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New Century Maths 11

Mathematics General
Preliminary course (Pathway 2)
Worked Solutions
Chapter 3

180
3a

360
b
4 a 0.4245
b 0.7547
c 0.9563

SkillCheck
1a

d1
e 0.0175

25 36
61
7.810...
7.81

f 0.5
g 0.5
h 0.0998
i 0.8111

81 9
72
8.485...
8.49

c
d
2a
b
c
d
e
f

2.551... 2.55
151.260... 151.26
2500 10 25000mm
1400 1000 1.4m
2.5 1000 2500mm
9 100 900cm
960000 1000 960m

5a

18 18 6 3

30 30 6 5
15 15 3 5
2

1
9
93 3
3

12 : 28

both

by 4

3: 7
d

27 :18 bothby
3: 2
e

3 5
:
4 8
6:5

firstoneby

3600 100 36m

15 cm : 40 mm
150 mm : 40 mm

bothby

15 : 4
g

1m :10cm
100cm :10cm

28
p
4 p 28
28
p
4
p7
4

bothby

10 :1

7a

x 72 90
x 18

50 km : 500 m
50000 m : 500 m

bothby

y 35
b

700 :1
c

(alternate angles in parallel lines)

k 200 360

1 cm : 2 m
1 cm : 200 cm
1: 200

(complementary angles add to 90)

(angle of revolution is 360)

k 160

a 130 180

(supplementary angles add to 180)

a 50
6a

h 24

2 5
24
h 2
5
48
h
5
3
h9
5
b

k
3
k 18 3
k 54

18

Exercise 3-01
1a

b 2 22 52
29
b 29
5.385...
5.39m
b

8.12 v 2 3.52
v 2 8.12 3.52
53.36
v 53.36
7.304...
7.30m
2

q 2 102 7 2
149
q 149
12.206...

102 z 2 42

12.21cm

84

242 p 2 152
p 2 242 152
351

z 2 102 42
z 84
9.165...
9.2cm
b

v 351
18.734...
18.73cm
e

h 2 42 42
32
h 32
5.656...
5.66cm

612 c 2 602
c 2 612 602
121
z 121
11.0cm
c

9.42 k 2 5.52
k 2 9.42 5.52
58.11
k 58.11
7.622...
7.62m

t 2 182 24 2
900
t 900
30.0cm
d

2a

w2 852 50 2
9725
w 9725
98.615...
98.6m

242 y 2 102
y 2 24 2 10 2
476

z 476
21.817...
a x y
11.180... 21.817...

x 16 63
4225
2

32.997...
33.0m

x 4225
65cm

d 2 3.82 1.82
17.68
d 17.68
4.204...
4.20m

87 2 y 2 652
y 2 87 2 652

3344

482 2 140 2 d 2

z 3344
57.827...
57.8cm

d 2 482 2 140 2

212724
d 212724
461.22...
461m
5

15 x 10
2

x 15 10
2

125
z 125
11.180...

6 2 h 2 22
h 2 6 2 22
32
d 32
5.656...
5.66m
4

252 x 2 17 2

200 2 1602 x 2

x 2 252 17 2
336

x 2 2002 1602
14
x 14
120nautical miles
7

x 336
18.330...
18.3m
h 18.3 1.1
19.4m

x 2 2702 10502

10

x 1175
400

l 2 20 2 7.52

x 1175
400

456.25

1084.158...
1080m

l 456.25
21.36...
21.4cm

8a

11

3.52 h 2 12
h 2 3.52 12
h 2 11.25
h 11.25
3.354...
3.35m
b

l 2 h 2 52
11.25 25
36.25

p 2 0.7 2 3.92
15.7
p 15.7
3.962...
3.96m
12

l 36.25
6.020...
6.02m
9

AB 2 7 2 192
410
AB 410
BC 19 17
650
2

b
2

BC 650
CD 2 222 42
500
CD 500
DE 2 7 2 102
149
DE 149

unknown side y
702 502 y 2
y 2 702 50 2
2400
y 2400
perimeter 50 2 2400 2
197.979...
198.0m

EA2 292 102


941

14

EA 941
Perimeter

x 2 2.42 22
1.76

410 650 500 149 941


110.986...
110.99m

x 1.76
1.326...
1.3m

13 a

15

2.42 x 2 22

base x x 20
152 x 2 122
x 2 152 122
81
x 81
9
base 9 9 20
38cm
perimeter 38 15 20 15
88cm
0.88m
0.9m

x 2 2.52 0.452
6.4525
x 6.4525
2.540...
2.54cm

Exercise 3-02
1 Matching sides PE and BA

scale factor

8
2
4

scale factor

26
5.2
5

h 3 5.2

BG 20mm 2

PN 30mm 3

15.6m
10 a The Sun is lower.

