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Learning Theories

Learning Theories

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Published by: rodrigo gonzalez on Mar 31, 2010
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Developing Adult Learning Theories


Developing Learning Theories
Is the development of theories a linear process?

Developing Learning Theories

Or is development of theories more of a reflection on the learning process itself?

Transformation Learning Theory
Adult Learning is experiential and transforms the learner.

Transformation Learning Theory
The learning process is seen as cumulative transformations in related meaning schemes

Transformation Learning Theory
Adult Learning can be epochal, a sudden transformation of the learner¶s perception

Three major schools of Learning Theory
Theories based on the study Of learning in children

‡ Behaviorist ‡ Cognitivist ‡ Constructivist

Transformation Learning Theory
Focus on adult learners
‡Four Major schools of Transformation learning theory
‡Conscientization (Freire) ‡Cognitive/Developmental (Mezirow) ‡Motivational (Daloz) ‡Holistic (Boyd)

‡Transformation Learning Theory
‡ Learning as a form of social reform. Education should be a process of action and reflection ‡ Theorist; Paulo Freire.

Highlander in the 60s

Highlander 2002

‡Constructivist Learning Theory

‡ Key Theorist Vygotsky

‡Transformation Learning Theory
‡ Based on cognitive and developmental psychology ‡ Key theorist Jack Mezirow ³Learning is a social process that takes place within the individual learner´

Jack Mezirow
Emeritus Professor of Adult and Continuing Education at Teachers College, Columbia University

‡Cognitivist Learning Theory
‡ Key theorists Piaget, Gagne, Bruner, Ausebel, ‡ Learning is a change in memory, stored knowledge ‡ Focus is on internal aspects, associating previous knowledge with new information, organizing knowledge and reinforcing memories




‡Cognitivist Learning Theory
‡ Learning is an internal process I-P-O
‡ Input- [Attention ]selectively receiving information ‡ Process- [Encoding]Translating information into a meaningful form which can be remembered ‡ Output [Retrieval] identifying and recalling information for a particular purpose

‡Cognitivist Learning Theory
‡ But before the Cognitivists there was Freud and DeCartes

‡Transformation Learning Theory
Motivational ‡ Focuses on the motivations and developmental aspects of adult lives ‡ Key theorist Laurent Daloz
Laurent Daloz
Associate Director and faculty member of the Whidbey Institute in Clinton, Washington.

‡Behaviorist Learning Theory
‡ E.L. Thorndike and B.F. Skinner ‡ Learning is a change in behavior ‡ Focus is on external aspects



‡Behaviorist Learning Theory
‡ Learning is as simple as A-B-C
‡ Antecedent (stimulus) ‡ Behavior (action) ‡ Consequence (re-enforcer)



‡Behaviorist Learning Theory
‡ But before Thorndike and Skinner was Pavlov and his dogs

‡Transformation Learning Theory
Holistic ‡ Focus on the emotional and spiritual dimensions of learning ‡ Key theorist Robert Boyd

Constructivist Theory

‡ Learning is a change in meaning constructed from experience ‡ Focus is on internal aspects, building understanding

‡Constructivist Learning Theory
‡ Before Vygotsky there was Freud, DeCartes, as well as Marx, St. Augustine, Aristotle,

Plato, and far to many others to give proper credit here.

Developing Learning Theories
So what fed and shaped the thinking of Freire, Mezirow, Daloz and Boyd that they came up with their theories of Tranformation learning?

Developing Learning Theories
Things to think about
‡What was going on in the world while these theorists were coming up with their theories? ‡How did world events influence the resultant theory?

Developing Learning Theories
Things to think about
‡How do the theories impact each other?

Developing Learning Theories
Things to think about
‡ Is theory development a linear process?

‡ Busse, C. (2002) Transformative Learning (unpublished) ‡ Driscoll, M.P. (2000) Psychology of Learning for Instruction, 2nd ed., Allyn and Bacon Pub. ‡ Knowles, M. (1998) Modern Practice of Adult eduction: from Pedagogy to Andragogy, Cambridge adult press ‡ Newly et. al, (1996) Instructional Technology for teaching and Learning, Prentice Hall Pub. ‡ Mezirow, J. (1994) Understanding Transformation theory, Adult education quarterly v.44 no. 4

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