Economic System of Islam

8y

SVED ABUL ACiALA. MAlJDUDI ,. Edfltd by

Prof. K at.lJtSRtD AHMAD, M.A r &lalisA hndt,iltK

RIAZ HUSAJJ~t M. A .

..

Islamic Publications Ltd.

13 -II B. 8H All A L..\M. Mil. R.JC: ~T l,.A NO 'It 1 • PA l(J!T A N

coNTENUi

~lhm

PART I--PRINClPLBS AND OBJ'BCTIVES

t .. Ecoa9 .. ic. Pr.,.,I •• of Mu Real Economic Problem

Causes of Evi 1:1 iD Eeonoroic; Sys.lc:m 'SolatJo;a Su.aa:elted by Commu.llism

Patdst. Sohl.tio:G

l,la_ Salution

~Ic Prccepb oJ the. Q.r •• Batie FacU

D«e:tDUnatioft of Riaht and W roll, il the or Allab

AJ!nnation -of Individual Owuership UID. .. uatu.r.l Do:ctriltr: of EeODomic Equali I)'

ModerllltJoa. and Obaervati01l or Limits irutud of AKeciciaa

Distinction between La wtUt and UaJ..wful Mel-Ill or eatDiD' Wellth

Unlawful Meaus of--secnrina Wealth

Prohibition of Avari~., aIld Hoard ins of WeaUIt CoDd.em.natioJ1 or Mate, lali S.m lad Greed Coad_natioll. of EmayaaanclI:

t.a.,..ful WaYI of IpI!IIldiDJ Wca 11 h

Moo I:tary Atoaoments

Pre- Rerqbitite:t for t be Oi ~i:ac A«tplance or IllClq . r" I Re:&.l SilO lkanee of Infl'

ObUptor)' ZWl &n"d. its RI ~

, o..Mth of the SpoUs of WA1'

Cl.rpa On lhe ~b.t Fuad

Di YilIOB or Inbrtitance

....

....

....

....

...

-

....

....

.....

~ ..

~ ...

......

....

(iii)

I 13 16 25 2&

lSI 31 37

3:8 39 42

4S

....

-46 46 -

SO 51 51 .52 54 54 ~6 .:sa

60 60 62

....

...

.....

Rule or m.kiDl a Will

SateJUudins thl!: lutereSl of PClUODI of un,ound mind CODQDOD I:c:tetett ia State PtoplII!:rty B .. ic: Pri n ciples of TaJ.ation in J s.laln

Cb.uacter islj~ of the Economic SYI!: lCim of bh.m ....

BaI~_PdDClpI •• 01. i:colomlt Lif.e r.O

FQQdammw. val ues of I.tamic S oc;iC:fY +.0

Tbe Course of Moral and Economic Evolu lion J D hJ .. m •••

Pro'Vis ion and its Use

The Prin~pJe of Ule •. t

Tbe Prine iplc of ltl~d e r.~ ion r. ~

Honest, and 1usti~ in Economic Li f e . +4

Pllacl;lell alld O"jectEft.·Gf Icollomlc: Orlaa1.1atlOl ia hl_

Form. of t.be Economic SylJhm of 111 am ~ ..

Obj ':cd'" ea of ECOl1 om it Orpa izatioa ...

A.' '1ridiridllid FreWDOl .~ ..

.8. f' .1111001 10 .MOta! and MAteria! Dc"lopment Ct .. CoOper.don. Accord an d Estab'iabm..at of

JUItict .. 101

&IK: PriDcip~!ii •••

Equitable Diwibuti~. . ..

Social Rl:Ihb .. . ~.

ZI II: at .~.

La... or IQbtrita.D~C:

The RO~8 or Labour ~ Capital and Maaapme.Dt Zak at ·and. Soclal Welfare iJltc;JH~ttee Economy

Com:JatiQD 3D3or., Ecaoomic. Political snd Soej.1 Otder5

,

I.,. ... SKill_lice .

Fa1&c:hood tiI_'" the cloak of Ri8 hteoWDI5S F.it" deluaiou- c..phaliJ= and Seeldar o..UlOQ!' HY

•••

~ ..

64 6.5 65 66

70 70

73 74 76 7S 80

82 82 BJ 83 84

15 86 &7

90 9J 93 -

94 96 %

••• 'I
.. -. 100
••• 100
100 SecoD.d deladol-Sodll Jaad(t &ad ComIDoe_ "... tot

Eltreme [a tdledual SIlnry .,. 101

The Ileal N attl1C1 0' Social Jl.l.Itice • "" 102

Social 1lliti= i5 fOblld it! &lIm OIlly ~... 101

JU:diee iii the am, Objtcd.,e of bl-a. •.• 10)

Whu b. Sodi.l Judi", 10.

Det#e1opmtDt or K ...... PInoDIlilY .... UW

Indiyidual Rt:*puufbilltJ ~.. 10'

In,di",wu.al Liberty" ~.. 10'

Sovial J nstituliOtU lllid their Authority u. lOS

Dd"eclti of Cl.pitlliUli ID'd CommbDilm 101

Com:JtIuniam. II the Wom rom of Social TYtaDay .... J 07

lJlamk lutiCc J 09

The: Bouad& til ... dividul Liberty 110

, Conditloas tor me ExullJltC of Capita I L~~ 1 t 1

Ratrlction on the S~diDl of We.hh " •.. 112

Social Senko 112

Li qgid.Uoli .ar &.ploitation .~ L III

Limit. of NatlQoal'u.tion in tbe: Public:: Ia.tc.rell ~". 113

Ruici ,rov~nlIi.aI: '" uptDH from the State Trcu1ll"J 114

AD blqairy "+. IJ4

The DUfneltCe "twe. C , .. _ ..

Di It~tlOti bet wan Lawf.J ,qd U a.lawfulllf&U of

earni ... " Wt:altb n~

Ban On th e Hoal'diar or Wealth ." +

Inju~tion to lpe:nd ut

Law of I aJanitute ~."

Dilitrihution or th-e SpoiJs of Wal alIId Conq uered. PrOpl'rty

luJu IlClion '0 E.::onoltl.iJ"

PART n~£CONOMIC SYStEM OP JSLAM (Some Asprcla)

11:5

1I.s 116- 11' 123

124 12'

.n 129

•• r III

l., n, H oJr Qu..ran .ad IDdi,,"~dua.J Q~ne!lhip -.. 132

2" PrtUdeDU, e 51,bUs hed b~ ~Ij; lIoJ:y Pro-pbet (SAW) "

and tb<c IU,&bl Guided CallpbJI (-a.A.) ,.. J.J4

(ti)

pint caaIJotJ _ 1~:$

Second Cau-,gory ••• 13'

Th ird CalelOry u. 1 JS

F ou rth Catq:ory ••• 141

Ownl!tlbip RilhtJ ari:!il.i.ng out of coleaizatioD. d. 1-42

1..3 n d Orub by the State . .. 145

S haliah Rqulatiov lor LaDd Grb.' . ~. 141

COlfeGt Sbui.b. poaitio1l with reptd. to Pier. .~ ~ 149

Retpeot ror Ibe "Ilil]at of Chtncn hip .... IS 1

3. lit. mi(: SYSk;m. and Individual Owunbip .•• 1.5]

4. Cei I iDg OD Land Holdiq .... 155

s, Form or Crop-S'bati*, ud IlllIDic Priae:ipJ.d or

lw.tli» - 157

6. LimitatiOGl 0,11 tbo gft of Pr6l*ty ... " 1.51

r.terest · ~~ • .so

1. lilamic Orden I bo.t lotefllt .•. 160

The Ucui,. or Rib. ~... Jm

Ili"" Jd Ib, Period of lpora.nc:e ~... 162

Buic Oitl'en:nce bet weco Trade and IUba 1-63

Th~ Ca ute of Pro b:.. bitlou. .... 165

Snetily ot Prob j bidon On U Si1l!'Y + _ ~ 186

].. Th e need r-or ID~f85t -A llat ioa&) Ana1yt;i.s 167

(a) Compel. a&tion rot Risk 8.D.Q Sa«Hh:e ~ 1"

Is Ir.terest a penal'y ? I"

Is IBt~"lt • rl!nt '! ~... 10

(b) Com-posati.g. fOJ "lhCF OpportuBity aud ItWlt

of tirnc ..... t1~

(c) Sha~ in p.roltability ••• 173

~ d ) CompttD sa.tiOll r 01 tjr.a;e • r. 11:5

Reason a ble ues of the R ate oJ' IDteteat ..... 117

F acton whi,b De tonnins 1 he nte of lDtcre.d. 110

B:onomic Be~ fit of tnLofest _.ad its bttd ~... 113

Is Interest Really Necessary ud Bu.:l..II: '1 .... liS

3. £~ ils of la.terut . ~~ 1"

4. Ec onoDl~c ReCOlllkudioD ~ithou.t Intere.t .... 1M

So.me Mis eon~iiillllS" .• r 1."

(vii)

.Pint Ift'lp towards lteform 197

CDlllCqUeDCC5 of thCl Abolition of InterHt +.. 199

Forltll of Credit in 8.1::1 IntC'resi free: Fin.nneil.J 'Syst!!=lTI ~o~ er,dj t (or Prj Yate Need 20~ 2Q:';

':06 206 2()8 :no

Crcdi t for Business

Credit for the Non·Produ.ctiv.:! SUile Expense I gtt!::rnati 0[1.1 I Loan s

ProVjslo.P or Cu.pjsaJ (01 Pro d u:~Uve Vent ur 05 blamic Form or BaaJdll1

5~ Bconomic: and Industrial LoaUl {rom No n- Mu sJi Lll

CouDtrics

TM N.'hIrt of Zwt ... Iii "'CI

The Mr:a aiD, or .Zaka.t Pteudeul of Pro phcu. Si.lDitlcaoce or Zlkat in COU ecti VC! Life Tbl Order of Zatat hpcDdi£url; of Za II: at Baie RQJI:I of Zakat A Q ue .Il10 D nalre QtM,sdoo n.ai rei An~ 'We.red Can tb~ Limit of L ia bUlly and tbt: Ra.te of Zak at

be Cb anpd . .. 264

ProbLelll of Zilka{ Q1l C0U11'.lil:r. ny Sbarel 266

Zu.L:. ~t in' lhe en se of r ertncrs b ip .0. D d Mud jJ rb ~ Limit ilJ'f Li a.bi lity for Z~ k.at on M,' als DilliMlioa htlWCCD Zakat a.J3 d. TIlX 11 Jt jus ti6cd to Le;~y 10-CODlC""Tlix in addj tio.tl to

Zakll ,.. 111

~I at L."",U ana tbe-if Selll t io. ~7B

Tlu: Real Need 279

Solution or Problem 5 j.. 280

Ptjoci plc:I o( hrorm .,. 282

I ... r ... 011 ScbeDJ.e1 lor j II 'Rtlutm .. . 288

PrI"CtlltroI ......,i .. tlOl of J.~ .. Ic: Llft'i iD Mod'rI~ Timt'

Nnd for d-=libl;ratlg:n befote M 0 dctniza t ia IJ Ne~ rOt R~.codlfl.eal~OD in I5lamie Law

214 .~. 216

... 116 216 ... 219 ~.. 226 229 2.39 1 .....

27] 273 +u 216

+.~ 192 '" 295 .. , 29'

297

(viii)

Some useatial eon4iciops (or Rc·codification Pint Condition

Sec on d Cand i ti on

Third CODditioD

F ourt h COD dition

G en eral P rinci plea of Comm utadon Some form I of RelautioD 8

.... 2:98
.... 299
..... 300
••• 302
303
305
301 Introduction

Thil is I tart ca tbl: ~e.ooD.lDIc, ml!!DI 01 hlam 'Whjctl the •• rncd utlloc btaadcllt mill RldiG Patla ... Lahore 011 M.n:b 2. 19041. h it ~I..q ~PfodllCld. be .. 18 tb.t bapc thaI it will .. rye ••• IOOd iatr04uetiotl

10 the n.bjt:ot",",r of dlIl boot+ '

To keep the CCODOmE life of III ID. OQ tbe Ii~ of Equity aDd Truth litam h.ILid dow. OI!rtau. n.tl~ SlId hu pmc:rlbed certain bon~ witbill ...me .. the eJrtire Iyaem or prodncti <mt ~on .. mp.. ti.on &ad ~OD or wealth .~st· operate ..

ldam dou qot ~ ibcIf with the m~ of prodaclioo aDd. ein:ulatfall tJl wea1tb~ These mOika dJuae with the profpcu ~ ctriIiutJaq'RIID .. to .. and evol"le out of hwn.a cireuGa· JI ... ud. D-. k1a. requlRs th,lt i~ .n qes.ad UDder all drcwmJl'''''' .. lCOIlomk: order of society must cOD!otm to the prhtciDpl. aDd. ltoWKit piacr.lbed by it.

Idam botdli that lind aDd e¥tr,.~Jdttl in It has *n c~&a! by God tor the hendt of BtU. "BeDet it is the birthriaht of fNCty iDdlvidaal-"'to secure his riyelihood~ frDm tilt Iend, In thiI r"ht aU men are eqllal. No one- call be d"priY~d of this ri8ht~ 001' CID aay ODe claim any precedence over the other in this. ft:Ipeet. Tbl!: Sharia:b tJ:dudc5 00 indIldduaJt rlll;C or class !rom .. "aiIilJ& of any OlellK of iiVt"Hbood or, adopting any professioa.. Simj]arly no dirtlnctioDi cal.;ulatcd too rae"rve urtatn .QIC'aru or IiveUbood or profH5:ion s for some apcQlI "cl.iS~ race or fHill, may be let UP+ AI I men have .13 equ.aJ right and must be aft"orded an equal opportUD it]' to ihare in, the ptodllCl: or the: God"made ellrth. The products at N.turtt in wbOie inakiD& Or :6nl:shirll DO man has Ixpeu.ded hi, labau:r or Ikill arethe pmpen), of aU and every i ndl vjdll.al has the right to a v,U or thr:m a(:cordias to hi~ need.

Water or the ri¥1'n aud sprialJ, rorest w~ wild fruitt grus .and putu.re~ air,. maril1t Of" d.ctetl ani.ru rdat open Ibi:ne:a and all I~b erioDomic ~ Irt not ttle momlpoly 0( anyonCl DOl' can all)' reItrlctioD OD their tree UK by ai, and ,undry be imposed4 Ho1re'Ya" their lartt-tCd n;plaitation tor bu,inal. p:llJPI*' IIhouJd be lubject to ltate tIM&. It is not meet to let God-Dl"'"

thiqalio amLMId.. Either ODe ~oWd: put lhetb to his OWn ate or let the otherl Ule it. It is on this prlaclple thll Ibe hlalie taw lays dowll tbat DO!et$et can keep tb., Jt .te":lI'aated land unuwd for mote than thrft yean:. It he does Dot briq. it under cultiv .... tion, or build or. ~ or put it to lOme other -= for tIuw '"" then. . at the Hpiry of thil period., the rand shaH be treated as nacuee. If' I,QQIC" other pmoo oetuplel it ad pllb it to lIMe, RO mit lball be, admitkrllpiaat hila. Ttl., Islamic OGvenuuent it-sclf bas tbe power fo cancel tile lease arut tr.l1IIer the ls.ad to lOID.eoru: cl.: r or ill:IUc:mc:QJ.

