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Base Isolation A Technique

Earthquake Engineering

SEMINAR REPORT
ON

BASE ISOLATION A TECHNIQUE


Prepared by:
Charmy Modi

100420106034

Yati Tank

100420106035

Sanket Solanki

100420106036

Henish Patel

100420106037

Darshika Patel

100420106038

Ronak Jariwala

100420106039

Ruchika Patel

100420106040

Under the Guidance of:


Prof. DHARMESH BHAGAT
Prof. JIGAR SEVALIA

FEBRUARY 2013
B.E. (3RD YEAR) 6TH SEMESTER
Department of Civil Engineering
Sarvajanik College of Engineering & Technology
Athwalines, Surat, Gujarat
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Base Isolation A Technique

Earthquake Engineering

SARVAJANIK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

Athwalines, Surat, Gujarat

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the seminar report entitled Base Isolation-A Technique is prepared &
presented by Charmy Modi (34), Yati Tank (35), Sanket Solanki (36), Henish Patel (37),
Darshika Patel (38), Ronak Jariwala (39), Ruchika Patel (40) of B.E. III year, VI Semester
Civil Engineering during year 2011-12.
His / Her work is satisfactory.

Signature of Supervisors

Base Isolation A Technique

Earthquake Engineering

CONTENTS
1. Literature review...4
2. Introduction...5
3. Response of Base Isolated Buildings....8
4. Spherical sliding isolation system10
5. Types of bearings.10
5.1 Lead rubber bearings.10
5.2 Elastomeric bearings..11
5.3 High-damping rubber bearings (HDRBs)..12
5.4 Hybrid type: lead high-damping rubber bearings (LHDRBs)13
6. Maintenance and management of the isolation system15
7. Factors which enable the use of the base isolation...16
8. Practical application of base isolation...17
8.1 The first seismically isolated building17
8.2 The first seismically isolated bridge...18
9. The future of seismic isolation..18
10. Limitations.19
11. Case study..20
12. Conclusion.22
13. Reference23

Base Isolation A Technique

Earthquake Engineering

Base Isolation A Technique


1. Literature Review:
P. Komodromos in his book explains the basics of earthquakes and the detailed
description on the seismic isolation. He has described the need of this technique, its main
objective, principle on which it works, what exactly seismic isolation is?, the
mathematical calculations required to be done during the design of the seismically
isolated structures, the various factors affecting the building, etc.
Henry J. Lagorio has mainly written this book for the civil engineers and members of
the architectural profession as a means of transferring to them some of the latest
developments in earthquake hazards reduction. His interest in earthquake engineering
began in 1947 when he joined the faculty of architecture at the University of California at
Berkeley. He states that being the engineer, the main aim should be the safety of the
people. Now earthquake proof structures could not be built but at least earthquake
resistant structures could be built by using various techniques. One of those techniques is
the Base isolation technique.
David Dowrick has written this book to help professionals of a wide range of disciplines
in their attempts to reduce the social and economic risks of earthquakes. Earthquake risk
reduction involves so many issues in planning, design, regulation, quality control and
finance that are difficult for any individual to gain a full perspective on the issue, or for
any society to move forward in the quest at their desired speed. The general principles of
this book apply to the whole built environment. This book was written from the
standpoint of a designer trying to keep a broad perspective on the total process starting
from the nature of the loading through the details of the construction.
George G. Penelis and Andreas J. Kappos have started the book with the physics of
earthquake generation and finished it with the social aspects of mitigating the effect of
earthquakes. He has described about the various methods so that the structures which are
earthquake resistant.

Base Isolation A Technique

Earthquake Engineering

2. Introduction:
What is base isolation?
Base isolation is one of the most popular means of protecting a structure against
earthquake forces. It is one of most powerful tools of earthquake engineering pertaining
to the passive structural vibration control technologies. It is easiest to see the principle at
work by referring directly to the most widely used of these advanced techniques, known
as base isolation. A base isolated structure is supported by a series of bearing pads, which
are placed between the buildings and building foundation.
The concept of base isolation is explained through an example of building resting
on frictionless rollers. When the ground shakes, the rollers freely roll, but the building
above does not move. Thus, no force is transferred to the building due to the shaking of
the ground; simply, the building does not experience the earthquake.

