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Original Title: 9 inverse sine cosine and tangent

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9 inverse sine cosine and tangent

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And they are very similar functions ... so we will look at the Sine Function and then Inverse

Sine to learn what it is all about.

Sine Function

Or more simply:

Using this triangle (lengths are only to one decimal place):

We know

Start with: sin 39 = opposite/hypotenuse

sin 39 = d/30

Swap Sides: d/30 = sin 39

Use a calculator to find sin 39: d/30 = 0.6293

Multiply both sides by 30: d = 0.6293 x 30

d = 18.88 to 2 decimal places.

Inverse Sine

But sometimes it is the angle we need to find.

This is where "Inverse Sine" comes in.

The symbol for inverse sine is sin-1

We know

sin a = 18.88/30

Calculate 18.88/30: sin a = 0.6293...

The Inverse Sine will tell us.

Inverse Sine: a = sin-1(0.6293...)

Use a calculator to find sin-1(0.6293...): a = 39.0 (to 1 decimal place)

The Sine function sin takes an angle and gives us the ratio "opposite/hypotenuse"

-1

Example:

Sine Function:

Inverse Sine:

sin(30) = 0.5

sin-1(0.5) = 30

Inverse Sine only shows you one angle ... but there are more angles that could work.

In fact there are infinitely many angles, because you can keep adding (or subtracting)

360:

Remember this, because there are times when you actually need one of the other angles!

Summary

And Inverse Sine is :

Exactly the same idea.

COSINE

And Inverse Cosine is :

cos a = Adjacent / Hypotenuse

cos a = 6,750/8,100 = 0.8333...

a = cos-1 (0.8333...) = 33.6 (to 1 decimal place)

TANGENT

So Inverse Tangent is :

tan x = Opposite / Adjacent

tan x = 300/400 = 0.75

x = tan-1 (0.75) = 36.9 (correct to 1 decimal place)

Other Names

Sometimes sin-1 is called asin or arcsin.

Likewise cos-1 is called acos or arccos

And tan-1 is called atan or arctan.

Examples:

etc.

The Graphs

And lastly, here are the graphs of Sine, Inverse Sine, Cosine and Inverse Cosine:

Sine

Inverse Sine

Cosine

Inverse Cosine

Did you notice anything about the graphs?

But the Inverse Sine and Inverse Cosine don't "go on forever" like Sine and Cosine do ...

Here is Cosine and Inverse Cosine plotted on the same graph:

They are mirror images (about the diagonal)

But why does Inverse Cosine get chopped off at top and bottom (the dots are not really part

of the function) ... ?

when we ask "what is cos-1(x) ?"

One Answer or Infinitely Many Answers

But we saw earlier that there are infinitely many answers, and the dotted line on the graph

shows this.

So yes there are infinitely many answers ...

... but imagine you type 0.5 into your calculator, press cos-1 and it gives you a never ending

list of possible answers ...

So we have this rule that a function can only give one answer.

So, by chopping it off like that we get just one answer, but we should remember that there

could be other answers.

And here is the tangent function and inverse tangent. Can you see how they are mirror

images (about the diagonal) ...?

Tangent

Inverse Tangent

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