IS 4

EA 3

15m
15m

0.0025
6km 6000m
h 1500 0.0025
3.75m
scale factor

4 Teacher to check
5 A and C

angles not necessarily equal as only


know two of them.

2
3

A and B

equiangular, ratio matching sides =


11

B
3 5
6 1

6 10 12 2
6 a E and G

9
5

12.6 7
b A and B

6.55 2.5 1

13
5
2
c J and H
7

48
9.6
5
h 2m 9.6
19.2m
scale factor

2.9
0.358...
8.1
h 5.2 0.358...
1.861...
scale factor

4.8
3.2
1.5
length shadow 1.8m 3.2
5.76 m
scale factor

12

10.5m 10.5m

43.75
24cm 0.24m
h 30cm 43.75
1312.5cm
13.125m
scale factor

13

2.3
0.123...
18.6
height 9.4m 0.123...
1.162...
1.16m
scale factor

14

1.86m
1.9 m
7

150
6.25
24
width of canal 15m 6.25
93.75m
scale factor

cm : 1000m
4cm : 100000cm
1: 25000
d

15

3.2
3.2
scale factor

0.372...
3.2 5.4 8.6
length of support 12.5m 0.372...
4.651...
4.7m
16

32m
32m

45.714...
70cm 0.70m
height 30cm 45.714...
13.714...
13.7 m
scale factor

10cm : 1m
10cm : 100cm
10 :100
= 1:10
e

m : 2cm
500cm : 2cm
500 : 2
250 :1
2

6cm 6000
000000cm
= 360000m
= 360 km
So, B.

Exercise 3-03
1a

1cm
: 1km

1cm
: 1000m
1cm
: 100000cm
1: 100000
b

mm : 1cm
2mm : 10mm
2 :10
1: 5

55km 2000
km
= 0.0275m
= 2.75 cm
4a

cm : 120km
3cm : 120000m
3cm : 12000000cm
1: 4000000
bi

c
8

2.1cm

4000
00000cm
= 84000m
= 84 km

4 100
400cm
=4m

ii

6.1cm

4000
00000cm
= 244000m
= 244 km

= 216 km
iv

cm 4000
00000cm
= 120000m
= 120 km

or 5 mm

9 3000
27000cm
=m

iii

cm 4000
00000cm
= 216000m

2 4 0.5cm

9.2cm by5.5cm
6a
b

Scale 1cm
:10m
1cm
:1000cm
1:1000

So,cm 1000
5500cm
55m
c

92km 4000
km
= 0.023m
= 2.3 cm
Mittagong
d

km 4000
km
= 0.01m
=1 cm
Katoomba and Penrith
or Mittagong and Wollongong
5a

So,cm 1000
9200cm
92m
7

7.4 200
0.037m
3.7cm
A

8a
b
c

5 4 20km
3.3 4 13.2km
2.9 4 11.6km
9

9a

1cm
: 3m

1cm

200

10cm : 30m

200cm

length 30m

2m
d

cm 200
440cm 4.4m

cm 200
200cm 2m

cm : 3m
0.9cm : 2.7m

Area 4.4 2 8.8m 2

width 2.7m

e
c

cm 200

1cm
: 3m
7.5cm : 22.5m
length 22.5m

300cm 3m
cm 200
360cm 3.6m
Area 3 3.6

10 a

10.8m 2
Cost 10.8 $34
$367.20

1cm

200
200cm
2m

Exercise 3-04
b

1.4cm 200
280cm 2.8m
cm 200
480cm 4.8m
Area 2.8 4.8

1cm
: 2.5m
=1cm
: 250cm
=1: 250
scale factor 250.

13.44m 2

0.8 cm 250
200 cm

11 a

2m

2.2cm by2.5cm
4.4m by5m

2.4 cm 250

4.4 5 6 3 40m

600 cm
6m
10

Both length and width measure 2.4 cm


Area length width
6 m6 m

cost = 48 $84.50
$4056
3a4

36 m 2

b walk-in robe
c1

Window dimensions:
0.6 cm 250 150 cm 1.5 m
0.4 cm 250 100 cm 1 m
Area = front + back + 2 side window

d kitchen
e

= 6 2.5 6 2 2 ( 12 (2 2.5) 6) 1.5 1

2.9 3 4.83 3.99


8.7 19.2717
27.9717

15 12 27 1.5

28m 2

52.5 m 2
Number of litres of paint
52.5
=
10
5.25L
need 6L.
2 Scale factor = 400
a