Base Isolation A Technique

Earthquake Engineering

Now, if the same building is rested on the flexible pads that offer resistance
against lateral movements, then some effect of the ground shaking will be transferred to
the building. If the flexible pads are properly chosen, the forces induced by ground
shaking can be a few times smaller than that experienced by the building built directly on
ground, namely a fixed base building. The flexible pads are called base-isolators, whereas
the structures protected by means of these devices are called base-isolated buildings. The
main feature of the base isolation technology is that it introduces flexibility in the
structure. As a result, a robust medium-rise masonry or reinforced concrete building
becomes extremely flexible. The isolators are often designed, to absorb energy and thus
add damping to the system. This helps in further reducing the seismic response of the
building. Many of the base isolators look like large rubber pads, although there are other
types that are based on sliding of one part of the building relative to other.
Base isolation is not suitable for all buildings. Mostly low to medium rise
buildings rested on hard soil underneath; high-rise buildings or buildings rested on soft
soil are not suitable for base isolation.

Base Isolation A Technique

Earthquake Engineering

Base Isolation A Technique

Earthquake Engineering

Concept of Base Isolation

3. Response of Base Isolated Buildings:


The base-isolated building retains its original, rectangular shape. The base isolated
building itself escapes the deformation and damage-which implies that the inertial forces
acting on the base isolated building have been reduced. Experiments and observations of
base-isolated buildings in earthquakes to as little as of the acceleration of comparable
fixed-base buildings.
Acceleration is decreased because the base isolation system lengthens a buildings
period of vibration, the time it takes for a building to rock back and forth and then back
again. And in general, structures with longer periods of vibration tend to reduce
acceleration, while those with shorter periods tend to increase or amplify acceleration.

Base Isolation A Technique

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Spherical Sliding Base Isolation

Base Isolation A Technique

Earthquake Engineering

4. Spherical sliding isolation system:


Spherical sliding isolation systems are another type of base isolation. The building
is supported by bearing pads that have a curved surface and low friction. During an
earthquake the building is free to slide on the bearings. Since the bearings have a curved
surface, the building slides both horizontally and vertically. The forces needed to move
the building upwards limits the horizontal or lateral forces which would otherwise cause
building deformations. Also by adjusting the radius of the bearings curved surface, this
property can be used to design bearings that also lengthen the buildings period of
vibration.

5. Types of bearings:
5.1 Lead-rubber bearings
These are the frequently-used types of base isolation bearings. A lead rubber
bearing is made from layers of rubber sandwiched together with layers of steel. In the
middle of the solid lead plug. On top and bottom, the bearing is fitted with steel plates
which are used to attach the bearing to the building and foundation. The bearing is very
stiff and strong in the vertical direction, but flexible in the horizontal direction.

Lead is a crystalline material which changes its structure temporarily, under


deformations beyond its yield point, and regains its original structure and elastic properties
as soon as the deformation is removed by the restoring force in the rubber. Note that lead
has good fatigue properties for subsequent cycles of loading beyond its yield point.

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How it works?
To get a basic idea of how base isolation works, first examine the above diagram.
This shows earthquake acting on base isolated building and a conventional, fixed-base
and building. As a result of an earthquake, the ground beneath each building begins to
move. Each building responds with movement which tends towards the right. The
buildings displacement in the direction opposite the ground motion is actually due to
inertia. The inertia forces acting on a building are the most important of all those
generated during an earthquake.
In addition to displacing towards right, the un-isolated building is also shown to
be changing its shape from a rectangle to a parallelogram. We say that the building is
deforming. The primary cause of earthquake damage to buildings is the deformation
which the building undergoes as a result of the inertial forces upon it.
5.2 Elastomeric isolation system
The most popular seismic isolation systems use elastomeric bearings which
consist of thin rubber sheets bonded onto thin steel plates and combine with an energy
dissipation mechanism. The rubber sheets are vulcanized and bonded to the thin steel
plates under pressure and heat.

The inner thin steel plates provide the vertical load capacity and Stiffness,
and prevent lateral bulging of the rubber.In particular the steel plates laterally constrain
the rubber sheets as vertical load is applied to the elastomeric bearing, providing the
vertical stiffness. Horizontal flexibility is provided by the shearing deformability of the
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rubber sheets which are not restrained from deform in that direction by the steel plates.
Thick mounting steel plates are bonded to the bottom and top surfaces allowing the
isolator to be firmly connected to the foundation below and the superstructure above.
The energy dissipation mechanism is based either on the plastic deformation of a
metal or on the inherent damping properties of the rubber. In the first case either lead
plugs are inserted in the elastomeric bearings or auxiliary dampers based on deformations
of lead or steel are used.
Lead rubber bearings (LRBs) and high-damping rubber bearings (HDRBs)
are most useful in seismic isolation since they provide the following in a single unit:
Vertical support due to the high vertical stiffness, which is usually several
hundred times the horizontal stiffness .Sufficient vertical stiffness is necessary to
avoid rocking of the structure.
Horizontal flexibility which shifts the fundamental frequency of the structure out
of the dangerous for resonance frequency range.
An energy dissipation mechanism, either via the plastic deformation of the lead
plug or through the inherent damping properties of high damping rubber.
Finally, there are also some systems that use natural rubber bearings (NRBs) with
additional steel or lead damper; in this case energy dissipation results from the plastic
deformations of the damper.
5.3 High-damping rubber bearings (HDRBs):
This type of bearing consists of thin layers of high damping rubber sandwiched
between steel plates. The same manufacturing methods for vulcanization and bonding
that are used for LRBs are also used to construct HDRBs. The only difference is the
composition of the rubber compound, which provides increased damping.
High-damping rubber is actually a filled rubber compound with inherent damping
properties due to the addition of special fillers, such as carbon and resins. The addition of
fillers increases the inherent damping properties of rubber without affecting its
mechanical properties. When shear stresses are applied to high-damping rubber, a sliding
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of molecules generates frictional heat which is a mechanism of energy dissipation. In