Whoever IUU1U I IhinJ J8. natural I tau: and makes if wetl11 by hla OWD labour and d:ill~ becomes its OWDer r Far illstance,. ·if • man occupies r.now 1.1td 011 whk=b no one hu III est.h&hcd .right of ownenhip, and tt.11I puts it to lOIDe use, lIiI!: cannot be evicb!::d from tb at laDd. Owne.rdLip cf ph)p::r1y orisin ... • ted in thO: w.y ag;:ording to (he doctri ne of &lam. In t he initial .u.,e of human settlement on eartb, all tb iBp:wtJ'8 open to lI:!e by IO .n~ Wbow got bold of a nilltural th ins: and. made: it 115CIuJ in some way bee ame irs owner ~ tbat is, he 0 btaillcd the: risht to l"'tK"tVe th 8:1 tb:.i..nj for his ~ r. use alld charp a P1ice: rroDl aa.yone . wbo wtGhed to take ad v antage of it~ Thie: role beiD8 the nahlrat hasi:l ror a 11 eeoaom ic tr ansacrloes alftong men, it should not ~ lanlpered with.

The: Pr opri.c:tKty T ighu which one obtains 1 hrou gh JaMuL means must be resp-ected~ Tb( question tn be decided is whether an owne.nhip is. 'V IiIHd by Sblriah Jaw Of not Tid" of o"~hip VI hick ant- invalid by Sbarj.n. 1 11 W mtln be a boUu.:d~ As for t it res whieb art valid by Sh.riah 18 W, no Government or ~.fJ iamellt h a. the aurb~ty 10 fod eit or diminisb 1 heJll.r· No sys.tem desiped to abotilb the rjJhu sanctioned by Sha2 iab ~

'3

be eslablbbmd in the n.rn~ Gf met.f rood.. To eut down tbe rertrictiomI whic:'h. S~3ri~h baslild ott pri"'a1e "ownmhlp in the inkmt ", the C:O!IUllU nlty Is as bad as to roh."ce thOle! reSlmcdo:J:Ji. It is h:tcu.m.bcat UpOlL thl: ldamic datt 10 protect the Shariah "riahb or the iadfvidual Iud to ..t tkose rilids of" tbe tomtDuQb, ...mic.h tho Siu.riah· &11 im~ apon. hi.rD~ (i ad dOel 1lOI ubsant .. ,.ality in the disttibutioa. of H"ti "bmmtiell" but In Hit wIttkg, aives pn!C'edcmc., to some penom. 0"Yf4' otben. Beauty~ melody, h.ealth~ ph}P.Iical ~ .. meatal capacity ..

n'firoGmc:J1t at birtb in thns and senral ~ rea~ DO

1w0' haMIll hebI.p .. equal.. " ""

Siarllar it" the c a.a with li"Velihaod~ "The N:alu.raJ scbeDlf:: • de,fIuI b, Oad. ibdf .requirel d..i3parity IUQOD, _n 111 MIpO.."1 01 Uwelibuod. _..in their pupate aDd principle- all ~b c~ .. .1'1 enfotCOd with I view te t'ttablilbl.all.G t.rt1t1da1 eqUIIlt.J .... oq IJle';Il are wtmq r[~ an ltt..ie point 01 ..,icw.;. hl8lD. dtMII GOt cn:ri&IF equality or li ...... ih~ bPi equalh.y of ~ in the urugle ror CarDDq fi'tcJihood~ 111-.0. _b to 1'fl!ftiO"I"e an obstacl,,~ lepl or CWltmnary ~ whid. ~ a man. (tOlD IftJia.I:aa h.i" full potealial io. tile eeorulalic .. truP .. nor ~ Ida. :adow tht. hHcditary a,dvanta,p d. certain. dustS. J~:9. or rail iea to $OUdify lato •. petlO!locnt I.' risht. Bolt. ~ forcibly replace a Datura! loeqDllUy by an artifk=i." equality. That ii wily l:d.... i nknds to criminate: the1u •• btiDl the t!li:ouom Ie Iysffm 10 such a na:tllt&! ctlJe tlrid every Indivldtlll .bouJd enjoy freedoDi or cnd.e"VDur~ . HDWe\Itt Ttl • .., doa aOt qrc.E 'With 1bose who wilh to onfon:::c cqlll.lity in thCl 11111::1111.1 of aadeaYOnt -....d tewan:lt f01' they • ish to tr a.a.UOlID natural ineqlR"" it,. u.to attI8ciaJ equlity ..

On I)' tbU .,..... ~ .. apprOlim.tc to NI.ttIR: ia whicb every iBdi~ "arb IdI ~~ urquJo from t1K prlll;e: and rorvIi. tion in fIItieh All .. are.lId b 1m. O~ who it bon. witb • motor .... r -dtuuJd dd'H ; be who b.u DJe:rely t\\ j fed. (0 itaDd. OIl lhoald ru II. n'IJl his le~ ..t. the Ollie who is born JUK should limp" aJoaa. The J~w"""'" oeithU create a plQ'ldcAI .... OD.Q_poIy or the ~ oYeI" 111_ r qlir 1tOf' shOlid delta' thlllII!\C rrG~ ICC\lri:Df

-4

ICQ!KIMIJ Hfi" Of .. All

• motor ear .. tlOr irad.t.e4 ihol.aW ~ODCI be ron:ed to .Irt the ecoa.omie dC!e from the .anle poIat IDd io. the: lame ~oDdition .Dd. keep all Ibe p.rHo!Dane:1. yotcd topther -on the crack.

QrL dle ccatrvy t wllilt tlM law tIloIdd Dot come in the ..... ) of tile I ... ~ ~.DI a lIlotor car by dlnt of hi, ability ancl1wd~ it ahcndd· DOt UftdgJ 'J proctct the motoritt if be ~0JIIIeI • ~emLu. ~ mc.o.p$tKC. Not eml, does IJlam 'D~ a free mel r. ClConomic rac~ but it also rtquirca PM tb puticipanta sbou1d. not be caUous and i.ncoIuJderlte bat J'CMtOU:l IG4 helpful to ODe a.nottler. On lbe one baD4ltlam develops IlnODa its folJowen a 1ICn.se of moral obl.iptloA towards poor and baetwatd _dOM of the sodct Y t OIl 19 GIller it nquJrH 1M eflablithmeat d. periDaoent insdtLt-

. tioa whic:h.dauuJd. PItanJe:· material -.pport to dil.ablcd .rul bll!!lplch ~adrJcn mIlle IOCiGtY4 ThoM: -bo are UDah1e eo pAt'ticipi.t-t in Ihe ~ tkUJlle mould :re;eiye their shar~ of

..... lioul 'Raith tbtoup thll lDstitutirm • th.ts iUI.ti'"tioD should rade and. .. "III IhoIe w110IB lIDravourable c1ra,unstmces h.-ve ~~ IOlf ~ and ft thoald tltelld. IUpport to ~hos,= wb.o rn jI Y aec.d it fM' ...niDI olf ia to economic IlnlIIle.

For tbiI patpose .. Ill_III bi., I!"ItaCU:d Ibe l.w Ih.r :latat al the t..ac tI 2l% per year Ih.n be levied _ 0J1 National sev inp II wilh at ott commercial capil_r~ 5itn:ilarlf 10 01" S% of the produ.ce of ushri J.ads s.btll be I!l.aaed At Zakat. Upon certaia III i.nll!!r:lll [ products the rate thalJ be lO%t ... 1dIt Oil 11 Ipcclled nbm her .of cattle heads I cerl:aln rltio of Zakat $hall. he! imposed. The proeeeds of au tflete levies sh.n he di...-erted to th" .lsJst~ of llu:: piJOTt orpI1ans. old. diubredt thl uncmp]oyed~ lick 2nd othtt eategorieJ 0( indigt::r:t peop.lt. Tbis it a ,ysttrn of· !IOCial r DI5Urr anee under which no Glem her Q{ tIK= J 5.I:!II mic s.ocii£:ty lIIj'ilJ remain in .. ant of' .lbe n~$$ltiel of JUt, no .orkin, man wi IJ • find him .. self' 10 driven by e he f-eat Dr RIl'VItiOlL as to accept any tl!!Trnt of employtne1lt th.t lhe iMush"i.FiSIt 01" ttl!! laDdh older m ly care 10 of[CI' him and DO mill·' st.t-c .... in ran below that :miDimum.levf't which is a pre~rl!!qGftUt rOt pattidpatroo: ill CC"tlllomic: ac:tjvftyL II.am wi-sbes. to c:stabli:lb sUl;b. b.IID~1I betw~eD lndi.jcfu~l

:I1ftIiODue!1OH

I nd IDe iety tb at tbe i ~dJYi du] Ibowd rtt.ill bji jdll!lnti ty aQd frcc;d om, wit hOD t uDd.rmi~ iEla pub] io: inkrf:Sll but caco ti..aJ ly promotiJta j r. I tlim doa DOt appn'lvc 0 f & IlY poUUcat Of eeeeem ic D!'s.n int io" wh ic:h HI kl to Ioub merle the iQdiy idlli.l ill 1 he soc iel~\ a nd :It III tit,. the 40acri 01 of:b II peqonl\1 i ty ..

Nlllonlijntfo:D. of .II U moe.1LI of produc:'t ion i.Q • oou Dtry ioe'Yit&bJ.), n,ultl i» ,oc..i. L RahtMnt.Hon. Uadct lhil ei rc1.IimltaO-=1 the prelerva tjoa .:d d d • .,..lopnltDt or Jod iv.du.1 penoa-J il,. beQOmes very d .tlcult, It'IeQ impouiblCl. J Pit _. political

and aocill freedom 1. euellld.L t(lr tll. ,atowtb of penon&lity t 10 to a I-fit extenl il ccoaomic rUldom. II we do Dol 1,lt tbe (:orupJ.rte 8.D.nihUat io~ or hmll;l PlI'IOaII it), our e01patltCi 1 ira .holilld .J..to.. 1OO,pc rot lba i:ldiY Jdu.1 Itt pftIetve III. c:oa-.c:.IICI by f'nt CCOflom k -.::dYit,. .-.d te.1 iu t_.. pollatlll of Ilit -phy,ie.1 .nd IDtDtl1 POWell fa ucordaace with .b il .pthu de.

RltjOIlt: d ] L wcJibClod! ~ .. 1a.oM keys aT. held by olb.e..,., 01ea if 1 t i. .mple. I:.lIlaot bII!I plt ...... 1 ~ r Dr it, demorlU.tq dfeet C:1D.ROt bel offIet bJ • tull ,to..,Kh4- J a-n •• lila .. • bhgn B re.fmea to d IDC loty t SO ft IlIo coa.d.I3ID •• 1,1.1 .. % Iidr. tocilty in whicb tile jDdi¥tdlla.l aaJu at tbe COlt of, publle: inter .. ett.. T1te 8(1Jdl:!1l mean bIt'lJ'l:ltD o..e two n:lremtl II ad opted by Islam I:D.i..... tbat to tn.di.,ldual sldd[.cd with certl.ia' tel tti.clioa$ and '1IpOIlibUititllllogld be 11ft rree to CQ.Qd uct bil .fI'.in~ Thji .. Dot mo oac .. l" to fO into tt. ~ d I:! t.U I af thcac 'csEr~ ... io~ .. aa d duml. I PIU]" tbtl'lfortt C:O flit ea t myself with p rtSCD[iDI Ibl'i r 1]lt bl'ore '0\11. ,T at ICE t be mean. u r e.rai D8 U'f'tl I bood. ft r,t. No l, .. 1 .. ,... bu Nt 1,11 P 'Iucb a .hllr p d t..ti aCtien bet'Wfl!D r'_ht Id.d wroq moDi of e.rming UVl:Jibood u t hat of J sla 111. T.be law or Ill.. ICrup"IoMJy C'OQdemBI .,et)' IQIoIlI or ,aminl U'Hli bood "'.bt"~, Oft. IDd l v. d ull a.b~. co the moral 01, ma"'riaJ d.1 fimtllt 01 another ind i vidual Gt _iotYi

Tile bJamic La" pnJIeribet. u.. maBulH.' IU •• lId ..... of I liqllOl't prOltie'lllioa.' da.aeia~ 1iD.Ia, lmi fQ D:Sic t pDlbJ iDI, .peculation. lr4tefy I' utUt)'1I "","liOOJ in'fO]Y i PI IPOC~ laltaG.. CMAlil1 lid d.bUiat c.) ... rell. d.e.U IlP. i.. ,.. bh:b tbc 111.11 r:I

...

,

!CONOMfC S'Y1TIlI oi IIUM

oa.t party il IIID red whUe tbat of the otb~r;1 doubt fult koard. iq -,vit h • view to ra ilioB prjee:t; aod aU olhcr form. at bUliDeR h:lltm Fu 1 to the- comp.unhy at a whole. A .. tud y ·of tbe Ecouorule Law or II] a m 'iN ill. re'le_a] to you 11 loug [ill or the Prohibited n:1IC!:a ns of tarning Li Ye] ihood I i:ru:lud iD& .evcral of IItCH b, .. bid) urtder the: pres e 01 cap-i u..1 ist 'Iy:alent jnd i Y ~dua]:SI became millioa .. aires. . J slam hn pOle'S • Itla! ban on .U :ntc;:h IDC •• ' .nd pfrmi tI man to e .. m h ia J ivl] ib God by tboac meaDI 001, in whitb he rece:;vc:z a fair :r.etara fot ae:a.uiD.1 aa.d dltCul HtYlu tead-e: red. 1o othe rs,

Islam ack.oowled8;eI a mll.b.'l daht of o'W.benhlp Oftt lhat which· he hb ea rne d by la .,rul mean:!.. Bue etta thiI dJbt is DOl

_ .

Ulli i m i (.:d. Islam binds a man to speo d b Is la mlly eBraed we a] tb in lawful wa~s only. It has Q,[.mpe!d Juc.h rCllrictioD.II OD elpendi· tar&· tha t • perion c.n Iud a cleaD .ad ~re Ijre but eaanoe Iqualld er hi .. weal th iq, volup 1110,., ] i'IJiol no, eaa he adopt 1li0 astf:ut.liouli a $I)llt of ii\l'juB at .to ia8pirc aft in others. Some form s of extravs.aance ba ve btc::a clearly prob.i bited by 1&1 amic law wlliJe It-gar d iq some ether r orms of extra '¥811nce wbich have 'fIIot been ex p 1 ici lly de lai led, the l:sl "m if: Government it au, boril,d to put a ba II OD * b,m +

A mao f;aa keep weanb tcJl with him after leli limate aDd n&lonab]a C!:I'peDle IDd invest his savin as iD a pro6table: venture-. Ho .... e v~:r the-Ie two ri ;htl!li a to allO ioU b.ject to Um it At i on.-s:. I r t be: amount or bis sa\"in,as exceeds tbe It~tu.lory Umitt her ,han pay Zats.t OUt or ;t III the rate, or 2-1-% per aG1UJm. Hi: Slha.1l in .... Yelt hi I 1& Ylnas in lawful enterprise onJ y. Whet her a m"!Ln sets up hi s 0 WD busi I'lI!IS or i nve us b is ca pi 1 ali D the for m of cash. 1.0 d ~ i m ple meut s or loo.d I in some bod y e lse '5 bus lne 1 s, bo t h rOlms or iDVfS tmtnts are ltlit lmate.

. W cr It ins wi th in 1 he: a beve bound:ll if • Man do-es beco me a mi II ion. i n 1 Islam .... n not ia.terrerc with bim. His loed rormae wi n be re-Bard er1 u • booa ftorn God. Yet in -p.tI bli c ja1ere5t Isla m wilJ impOie two CODd itioal OD tbb. mil I ioa.il e.