4a7

8.4 1.8
15.12 m 2

1.5 cm 400

600 cm

Area 1 tile 0.3 0.3

=6m

0.09 m 2
15.12 0.09 168tiles

2 cm 400
800 cm
=8m
c

width = 1.5 cm 400


600 cm
=6m
Area = 8 6
48 m 2

4.2 3.3 6.5 4.0


13.86 26
39.86 m 2
cost 39.86 86
$2710.48
5 a 1:100
b

11

13.5 cm 100
1350 cm
13.5 m

length 2.7 2.7 1.7 3.7 3.6


14.4m
width 1.2 m
Area = 14.4 1.2

c 12 windows

17.28 m 2

d 2 doors

17 m 2

6.4 1.2
7.68 m

8 m2

15 (7.8 1.2)
15 9
135 m 2

2400mm 2.4m

cost = 135 1540

2.2 1.25 5.2 0.8


2.75 4.16
6.91 m (answers may vary

$207900
fi

slightly depending on measurements)


cost 105 6.91
725.55
$700

2.7 0.2 13.5tiles


14tiles
ii

14 14 196tiles
6a

3600 mm by 3600 mm
= 3.6 m 3.6 m
b i 3.6 m

Area 3.6 3.6 3.6 0.6


12.96 2.16
ii

10.8 m 2

Exercise 3-05

12

shift cos 0.3368


70.3179... o'"
70o19 '4.684..."
70o19 '
b

Z shift tan 11 a b c 3
74.7449... o' "
74o44 '41.57..."
74o45'
4a

shift sin 8 a c 19

Y shift sin 0.5

24.90...

30o0 '

25o

6
b

A shift ta n 3.2692
72.99...

73o
ii
c

shift cos 3 a b c 6
60o

opposite
adjacent
4.3 cm
1.4333... 1.43
3 cm
7.2 cm
1.44
5 cm
8.6 cm
1.4333... 1.43
6 cm

tan55o

iii

tan55o 1.43 for all triangles

R shift ta n 0.4129

Exercise 3-06

22.43...
22o
e

X shift sin 0.9815


78.96...
79o
5a

2a

d
18
d 18 tan 49o
20.706...
tan 49o

20.71
b
13

u
11
u 11cos 50o
7.070...
7.07
cos 50o

p
11
p 11tan 50.6o

tan 50.6o

d
6.8
d 6.8sin 45o28'
4.847...
4.85

sin 45o28'

3a

5
cos 63o
11.013...
a

11.01
d

tan 24o47 '

13
k

13
tan 24o47 '
28.156...
28.16

h
55
h 55cos 6o
54.69...
54.7 m

cos 6o

4
d

4
cos 58.4o
7.633...
7.63
d

tan 72o35'

17
r

17
r
tan 72o35'
5.332...
5.33
c

5
a

13.391...
13.39

cos 58.4o

cos 63o

h
5.4
h 5.4sin 28o
2.535...
2.5 m

sin 28o

PQ
14
PQ 14 tan 65o
30.023...
30.0 cm
tan 65o

14

8.7
x

8.7
cos18o
9.147...

5.1
HI
5.1
HI
sin 26o
11.63...

9.1 m

11.6 m

12

cos18o
x

h
64
h 64 tan 56o
94.883...
95 m
tan 56o

h
50
h 50sin 55o
40.9576...
41 m

sin 55o

sin 26o

h
45
h 45 tan 32o
28.11...
28.1 m
tan 32o

13

10

w
20
w 20 tan 65o
42.89...
42.9 m
tan 65o

sin12o

1.7
x

1.7
sin12o
8.176...
8.18 m
x

14

16.3
d
16.3
d
tan 7o
132.75...
132.8 m
tan 7o

11

15

15

58
92
39.08...
sin
39o
d

cos 40o

38
x

38
cos 40o
49.60...
49.6m
a

16

r
78341200
r 78341200sin 0.0025o
3418.279...
3418 km

sin 0.0025o

21
27
37.87...
tan

38o
e

2
19
83.95...
cos
84o
f

3.8
11.1
18.89...
tan

19o

Exercise 3-07
g

14.175...
14o
A
2a

6.1
10.9
34.03...
sin
34o
h

cos

10.7
14.2
41.10...

64o

41o

8
18
63.61...

cos

tan

0.7
1.6
25.944...