unfilled natural rubber, used for LRBs, frictional heat is negligible because the molecular
attraction in physical cross links is very weak. The energy dissipation mechanism of an
HDRB is available for both small and large strains, is constant and is characterized by
smooth elliptical hysteresis loops. Experimental studies of high damping rubber bearings
verified the anticipated energy dissipation capacity, which is, typically, equivalent to
about 15% damping ratio of equivalent linear elastic models.
However, HDRBs may not provide the necessary initial rigidity under service
loads and minor lateral loads, although some initial rigidity is provided by high-damping
rubber compounds which exhibit higher stiffness under small strains. A structure isolated
with HDRBs essentially has a constant, large fundamental period due to the flexibility of
the isolation system, which makes the structure vulnerable to wind action with dominant
frequencies close to the fundamental frequency. In addition, the damping and mechanical
properties of the HDRB appear to be temperature dependent while the hysteretic energy
dissipation mechanism of the LRB is not. HDRBs are not as widely used in seismic
isolation as LRBs.
5.4 Hybrid type: lead high-damping rubber bearing (LHDRBs)
A hybrid type of lead high-damping rubber bearing (LHDRBs) may consist of
layers of high-damping rubber sandwiched between steel plates and a smaller diameter
lead cylinder plug firmly in a hole at its center. This hybrid bearing may have the
advantages of both isolation systems discussed above. The LHDRBs has both an initial
rigidity, due to the presence of the lead plug, and a continuous energy dissipation
mechanism, due to the damping properties of the high-damping rubber. Therefore, the
isolation system is expected to perform well in both weak and extreme earthquakes as
well as under minor lateral loads. In addition, the properties of this bearing will be less
dependent on temperature changes and shear strains than those of HDRB. Also, the use of
LHDRBs allows the reduction of the initial stiffness of the isolation system which is
responsible for higher frequency effects. A final advantage is that the effectiveness of
such a device and its compact size make it suitable for cases where installation space is

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limited. LHDRBs offer a practical and cost-effective trade-off between the advantages
and limitations of LRBs and HDRBs.
When practically possible, it may be more effective to place the high-damping
rubber bearings with lead plugs at the perimeter of the building, preferably under the
columns situated as far away as possible from the center of stiffness and mass of the
isolated structure. High-damping rubber bearings with no lead plugs may be used under
the internal columns. This configuration will allow lower prior-to-yielding stiffness of the
lead plugs and consequently, a smoother change of the stiffness during yielding and
reverse loading. The high initial stiffness and its sudden changes are responsible for
higher mode effects and acceleration increases, which may be avoided by reducing the
initial stiffness. In addition, lower initial stiffness will provide a higher degree of
isolation at the prior-to-yielding stage. Placing the bearings with the lead plugs under the
external columns away from the center of stiffness will provide higher resistance against
torsion, due to the larger diameter between the points of application of forces and the
center of stiffness of the isolation system. Note that this configuration may be used only
when there is a rigid diaphragm at the isolation level to redistribute the inertia forces to
the LHDRBs.
An effective isolation system must have both viscous and hysteretic damping and
must ensure a continuous energy dissipation mechanism. The viscous damping, which is
velocity dependent, will ensure a continuous energy dissipation mechanism for both
severe earthquakes and micro tremors. Viscous damping may be provided by actual
viscous dampers or by rubber with inherent damping properties. The latter does not
actually provide such damping, which may, however, be assumed due to the rubbers
smooth elliptical hysteresis loops during cyclic loading. The optimum viscous damping
ratio lies within 20 to 30%; higher values lead to increase in floor acceleration.

