us to feel the hardships of the time and better understand the horrid

Focus on: Pearl Harbor, The National WWII Museum, New Orleans.
This is a picture from the physical attack on Pearl Harbor. This photo was taken
from the Japaneses point of view of the attack. The photo was taken on
December 7, 1941. The exchange of the bombing from Japan was horrid and
made a huge impact on America.
Freeman, Elsie, Wynell Burroughs and Jean West. A date which will live in infamy:
The First Typed draft of Franklin D. Roosevelts War Address.
(November/December 1991)
This photo is of Franklin D. Roosevelt signing the Declaration of War against
Japan on December 8, 1941. This was the day that we explored a way to get
revenge on Japan.
Picture taken of rescue workers trying to evacuate Lunalilo High School in
Honolulu due to a bomb hitting the roof of the school. This picture is showing us
how it did not just effect civilians emotionally, but also physically.

This is a picture of the message that Franklin D. Roosevelt sent to Congress. He

wanted Congress to declare war. This shows exploration because Roosevelt
wanted to see what he could do by joining the war. By protecting the rights of the
people of America and doing what is right. He didnt want another country to
think that they could step all over our country and get away with it.
Picture of Naval Dispatch from Commander in Chief Pacific Announcing Japanese
attack on Pearl Harbor
The exact words on this dispatch are AIR RAID ON PEARL HARBOR. THIS
IS NOT A DRILL. It was short and to the point that this was serious.
Immediately following the dispatch, I knew people had to be completely
panicked. With the dispatch coming directly from a person of authority, everyone
knows how serious that it must be. This encounter frightened people but made this
determined to fight back.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt Signing the Declaration of War against Japan
December 8, 1941
National Archives and Records Administration
Records of the United States Senate
Record Group 46
This picture shows how he wants to revenge Japan for the The day which will
live in infamy. This is the day that America decided to explore the idea of getting
revenge on the Japanese.
The National WWII Museum Primary Sources: Pearl Harbor

This photo shows a battleship being attacked by Japanese aircrafts. This particular
ship has been sunk. This picture fits the theme of encounter because it shows the
damages of the attack. As a result of the ships that have sunk, many lives were
lost, causing a huge damper on the citizens of Hawaii.
Pictures From Books
Last Man Off the California By the Theodore C. Mason. (National Archives)
This photo shows the battleship, (California, sinking on December 7, 1941, the
day of the attack). This picture shows encounter because the people were faced
with the damages of the ship.
Pearl Harbor and the War in the Pacific By: Tony Hall Salamander Books 2001
In 1941, the islands received heavy attention from American carrier-borne air
power. This picture occurred at the beginning of the attack.
The Taranto Lesson By: Rear Admiral Walter C. Ansel, U.S. Navy (retired)
This photo was taken from an airplane Toronto Italy, in November 1940. This
photo caused Admiral Harold R. Stark to be worked about a possible attack on
Pearl Harbor. This shows exploration because people were concerned that Pearl
Harbor would be attacked.
Doolittle Speech after our bombing raid on Tokyo in 1942
Doolittle tells us how everyone that took part in this mission was specifically
trained and had volunteered for the bombing. He explains that because of the law
altitude and the highly flammable structures of Japan, this exchange of the

bombing caused mass casualties to the Harbor."PearlHarborAddresstothe

Attack At Pearl Harbor, 1941 The Japanese View 2001
We choose this source because we are exploring different views on the attack.
The Japanese attackers told their side of the story step by step of what they did
and the orders they had received that day. They saw that there were no enemy
fighter planes. Their command of the air was unchallenged.
Copyright 2008-2014. Owned by the Independence Hall Association in Philadelphia,
founded 1942
This article was chosen because it contains insight on the goals for the Japanese
and the simplicity of their idea. They were not trying to conquer the United States

knowing just how powerful of a country they are. Japan was simply trying to put a
point across and it did not result that way.
Franklin D. Roosevelts Pearl Harbor Speech By: Franklin D. Roosevelt
We chose this article because it shows how the encounter of the bombing by
Japan and how it effected our nation. On December 8, 1941, the day after the
attack, Franklin D. Roosevelt gave a speech to the Congress of the United States.
During this speech he called this day (December 7, 1941) a date which will live
in infamy
Saving the Reality: A Sacred Mission By: Kenneth W. Rendell
This website is important because it has a lot of artifacts from the event of the
attack of Pearl Harbor. The first newspapers account The Honolulu StarBulletin, from the afternoon of December 7th, 1941. Also the first message of the

attack on Pearl Harbor is shown on this website.

Teaching with Documents: A day which will live in infamy. National Archives:
The First Typed draft of Franklin D. Roosevelts War Address
We chose this article because it is important to know that Roosevelt explored his
options. After the attack, on December 7th, 1941, the following afternoon, Franklin
D. Roosevelt held meetings with his military advisors. He then requested a
declaration of War to Congress.