42o

26o

9
10
41.98...

tan

4
16

29
32
25.0078...
cos

25o0 ' 28.2"


25o0 '
5

tan

105
4.2
87.709...

0.7
3.9
10.17...

87o42 '33.8"

10o

tan

87o43'
10
6

6
5
50.19...
tan

50o

171
500
19.99...
sin
20o
7

29
50
54.54...
cos
55o

11

2
15
7.594...
tan

7o35' 40.716"
7o36 '

Exercise 3-08
1 a 180o

3.2
15
12.04...
tan

12o
9

b 045o
c 270o
d
e

180 45 225o
360 45 315o

f 090o

17

4a
b
c
d
e
f
g

90 47 043o
180 82 262o

A
90 45 135o
180 67 113o
360 15 345o
b

90 7 83o

A 128 90 38o
B 180 38 45 97o

270 38 308o

C 45o

026o
h
i
j
k
l

Exercise 3-09
270 64 206

270 36o20 ' 233o40 '


180 22o35 ' 157o25 '
270 52o45' 322o45 '
a

x
110
x 110sin 30o

sin 30o
55 km
b
6

18

y
110
y 110 cos 30o
95.26... km
95km

15
20
41.4...o
cos

cos 30o

41o
bearing 90 41
131o

2a

1200
2670
24.20...o

tan

24o12 '3.498"
24o12 '

360 24o12 ' 335o48 '

x
12
x 12 cos15o
11.591...
11.59 km

cos15o

c
Either calculate with Pythagoras:

x 2 12002 26702
x 2 856800
x 856800
2927.2...
2930 m

Or by using Trigonometry:

sin 24o12 '

1200
x

1200
sin 24o12 '
2927.3...
2930 m
x

cos 75o

8
x

8
cos 75o
30.90...
x

31 km
6

19

x
25
x 25cos 32o

cos 32o

21.20...
21 km
9

x
6
x 6 cos 45o
4.242...

cos 45o

4.24 km
7

22
48
24.62o
tan

1.8
tan
15
6.84...

25o

6o50 '33.984"
6o51'
bearing 90 6 51'
o

96 51'

180 70 25 275o

10

20

x
4.9
x 4.9 tan 62o
9.21...
9 km

KL
79
KL 79 tan 62o41
152.95...
153 km

11

tan 62o

tan 62o41

79
LM
79
LM
cos 62o41
172.14...
172 km

cos 62o41

m
sin15
8
m 8sin15o

13

2.07...
cos 60o

2.07...
x

2.07...
cos 60o
4.14...
x

4 km

To find PQ in part a we will need to find the distances


y and m on the diagram. To find m we will need to find
x.
12

a
21

y
152
y 152sin 45o
sin 45o

(leaving as exact so no rounding error later)


x
152
x 152 cos 45o
cos 45o

sin 36o45'

600
x

600
sin 36o45'
1002.800...
1002.80 km
speed 501.40 km/h
x

(leaving as exact so no rounding error later)


m
x
m x tan 34o
tan34o

15

but x 152 cos 45o,


m 152 cos 45o tan 34o
(leaving as exact so no rounding error later)
a

PQ y m
152sin 45o 152 cos 45o tan 34o
179.976...
179.98 km
b

cos 34o

x
n

x
20
x 20cos 20o
18.79...
19 km

cos 20o

020o

x
cos 34o
but x 152 cos 45o,
n

152 cos 45o


n
cos 34o
129.644...
129.64 km

Exercise 3-10
1

14

22

tan 49o

180
x

180
tan 49o
156.47...
x

156 m

d
800
d 800 tan 57o
1231.89...
1232 m
tan 57o

tan 50o
tan16o41'

40
x

40
tan16o41'
133.46...
133 m
x

130
x

130
tan 50o
109.08...
x

109 m
5

5
20
14.036...
tan

14o
6

cos 57o

800
x

800
cos 57o
1468.86...
x

1469 m
b
23

sin10o

0.4
x

0.4
sin10o
2.303...
x

0.6
1.4
25.37...
sin
25o

2.30 m
9a
b

tan10o

0.4
d

0.4
tan10o
2.268...
d

2.27 m

d
35
d 35 cos14o26 '
33.895...

cos14o26 '

33.90 m
b

x
35
x 35sin14o26 '
8.723...
8.72 m

sin14o26 '

