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North American University

Education Department
M.Ed. in EDLE & CUIN
Name:__Kanuni Yilmaz

Date: ____11/01/2015

Topic Selected:

What does the research say about advantages and disadvantages of distance
What does the literature/research say about this issue/topic? By using NAU
Library or Online Search engines, conduct a literature review.

You need to include 5 different sources (book, journal article, web article
etc.) in your review. Try to use current sources as much as possible.

You need to summarize and synthesize your sources by discussing a

common theme or issue.

You don't need to critique your sources

You don't need to evaluate your sources (if the sources are trustworthy,
weather the author has a bias or not)

You need to provide background information such as history and


Brief Literature Review:

Distance learning is defined as... "any educational or learning process or system in which
the teacher and instructor are separated geographically or in time from his or her
students; or in which students are separated from other students or educational
resources. Contemporary distance learning is effected through the implementation of
computer and electronics technology to connect teacher and student in either real or
delayed time or on an as-needed basis. Content delivery may be achieved through a
variety of technologies, including satellites, computers, cable television, interactive
video, electronic transmissions via telephone lines, and others. Distance learning does
not preclude traditional learning processes; frequently it is used in conjunction with inperson classroom or professional training procedures and practices. It is also called
distributed learning."
Distance learning can be provided in several contexts including stand alone distance
learning, blended learning where the student participates in a regular class and distance
learning class concurrently, and hybrid learning where distance learning supplements
classroom instruction.
There are two distance education delivery system categories - synchronous and
asynchronous. Synchronous instruction requires the simultaneous participation of all
students and instructors. The advantage of synchronous instruction is that interaction is

done in "real time" and has immediacy. Examples include interactive telecourses,
teleconferencing and web conferencing, and Internet channel.
The earliest version of distance education, developed in the mid-nineteenth century in
Europe, and the United States, and spread swiftly. In 1840, an English educator, Sir Isaac
Pitman, taught shorthand by mail (Encarta). In the United States during the nineteenth
century, there were several opportunities in adult education prior to the advent of
university extension beyond campuses. In 1873, Anna Ticknow established a society that
presented educational opportunities to women of all classes to study at home (Nasseh).
Ticknow's Boston-based, volunteer endeavor provided correspondence instruction to
more than 10,000 students over the course of 24 years (Nasseh). Communication,
teaching and learning all took place through printed materials sent through the mail.
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, cable and satellite television came into use. The advent
of the Internet and digital applications in the 1990s, combined with the changing
demographics of the distance education learner, added a whole new dimension to distance
education. These new technologies bring educational opportunity to the non-traditional
student, and the lure of economic prosperity to higher educational institutions.
Online learning, a descendent of distance education, has spawned a number of
educational institutions devoted solely to online degree programs in the United States.
Traditional universities have also expanded their offerings to include online education
(Caruth & Caruth, 2012: Hyman, 2012; Lei & Gupta, 2010).
The convenience of online learning has made it possible to reach a student population
that was previously un-served, to reach more students at peak times of the day, and to
maximize resources and flexibility for the university (Lei & Gupta, 2010). With this
rapid growth in online education it seems prudent to examine the history of distance
education in the United States.
Blended and hybrid courses are defined as courses that deliver material both face-toface
and online and students interact with instructors both online and face-to-face.
Distance education is defined as instruction in which students are separated from
instructors to reach a during the entire course of study
Face-to-face and traditional courses are courses that deliver material face-to-face and
students interact with instructors face-to-face.
Online and internet courses are defined as courses that deliver material entirely online
and students interact with instructors entirely online.
1. Provides for an increase in Access to education for those who otherwise have no other
opportunities due to work, family or physical limitations.
2. It allows for individualized instruction. Instructor is able to design the curriculum to
each students needs
3. It allows flexibility for scheduling learning-Students can determine time and place of
4. It permits instructional flexibility in location for study-Students can engage course at
home or work or on campus or at a library.
5. Distance Education develops self-discipline. Learning is student-driven rather than
6. Facilitates learner-instructor interaction.
7. Increased interaction with classmates.
8. Opportunity to develop technology competencies for instructors and learners.
9. Access to global resources and experts via internet communication and Internet

12. Allows for the internationalization of learning opportunities.

13. Centralized resources can produce higher quality materials for distribution.
14. Has the potential to equalize access to education.
15.It creates a focused environment. Less discipline problems means less time spent off
the topic
16.It makes all students apparent in the classroom. Quiet students cannot hide from
1. Time and frustration involved learning how to get on-line for novices.
2. Lag time between student input and feedback -Time lapse between need for learner
support and resolution.
3. Occasional internet provider downtime.
4. Student must be more active and self-directed in learning environment -Depends on
individual motivation and initiative.
5. Occasional feelings of isolation- Potentially less group support for learners leading to
isolation and possible non-completion of program.
6. Demands large effort and cost to develop appropriate materials.
7. Demands large effort to create and maintain the technological infrastructure.
8. Distance Education is not for everyone.- It is not for undisciplined learners nor
inflexible instructors.
9. There is less face-to-face interaction time between peers and between teacher and
students. Also students do not have recess time to socialize and play
10. There is a lack of time to develop appropriate social skills. No face-to-face meeting
for interactions among peers and with teacher in different settings.
11. There is less physical activity. It means not getting up to do scaffolding activities or
activities that are geared for the kinesthetic learners.
12. Students may not have the necessary resources and skills (typing, equipment,
software, etc.) at home.


What is your personal opinion on this issue? Do you agree with the research? If
you agree or disagree, please explain why?
Provide examples/experiences regarding this issue from school perspective or If
you are not working in a school, from your profession. Be specific with your
examples. You can mention software/hardware names, specific methods that you
plan to use, etc.

How would you implement this research in your career? (At least 1 paragraph)


Online education is becoming an integral part of the American educational system

(Caruth & Caruth, 2012; Hyman, 2012; Lei & Gupta, 2010). Currently Some of colleges
or institutes offer a lot of online undergraduate, graduate and doctoral programs and some
online courses in traditional kindergarten to doctoral level. Distance education become
very useful for students and school district in high school and college level. There are
concerns the future developments of distance educational system while enrollment
number is growing every day.
The online education is currently pretty popular in United State among students who
work, are disable, has family matter and etc. I agree with researchers it gives equal
education opportunity for everyone for education. It helps to increase number of educated
citizen. Somewhat online education system increases coloration between students and
student and instructor. My concern is for online collaboration there is less face to face
interaction and less socialization opportunity. I believe that will increase writing and
reading skill but in twenty first century people are getting more individualize and stay
away from community because of daily technology usage. My futuristic concern is there
will be a technology addiction issue in future. The technology usage would be one of
narcotic issue in near future. I like the technology that is used education but I dont like
addictive technology.


Cite at least 5 References in APA.

You may use for citing
your sources in APA style.


Adult Learning Activities | California Distance Learning Project. (n.d.). Retrieved

November 2, 2015, from
History of Distance Education. (n.d.). Retrieved November 2, 2015, from
Caruth, G. D., & Caruth, D. L. (2013). Distance Education in the United States: From
Correspondence Courses to the Internet. Turkish Online Journal Of Distance Education,
14(2), 141-149.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Distance Learning. (n.d.). Retrieved November 2,
2015, from
Advantages and Disadvantages of Distance Learning. (n.d.). Retrieved November 2,
2015, from and Disadvantages of
Distance Learning