Secondary Sources
Attack on Pearl Harbor by: Shelley Tanaka
Giving an outlook from 2 Americans and 2 Japanese kids. Going through the
experience of the attack would have been incredibly hard on both parts. You have
the Japanese that supported their army in bombing the U.S. Then following that
you have the Americans that united together to fight back towards the
Japanese. Together they encountered how when two opposing ideas come
around, in result you get conflict.
Dansho Encyclopedia
The Japanese navy set off an unexpected military attack against the United States
naval base at Pearl Harbor, which was on the island of O'ahu. The attack on Pearl
Harbor was meant to balance out the United States Pacific Fleet as the Japanese

expanded throughout the Pacific region. Enabling the Japanese to have

exploration with this new idea of how to conquer.
People magazine: One of the last living Pearl Harbor survivors remembers "painful" day
Donald Stratton; a man who actually was involved during the attack, says that
with the "deafening explosions, searing heat, machine gun blasts and heartwrenching screams of his friends" he was unable to remove those thoughts from
his head. This shows that since his encounter with the event, he hasn't gone a day
without thinking about it and that's how much it impacted him.
Time Magazine: Tragedy at Honolulu date: Monday Dec 15th, 1941
The U.S naval commander did not become away of the attack until it officially
happened. He didn't think that Japan would actually follow through and do it.
That being said he looked like a complete idiot. Everyone lost their faith in him
and what he stood for because he should have known. He was being relied on.
This shows encounter because it wasn't until the Japanese encountered our land,
that it actually registered that we were being put under attack.
The New York Times: In Hawaii, a Pearl Harbor Remembrance
In this article it elaborates on just how important this day was in history. For the
people that were involved, most of them are now passed. But for those that have
knowledge of the event, they know the emotional damage that was put in place
following the event.
The Axis Dove Lays Its Rotten Egg Cartoon published December 7th, 1941

The cartoon shows a dove dropping rotten eggs or bombs onto U.S.A. ground.
Japan used planes to drop the bombs so the cartoonist used a bird to

that. Birds lay eggs like planes lay bombs. This represents how Japan

made the

exchange of the bombs hitting U.S. ground.

The Errand Boy Did Well On His First Assignment Cartoon published in 1941
This cartoon shows an errand boy washing up his hands after a dirty job. Hitler is
sitting down behind him saying, Did they squirm much? The errand boy is
Japan and Hitler is the boss. Japan did a good job on their first assignment to
bomb the Pearl Harbor. The bombing is what brought America into WWII. By
Hitler asking if they squirmed much, is the boss asking on how America reacted
to the encounter of the bombing and if they knew it was coming.

This is a current photo of the memorial of the U. S. S. Arizona. This was one of
the ships that was wounded in battle and had sunk to the bottom of the Pearl Harbor. This
day effected our nation immensely. They wanted to honor the people that had died that
day. The exchange of what happened that day will forever be in our hearts.

2015 History Net, LLC
We chose this website because it explains the thought process behind the
Japaneses plan. They were in need of oil. If they didnt get oil, the imperial
Japanese industries would grind to a halt in 12-18 months.

After the Day of Infamy: Man on the Street Interviews Following the Attack on Pearl
In December 1941, eighteen fieldworkers in fourteen states and the District of
Columbia were keeping up with the recordings of music for the Library of
Congress's Archive of American Folk Songs. The "Assistant in charge" of the
Archive, Alan Lomax sent telegrams to the workers asking if they could collect
"man-on-the-street" reactions to the Pearl Harbor bombing and the subsequent
declaration of war by the United States. Interviewing a second time was recorded
in January-February 1942. The later interviewees were then asked to address their
responses to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The group also shows several
letters and telegrams to and from Alan Lomax that relates to the conduct of the
interviews. This showcases exchange because it informs us of the reactions to the
bombing of Pearl Harbor.
Attack At Pearl Harbor, 1941 October 22, 2015
The Japanese had a well thought out strategy. They encountered a new idea to try.
When they sent out their planes to attack, they decided to send them in two
different sets. Assuming that this would throw off the Americans, they thought
they had an advantage. Because of this strategic idea, it left the Americans
confused. What were they supposed to do? The pacific fleets aircraft weren't super
damaged so they were about to use them in the revolt back at Japan leading them
to victory at the battle of the midway.
Attack On Pearl Harbor New World Encyclopedia 27 August 2013
Throughout the online encyclopedia it informs us of the proper name for the
Japanese group that did the attacking. That being the Imperial Japanese Navy,
they came in two sets of attack waves in aircraft. Destroying two navy battleships,
killing 2,333 people and wounding 1,139 people. The encounter of this idea was
extremely damaging.
By Jennifer Rosenburg Copyrighted 2015
We chose this article because in it, it mentions the exploration of a new idea by
the Japanese. They thought out their plan of attack and left it up to the results.
After seeing the results, they would then find out if it had any sort of success and
without this exploration of a new idea, they wouldnt have known the result.
By Robert Higgs Posted Monday May 1st, 2006 Copyright 2015 Independent Institute
We chose this article because of the exchange of the Japanese bombing America.
The Americans simply fighting back. So in exchange of the Japanese bombing,
America was then in the position to come back with a stronger fight to Japan.
Contractors Killed By Falling 10,000-Pound Buoy In Pearl Harbor December 14, 2014 12:59pm
The Huffington Post By: Carla Herreria
While replacing a 10,000 lb. large buoy on the USS Tarawa, 2 contractors were
killed and 2 were injured. It fell on top of them due to the attack by the Japanese.

