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O P ER ATIO N S O N S ETS

B Y: A N G ELO C A R LO N

U nion
If A and B be two

sets, then the


union (A U B) is
defined as a set of
all those elements
which are either in
A or in B or in
both.
Symbolically, A U
B={x: x A v x E
B}

Ex. Let A = {a, b, c, d, e}


B = {a, e, I, o, u}
(A U B) = {a, b, c, d, e, I, o, u}

Intersection
If A and B be two

sets, then the


intersection (A
B) is defined as a
set of all those
elements which
are common to
both the sets.
Symbolically,
(AB) = {x:xA
xB}

Ex. A = {a, b, c, d, e}
B= {a, e, I, o, u}
(A B) = {a, e}

D iff
erence
If A and B be two

sets, then the


difference (A-B) is
defined as a set of
all those elements
of A which are not
in B,
Symbolically, (A-B)
= {x | x A and
xB}

Example
A = {a, b, c, d, e, f}
B = {a, c, I, o, u, k}
(A-B) = {b, d, e, f}

Sym m etric D iff


erence
If A and B be two

sets, then the


symmetric
difference (AB) or
(A +o B) is defined
as a set of all
those elements
which are either in
A or in B but not in
both.
Symbolically, (A

Ex: Let A = {a, b, c, k, p, q, r, s}

B= {b, k, q, m, n, o, t}
So, (A-B)= {a, c, p, r, s}
and (B-A)= {m, n, o, t}
Therefore

(A +o B) = (A-B) U (B-A)

={a, c, p, r, s, m, n,
o, t}

Com plem ent ofa Set


If A be a set, then

the complement
__ of
A is given as Ac , A
or A and is
defined as a set of
all those elements
of the universal set
U which are not in
A
Symbolically, Ac =
{x|xU and xA}

Ex. A = {b, c, k, d, I, p, q, r, s, t}
So, we can take the universeal set U

= {a,b,c, , x, y, z}
Therefore, Ac = U-A

={a, e, f, g, h, j, l,
m, n, o, u, v, w, x, y, z}

Theorem
Commutative laws:
(A U B)=((b U A)
(A B)=(B A)

Associative laws:
A U (B U C)= (A U B) U C
A (B C)=(A B) C

Idempotent laws:
AUA=A
AA=A

Identity laws:
AU=A
AU=A

Bound laws:
AUU=U
A=

Absorption laws:
A U (A B) = A
A (A U B) = A

Complement laws:
A U Ac = U
A Ac =

Involution law:
(Ac )c = A

Distributive laws:
A (B U C)=(A B) U (A C)
A U (B C)=(A U B) (A U C)

de M organs Law
(A U B)c =(Ac Bc )
(A B)c =(Ac U Bc )

D isjoint Sets
Two sets A and b are called disjoint

or non-overlapping if both sets have


no common element.
Mathematically, (A B)=
Venn Diagram:

Product ofSets
The product of two sets A and B is

the set of all those order pairs whose


first coordinate is an element of A
and the second coordinate is an
element of B denoted by (A x B)
Ex. A = {1,2,3,5}
B={4,9,25}
So, (A x B)={(1,4), (1,9), (1,25),
(2.4), (2,9), (2,25), (3,4), (3,9),
(3,25), (5,4), (4,9), (5,25)}

Fundam entalProducts
Ex.
Consider 3 sets a, B and C. The fundamental products of

these three sets are as follows, which are 2^3 in number.


ABC
A B C
A B C
A B C
A B C
A B C
A B C
A B C

End