7a

10 a

h
3.05
h 3.05 tan 34o
2.057...
2.06 m
tan 34o

171
500
19.99...
sin
20o
b

d
tan 34
4.5
d 4.5 tan 34o
3.035...
o

3.04 m

Using Pythagoras:
x 2 5002 1712
x 2 220759
x 220759
469.84...
470 m

cos 34o

4.5
L

11 a

4.5
cos 34o
5.427...
L

5.43 m
24

cos14o

280
x

280
x
cos14o
288.57...
289 m

scale factor 6.4 2.5


2.56
shadow 2 m 2.56
5.12 m
b

2.5
2
51.34...
tan

51o20 ' 24.69"


51o20 '
13

x
tan14
280
x 280 tan14o
(leave exact so no rounding error later)
y
tan 33o
280
y 280 tan 33o
(leave exact so no rounding error later)
distance of bird from dog = x y
o

280 tan14o 280 tan 33o


251.64...
252 m

5
175
64.62...
cos

64o37 ' 23.04"


64o37 '
14

d
34
d 34 cos 38o
26.79...
26.8 m

cos 38o

15
12

25

tan 22o

230
x

230
tan 22o
(leave exact so no rounding error later)
230
tan18o
PS
230
PS
tan18o
(leave exact so no rounding error later)
Distance Stephanie rowed = PS - x
230
230

o
tan18 tan 22o
138.59...
139 m
x

16 a

x
12.8
x 12.8sin 45o
9.050...
9.05 cm

sin 45o

4.5
8
29.35...
tan

29o21' 27.91"
29o21'

bi

scale factor

3
h 4.5 m
8
1.6875 m
ii

h
3
o
h 3 tan 29 21'
1.68696...
1.6870 m
tan 29o21'

iii Similar triangles because we use the


measurements given rather than the calculated value
of .

Chapter Review
1

d 2 342 242

x 2 x 2 12.82

d 2 1732

2 x 2 163.84

d 1732

x 81.92

41.617...
42 cm

x 81.92
9.050...
9.05 cm

3
8

2a

Sample HSC problem


a

26

scale factor

25
2
1
15
3

2
x 1 7
3
2
11
3
2
y 16 1
3
3
9
5

x 2 382 122
x 2 1300
x 1300
36.055...
36.06 mm
perimeter 48 38 60 36.06
182.06 mm

scale factor 3 m : 20 cm
= 300 : 20
= 15 : 1
a
b

20 mm 15 300 mm

x 2 42 3.52
x 2 28.25
x 28.25
5.315...
perimeter 5.315... 5.315... 7
17.630...
17.63 cm

3
y 9
4
3
64

9m
140 cm

900
140
= 6 73
=

length of shadow = 2 6 73

3a

scale factor

scale factor

3
4

12 76 m
=12.857... m
12.86 m
6

b
27

18 mm 250 4500 mm

Area floor 5.14 3.77

= 4.5 m

19.3778 m 2

15 mm 250 3750 mm

Area tile 0.3 0.3

= 3.75 m

17 m 2

0.09 m 2
Number of tiles 19.3778 0.09
215.30...
216 tiles

7a

9 a 0.63

Area 4.5 3.75


16.875

32 mm : 6.4 m
32 mm : 6400 mm
(divide both by 32)
= 1: 200

b 9.87
c 11.01

68o
10 a

47o

5.45 6.4 34.88 m 2


35 m 2

1.6 1.6 2.56 m 2

6.4 9.75 62.4 m 2


62 m 2

52o
c
11 a

b
10
b 10cos 50o
6.427...
6.43
cos 50o

cos 61o33'
8a

3.7 3.8 3.18 2.97 2.7 3.15 2.7 3.15


14.06 9.4446 2 8.505
40.5146
41 m 2
c

4.5
p

4.5
cos 61o33'
9.446...
p

9.45
c

tan 36o

8
y

8
tan 36o
11.011...
y

11.01
28

12

sin 20o

40
x

40
x
sin 20o
116.952...
117 cm

132 x 2 32
x 2 132 32
x 2 160
x 160
12.649...
12.6 m
b

13 a

cos

3
8
67.975...

3
13
76.657...

68o

76o39 ' 27.49"

cos

76o39 '
b

5
2
68.19...
tan

68o

16
17

270 15 255o
157 90 67o

11
17
40.32...
sin
40o
14

18

18
35
27.216...

360 333 27o


x
tan 27o
500
x 500 tan 27o
254.762...

tan

27o12 '58"
27o13'

254.76 nautical miles

15

19

a
a
29

x 2 52 182
x 2 349
x 349
18.681...
18.68 km
b

5
18
15.52...
tan

16o
bearing 90 16
106o
20

8
21
67.607...
cos
68o
21
o
tan 3115'

650
x

650
tan 31o15 '
1071.166...
1071 m
x

30