ODe. he sha II . pay. Zakat OD h II trade aoodli snd lI$hr 00

1

.,lficullu rill prod uce, Two.:he 111.11 deal rairly ..,hh b1s bUIij... .DaS p.rt.ne rs • n.d employe:". If be rai IJI :in tt:. il duty. l be I.Jam i.e Oo¥trnmcnc will • ppl y C:Oc re i ve mcalourc, to briDI him t.o lib.. PI III of j .. It ~C:I.. FurUaermo-rr. IIlam dOlt QOI .lIo .... Eba ... hh eillln:u:d ..... hhia. these boODd.· '0 remaia COllclI:!nlflled iii t be s I.~ bar) d f 0 t JOI18. bu t by the 1.. or IDhrJ'i~ .I:u;e tCi dillr' b\J ~et it at the C-Dd or overy geee r.Uoo. In lhj, rna ncr t be: tend C DelY of bJ i m ic l. w i I UD lque '$Ona the·lela) IYltelDl of (h~ ~or]d4 wbicb endeayout lo kt'lcp \llf'eaJ lh ·c:o~"ntrat~d i D the Io.ml! r.aw. j ly genera tion ~f'~r Ie-nlr· a IjOD~ I slam. .00 t be 01 het haDd hal tD Ictoe d lhll .... e.J dl aocuot""

"flIed by a m.n !abaU b. dilfributed at h15 d.eath BmoDI bj, De.r-CI1t rtl.l iV':::Ii!. If l be: re an: DO DC iii. re:lot rei. tive.. the. d j &taut nJaliooilhaU inherit the deceued"j wealth .~ofdiDI to tbo, prclCl'lbc-d r.t lo, If ho wover tOO aear tJ i' d iit.At rclative or lho dl!!l;l!!:alCd il forlhooming. tbo Itllte shaJi iD~l!:ril bi:ljli pro--

petty.. . .

Tbi.. L. w mi II t'ttel alii !lSI the per pctua 1 main fen.o('1!! of·. tafl'Cl CB pi ra lor llDd· bald i IIIS+

.:q spi re of a.J I 1 b. a. boYe Rudel ioni if "ny eyil doa ..

TC!".U ftom the coac:c:nlraljoD of w'=illhb. thill lad bJuw c:omp'CI~

tCl:J)' eliminatel t hac ,vi I. ._

(By GOUlte·sy ot.R.ldlo Pd.i'I8D)

The Economic Problem of Man and Its Islamic Solution'

Tbe: ec on om1C pro blem whic h oeeu pies in these daY' the centre- of OUr' intcl1tctuallife bad never before au.ined so much ptomillC'Dr::e or a!5umed th lEI i m~ort ance it dae~ to-day, I use the word l~promintncc'J because) u a matter of fact, the Unportant:t 'Whic:h economics nst\lra:Uy has for tbe life or maokilJd hu alw8Y1. id eVf:l'J' a,ge~ impeUtd indil'lduab. -:cmmunitjcs, nationlt DlWltriu. and indeed all mea to pay due a1tcntioD to it. B uf- in out dayJ Otis attentiOn hu turntd into ." obseSSion 1t"ldin.l to IhC c:reati(Jn of a new science of ~'ODomiCJ1 ('mbodjc:d in voJ1JlrliaoDS boob. with bigb-H:lU"dfo& tc:rminoic.gy and rarS' Grppitatiou at Its back, Atoug witb this, new .r;ompJications hlil\l'e been introduced in the: preduetion, dlstribution and "qui,.don of the necess.it.i.c3" of life. AI a result of this there is such I plethora of disc: ussion and seie ntlfic research' about economic probltln!il. that in faC"~ of it all the other problems (~f maDii:Dd seem to have paled into itlSign.iti.cance, Strange to 'JY~ hc'Wovetll tbai the object on which the: attention or the whole world hIllS

been. riveted in this manner, instead of getting any nearer sehrtion, 11 becomin& more and more complicated. In facl jt has become a lteritablc enigma. 'The abstrvse term L.uOJOgy of the science of economics and the scholarly subtleties and hair spljltiDg6 of economic experts have so confounded and roy.uiflCd the ordinarj'

L (Bt-in, tin Add,.~ss dnl.""d In Ihe MUJJim Un;vc,.sl'lt ..411,11,.11 t O~ 20th Cklo1Jfr II 194/).

8

'UU!! i'(:ONOM1C ftORlEM

9

people that th-e poor fdJaW:5~ on hearing these expert ditcUisl0Mj stand aghasr before. the cow plex i ly of their ecouom ic pmt.d-em and lose all hope of its solution, like a pali.::nt who j:!jl frighUoed OQ hearing from hi~ doctor 11 biggish Latin name for his disease and thjDt1 tha r. be ea n be cured of his indispos iti OQ ooly by tbe spec i.'il il"ace of God, J 0 poi nt of fact, however, if the sDloke· screen -00 croak of tbis scii!ntifu:: tcnninoJ ogy oil nd . technical dtscu:sBion is cast nslde: and t be mat ter i ~ 1 coked at in its plain, naluralltraplicity. the economic problem of man can be easily l.mderstood ~ the: adva nt..1ieo$ aspects of rhe various ~oJutlons adopted can be examined wjthout difficulty, .and tbe C"On'l:ct solution of this :h1Oity problem can come wi1hjn easy grasp or the ordinary man.

APilrt from t he m~gii: of prcfcssional complicaCioDs and the

r~gEnar(}lc or ter ll1ino'ogy wo",eg round thil prublem , B further .r,;ompHcation. has arisen by reason of tbe fact that the economj,;: problem of man whkh was, indeed, a paTt of the laqe-r problem of humlll1 life. has been ~ep~Ia!ed: from the wboJe • .ad looked at as if it w~re an illdep~n-d(nt prohrf1l1 by itself', And aradulIUy this attitude has taken &uch a firm fool tbat the ecol1Otn~ problem hu eome to be Rgardtd all the sole. probJetn of Iife, Thi.s ji even oil grtater mistake whicb b Bj made .ih aolution infini.lel.'f d iflicuJt, Thil a.U i tude Is, b oweve r, 1.) rt~rl)'" 1I nl!(::lelltific. 1 t is 3$ If all expert in liver diseases isolates the Jiver from the whole bodily system and t disregarding the position aJJotted to and Qa.""Upied by the liver in the human body and its I-eJatioIl,&hip with. ot~er bodily organs, starts lookingat the liver in i!1oJation ~ and then becomes !O much absorbed In jls. examination that ultimately the whole bodily frame and physical :i)'F.tcom appears to him as (I v \lst liver and no In Ins el se. You can Ycry ""fU urulersland tb at if the pr-o bJem$ of bodiJ y he 8] t h Were sought to be zol ved by .lbi5 j4Iiveri~h" auitude, huw impossible or ~1U.tioD they would

become and to what extreme dangers will humaD life be expoacd+ III tbe lame way if ee onomic s iJ 1 Iii oJ attd and. Rsrtaated r rom the Wbole of which it is .a pan and an attempt jli made to s.oJ~ aU thif PJobJe:m~ of life by means of econemic panaceas as if man

. .

10

ICONOM1C SYSTEM OF ISLAM

were no more thae an economlc anim al and big moral and ipiritua.l aspirat ions h ave no re a !ity apart from his ec cnonuc endea VOUT!j:~ you sh nu ld nat be surprised :i r c haos and con fuslon are the final result.

Believe me! t be exis renee of ex pe rts and 5 pecialists is one of the many c ala m ides of m odern age . A ecru prehensi Vf: Hod &-t:ll.erai outlook 0.0. Ufe and its pro blems iii becoming r art ever y day. Man b as "bet: om r:: iii. '0 Y in the bands. or one-eyed s. pc(.; I D 1 ists or the differe nt 6.Ci I: nces and prof t:: ss LOrIS. I r the re is a. ph ),ail;; lst. he starts solving the riddle ('If the universe on the !!itr~llgth of physics alone, I r () ne is 0 bsessed by p sychol og, I one seeks to build up a whole philosophy or life on the basis of his psychological ObsetV~t30DS aad ex perrments, If a man's knowJedgc 1!!. confined to se:r::ology, he announces straightaway that thl: whole of n urn an life is rotatlng on tbe ax i 15 of sexu al passions so m ue h so 'that C\'oC n the idea oJ God en tered the hum an I'D ind through tb ls door. Simihuly people who are engrossed in ICconomil::i seek. to con vince mankind that rbe real pro blem of their I ire is tbt ec nnorn ic problem .and all ot her pro bl ems are ncthi DI but its. o ft\·sh.oots. As 21 matter of fact! aU these pro bl~ml ibollld be considered tagl;lhn a'S. a. w hole all d eaeb lie p arate problem ougbi to be viewed as a !I pecia! aspect of the lingle toU,Hty.. A U or them ace: u py .iii parti-cuJ!lr pm.ition in this w bole and derlve t.llc.lr importance from that posit] 00 en I Y + Man po:s.sessc:s a physk: al bod y which is subja:t 10 physical ] a ws ~ from this view-point man is the subiect of physics. But be is not a mere phye.ieal ~y 5(1 th at 811 hls problems could b(: solved by ph ),slC!l alone He: Ii a biologic al bein g as wellj :51.1 bject to hi 01 ogle al 1 a W t and fIom this poillt of view he is the subject ... m atter of the science of the, bialo.&y alia. But t hen & 8 ain he is no I me: rei y a b i010 8 i cal animal and II. com ?let! ~ysteUl or hws. for tbe rcgl11atio~ of-lire eaenot b, d edllt:ed from t be IICjenl:e or biololY or ZOO 1 OJ Y • 1 a old er . to l!Iiuuain .hi. life he n~~dl roodl clnthes and -shi!:ltel t and '1iclIIed ftom hi$ .n.nd-poi.at etono~icl·cover!l I.~ IDlportl:Dt IIPIc:t or b is ] if e. Bllt he is n~t mere ly • rood~ clc lh in,.. all a Ihe] ter" seeki [J g ani m.1 so tb i! I th e whole: phHo50pby of hiS J if c :eo"dd

tNB ecoNOMic "OB~

It

b~ toullded on ecouomi-cs .1onc:'L For lbll!!! preser"".tioq of 'P ec les man ha-s: recou r.lul CO rep rod ucti Otl aDd the.rc I. there .. fore fOlUld in. him a Itrong 5el:ual tCddeac-y. CQaljdend from Ihi~ IStand·poin t tbt Icitncc of le.Kology Is. abo jmporlant for his life. .BoIH here :ilga;n be is not wboJ[y aD iutruateDl of reproduction to be elamiJil!!!d merely \VBh :&c:xoJolical slatSl: •• Mao i .. possessed Qr a miud fUfaishc:d wltb the IUI.at or kDOW" Jedse and coa.nllioD .aDd c]1.ar,ged wJtb padiou aDd deJl:irCIiT From thi9 poiOI Dr view p,ycho[OIY eovers • larg" part of hilt. being, But lbcD agaio be is Bot nI!n: :wjnd for a compte-to scheme or hhi ljfe l(l :be dedLlC::lI:d from the prJDCj.p1~!iIi of pty .. .choroI.Y. Man iii .a150 I. loci.t bll!l~al obliged by hil 'Very na.ture to m i.'l',; w j t b ot he r hll min be jUlIl.. From th is poi nt 0 r 'View many aspeezs of hts tife rola under !ociotoIY. BQ~ hil sociability III me rely OD I!I of the q u.a I ir i es of his ex i:!i lenr;e and it woQ.ld be foolish if th-e scienr::o of sodol0.ay js relied l;1poB. fo C .. rajth a complett:! blne·prJlll o('bi:ll rif~~ M.~ l!l an illte-llC!:ctull beiol Wh051!! nature delll.8,iIldl thct :!!:ati!!lr.actioQ of bia mscn as W.,U .. It rom n. i II. polo l of vicW' r.ll tJ on a l fei I!DctS .110 uUsfy one Df his. :spedal :requlremcnts aad d~m.'lDd;t. Bur~ _aain. be i. DDI so!cly an intellr::ctual ~ng aad. ratl0Dal .a.c:ii!!a.ces alolle can bard1y furniilh th-e- (uLJ m.terial (or. complete plaD of bUll1I.:a lifeL MaQ Is a moral aDd spjritllfJ bdllg 100. ~nrci.ED& diltlnctlen b~tweeD. good and I!!:vU .. and p.oue.5liDB all iDD3Ite urge to reach aut to r~.Utit!~ b-.;y-cnd the compreh~QiEOD of reuou. From tbis poiat or v'ew the moral and spiritual ~ieB(:e. taU,fy 81lolbll!f JmportaDt demand of mal:l~s. nature. But the.a. -8-iDI' h~ i_IJ l'1ot all moral;! and spirit fro-m ~op to bottom 30 tbllt merely mor~1 =-nd sph·hu.l1 ::icit:n:ce~ could suffi-ce to gUide bim tbrou,Ih Jjfe. Truly ~pe.:tkinit man ii all these thiugs ullen tQIC: I her, whir I!' .. part from the mJl lb,j!! to is a very j mpor .taat fact to .bo eota:lidl::Ted abollt bimt D.BmeJy t tbat· with .U hil beillg and jill .11 the difr-:rc:nt npecu of hii!F nfc he i. part o( 1he W!lt and .immell:le s~s~em of tbl! uDiveueL Viewed from thi" stand-polntt the questlcu 81 to wh&t pglitiOD h~ occupiel i .. 1 b i! II all'C UI!I and' b ow he :s.boul d wert 1.1 • psI t of it assume.

· 12

the hi,beli:t 'l8Difi.cIlD~e, for lI~lelSi hill POSitlOD iD the universe it corf!CUy determiuedt DO s8tisfactot)P .code Dr Hfe aad C::OD d uc:;t ·c:a n ~ eva] 'led f of It im. II also becomes nec:ell:sary ror rna'l\ to' deeermi qe the objCCfs for which he sbou' d work aod to decide whether those objects: are eonsistent with his dignity and tbe position whicb h-o occupies in the universe. The last two queltioDI are fuudlmentll to hu.man life, It lJ on I he ba-s iSi or these two fu nd s.me Dia ls t b.t a "hole phj, olophy of 1 i fe is eva 1 ved II and under the!! iDa LLC! nee of tb at pb.H os 0 p hy II an '5 ciences which concern men and the- wo r! d accu mu 1 a ll!! racts VI' j th in the i r own res pective spheres and Oil l be bl&;s; i:il 0 r 00,0+ c 1 us j ens dr a. wn from the fae Is a -i i f e pro gr. mme iSi chal k.e d ou I fOT the suidan<;·c of man,

It should be .quIte.clear DOW thiit if you wlsb to und-ers.ta.Dd any problem of your lifr-t it LI wrong ~o confine your artentlcn microscopl cal Iy to th at part Ieul a r preble nl alone 0 r to 1 a ok U pon ] i r C! as a 'W hole ... i th a. precoaceived bias in fa. 'Von T of (b I f pI; rli cul • ., bratu:h of I if ~ to which t h-e pro bl em i'" more n e, fly rei ated + ~a(b e, ror • correct .un d e-tllandi:aJ. an d tr lie c 0 mprehension yo-u shaH have to: look at it iq itt relationxbip with (II he r problem s wi tb a c I 1:. r ide it a, to the correct p~:li.i t ion it ocC'o pie Si i D the C:O~ ple te w bo r. and the n plateN to exam iDe the maHer with an UJlprl:ju.dicc:d a.nd impartial mind, 8im il.fly, jf yo u find anytbitt& wronl with the equilibrium and bllancc of )3fe and deaiTe to put jt aright, it .ill be: '-tm more dangerous if YO\1 treat one of the prob I eros of 1 i fe a 5 t b I!: W bole pr 0 blem :!IDd revolve the whplc maebiDet)' or existence on th,t parlicular point, If you do thht you ... Hl merely upse: ~he whole balance nnee again. The eorrt'!ct method of reform i5. to examine" wi"b. aD unbiased mind tbe who[,,= scheme of life, from il Ii: bask' philo!;opby right up to tb~ det.ai1s into "'b3c~ it braacbes off and th~ n t I) locate the ev j t ae d d Iscl;I\I'e:r i 1:!iII true na ture.