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6. Maintenance and Management of the Isolation System:


The isolation system must remain operational for the world expected lifetime of
the structure under all possible environmental effects. These may corrode the metallic
parts of the isolation system and deteriorate the elastomer; such effects may be reduced
by using a protective rubber cover. The maintenance of the isolation system, and
especially that of the seismic gap, must be frequent to ensure the vertical loads which
they must sustain. When the construction of a diaphragm is not possible, the bearings
must be designed in proportion to the magnitude of the lateral forces carried by the
members above them. It is difficult to take into account such design issues due to the
uncertainties involved; therefore, the construction of a diaphragm above the isolation
level must be anticipated. Note that here, the existence of a rigid diaphragm is assumed.
Finally, the selected location of the bearings must be such that access to them is enabled
for inspection and possible replacement purposes.

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7. Factors which enable the use of base isolation:


Several factors favor the development and practical application of seismic
isolation. First of all there are increased requirements for the performance of structure in
severe earthquakes which are not met by current conventional design philosophy. These
are crucial to structures containing sensitive and expensive equipment vulnerable even to
micro tremors.
Second, the advance of computer technology and modern structural analysis
method enables the development of reliable software to stimulate the response of
structures. The development of seismic engineering and earthquake engineering to level
where reliable prediction can be made for expected earthquakes, is another important
factor.
In addition, the construction of shaking tables which can stimulate actual
earthquake excitations makes possible the experiment validation of the behavior of
seismic isolation system. The study of other minor loads such as wind load and the
reliable quantifications of their expected intensities and frequency of occurrence, also
enables the use of seismic isolation.
Finally, development, manufacture and extensive research in the area of structural
material enable the reliable use of modern material for seismic isolation device. The
development of device which decipate energy and provide the restoring force to avoid
permanent displacement also allow the practical implementation of the seismic isolation
concept.

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8. Practical application of Base Isolation:


Researchers on the subject of seismically isolated buildings state that proper
application of this technology leads to better performing structures that will remain
essentially elastic during large earthquakes. There are more than 3000 seismically
isolated structures around the world. The number includes not only buildings but also
bridges and tanks. Of these approximately 150 are in United States. Literature on seismic
isolation repeatedly quotes the University of Southern California Hospital in Los Angeles
as a significant example of a seismically isolated, seven-story-plus-basement structure
that survived the Northridge earthquake and remained operational. The technology of
seismic isolation has recently made remarkable advancements since the concept was first
put into practice with two buildings constructed on rollers: one in Mexico, the other in
Sevastopol, Ukraine.
8.1 The first seismically isolated building
The first seismically isolated building with a rubber isolation system emerged in
1969 in Skopje, in former Yugoslavia. It is a three-story school building that rests on
solid blocks of rubber without the inner horizontal steel-reinforcing plates as is done
today.
The first seismically isolated building in the United States was the Foothill
Communities Law and Justice Center in Rancho Cucamonga, California, completed in
1985. It took some time until another isolated building was built in the United States. The
reason for the reluctance was quite simple: Seismic isolated structures did not find their
way into the building codes. Design professionals, on the other hand, were not able to
show any appreciable savings to their clients by using this system.
Theoretically, in a perfectly functioning seismic isolation there will be no lateral
seismic force acting on the isolated superstructure. Yet if the building codes and building
officials persist in designing such superstructures to the same lateral forces pertaining to a
fixed-base structure, there will be no savings. This is because the superstructure will end
up with equally heavy steel sections or massive reinforced-concrete sizes to counter
relatively light lateral seismic design forces.
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8.2 The first seismically isolated bridge


The first bridge structure that utilized an isolation system, with added damping,
was the Te Teko viaduct in New Zealand, built in 1988. The isolation system contains a
sandwich of laminated steel and rubber bearing layers with a central lead core for energy
dissipation. This type of isolation system, referred to as lead-rubber bearing, is now widely
used. The first building supplied with LRB isolation was the William Clayton Building in
Wellington, New Zealand, in 1981.

9. The future of seismic isolation:


Seismic isolation is an effective design scheme which successfully addresses
earthquake loadings, and not only provides safety but also prevents damage. Seismic
isolation is particularly useful for low-to medium rise buildings which happen to have
their fundamental frequencies within the dangerous-for-resonance range of dominant
earthquake frequencies. Critical facilities, such as emergency response centers, hospitals,
fire-stations, utilizes and communication centers, should remain operational of such
essential, for the public interest, facilities may be prevented by using seismic isolation to
enhance their earthquake capacity by reducing the seismic loads that they may experience
during a powerful earthquake.
It is very useful, and is probably the only currently available technology that can
be used, to seismically upgrade historic structures or to protect very sensitive equipment
and the valuable contents of a building.