A nearby worker yelled for the men to get out of the way, still leaving with 2 leg
injuries, a man dead on scene, and another with a horrible head trauma that lead to
death. This shows the encounter the men had to take from the Japanese.
Copyrighted 2009 Huff
We chose this because it mentions how some of the battleships sunk but yet were
resurrected. Also mentions that veterans of the Attack could be laid to rest at Pearl
Harbor. They have the privilege to choose if they want to be buried there.
Copyrighted 2015
We chose this source because it mentions the fatal mistake that Lieutenant Kermit
Tyler (Army Forces Pilot) made. When the attack planes were approaching the
land. He thought they were property of the U. S. but he was wrong. This created
major chaos.
Events leading up to December 7, 1941 and the attack on Pearl Harbor
At the time, America was in favor of a policy of isolationism. The isolation
wanted America to stay neutral and out of the growing conflicts between other
nations. Before the attack on Pearl Harbor, Roosevelt was concerned about Japans
power and intentions.
Pearl Harbor Attack. Pearl Harbor Attack. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 October 2012
This source shows us many quotes of Franklin Roosevelt, the president, which
gives us an understanding of his own opinion on the raid on Pearl Harbor.
Yesterday, December 7th, 1941a date which will live in infamythe United

States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces
of the Empire of Japan. This quote shows us how the encounter of the attack
affected our nation and caused our president to pass a declaration of war. America
was then entered into World War II.
Pearl Harbor: A Rude Awakening By Bruce Robinson. March 30, 2011
In the past, America had supplied Japan with many natural and industrial
resources. America was alarmed by Japanese aggression, however America
allowed a commercial treaty from 1911-1940. America soon cut off any
encounterment with Japan. This angered Japan, which led to the bombing of Pearl
Pearl Harbor Attacked December 7, 1941 CECOM Historical Office. U.S. Army Live
Reillyc was not most surprised that the United States had entered war, but HOW
we had entered. He explored all of the secondary and primary resources he

surprised that the Pearl Harbor happened. He feels that maybe the actions of the
bombing were an act of desperation. Japan was cut off of the supplies from
America, and knew they could not defeat America in battle.

Pearl Harbor Attack on N.p., n.d. Web 25 October 2012
This source helps us explore a lot of the exact dates and times of when certain
events happened on the day of when Pearl Harbor was bombed. It shows us how

the series of events led up to the bombing and also the outcome of this tragedy.
The author gives us an inside look on these events to help us fully visualize that
Pearl Harbor Resources The History Guide. October 22, 2015
The United States didn't want any issues with the other countries. One hour after
the Japanese air squadrons had bombed in Oahu, the ambassador of Japan said to
the United States a formal reply to a recently received American message. While
this reply stated that it seemed to have no use to continue the existing things
negotiated, not containing any threats or hints that could have implied that they
wanted to claim war.
Library of Congress American Memory
Library of Congress American Memory
Dating exactly back to December 7th, the two exact ships that were destroyed were
the U.S.S Arizona and the U.S.S Oklahoma. Total of 12 ships sank. Another key
fact is that Alan Lomax, head of the Library of Congress Archive of American
Folk Song had sent to his colleagues, a telegram asking for them to go around,
documenting peoples reaction to the bombing.
Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs, United States Department of State.
This article shows the encounter between Japan and China with the Marco Polo
Bridge Incident. With that happening, it helped instigate Japan and China into
then being in full fledges war made with each other. The U.S. tried to stay out and

avoid getting involved at all costs. It didnt go as planned.

Pearl Harbor Attacked December 7, 1941 December 11, 2011 By: reillyc
The author was trying to explore what the real theory could be about why the
Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. The Japanese were cut off from most of the
supplies that came from America. And they knew they couldnt defeat America in
battle. So they chose to bomb the Pearl Harbor.
Pearl Harbor Awakens the Sleeping Giant
2015, A&E Television Networks
After the attack, the American people came together and were determined to get
revenge on the Japanese and exchange the hurt the Japanese had put on them. On
December 8, Congress approved Roosevelts declaration of war. Japanese allies
Germany and Italy declared war against the United States. After 2 years, the
United States had entered World War II.
Published 2015 A&E Television Network, LLC. All rights reserved.
We chose this article because it mentions the outcome of the actual bombing.
What was damaged when the Japs encountered America? That being 20 Naval
Vessels owned by the Americas.
Some of the Battleships That Sunk That Day Were Resurrected

December 6, 2013 12:07pm

This article shows how the encounter of the bombing made people want to
remember those that were lost. 8 battleships were targeted and all but 2 of them
were eventually repaired. The bullet holes and attacks on the ships are still seen to
this day. They keep them there as a reminder to the lives lost.
In this article, the explanation of the rise of Japan is included. Mentioning
Historical Background is essential because just like in any other situation, there is
always reasoning behind actions. With this information, we are informed of how a
seed of an idea, became a reality.