- -

So the: maid. rea~DI1 for tbe di:l6cQ.lty encountered io under-

118.1:1 dim, and co JTec:tly 101 'ling fI' e ecoaomic problem of mm is tba ( some peeple look B. t tb i s preble m from tbe poi D t of y Ie w or Cl;QD(lmi.:s alonc ~ et berl eX.Ige r. toe i tl importa:l'I ce • ad

11

deell.ll! it to be the whol., problem Df ute; .still Qlbert .i.h to buHd • compl.ete pbilOiophy or liCe aD.d· the "hole 'YJ.tc n::I of moraUt1~ ca.ltUfC!I .. ad locJ.ety on e.c::oQomic fuOl1d.UolM OIlJ, aDd 1m lid. maala-t . ,they b.v~ rtdDOed m ... •• potiUoa. in tbil world to thlt .or & trel:: Iraq-eatH iu a paslUl'e. for if cctmomJtt !ltonG were to be the fomllioo or hum. D Ute III then Ule ide. for whic:b ~Q. exi.U is no better lUll that for 9bicb a. bullock -el.i.ltll. namely... tD ratteD hiauel f merri Iy on the arec::. Ira5Sr Likewi_. if tile cl;oDorni~ staDd.poiDt pmomiaal" in .he I ph~rel of moral, spirit nal ~ rat ional, Imciolo&ical. lliCycboloaicll and other scieuces, it wi:: read to a ftry great di2teq.Uibrium ... ' beea use in th~e 'Spbc: res Ilr Ii r.et eeoaom lei has DO a ppli eJI ltCiD wb:lltlOtVer. Applied to IbC:Si: IIpb-erct ec-oDDlJliC'l .".W-COD.y.ert rtlora.1ity .ad Ipirituality i!lto I~JBstultw .o~ materiali:lbl.~ tr aDl.fofm tbe:: r. tiO.n3J sc ieDI:I!, into tbc eul tdary arts. i..rul~ bu!.i oe$l mot iY1I!:1 a Dd commercIal Ideas in lOCi.l conduct aDd le.d psychology to :U Ildy miG II mer-c:]y alll ~coQomjc .u imat Calli there- be It Krealc:r tnjustice to bum.llity 1

..... EcGaoDl~C P .....,ble ..

If we loot at the question iD • pla.ia.. Itr.ilbtro.rward manner. Ilvojdj DI tl!!lfmillOlo 8 i!;lt ud :prcf.euion:lll com pI ill;.ltic:m!l wr:: find tile et::onomir:: problem or m ..... to be GO mare than l h i! t wi th a view 10 :103 t -.in and ad ¥f11lCe bumaa I;i ¥iU ZlitiOO hoO" to arran 8e eeenoznie dlslrJ bu t ion 10 as to keep -J I me D supplied of 1 he uel:C:S!Li ties of 1:1; il$tenCC' a Q:d 1.0 , • ., tbat e VI!!TY .Ildividual in soelerr l:!i provided witb o-ppgullojde!l· adC'quatc tn die: deve 1" pme nt of his pe rson iJ nt,. and the a tt.iDme .. t of the hig.bt9:t p'os~ihJe perfection Bccordin& to lIis cllp.cit, aDd ~he aptiuu'lI!:.

J .. lha earJier Un.e:!ii the econo·-nic problem "'6:1 almost 18 :IIj ID ph: for me D 8i It i5 for Ilalmal.+ I ntlaite means of' Ufe wert3 5.CB t, ered on God·1 soDd e. rth, All thai ",83 needod to au. taiu t.be hfe or tbe bumu. 9ipcl::lc:.11 wal • vai l.ablc in a bLII:ula ... ~. :every nne "",rot Qut to leek his por~io:tl and obl.iD.ed It from these ~1eaSU"S. No Oil!!:! lIad to pay th-c prke of hj~ necessities: Dot 'II!II' one .... llllj pONioli in rbe Clip of another. Tbis boJl1;

14 lIO:lNOIOc m1.it4 a. t&I..AM

~

1004 eYeD today .5 ·~r u animals are eoneerned. But le polot dlllel almost similar COlldiriGJu prevaired for mankind. One wvld j ust aD cut and ICturc oo~· .. nBtofaJ food. ei th':T in the :shape or frtritl or by bOb DI aniQ'1l:h:. 0111: oould mau_1t to caver Qftets bod)' wilh uta:ral prodDctJ and· rotm • .sh~hrr Ia.d n:fu.e wbel1l!:l'er he fOUDd·. sl;Ihab].e: place. Bur God did Dot "m,aa to ketp DlSa io thit ~lIdiUon (or a long time. He hid e.iJdQ:wed him .. itb an ID:II!.te Ulgl! to see-tout 3Qd :lubuitull!' ooUKrjyl!' lo~jal Ufe i.DSh::.d or the isolated illdivida al lire buo whick he W'8.1- hora .lnd by his owo.la b our to Cfea fe for hhnltl r bCltter meaDS of nfl!' tJ)tU thole wEth wbieb nature had f ... rnisbc:d ' him. The nAturll dedre fOl'. pumlDl!:nt rel&tioDsblp bet_eta maD aad .amaD1 tbe dll!pendenee af • hum la c:hUd (or. 10qll perlod OD tbe prOEectioa o( hi. pi reats. th e d e C:"p htt!"rc:~t of maD in hill ptoseD,. aod the ... ft'~tion betw(!e:a. blood l'"t:t.atjOD,: fbe!e .ere tbe tbill!' wbiich n.ru.r-e h.d ingu.io!:!:d io blat to direct bi • .::ff'orts towardl boUdjnl a social life. Siro.ilarJy. not beiDI content with Il,tara] productl bu.t produchlJ fOadgraiul fDr himsel] b} tilliDllhe lalld ~ not be-illg laUlfh:d with co'Veril:ll, hi. body witb leaves bat produclui cloth (or bhD~Jf by his owft iDdustry; not Uvilll ia c:avQ and dens but coastructlng boosts for himSie1f; [lO~ cOI:l.!iidrril!l it !lufficl • at to satbfy hi. n~r:ds

.... .

with pbY5ic~11mprr::llh!:qt!!li but inVoeIUiQlltO.ltel iron, WOOd~D and

other implt::;:De'Dtl ; all these nrgn bad b-tl!:~ lmpl~.hHed ill bim hy provldll!lU:e- .nd.l:u::ce!sarily implied tbat be :should gtaduaJly beco:DlI!: civni~ed. ReDell!: if mall became social and cl'liJis!d hI: did not commit IDY crjme; talb~r tbil wa! the! inher,:nt deroalld or bb mature and rbe ~~]ib~rale purpOse of his Creator,

Whlt ·tM advent of civilintion certain th i1l8'i w~re la-

evjlabl~, t _g. _

(l) that 'be ne-t:'l::uities of humaq life should multiply and IlD !dnt;lc: individual be able: to :8.I::C[lI'"C all his -n.ecC'ui· ties, some .,r whic:h must be secured for him by others, l'rhile be! bjm:5itlf s~ould secure a part Dr t he necessiries

(]of otb.e n ; .

(2) that th= n:cessiri~1 of life Ibau ld b~ tX;c!Jau.ged a~d.

IS

anddlJ]y lome d.ed tum or ex~hall p IbouId be: evolved Ind ttllbl.i:lllbed ;

(3) Ib-' the !Mdt of prod'lJ.CtiGa tor the HCCI:. i l iC5 of life .&id ID!." I of tr.D .. p~tjOQ aad conUIlUDic:ati 0 ... .... 14 multiply .Dld that IDI"R IhoGJd t.te adlPltn.tap or.n l'he: inventtoDs .hieh may e4nR 10 bis- knowlt!d~e; lad:

(4) thai man .hould haft the satiafBctloa aDd l:i!uaace that the- objects w b i~ be has 'KUred by b i!t: OW II; induslry, the implcmtlDtl with _bleb be wo:rk!l!o th'CI ,twD d on whith be US buill: hil, bouse- ~ .ud the pl.Cl!I .. her. be carrjes bls .ptoreuioaal bullDetI!II .U these will rem.j 0. j n hi a polll!:uig D!II .ad ~r his ~eal b be t,..d.ned to tbose who may be nearer.and de. ret to bim tb.1L otherl~

So th~ .ppe.rauc:e or ';.arlonl it.des .nd profCi .. ittDs" ahe ',I.lC')D or purch.lht a od ... lea " the ftptjOD. or pri". of 'CO ... moditlci. the introduction of coin! -. a 1iita.nd4rd af prl.ce aDd. In rd ttl In or Cz~hIlDIII!:.. i D te rna r iODal commHCe .D.d expon !!lind i mpott t:.~1!1 in est, tbe u t n isatic:u:. of aU Bartl of Dew me aUI o( production, alld the tYOfUl i OD of the rilh1' of propen,. .ad I:qc:cl:sliol3 ~ .11 tbat .al quite DIU-uta] to maQ .nd there: _8:1 Dotbin-, dntul in it or _hich be ~ould .rqcDt. Beajde~ tbl" with tll, -de'gelopment of sccial UCe " wal allo D.l!cutafJ :

(~, .. bat 01lfjAg to the dis.paTlI)' wMer:. Dlture it:seU hat cfellltr:d in ~hl: pOfentialilics lad powert or diO"elent in d i vi d u" ls, so m=: In d ivi d U Ills should be able to r.ara .:0 d produce mort t ball {bey De! ed and 'Some: sbould In: .abJ, to secure on'y thele blrc necessiljes .. while others CveG tell t ban wba t t lMy :IIfed ;

(2) tb.t IOIiIC indi'liduall !l:hculd be able (0 -,cure 4 beUer 0 staff iD fif~ in cOD~qUttlice of iQb-erjted we.Ubl and SOQle shou !dO I tart 1 heir lif I: ... it b. rewrr IDca1]1 t W b 1:1 r:: otben sbauld '#8.rto their !tI1lllle in lire withoUI any D1tallls arb auo~Yc:r oj •

(3) tba t OWiDB to the ope .... t ion 0' lIat lUll cau"C"! lhe:r CI

16

BCOl(OMJC SYSTEM 0' [SLAw

should be: found j n every soclal a:gstega te m!Q ... b Q are unfit [0 pa rticipllte: In the b It:g i !le't of 1 ire ; ror cl.mple

. r

cbUdrent the aged. the sict and In-aapacitated peI'30D*~

and

(4) that tbe're should be eertata indi"idu.als wbo offer thl:mselv!!!1 for emplQymcDt aod certain otl!er.s wbo secure l he ir lI:erviCI!: t a nd by this m-e a'D:!iI besides t be devtlopme:D I or r ree ind ust ry t tr ad e, ab d agricuJ rur e .. the lela ti On S b i ps of empl Oje r It n d II!! mpl oyee usll me: ... I!:ocial im por ta. nee,

A 11 these ractors are. al:!lo, ill thelr OWD way. tbc, BatlSra.! cons~quenccs and phenomena or man·i social Brei, and their emerjeace too is hy no means an evil which may c:tU for i u.ppr~S5ioIJ. U D 3. ble to trace 1 be rea I ioLtrcCI of t b. ev i 1:1 w b ich Bow fro Ill: 0.1 toge t he r d itTeren t SiOC ia 1 causes, mil Q y penpl e los e the i r le ... el head n I: S:S 3 n d S I art debOunc i Qg i lid i vid u a} -0 woers b i p. money, or machines. or the natural jDc:qtlIlHli~s. of hum!lllity • • ad :g,()mctimc~ civlllsation lUclL This ill. bowover~ itl re.lily a ease -0 f wrotli d ia "gDO~ is all d wro n 2 remedy.

AD Y a ttem p l ta c he ck L he n atu r2J. [ prot:ess of 10; Lid evclulion aJl d to I! 1 i rn ~ n (I te tho"5 e eS9 e n t i al .aspcct s of soci &1 life which' are the products or basic: human nature is, tttcad.aJYt devo i d of aU se Il se and, i D .,.01 ves a gr., .. ter pan i b i 1 i ly of lO;ss than that which IS tried to be offset. The real economic pre .. blem or mall 'dues not consist in fiDdi.a.g out bow to prevent l~lII!I development of civilised so.cial hrl: or to lnterfere with the !ltt u t:ll QOUr1ie of it s ad vance and elirn i nate in ess e n l i alas peers: the real problem is bow •. whjle keeping intact (h~ natural e"ol ut ion of s oeial f 0 rees ~ to peeve D I soci al lyra nny .B: nd' in) ust i ce ~ to f uJ fil nat ure IS demand L har every ere a ture sll ou!d 'cceiv~ i t s po r ~ ton. and to n:move. those 0 bU3 eles wb ill: b cause . the fae ultie!iii .and po w e rs of a I a r ge Il U m bet" or pcnolls to be walt ed .I. w a·y .me re I y on account 0 r 13 c k of eeeess 1111' mt:ans~

Tl3e Cause:§! or El'Us in tbf! ECDQOlDic System

We s hou1 d now exam i no w ba I are the re a.] causes or t bt: :rfC5e-nt economic. evils and what is tbe DjUU~ of lhi, ~\'iJ.

11

Evil. in the eeeaomie ')'Item besins lIJhell I be aa lural selfi'hn-en o.t maD exc"dJ tht limits of moderation. It dr::vdopl· wilh tbe: aid of eertai D. othe r bnrou r-.J babi t, and· reeel vel furt!u:r ItlPPQrt from .n inbere:uUy defe:cllYC poUticat sYlte.w.. C:lpedaUy jf the latter h1ll 00 moral bali I. After throwloS th • .. bole e-c:.oaomlc aysU: m ogt or gear II it POisoDIJ t.h.e co tire IOI;i.1 I ifll!l j D aU its fa mi 8.r;a \iOIll:l. I have .:z:ph1i Dod tball boE h iadjvlduill OwDtrsbip of propetty and tbe: tact of tome .odividuall!J kiDI er;:ODO m icaUy bel t cr pl aced thaD 0' be U were ill acecrdaace wIth ~b.! natural &Cheme of thinp aQd arc: DO eyils by thc.m!J.::lvcl. NO' evil. eft"oct eoutd arlse from t.b.om ir all the moral q!.L. H t ies 0 r m3 El bad h& d the oppo rtuu i ty to ... ~r. t hemsel vel ill the j r pro PCI" blllalLce aDd true prOportiOD and if' ~J.tcr.DaU1 a poli tlCI& I ;ly~tem e~jllcd w bic h woul d m ,1Dtaj 0 ju~tkc at a.ll COSC:$. cv ~lL If] l e awe to tbc .pp!iog! tio.. of forl:e. B~t Wb.l t ramf armed tb ese two th inp into POi i u \1'0 e"Y ill il the fact that people who were: ill! a. benet ·condttlon ccono.alicalLy OWiDS to the operation of 0 Bl1 u.ral eaUKIi. rc]l &. prey 10 ,eJfrib.. DCS",. narro ... miDd~dBr::s.s. jealouli)'.. mill:rliD~ .rc:ed. dh .. hones.ty alld wonhip cf lhe self.. The devil put iota the,' hcad. r bat tile meanl of li Y iDa wb h::h IlK)' had .equ I red iD escess of tbelr real n c-ed$ and to .hle: h they b..d full propti r::lary rtaht!J. cauld be; speBt rilh£Jy and t.tiODall)' in two ".),1,. "11:7. (l) i III thci r OWII cO'rntort. plea SU ret rcereation. embt;:lli:sb mmt and good li~iD! :!lnd (2) in 4(:q'Dl~lDI farther QlCaai of livin, and if poui bte iD S I: U i n& bold 0 f tbe m.e.nl 01 alb!!! r people .. lbe: re by etectilll th"ems.cl V~I Into VI:! r liable d em i-sod:.. Tbc fint sat an it idc:a relliLdlet1 .Ill l h(. ricb ref usi IIi to re~gl1i.e the f iSb tl of those membeu of the f;QmmunHy who were deprlved of I. "9haIe j u the d islributi on of wc-al t 1;1 or who obtai Bcd I. :lhl.rc!I IclS than their real needs, The rich considered jt pmec:tly eurrect £ 0 lea VII: thele pe~p 1. in :I tan' lIlion an4 d est H UtiOD.