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10.Limitations:
Although seismic isolation is a very promising design method for dealing with
earthquake loads, it cannot be used for all structures and at all sites.
10.1 Superstructure characteristics
A seismic isolation is generally suitable for low- to medium-rise buildings which
have their fundamental frequency in the range of the usual dominant frequencies of
earthquakes. Super structure characteristics such as height, width, aspect ratio and
stiffness are related to the applicability and effectiveness of seismic isolation.
10.2 Site characteristics
The seismicity of the particular region must be considered in order to determine
the necessity of seismically isolated structure in that region. Base isolation is not suitable
for all buildings. Mostly low to medium rise buildings rested on hard soil underneath;
high-rise buildings or buildings rested on soft soil are not suitable for base isolation.
10.3 Surrounding structures
All adjacent structures or facilities which may impose restriction on the seismic
isolation system must be taken into account, especially in order to estimate the
maximum allowable displacement. There are cases where the location of adjacent
structures does not allow the use of seismic isolation. Finally, the surrounding ground
may also impose restriction and special design details may be needed to enable the use
of seismic isolation.

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11. Case Study:


NEW BHUJ HOSPITAL COMPLETED WITH EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
NZ TECHNOLOGY
7 May 2003

The completion of the new earthquake resistant Bhuj District Hospital in Indias earthquake
prone Gujarat State is a particularly satisfying achievement for members of the Wellington-based
Earthquake Engineering NZ business cluster, says EENZ Chairman David Hopkins.
The 300-bed Bhuj hospital replaces the building that claimed 176 lives when it collapsed during
the major January 2001 Gujarat earthquake. This is the first new building in India to be fitted
with the earthquake-resistant NZ developed base-isolation technology. The hospitals base
isolation design and bearings have been provided with the assistance of Earthquake Engineering
NZ members.

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A bi-lingual Hindi and English video has been made by Story!inc and Execam of the Creative
Capital Cluster of the achievement of rebuilding the new Bhuj hospital within two years of the
earthquake by Indias leading architects, engineers and construction firm working with the
assistance of New Zealands specialist earthquake engineering expertise. Trade NZ, Industry NZ
and Cluster members have sponsored the making of this video for use in India.
The Indian design team for the hospital has been led by architect Uday Pattanayak of EFN
Ribeiro Associates, New Delhi, and Structural Engineer Kamal Sabharwal. The construction
company is Indias largest, Larsen & Toubro. Cluster member Becas internationally renowned
seismic expert Richard Sharpe was working on a project in India at the time of the earthquake.
With the assistance of the New Zealand Government and support of the Earthquake Engineering
NZ cluster he was able to identify the reconstruction of the Bhuj hospital as a suitable project for
New Zealands earthquake engineering assistance. He recommended that the replacement
hospital be fitted with New Zealand developed base isolation lead rubber bearings. This robust
technology is well-suited to construction styles in India.
The specialist computer-based earthquake-resistant base-isolation building design work was
undertaken in Wellington by fellow cluster members Holmes Consulting Group and Dunning
Thornton Consultants, with the bearings manufactured and supplied by Robinson Seismic Ltd.
The lead rubber bearing technology was invented by Cluster member Bill Robinson.
The New Zealand Government contributed $ 150,000 to the cost of the project base-isolation
feasibility study and design work as part of the initial disaster recovery stage. The Indian Prime
Ministers Relief Fund funded the hospital construction, including the cost of the Robinson
Seismic Ltd bearings.
Other follow-up project opportunities In India worth several millions of dollars are being
pursued by members of the Earthquake Engineering NZ and associated Natural Hazards NZ
business clusters. These include further base-isolated building projects as well as several World

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Bank funded disaster risk management projects.

Mack Morum
Project Manager
Bhuj Hospital Project
Earthquake Engineering NZ India Export Network
Robinson Seismic Ltd.

12.Conclusion:
We can use base isolation technique to construct the earthquake resistant building.
Proper materials and design should be selected to get the best result. The safety of people
should be the main aim.

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13. References:
P. Komodromos
Seismic isolation for earthquake resistance structure.
Henry J. Lagorio
Earthquake An architects guide to nonstructural seismic hazards.
Charles K. Erdey
Earthquake Engineering.
Yousef Bozorgnia & Vitelmo V. Bertero
Earthquake Engineering.
Wai Fan Chen & Charles Scawthorn
Earthquake Engineering Hand Book
George G. Penelis & Andreas J. Kappas
Earthquake resistant concrete structure
David Dowrick
Earthquake risk reduction

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