T h~ir asrro WOl lude-dne I5iS d i a Dot permit the m to I"e:a 1 ise lhat !ucb an atUhldc would bl e ed prorcn iooa) eri minail ill hUman we: ic ["i t prod uce me 0 S leepc d ill LJllor.nce and mea IIneU., ID I. 1: e tb.!;! D1 I. P"~ to phy! ic:~ l we ... kD~·U • Qd d i!;'.R~ and lb.,

11

the pbYldc.al aad 'PIept,l PO"'" 01 these Pt!tlOft.3 would be .rutted iD. their deulopmeDt lad pr.e'ICD t thclIJ trorn play ial their part ia tbe nolM iOD of hrlaJU e .. ltuR :and civLUsatioD aad thil WOu.ld llijurt and da~ ~p tIIat ICC iet)' at. • whole (If "hieh tbe rlcb thcDllel ~I were _ part. N 01 COD C, nt with I bll." tbe wealthy folk multiplied Ibelt o~it ie8 of lire ve rJ mucb over-ud .bov.e theit real Qe.d~ aad tor the purpose or fulfilllq, (he .Mi:6.c:j.l aDd .clr -"Cre.ated req u iremedts or tbejt se If ·01 tu:rc" they mad. m.oy oIlhOlC' periODS .. ho could h.",c served ~ lvi I is-.tlo'l1 i B their OWD way., sllbsHvlea.t to the it te18.h penona 1 f:.Ildal !UDCe fot tbelt: rich pl:Oplc '.dptt~ry btcame I lIe~ssity ror ... hic:h all 11:cD,. of presci t u:te:l~ J.O~ be: lWC:~D' and. d iuepu.ta blc aleDll had to be leeruited. For til em mUli~ ".1 I "But.r Deed.. to ... t ilfy "hich- auotbe r Ilrmy hlld to b!' secured, of mosic:jansl d. DC J.D I IldJ ~ dr u m -be. ten and rnarluf.ct urers of muloa' iutrumeDts, FOr theJll if -a5 neCC!lJlaty to have

D umCi reus Ull"bellthy rec:reatj DB:I for whit:b pur pose a },.r Je fa rce .of jettttl. acltelU:I.. UOtyl, Uerl .. pbolOI rapbert~ pa iD ters an d other a.Hlels proressiara.ala bad to be n. ;sed~ The, 1.1:&0 fell the need or buatias fat l.IH! tale of whiclll maDY peoplol!, iD~te ad of beiD, put to '-Orne: .oad wort.. wer!! CB lied upo.c to d r i Ye about aai m .1:1 I a junarll:l. Tbey .1-50 wanted ple:asun=1 or' hH.oxic:atil,1!L .n~ torled'ulaels .. rot which purp05e a larp Dumber or men "~fC f:flaapd to prepare UqU01. eecalne, opium,

.. ad etber drul1 aDd ioto:dcants. In .bOft, tbe~e brothers of the devil did Dol .rap PH'rely al in'folvib8 _ larp porUoD or llooi-ety in moral .. ~plrhu.t and ph),ljcal de@rad.tion, but were cruel enougb 10 din:tt bil portion .of humanity frotb proper. and u!!:efu.l oecuPl:tioDi. an d rOm!! the m to till ke up useles s .. meae .a nd haf'JT"Lr III jo hI:. Til us lhey III i,dj reeled r.be pace: ot -r;:]vi l i saticn aDd ulrned j I j D to I:hRn nc 1! whicb were to le:ad maDk i.a d t D de~[rucEiolf. ADd lhe rna Uer did pot end hl!re. Ir. .addition to wlltillg .U thil human capltllt they s:IIiQ mjlQud _ t be: Ina teria 1 "f!.U b 1'0 t be iT possc!l$ion. Thr:y pr-ofelkd the

4

need for palace!, bil bu'dlafoWi, sa:rderl5t rec:rratloll I~dlt

dance blHI" ete., :10 tb..&t C'VeD ~!f';f death the .u:tc-bed fr!lIuws required for thelr mE whQJe ar;:r~" 'Of land and lIpatioUI lomb,.

1'B'I BcONOlfIC "OIilL!H

19:

Ia: thil ..... , tbe I.ad" the build io.s Ill .. tell at •• and the bIlCILG.D. I.bour "hleb could vet:r w": 11 hay!:! prorided t he res I d enti.] D~edt or othet b\tllllan beiD81:. Wtlrl II til ised for tba tam pOlar1 resort .Dd permaD.Dt tt:lideoce of eaeh liuJ,le oae of the,';' p]CI .. ure-lo,,1nl people. Tb., coalidll!:ted rt DtctIIary to ba'lC!l jew_ lI.ery ... d oro_mellis, lUll: dresses_. hip dan. «ocke:ry. ~LltlctY .dld other uteD:liltt me •• 1 of 'oruiI:u::nta,ion and d~r .. t icm. hiab elan meaD, or ridingl .nd O.od .Ione k.o.oWl· .,b.t oCher p8:rapherna.UI. 10 muct. 'so t'b.t eTC-II Ibl:l r doMt we re coutdc: r~ to be nu'Cd "i tbout ~o:nEy 1::13 rllialt • nd thoOY could not .ull'er to be'p the ..... Us of tbcir p.laf!c:"lI bare of pictu!"c:s cOltiol h U IJIdred:!l. and tho.u,and:l or tup.cs~ Tbo ' Boor ot the lr rooms tcq Uiin::d to be covere d • jUt esrpe II c:ostID, thousands of rupees dtat eYCn their dOli requi,red loldea conan .nd velvet CUI b iaa.. 1 a tbis mall .. Cr - good d eat of that raw mAleti.1 and much of that human J.ltaa:r .hich could, b ave Deea Died to coyer the bod itl and :IIJ r fbe be] !ies or c hoUSILOd. 01 bUQlla bei nl. w., de'Voced to the 58lt·i a.du 181:~ of .one: sift.l. i1\diYidual.

.

Such was the re.ult of" ODe pan or th.lt •• bole guldar:u:fiI.

T he result of t be: second part pr.oYCd to be ~nc. J n t be first nlaee, i[ ill: obvJoUJ]Y ... rODI i~ principle thlt a perron should be ent it I.:! d to :II! masl a] 1 the b1ean:t. of J I yj ne ewer aad .bllYe bl. relll Deed .. "bLeh he may b."e ~~ to POUHS alld ccntlnue to Utll!: tbe In to !.~tc r....-ther mea Dli. I t is e'lid-ent lblll tile m~lIQ1 'Df living whieh Gad U,3 created on earth art: meant for utt~ ryiug the ual ureds of m.nt~nd. Jrt thclo!forel by sheer 2004 luck: OD., finds hi mlel r posse:l! i os lROre or l hell!:" means thlll'a bl' r-c:qClirem.er..tl jU5tlfy. it only i.mpHcSl th.at • I1Irplul wbich wit really the! portloa of Gibe n has retched hlm, W.b '! S bou I d he t herefore bo 1(1 j I for It imseJ' 1 Hce !i b mdd look around ror people who are DOt :fit to ::!II«UTe theil ('Hlrtion of the meanl of livin!t o.r who have faUed [,0, 3ecurc: thelUlt or q:ain .,11:0 h~ve rece i ved Ic~. thad t belr need's. ~lItd he: should realise t bat j t i. these relloWl who!le portion has come into bil hands. At they iO\l1 d D.)t '~UR' ilt, i t b~bOYtl him to lrautr",r il 19 t h, 111. II

20

will be wroogf"lJl act if, Lnstead of dOiDB thj:g. whieb it the: prope r th iD,g to do, he star ts usiu, them r or HI(:urh:.S further me-ani of Uvinl, ror", h:. any case, the tur(her meaUI .biob he will secure w j Ll be ml.lcb mote: thaD bi.,. real needs and teq II; i remtDt! ~ Hence. i Jl .. uetu.;pti 01 to ICC ure tbemt not biD. is la i acd tl.Cep1 the :lllti:5lraclioD of hil·ireld 'and Bvarice.. The ponion or time" Ind ustry IDd • b:i ll ty .. bic::h be spends i D teCUr~ng the me'l n:s of livID;: comm~nll""'rate with the rel] aeeds of his 1 lfe are dOllEbtleJ8 wen and tru 1 y 81 pent, but to lpend them in ilecuriag somr::tb i ng OV!!:f a ad .. bc'tle h i:lli reat PC edit im plie3 tllat he Is d.sra.d ia.. himsel f into au eCODO IDje an i m al t nay • weah h"· producing machin~" whl!:rea.s thl!!!rc are betlC!r method:!!. of Ipead i 0 8 hi I time an d C! De rgy a nd Htrc! Irq h II mental and phYlical fl C u lti e, in pun;ul t~ other t haD the aCQ u isition of further wea.lth- CoQsequeDUy~ from the poInt .of view of true. reascn and aatu re 1 be very prine i p] e "W hich the: drvj I b a, inculcated .:mOoliS his pupils is lnberently wrt)ng~ But, ftlrthefmore I· the pr.ctlcal me t hod !II adopted on tb e ba s is or th is prlnc I p 1 e ara· til iilC~U rsed :Ii od the: i r resul ts so bor t ible lha t they cannot e'V-Cn be Cor rectl 'i BI!ii:&'II::9iS I!: d.

Th-=:r-e are t1"O me thad I of u til.ising the su r plll S to secure

furt her means, t.e. _ ...

( 1) t ~a t tbc:y sh 0 uld be lent On in terest, and

(2) that 1hey should be in vested i III CD.,. mere i a l or lcd us tria 1

uod etta 1:: in.8!!i1 ..

ALthoug h ba lh these mel hod.s differ to some ex ten I in th I:! j r n. t 0 re, - the iu"Y j t a.bl e J es 01 t of the lr com b ined a(:tio.ll is the di vi 5i ion of seele ty in l~ C '""0 ela sses : 0 De ~ t ha t SID all class wh ie h PC5"8I1!1UC!ll mea D. IJ f Ii" in g eve ran d 3. bove i IS req u iremeDii and employ, those means to grab. further means 'of Jil· ln a ; lad the: other I' th.t Earge ciasi which po:ssesses meaDl jPlt accord i aa co i tI, DC I;. dll or in a measure 1'1:15 t ban i u needs, or does 1i0 t pOlSess them a.t all. Tb e inte felts ot tb esc: two el ass.es Dot only ~lash .,ain't each otb er - btu i Devitably lead to m u tu I.) .\ truggl e and strift4, And lh U $ the ecODO mic 5 YI tern or hum ani I)'" wb ic;b Provi~cRC' b .. ~ b~$¢! d ~ d bu jit O!J WlJ, tUAI

cooperatioll and ex~ha.ale ends in l.UenteciDC: IItroBSlt!: and strife.

At tbis :II nl!gle d evelopa the ric he r class stead i I y dec reas.e.a ill num her wb ile the POOT c I iUS &atl on inc n:a.sl D II r.or the very nat a re of the !truisle is :lueb (h at aWe. 1 tby i ad ivid ual attrac ts by forct of bjs .ealth thll! mean I possessed by othe rs leas we.Uhy thail blmiclf" 1hereby throwlJ:lg rhe Iatter dow .. into the JOl¥er :IItratum. Ju tbJs manDcot the means or -lire jo the world are becnmin g zrad ual ry restricte d B nd r::OD fined day b)' d:,y to Ii less a 1'1 d te st por ri 0.0 of the po pul allon, and t be greal er part of '.he: popu lat iOIL i I s lowl y aDd st ead i 1 y bead i na lowlU'ds aheer pov~rly OJ' absolute dcp~DdeJ]ce on [be: rick.. In. the beginning the struggle startl. on a small seele ; then the in fectioD Ipleads by ata.scs to al l countnes aD d 11.1 i OIlS :So that eveD. after briD!i.1'I1 the wnote world within jli tentacles it IItUI c riC:!i for more an d more. Th UI w he D it become-s a &encral practice IQ any eoantr y that those possessing we 3.1 rh i 0 exccSJI of Cbeir Deedl lhould iQ¥cst the 5UrpJUI ill profit.9Ible lllldcr- 1l1kj IlP aDd iu tbe prod lIetjoQ of the Ilectlsi ties or lire. the in ¥e:&tmt:nl ean yic]d fu U profits on) y if the: eati re pr~duet of 1 nd uatry is pllrchas.ed by the peo ple of the collntl)' In which. the: surplus weaJlb hari beer. tnvcsted. Rut. tD pr .I;tl.«=, th il doci not blppeQ, and io re aJ tty j e t:aonol b.appl!!I D", bei:au:tCi thnse *b 0 p05Kllillo leu we: allb thaD [he,r nEed .. ha .... e WD:iiCQ 0 endy lew; pu re buiDI power I and CIDDOt pu r",h ~I: B U t b e p.roducts in spi te of tbej r nfed fQC them r On L h e oU'I C!! r ba nd, Ibole wbQ posse ~3 WIC 1111 th in e scess to (be I r Dec ds an: anxioes to set "Slide a portion of rbejr iDcomeS! for furtber in vestment in profi t able u ade r L.Ilk. i ngll. a nd the ref ore t bey do. no l spend .J I the mOrley the y can in pure b a.iQg COc.!iUDlC'r gooo!!:. Thjl ttSU lts perforce in a port ion of tho mallufact ured products bed II 8 lcft unpur(:haaed er, in otber wordlJ a ponioD of Lh~ i IJ VIC!, tmetlt~ or the .r ich people dOr::i!1I not come bloc II: 10 them and lies at the debit of tb~ .r;:OI.lDtE)'1I, indu.try .as a JOaD. This CODst {CUUlI: one cycle only. You ~a8 irnagin.£!:t hcwe'Vtft tbat i II. every OD II:: of the nu.meroU3 eye les of thh aa ture the we al t by cI iU .. es w j U SO 00 uli!1.1 • pllt of t bl::.... rcturaed InIC.ome lD

,

f'grther iDYHtmentaDd in every cycle tbat propo-rljon of their iD.A Yelted we-alth '!Which doc. not return iDto their hands ,IDes on in-creas.in,g.. -tbereby multip!yjD.I the dcbU or tbt eountr1'1 indu.stry t Viti r old aDd ellCD tboll salO ib:f ul d, iI nd t:'rCD 10 an I!I.~ent wblth 1bl.t country con ne,,"cr bit in a posilioD to pay ofl'. In thil .manner no ,dtc:rnaUve is left to the (:ou..ab"y to t:!K:.a.pt the dansc:r of bo. n kru ptcy ~1Cc:pt uporUng for i8.le to otbcr countries goo-ii is whh:h arc len DYer aud canDOr. be: sold in that couetry. This is really ,too tantamOllnt t,o !ie-eking cooDtriciII to which 'this misfortune of bankruptr;:y c.a.'Il be traDs!errtd. In this way the Itl't1.@ gl ~ t C' anscen ds ' the barrlc15 of I :slagle I;ountry and .steps into tbe intefoationa! sphere ...

I t wi] L DOW be evld eDt tb at it il Dol j tasS on. ~un1ry wh ieh ~ I ru nnfDI its atr.i rs on the b a.sit of tbia sa tao ic eCODC)m ic Iy"~ ~m:; ra tber most of l hI: COU Do tries .or Ibe lVor~d • re j n 1 he lame pr.edi~ameD t ~ I bat i s, they arc compeUcd to ta YB t be ... :ltl 'Vel rrom ban krnptcy ott fa ot het word.." to trusfer lb.,ir b&Dknl ptey to :II a me- othor CO'D..ntry. ADd tbis lead.. to i otero alion. I ri'lalty "it bic::h tak.'ci * U roUowi D, fGrm, ;

(I) Every coun~ry, In ofFc:riu. its good. In tile iatc,naUo.DI1 m arkett tri I!::s to prod ace the lrealest quuUty II tbe m i ei m um co,t o( praductioa. .ad tb Is ta,¥oIye. tbel I.t.d i Qg do WD. of 'IV ages 0 f lab oar to tile IO'Welt poBaibJ II!! limit .. ,$0 Ihll the portion of naliorJal ~lth whj-ch ee • .es iu to t be ha.ndii of the labouriua; claatl is further rtduc:ed Blld H~ i:ucom.c faHs to a lever whue evea ill bare ae eds are: l'Iot s It i5:5 ed.

(2) EYe!ry country -phlte:i c:mhar~ri on lmpurts wit bin iLl bound aries a.D r:l ! phe re s of iliftucnccsjI .and t rle s to mcnopoli!.c: for It se 1 f tb I:- raw mater ia[s w bicb J ie wil bin it.s t er r j tory 10 1 ba r otber .:olalntriell may act secure an d tak. .adva Drage: of them. This. rC$,~lta in. iuterna· t:o.naL itrU',,glc: "hleh leads to war.

(3) Th~,c rxploi U III d a~i t5 i D "fade lboso countries whitb are unabIt 10 bep olf thil bl.qktuptc;=y from beinJ imposed upon LhcJP a.ad DOl OAl, do they lr, to sell

t.H.a !cONOlIlC PilOBt.EJI

'IJ those cou ntrle1 t be IU Iplu, prod ucts 'Of 'he i [ O'WD. but they try to invest their surplus capital for which

.they do Dot :6.od any avenoe-s. of pto6tablc investment

~ n t be lr own count r y ~ I D tbj s wa "I.. Ih" SI me prob lem u1timately appears in tbose countries whit:::b had or llinall y ario;;eQ i.n the cou a.t riC!:1 or l he investor:; tha til.. tb e fun amo t.I nt or j n ves tment til rI Dot be re t UfO ed a ad a major portion of l he i nC"Om ~ t his f to m investmeDt is a,aiD invested iD some profitable bu:siness S D t b ill tb ~ bu rd en of debts inc rea ses to such an ex. te at t!J a t ev ton j f a II these C OUD trie:s were so ld off t the in ve Jtment would not be recovered iD full .. It il eYldent tbal if I b it. cycle i. a] lowed to work i a this ma.o ner, t be who le world will ·ultimately Ion it, SOIVCDCY. and no place .".1 U be "lett to "hie h the blishl or b • .I1k (u pte y could be t ransr e fred ~ Au d i Q Ihe er.d m o.D k i ad wi U feel the nee d of seekins mar tetl in Mars.. VeD UI~ and J u pj~er for j nvest i D8 their weal th .-ad "I J Lilli the i r "S I.Irpbu: 800 d. ~ Tbus, th roulb [bit iDlern atioDal (:xeba.n.c. • ball df u 1 of baDken. hroiers,. 8 a d indus 'rial and business mapatci '0 tomplc:tet, ,.tbet i. Iheir

e lut cb et all lbe economic;:; rcIDUr( ca or t hl: world t b It r t be whole or hu m .nity j s rcdU(:cd to II Itate o( d epen-

de DC:C:: U POD l b.c:m. I I hal now beeome we ll-ni gb

j m p05si ble (or ad y lnd t vldnal i nd epe D deaU, to under ..

t B ke any work 01 blliineu :rely hal merely OQ, hIt .owo pb~'8 it:al aDd mental powers in ot de r to seeu re rot b lmself a portioD of the OJ e:IDS of 1 i v ina w hie b eJ; isi oil! Go d "s earth. No oppo rtun] t y . is left i Q. t hese d 8.11 r Of sma I] ind us It tal i1ts aD d Isricu 1 t u rlst8 10 e-arn t be: ir

] jvc] ihood free 1 y. Eve 1,001 is co ... pc lied te aect-pl

1 he lot of 31 ~ve." Se:fYiilDU D nd la boure rs 0 r IJitsc ftna acial pr iDee. 81 nd captainl or i Ild ustry. And· tlley

exploit all t be physical .ad mental {acuities h weJl ~,

c he "II ho Ie Ii me of otbe r people amn. thern i D reI II ro only a bare minim\) m at wapi at ~ he • ubsiltc:nce It~tI.

This aC:(:OIlDtS. ror tbe whole of humanily hl.viD,K been reduced 10 lhe Jot of an c:.c::onomi.c;: 8DimaL "I'he-n: are very few tuck)' IDdjYiduals who cal\. find tbc opPftrtunir. y .. hl this. economic struggle ~ to do sOlElet~llll [or their moret, inteUectual Bod spirllual advancement or to give some attentloD to any object nobler and hI ab er l hau the tilt re fiji i oJ of the bel Iy,. or to cd eve to p those natural "todo""mcnls with 'Whjch God has. lifted them for aDy higher end than the mere iecki~g of ] lve hb ood ~ ID. poin t of fac t the cCQno-mi.;: :suuHle hils become- 10 serious add 5otrl::DUOUI owi.n:i to tn.!!. satanic systetn that .aJl the other dcpar;ment of life have been alieclr::d by it an d entirely pu.t ou t of ac dOD.

It !~ :StiU mere unf()rtuDat~· for humanity that moral philO!l:ophiet, poliLi~~1 sys.ternst and Jegal prindp1!!:9: of the worJ d & a ve abo b een inf ecre d by thil d eviH:!!i h eecn omic IJltem. From c a.st to weU, C ve.ry where, moral menton are J.y.inl' "UII::IJ on economy. It is regarded as foolhh and motaRy re pr eheaei ble to spend aU tha r one ear DS.. and every ...

'one i. toJd that he she .... ld save !ilomctbiDi out of hil income and ba~e his 81Vll..&1 deposited ill the bank Qr purc~ase aD. iD.sotaD~1! poJie)' or illVes.t i[ iu stocks and shares of joiD~·Sloc.k ,c:ompaniel~ Tbi;s meaD!!: lhat what i, ruinous for bUrIl8nity has become the standard of pII!::rfe(;tjon aad virtue ill tbe eyes ot the mod ern mit 0.. A is for pol i t i cal power it ha s fa lle Din

. the: hands of a satanic syStelIl. wbicb instead of I!:aving mankind from this. tytaonYt ha~ IUiL!!lr become tbe instru meet of tbat tyr aD n y ; I nd. • clan 'If god 1 es s rna r eria Jists are: r ou L~ d ~ iH tn g dg.bt tve:rywbete on the seats of power. The ~aws wruch·_gOVCf.Q the SOQj ety _ rll! a hio b e i Il g fra m ed un d f: r the i Ilf[ue oct of th i s •• mll system, These lawl !lave given flill frc:edom in practice to· tbe- "SuuIJ!e for Individual eI;ODo.II:Ilc: iaterestl .agiiIls,t tb. in~cre~ts or the· comm·IlDity io leDuar. The di:uillC[iOll between rj,:.ht aDd Wr.oDJ, jUJt and Unjl,Jstt i.D the 1lCQ.lJ.ls'tiDD of ahe llIel .. ". of living hat; 'rfe:ry· nearly disappeared, Evcry .c:thod by which .u iD.djy:idu~1 can enricb himse:Jf whetber by

·2.5

tobblDJ or ru to Jnl other people. 11 ptfmiai bl e iD the cyt.a of the I a.. WillI: may be br-ewcd ad lold; eCILt.rt!:* af I ... morality' lIIay h eu.b)i,bn. ; imml)f.] 81ml BI.'" ~ produced.; ObtClt1l1ll!l wrrti'l!l.'!I ~, bot pubHlhed ~ pletu.rel ror 1I::I;I;iliDI pWioua may 0. adYe"laed: lpa~ 1.~ lOll 13.)' bec:om. rtr e i lutitu.tiool tor e.,El iaa ia.Ure .. t iIIIIQd USUll mlY bl!:! ellabltlbed:

Dew metbocb or aamblif:31 may be ~.DteDted: la :s.hort, -or c.bial oDe Ub. may be doae~ .ad dOl oldy "In tbl law pcl'lQil one to do so bIlt it will nea prott!:ct 00'1:1·1 IeJ-QUed rJjhts. Alid \1I'-D. lbo I ... te:qah·c. "till.' the: WCl.l{h wbicb has by tbii mellD.t becomf! co~tr.ted ill tIH baadl or an iadividuaJ sllould relb8Jll 10 coaot Dtr.ted ''''4=0 tIlet bj. deat b • b.e:ace til I: law of pdmoaea!tote. lbe: CdslOlll of .dOpUOD U4der eertain laws. -ad the joillit famil1 ')'111m. the objcc:t of.U of "II ic:h 11 that 011 tM de.t b of ODe or the k1atn "hich I~atd • ttl:alure BJlO1;blf .!LIb ahou.ld be placed: oVtr it. lDd if 'by U. luck tbe sam Iu,,- Do iNaD. ou tbould be- obt.illcd frOIl some_bera 01. 10 tJa.t 10 coaeeblralion or WClllh. il tlot dilt1.lrbed·!

Tbcl4I are tb~ em ..... · "bicll b ..... '=ft&tld tbll pro hlClm ror !wIllA .. it, 8. to lOti' mCmJI of Ii "i:ll:, ml.J be lIl.de lCCeui hie 1o eRr,! {ad iridal livt D, Oa God'i eatt. ~ .ltd. how o-ppottumdet 10.1 " prowidcd 10 every one 10 .. d" .. AI;t in Ure accordJa. Eo bq, capacity ad to de'telop bil pcnoDiUty to ,he ran.

TIle SoJ. tiM Sl1l'ltH .,. C WlII •• _

ODe tDethod or 101 ... IDI the probJe.m. has been. ~uUC:$ted by Commggi,m ad it b lhi, ; that tllt ))lClDS or prodDctJon shou.ld M I.tea out tJllbe b.i.a.dl of j ad .vld u~l!!i aod lra ul'erred (0 the eoaunu.uity lor coUl!cti-we polI!lie.ssiOIl aDd tbat 'be C'Ommuqity ahoald .rlo coDtcri'ft I y bnd~rt.k'" tbe db,l d bllti Oil of \lrcalth to avery iDdivldaal •• ch IIlCCDrdiq: to hr..llell!:dJt P-"Ma '"II. thl • .ohUioa .ppe&h to b. YC1y:S InlibJet- but lh~ more one C:ODlid. n it' prledeal .I'p~ ct the .ore wiU Oil. rea Ii se itl dc~ctl UDlLil one wiU hav.e to COotcde tbat. i D the ultimate analYlfl, ill ruulta are u bad u th. diltl,e for wlDcb this Clih bit 'beta. off'ered.. It u u clear .1 d,yUlht tbat .Ltboalb. theorttk:a1ly .pelkilllill lp .n -blemeatl fel' ahe udUutio. or tbe me_. of

tcONOWlC SYST8M or lst.A.M

prod r.ld ion all d db l rihu lion of product I Are, propo5.e-d to hoe entrusted to r he "Rho le co mm u n [ty I in prac tic e the tast wi 11. of

"lllC(:e:!isityt ha ... e to be handed over to • small e:le(uti..,e body.

Evell l he 111h th i, !.lQ..I U body may, 10 !ita.t 'A' i lb. be elected b,. t be corn mUll! ty. 1 a le1" on wb.e n all t be me aos of 1i \Pej ihood come into its hold and individuals are not able: 10 :IIecUre thei, :d1.lrt t!ll~1: pt througb its hands,. the whole community will be len helpless iii its I:.rip. Nobody will be able to jgnore if, .. nl and no ors.-an ue d PJ wer cou.ld ti sc" i 0 oppo5-i don to it and be a ble to remove lt fro m i Is plaee or aut b or it),. If tbis hod y di-s like s all y one it wi I.. mean dtl t 1 he POOl' re:uo .. "jJ1 be dt pdvcd or aU tbe meaas c,f living in tbe land, lir)~ all the .rutaDI ,of

Ii ve I L b ood W] 11 be in the b and s of th i5 I mal L ~liqlJc~ La bout wi II be J eft wi' h OUt po wtr 10 S lr i ke: wort" jf i I has • arie\l'a:a.ee ... hut Ihe mana.,&elllesn. rot:l ullder thil 'Jltcm thcn: will _Dot be m&IU factcry-ownc:u I1ld capit.1i.lits 10 I!nl.bJe tile' labourer to re-s.igrl r re m on e pi ace and ta ke up e In ploym e:n t wi t.h allDt btr lalher in the whole country there will be on1y ooe factorya,.ner, onl_", one capj talist, 'Who wi U be the ruler of the country -II 'Wei U~ and jt W j II not be: po.db le eye:8 to seeu rc as.in,t bim the hel p 01 I f:lY public opinion. Thit sta tc or aD"al1J wiD t heref ore bav!: til c followins retu!u: that arler .boli.biq an Ih~ C3 pi taJh, tJ and arret dOllt8 11 way wi lb aU lhe: illdltllriali .. u l.Dd J a nd hold ers, ODe hi, cap i t.li st, indultr la Ust and ludho] der tolle: d i Dtu one 11ant ~ w HI be imposed 0:11 the: pC'tIp]ejl and b. will combiDe in himself tb. • utocra~ of I C~ witb tile a bsol n t Ism of a C.-Cllar +

J n the firs t p lace su eh • n :) bsol u to aDd all· pcnrlld inl

"authority h so intoxicating ill it~ nature th,t It i-s extremtly d iffi-c ult foOt 11 n y I'll an [0 restrai D hi msc:lf from bec:omiaB a tyran t a. n diU t cera t, patl ieul a r l"j so ow bell be d 0t:I Dot beU,,,, in God a nd. if! b il accollnt.biH ly to HIm. N cYetlbe lnI. neD if it 15 at ''0 med that tbi III lIDaJl body t OD oblalDiq yad autocratic powcnt will D.ot over:llt_p proper boadJ add .in .01 k. wi l b just jc:e- aDd rRi nlC1 't ev.,.... then aDder such • ,pte a:a there Call be GO opporlpuit)' for iDdhlidllll .. "IO dnclo'p tlleir

17

pen:QllaIHy. What human pl!:rsoo&lity needs above everytbibj elle ror ju. evolution and advancement is that il should have: freedom, it ,boold have anme rnclu~ at lh di~p{)$ar which it way 'lIle i13 ~rd.ace with itlii own discretion and its own win 80Lt cooil;t and in sn doing develop ihi hidden potentialltlea. Hut in tbe Commu:ni!t "!),st-em tbe re i B no p 0 ~ sl b. L it"i of I his. Uadcr tbis lliyllitcm all the means: P:lSS au' of the hands of the iQdi yjd l.Ia II into those of lh.~ execu ti ve b olly of I he en m m oni ty. Tbi& exeouttve body utiliscs t:bew according to its own conception of tbe Intere,u uf the eommunity. The individuills have DO aH .:ra..a live: but to WO! k ~cco rd i n g to the pJ ans D) ad e by the executl ve 004,. if lbcy desire to ta ke ad van t a ge or those m eaas: indeed thcy have to surre nder t b ~ IllS. e L \' ~1 be uy asd soul to the lr ·.dm tai:lt raton to be III ou I de d for t u r F c:st:&. c.f c [n;1:I m. u n II 1 wcUaro .. ecordl Il.Ily 10 the plans of the irma sters, Tb us .11 the illd "iduali i...:. ~ wo !tty become prac l i-ca.J ly s I aves. of a f e_ ind ividua I,~ at ir thll!!y were all so tJ.11 ~~s. r r a. w mil te ri ars to be shaped and moulded to tbe ir d esi rei Elnd plans e"1ar:Uy ai Ib.ped to. &.\lit the needi of a craftsman, Quite obvlously human c:ivUbaUoo and c:~Hute ro lose a jrea.t deal under tb.is arl'llII gcmcnt. Even if j ( is P resu me d fc r iii r gn wen f ~ !ijal c tb at tbc neccu.ilica of life win be (lisrributed with fairneu and justice un.d=r such. sySit.::mt jt, advaDtales will be outweighed

by the: dcf~ts and dc!fiC!ieDt:ies of lhr:: sy:dern. 1 he developmeet of culture and clviHzl!ltion depends wholly on thi:i ~ tbat d iff'trc DC peoph: who are e n dowc d w 1 rh d i 1,. er se [acu I ti~:!i :!I ho III d ha ve the Q-Ppo rt un ity to dtovelop rbe mse 1 ve 5 and play the i [' b::.di yj dua l put i D the combiDe d cOJllm\l11!1I.1 life:. But thb eaanc l be leCulI·d [hto1.l.gb a syuem w~crcin wholcsale pla..u.lJjng of b II ma 11 be inp Is Dud trtal CA. A fe. i:lld i vi d Qa 1$ ... bowever cap.. blc: aDd. wtll ... inteationed, cannot be 50 omnjscient 8~ to be able to asie:88 I:Orrc:c:Uy the in"h.c:uot aDd tnboT.C. faculties of mUJiolJ1 of pepple and lnei:r ~,at u~1ial iru;:liDa tiOD~ aD d also be able to dett.rmine cOtrcc:1ly the mode of their de"'elopmeDt. They will crr both i D estima liDS iDdl1l jdual e-apa bil i ti e"R aDd ia forming opiaioG. lbalil 'IIh. t HaU, CODat it ute J lb if t rue interest .of their

,aciely. .Ba I, 10. Ip i te of itt they wi LI try EO enforee the if ,Pl.I.Di Ind mou ld l.Ct'ordiDa I o their b] UC!:- prjnts 'be who] It IQ .... or pc:optl!: nod e:r i be: j r i n8ue:nee.. This j Ddi wid ual d i versl ty and the variety sG nece saary r or c:iv i I iza tion "In .i'Ye piactl to • lOulJeu uniCor mj ty. Tbe Datura! evohllia 11 of c; i y iUuljOd 'W j n Iuller a lC:t.bAC k .... d .. 1:1 artilei .. l ID d Ipgriool gfOll'ah will cumn:Jcnt"e. Human raonltitl will beain to Ihn yeJ IDd ullim ... te Iy a I~it me D til ar..d moral deaenera tlon will ensue, After a 11- DlCb. are not lit.,. .arasl iliad \l'es:e Ialion (0 be pruned bJ • prdener and ma.de to 8: row .fttl II set pa.ttlrn. Bvery .mID bl. his gwn penoaal! l y with a natura] Ut Ie- to de vel op accord.illB to j ts inclinati O~I=.. If you dCl oy him t bil rtcoed 6m be "i U not dew: lop .1;~Njnl 81 yo," desir~ but win !titbe: rebel a.,alnit you. or fade d.wa, in Udutu.ral &loom,

nu. (Q.Ildame-ocal milillke or Co.rnmunism liet Ie the, fact Ibat it treatl lbt--I:COdDl:Dic PMbI,m u the C,qtr"a 1 problem and thea tries to revclvt the "bole 6f hUman life: rOl,lod tflu .Ii,. It iac:k' llle tru~ sl;:ieutific it titud e towards human pra blellLlt 00 the other laRd, it loots It .U problems wi tb • d.eep tOODDmle bjn. MlI!tapilYI!C:J ~ bbtorJ ~. tac=iolog II i n 61let everytbJDI wlthi. ] l! !lipher. ir. t nfl mencC'd -1JId ovetridd e.n b, tbe "OG~ic vit .... point aod beClllH or t~jl GOt-:Mdedoe:a the 'Whole: bat-Dee or I ne il upset. Th"l if is .:Iell that iD. hI.lily Ih, Commua.fat tbeory prrsc:uts DO COl rlllCt or :oatura. .alatio1ll or the teollo.ic probil!l:RI" of mall. 1 t Offfl!l:!l I 101u tiOD .. bJ~b is bo'lb ulla.tur&l a lid a rUS.:: iaJ.

n. r.idst SoI.tl ..

AI ala ins lIb is, aao the r selut iDn hu been put rotward by Fascism ilud N:1t i 01] a I· Soci I] is m which il ., rono .. ~ That wh ile j ndi Ii j d D.~ I OW nl!rship or Cbe me-ani of prod.uct 'ca may be kepI ill t lett i5Qch ownership should" i II tile iut,relU of the comm.UIl i ty II be plaDDCI!d aDd cODCtclled b, IhI Ill.tl. I D 'pr "tic., bowe"e r I' , be lUUlt1 of tbil appell to 'b4 DO "'., d itfe:reol r,om th01C or the c.Qm manltt lbeory. Lt:ts Co.m.~DillD tb Is th.eoty .1'0 see ki to me r,e tbe i ltd iv id"al in thCI ~mlll" D.it, and lei VII no I) p po nUDity rOT tbe ftee: developlDedlt til bil porIa.UIy.

".ldH thil~ the Uldki of Ibc: It.te .. biGh eJ::c:r.cilel COD trot O¥£t lodiyidual ow.rlllip ia II' totalJ tarlan.ad a IltbotUl.rl1 n as tbat of tbo CommGaill II.l8, It require •• Yf:ry iStrODJ .ad eoacent:r.t,d autborit,. IQ k • .,p the iDdu .. tty 0'. 1 arge couQtry under eonuoJ u4 comp.l it to work .-ec:ord h" to tbe plans aad b!u.e. prlntl ~ by tbe nate. Ia a I~.tt whjch. bal· ..... ch .. bsolute eotrc:in pont ID ill h • .,dl it is IDevil.blt! t.at til, popU: I/J C ioa dI dao country ,,111 prostrate before it bel pleul 'f and btcoQ:)c Iht ,lave. 0' 'b. 1'Qle ...

TIM ..... k·SOlqtl ••

I .lihaU aow ifi!:l.pl.lo. bow 1I1lm ,"Ie, to 101 YO tbit problem.

III deaUdI& with all piobl.erna .of life, it i:!il • IUndament .. 1 poiDt with lilil_a. thaI •• ,u.ral I. w, .nd prjJl\::lplcl of tite J ... helt:rtt m h1UD&D '-lun: 1ho1l1d Dot be tampered "ith, aad [bit w hene"!!:r there il ..... , rclJ;UtLoa lro In ,be path of nalult j t :should be redirected 10 t.o aalu.rll1 p.tb.. Tite aecoad imporunu prill" cJple 011 .. .biob III ..... ~, bated aU HI -aociai re forms il thi:l ~ . lbllt the ialtodlUGt iOll ot • re,., e.lW:t.DI.l re,illJ&tiol1l iu tbli!!" loci.l .,.tc .. lbG~ld ROt be ~nttdcred lufIlcitD t ~ Oft the other haad~ • f .. r· gre&rct titre. :ilIou.[d be l.id 011 moral refo.rm.tiDli aa.d lhc (re.tion or 1110 riaIH m.oI:Il atdUi:4c altlOllJ m,=l11 10 lba' tbe e'l'jI lD. tile lQiqd of •• a Ibould be IU ppMucd II its eeet, The third b •• ic principle w.bleb. JOU CI.D. true aD thCi who-Ie of the lsl.mic:=

.,de... II lui tho au thorl ty aad pre.& 1'1: or 1. VI .. ud ·thl!: coercive

power or pomllle.1II lIIo"'-d IlOt be cd except .. ben .1 becOlllCI

hlc.,ilabJe 10 do 10 ..

Kecpi.a. J.,. jew tfiesc prio.::jpJes,. Isla. m reC'Olnlzel .I] r t bose a.tu ... l prlDcj'_ QQ. I he KODomic Ii.d e (If I ire whkb have alwl,' lollDOd. the fOUlldltio.o of .hum.n economYt aDd it ~ Daly lbOiI; wrOO& priD.cipJc.t, nor by .rt! ianu .0 n the le.1e but tbrau.b the ~l.illlDm or.mor.) inltruc:tion .nd a illl.tl .... lIt8 .r .s;teral toree. wbich mad:': ind foJloW'J "hen. h lalla. riotJlII! to "'Iaic d.elh... 'TbI priaciprtt Ib.t m.~ ;should be Ire. 10 .trlte for II. Ji,.l ihood WI be abould a:ta in tho tipl at ow.l.et&bjp OYer .u.tflPl1' be tanlS by bjl ]. bour, aiLd f~.1 jjl i.PI"" _..,.. pile ~...-ec9 ~ ~.. due to l~eir

, .

3D

a:.oNOMlC 1YIl'BM OJ!' ISLAW

".rytaS abi Utjes and cireum.'StanCC!l bal been conc:ed II!! d by III.~ to tbe exte at to whieb it 1:1 in accord.ace with Dalo.re,. II lbe D IIH1::1 to qUIUfy thls princlple Iud lotrochlco" eertaln tenrictlons on iu let\l III practice 'W~lh tbe: object lb. t it ml.Y Dot he IG i 'u led Ia.d. made • mean. of eip[oi tid I Ind opp rell i Il.8 (be weate r sections or t be society.

_ Le t ... :linl of .. n take the" acquililioll of weal(lI. illam r~a.

SDluli the. right or maD to seek the m.eaQS or b is ] l yt] i bood o:q. 00 d +. earth accord i oS to bis eapaeity, a bil it"'! ~ alld natura 1 eo dow ment s, Bn tit doel Dot concede hi m the ttsbt to .do pt such meaDS in t he aequis ilion of 1Malt b .. ' would le:.d to hi:li lI1.orll d:eltadation or Upu'l the social order. Illata letl up the" dilti "clion of "alal (1.wrul) Bnd I!Qr«Pft (OD 1. ""'uJ) iu rClpec::t of like diff'eu:a.t me.al of' Ur.,iflS and. imp0!ill!l the baG or ,nepHIY aD a 11 tbose me thods .. b i eh ate mora]] y inju eious, For tbis put ..

pOS8 It ha, clearl"i tpc ~ift e d thole method I which it rel.rdl"., JDj urleus. Uode r th:e Is'am ie r a'lll' wiDe aDd .gthc r intoxicaut. all d drink! w h ie h spread evil Iud immoral ity are Dot only WI"" I. wflll (lIa"am) io tile. ee l vel i eyeD tb el r :JI)aDlifacture. tal~1 pdrch ase, aa d po, !!.etl.ia u ha'\te be ~n declared to be OBI a. "'ul r I.'am doel act recoloi.ze ad u l tery r rous ie, d ape lng, .ad other lim ,1. r things a!l 1 a .. ru I meaDS of UVI!!!U bood. It declares all lueh de I] 1081 8. S until wfllL in which tlle lain of one indi tildual j .. Seclired by the: less and injury of some .other penOl!1I Dr of soc lety ., A" 'iN hole. Br ibery l srea lill It ga mbl in B~ ,peew.tioa t b .. u,; Otiil baii:ed nn fraud aDd d ee ei t ~ boa.!'d j II g a'Q d bo~ di DI b.ck tbe neeessaries of life with the obje~t or Taiaing the prlces, tnonope ly 0 r t be: MI!!! a ns of 'P rod u ct ion by on: 0 i !\!!!:v,£: ra 1 pe1"'90Di!iI wb\cb narrows the fteld for others; all these methods have hel:lJ declared unlawful, It has picked oat care-fu!ly and branded u i II eta I all 5. uch f orms of bUi ine ss a:g are by the1 r oa' IJ re ea p.a bll!!: of cau!liiDg lit~ation, or in which tboc lo9.s Or gaiCl depends eta mctlC lt1Ci; or a.r::ddent~ OT wh~Tein the mutual risbt. or tbe parties. arc: Dot distingu i!Sbable, If you study ill dl:fair tM Islamle laws of trade aad industry you wi ~1 see that tbe m'C!thoib; b;y "b icb people become milHonaifl:1 3Dd multi rniJIiQnafr~~ l:n

DI I(!QNC))IIt: n.O.LaM

11

modern lima are m(IJt~)' method. OD which h.huu bill p11I:Cd .1 rl oaent Je ..... IflsEt"kUons.. If busiDU:!I i. c.rrie d (,In w itb i n theM bl.lI'lic: limifl;tiortl there WQuld be little chance' fot 00)'ODe to ag:;umulale i I1IJDeQ:5e we_ltb .

.

While r.t.m rec:opizea tbe- riab t tA tbe iQ6 it i du. t to the

pos.sHlioo. or aU u..t be may a.cquiro by lawrul JiU!I,m.!:jIo tt do!!!. not J I::.VC II I m f!ftti rilly Ctee ia usim, tb IE! wea l [b So aeq u ired. On rbe other bud it I." down rCllrit'tloDs on ill use ~D dilfennt way,. II it obviOUl 'bat there caa be on]y three pOI!ibJo lUel of 'he wealCb "bk:1l .. lDail aeqnires, It e~.D. ~ithC'f be speDt'Or invested to pcO(;u re more we-tUb or m ily be boarded. I .sball d.pl.ia hen briely the ... tUfll!! of reltrlcrh~ll$ which I$.lam hru: pI.oed oa ea.c:h ODe: or these use, ..

AU • atbod:l of spc: oding which cause mer a I or soclal imj,uf 1.1'- Cotbidd-e.a You oCAD.Qot rtiUer away youl ",eallb in ,a m hi ill r. JOu e:all D~t dri nt wine-~ you ell Quot commit ad II [tery. yau caDDOt " .. Ie ,our GlODI!Y in music and dBD.:el or olher meanl rtf oJr ~lndU)aeDce. Ya u are forb i d d ea to wl!!a r :iilkl!n drelS!::!!: ; YOll .R' prob i bite;d (.except in t b e c:asl: of women) tf'OIll. uling goWca o~ .e:;ol, and je-wda ; • ad ),Oll c8 noot d ecorate your hou..e '99j tb pict~T'=S and :!ii t ~ rues. J n shurt, 151 am has closed all lho&e Q~Uc:ti lhrou,gh wbich the Srf'lttr ~nioD af. man t. w •• tl b i!ll: spen l OD hls CWIl lU~lLries an d i q dulgcDcu. Til" iteJilS 01 -c;xpendltl1re "h.eh .c::onilldeu lawful Ire of ,uch a type thllt • .,aD lbay just he able to li VI!! a decent Ijfe of Ip a'Vl!!ralc staad.ard. and if allY :!i'Urp!us. is tb-eD left ever, Islam BU8Kc:mts 'hal it s~ol1ld be utilized in the service of virtllt aQ,d rjgh~el]u.DeS1 iD publlc we:1rare-~ Ilnd ill rcnderillg ns~i;5,ta.nce to persoDs who b .... ve been unable to s.II!'CU rf! and rC'~i'Ve tlu::ir sbare ac~ordinl 10 lhelt aeede. According to I$larn the! best courae' to • d 0 pt .is lbat oat !5hQ 0 ld sp-c lid II U tb at he ea rn II: 0 n b is hi. wrlil anil' relt4dable neah: • .and if ally $lIrplus ~cru.c81 band jt over to 0 tbe,. '9 rbat l hI::)' m.lly satl sfy tb e it Bee ds, J Ilr am TC ga rds t b is qua U rr U ODe of th ~ hl &he:H s tJuldard, of lIlor al i ty aDd b B!iI. pu t i ~ rorward :II, aD ideal wit h s u eh forte t hat a soc i:e (y ina u eeeed by l:sl.mie t!!tbj~~ w~1l :llwa~, respect these wbo c:arq

.ad. Iptlld.1 mueh mote: t:bu thole wbo keep their weallb bo"dcd or do JO on ilrft IUD.I tbcdr IlIIrplw j DCO IUeI in eamiq more. However ~ bl ,pi til of all wil motal :ducatiou aad theexerclse or mot.1 p"~ ... re by • reformed socjetYa it is nOI pos-. siblt to ae=t ri d Df i.D.4 t y j dual " tea.deucles. towa td s creed lad I.var'ce. A lood tnlUY perJoG' :will .1 way. remain wbo .iU lib to jD'YC11 the ir .1lrplus Malth ill earnlD, rurtber wealth M1tr .ad .boyc their Deed... Por tbil pUTPOH II] am ha .. placed lome 1epllimitadoDi on the: ule to whi ell thit lurp] I.U yte.llb An be pilL It iI lUictly pt'Ghibited iu I,lamlc law to lend 'h.en Icnmullted aa vi ILII on interest. It yon lend yOIlr "money 10 .n, 01.0 it dot. aot m _Uer whether h. borr-owl for bi. pri ",ate Deeds ~r fot bdlinel' plJ,rpoaet~ you au: entitled 10 lbe return or ihe prjDcipal ol1ly. 'but QOt. pi e morc. fa thit •• y Islam breit, thCl -vary b aek- bone ot 811US siv~ CI pi tl t ism alld blu.a.ti ahe calC of the arc at II:!lt i n"Strurn.ent "by me.al or wl,kll lho capitaU" tties to coa.centra te in h is hands the «ooomle .;elO1ircel or tbe community by rei tina OD htl mO:II~' poWC'r~ AI Jt •• rdt Uu: metbod -or asios: tba au~plu:s w~.tth in. Ycltm£'llit ia OM'S 0". trade. hadustr}',. or bu.i:aHlI or providiQI capjtal 10 ~theri IUd partiet~ti III ia the I.i II , and linte:l of t bt JgiDt 11Id.rtakldl. lalanl" coDlli dCf' il qu i te I. wful &.did ptopet bbt M:ekl by OtM-t me .... 10 remedy thtl evi], which 1o"," lro. tb,

~,l.CCamuiatioD or wtll.lth ill; the h.nda or. few p:=noaa. Pitl.t 01 aUIl I"lm does Dot permit the hoar.diDI of t b is ~c~mogJatq we,l1th. AI I have jUlt maatJoned ~ It dem IlDd:g. thl! t wbatever we_lib yon have must el ther be utilized in the p~fchI8C: of your own uecessltiea or huded oye~ to otbers so that they may 8~tilry tht ir Det: dl, aud thuS tb. wbo,e of th.e commoft weI; lib may 'be! kept COtlat .. a fly ill C Iteuts. t iOJl. But If Y:OU do not do '10 .p_d. 'nsl rot on its accu.m.u 1 .. 1 ioQ. IMIt. two aDd a ba)( p.e r Ce-DI

"_ ..

per "aDD.um w ill be tlkn ovl 01 th"i:I ace amnllt iOD by rorce or

hrw aild IPCDt 011 ,lviDl Ulilt.Q~e to such pcrtont ., I.I'c not " '8 t to t.~. put iD iLs .-c:oa."omiC' Itnule or h. ,e DOt la spite of their It ...... le bce11 & ble to: M:~an tbltr 'all sbare· nis i5 c.UlI:!d "~bt" IDd tbe a4lQi .i,tr. t~\I'¢ ~ac::bi Dcry pro pOJC4 by Is' an(

~3 tot tbi, t .... li~n i. lb. joiDI ucheqJe' of"fbl oa.m.rGUDity iD .bleb. II 'ZatatU I~ collected a.a-d. tb«L tedW-~Ibued." .lDOna tho&Ct sec::lioDi or the com .... naity which need aad. desuwe.bl:lp. Thil" I. i .. l.cl tb.e bat torm cf la .... ror tho lOCiety .... d d estroy.tl .U ,the' cv:i11 .htch arll. from "l1li: e~ of .. n, re,ulu .rr .... ~IUC1II rOT ilj::olleed~ halp mpd CG-Opentioq. " W"bat re.IlY Coree.". maD.. n. the -eapllaU.tie Q'dcJI... 10 KWJDulat(" wealth ~nd, invnt it lo pwAa.bJe buoeti ... ti bria, 'ala" exi;lj,tem:e ia .. litu.lioa. like" I be lire iUlu.r.DOt:. il IUt under this syatCJQ ClYCry oae III ut. is wllo1l, d'P'Ddem: 011 hit, owa meall.. l ( QlDt b&a nor laid hJ aaytlai;D.J tot hlt old .. ., m;L8 may rUe tl.rvatton iq bia g]d -,0 i If" he dies without lca,Jq" aD)' 'bbcritance fot b~ propDY. libel" will be, driveo frOJn d~r to door wilbo~lt beiDI able to ICC1Ir •• bit of bread: .r_b" C.Ullict aud h ... notblal LD .tote he may DOt be: ".ble eyon, to' s.ecwe me d iear treltble:r1t ror b,hus.elC ; if hit house l' buf~t or he :UlSUii at loIS III ooliall!:MI or 10.0 alb.::' .... ddcQ C'.I.miry befaJls him he ea nnol :ll..ad .a,. ... p_parl ","",bere. Sim Ultly .b.at rO:rcci ~hc: l~bo uriq claAtJ under a ~pitatllCic .}paCem. to ICCept .DY tel m t of ...apIoYllUiiu oI".ted by tht: Clapi h..bt ... d. become ~ hill st. ftCI b flld." fttY th;"l: iA., Ibc:: (1;&[ tba t it I he labourer d Gel ltOi Heepl ,the rem .. ~.doD ...,bk:b 1M Qlpllaliat it pu:parcd to ofF.r rot hla loil aa4 .weaft deliiritutto.. win ~tarl:!"bhll ia the lace ... d be Will l1.(li be • ble to bold 00" Il.f"latlga fot. liagle day. _. ortont I' it i, 001, due to thlt I,Ue. lb&l tb..:; iipccta.;:k i I ..nta.et..ed the pe-cl;test cgue that hal- .aIB.~d die .... DI1d by tho "pt.Oe" or thil capital ist le "ytle Ill-that wbUo em" OD~ .ide IOUlkrDI of hualO' moul:h. ate to be: fc:d I 011 tbc otber Ilde lh.cre are I.rae I:toc:t of a.&ricuJ tu ... l producG! .Q.d. miD Ilfactured .rlicle. ",bid! Cl.Da.ot :IIdd .DY Ql.I.d:er, wllh tbe:: reloll: lb. t J .tbt of toas. .of .... 0. it! thrown ia to tbe 10& lastead or rClCd.i.:.. t.b.B btlQP7. T_ I"UOD for dill all., liet in the: ract lhlt 110 lOCi.1

. arr.:apmeD! ~~ Itt ror pro'idlill meaD. of" JivdilLood to abe Ql!:C'd.J aDd abe det I itotc. If (~c people: ate provided 91th

pu.rchaiiDg po ... e:t ,and ea.bled to b .... ,. COIBI~ldti KCCrdillj' to 'bei~ ~l!!d.:I" tr.d.... ~ dQSl'1 and I., lculUI Nt I.G lbort eye rl

·34

~ SY.I'T1EY 00' lSLAM

brlDcb of eeoaomic actM'hy wilt eJ.pBnd aDd· :!Iourith. J~lUD root, ou.t atl the,e: e..,Ua throuah the- jn;SlLtlltioD or uZ.killtt1l and tbe •• eaC)' of the public acbequer lor itl ~oHectioD IJld dis-cri .. butioD.4 11Lt; ppblilj: .::rcileqDtlt iI aJ •• YI avaHabl. to you at • ·helper. Yell atilid Dot tab thou.,ht ten the morrow. Wheae¥er you .r~ fa. lleed y01;l. call,lO to tb. pubH.:- e:ttb~qller ud obtai .. ,our rllbtfut d.ue. There it QO Deeetlit)' of kel:'Pi De d ~ po,Ltl in. banks I.I1d of hal'inJ [Dlllrance poHch:s. YOIl ~"'D Ica'-e tbil wa.rld 'II i tbout Ii'll' .axiel,. ror the tutu re of yout cbj ld'~1 tbe cl:ch,qUCII' of the- coa2muuity will be rc:s.poDlibJe for tbem afterward"S. It it • ct)n't.nt .ad permaQoat helper to wb~c:h you -cu han tce(Jur~e lID. time, of disea:iel old Ile:l of;alamitiq due to e:ltthly or bt:a¥e1lLy Cl.us-, .04 Ilader !lDY other s i maar Q)rcum· Ita II cct a Tht caplta[iat cannot th-en I::O[Jlpel )"Oll to a(:(:.:pt • ja.b on hill: OWD terma &lid wDdhioua. ThltfC" b QO lilt or ,t .. rvatioo" Blud ~ea Of tack or Ibclt.er for you ita (he preseDlee or tho p1IbJi; o-cbequ.er• Thea _stin, Jt shnuld be IlOll'd that thi. toGi.' .poey e-e.blftt all tbM' leetionl of lhl!: 'popall.tioD .. 1l0 .;aD.DOt earn or who e.lro mach fen thaD th:C!:r reqa.irc. to purch'.1! c.ornmodllLes Dteelsary for their lit~. Thul. proper bt'aace be=twerD prod:gcttoa &.ad ""ulumptiOQ is pe' •• nead y mli:o.tlibed and the a.eceaity dot'l DOt .rise for. Pl!o'p1, to 10 on imposina tbe:ir banmpcc:y upOD: other )JC:OpJe-1 aDd .after ell;baultiq al! yj~t1au i .. thiIJ world to :seek them in th(!l other plaoCJts.

Bet.idet. tha '~b..~a,n" aoothct p18D wh;c:b Islam b:15 adopted ror ditfuaio, the wr:altb coac:entralc:d in one place IS its law of to berit8nct + Allot b e r Ja WI, exce'p t t ba [ of hlam tl:od. to prtpch.ll.l~ the c(·ncentratjon of ""~aJtb eltCD af[t:f rbe de-ath or the person lIWho hkd .CC!U.lDUI.ll::d 11 d'L:rin,g his hfelime. bl.OJ on the oontrary i' adcpb the method {ha I the wealt b -.vhrc.h • penoD. bas. been .:ondntDl iu his hand!il by arad u:llll accum 1L18 t ion from all ,.ides sbould be distributed iillmedia1dy on bis deatb. UDder the Islamic law SOD., daughters, fathl:'tt mother, wjfl:t btc1 b-tTS" !..istc:rst .)J succeed to a pcnoll~s inb.t:fit8;llC"C wbi~h :must be appoiDted amon,. all of th~m accord in .. to a r~.~laf

lS

eodc+ If near rd. tlou, do [lot e.l~ltt. ICI reb w j U b. ve to be IP- d 8 for dJlt.at ODe. aDd. his weaU h be d LIt ribQ.ted .. m0n.&: the-m4 If Do relaU'f'et Deaf or djSClllf .. i. totthcomiul tUft ~hn • d1: .... 1.1 001 eatided to tclGtt 10 adoption of .D)' bc:in him"]t. to tb~t ,e,CIl !be. "hole com.uul ty will J,ucQeed .hi. aDd.ao .11 hi.. -="'m, r.ted mltll • jJl be. depoli i lel::t i III lhe PQ bJ le es. c:hequer.. III thb ntl DDe' lye:q j r & mlln m.y CODcmtratc mnUODI lad b.iJUODIi of money it .. Ill .11 be dlipened after bil death In ~ mall p-O-rtionl .. itb in t.o Or tble"e l.eaC! rat ions t and every sueh .Cotll!Dul.liou .ill be turned ,radoall, 1010 circui ... tior.: acoordfal to a r"l"dar lellli proced .. re ..

CQ.D,id'=f tlli! ecollomic "I.em of whieb I haft pnseated • b'-I!!!f' ptau to ,ou. Doe. i l Dot tc:mg.v• 11J tbOie .vils or HId Ivida_l ownmbip _hieb mlJlt from eN wroal &I,dducc of thB d •• il1 Tbere remabu no Da:lI!!lllty .r all fo1' .do.,1i D. tile CommQ.D lJl Or Fascilt ot N. tiona l·sOCiaUlt ideo loaicll ... d UliUI t ho,o luii6d.J me-~ltodt or ifWDom fg 1Daoal'l=meot .laid. do IlOt reJDCrn' tbe C\'"il bot r.epJ.cC!t it "'-i'lb .1lOt~r. I haya DIM: heft e1plai.ed the complctG: c:cODomje .ystDlJl olillam. It ill di1Bcul (to "pI .. i III witb:h:l the Compay of lhi, brief d iscol:lt:W ..

. J

.U the methods tbat "Q be adoplC'd I D aCQord lace .ith. ,_

I Ilamic prillclpln fOT the DlIDIIl,FlUleat 0( land r the sct tic! meat of Ir.de 4i.plltHt Bad tlll~ raiaiGI or·cl.pittl Cor .U of ... bleb COiJlw p1.~ proviJ.Io.·lta. hter1 made jill. the ht.ode:: la". 'b.ave ~ eyeD be" able! to me I1ti 00 how r Ilam ba,. by re lDuvi oS all r. rUr teit riel ioo:l levlc:d 00 eJ: ports an d 1 m ports, and by .. bO'J i:sb i., oetrnis, eeS1C' and tolls on the movement of commodities

. opened the door absolutely far free trade. Nor- ha.ye :IIi bad ,be epportua itJ of men lionin, t b.~ t by red u C' ia. tot be .Ja h:aum . PO'SIS b 1e e:ueu& the t.tp!:: Ild I tu re on t lie ad r..o.iDlstr. t tve lDI'Cbinct)' ~ - on tbt!' civil service. mid the arm)'t and by IlboUsblog a.ltollclli£r tbe stamp duty on jud i I:ill proce edillJJ!lt' J i I a. bal liJ,hlt.r1cd • very greAt eeenomic bur\!("o froID Sn-dftl),. aDd pro ... ided oppartunlt ies fot sp!ndiQI the hl:t!:!:! for the good f"lt to( j""f ~Il!iilca&d or IlJowin~ thl:ln to -be absorbed in tk.., unboun Jed ;:Xpcn&c:s of (bC' ,dmlnj,tr:uioo.. D)' lh it means the ecnnvmi~

JCONO]IOC Sl'n'llJI O. JIUlI

I,:tlte-m. of Isillft brtomet a ,teat b1eaiuJ ror bDmI..D:ity. Stud ted with .0 UGbl~~d mi ud rree {r-om tb.otc pR!j udie" apiD.!il bJ.ra wbi~ II I ve heed. la.b.rlled ... .0 "11 lepcy rrom. pi*, hi,tary la.d u. .... ~ wed by tbo b] au of moduli soc i.l .1'teD:l.t 1 hope ud trust tb.lt this I :II.blie ."tt m wllE satlsty eft" fellOll.blt a.nd truth-seetiDI penoD .. the mo'llt useful. eoneer aad ntJoa.] OD~ for the .,CODa ~ic welfare of bam aD i ty. Bl,lt if loyoltt tbj D'. it f eui b[e tb at lbjl l!'oOoDo~i-= :iy3tfllD cau. be :I uccessfu 1 [y i m plemeated eved if d i t'orc.ed from the c()mpJ.eU: "hoJe of the: lde 0'1 ogi.c at , mOta) a.ud ell] ttl ral I )'itenn of J ,lam, I lIri II humbly req !Jest b i m to let rJd of !hit miSDDdcnta n.diDI· fb it c:c:oaQmioC 1)1'1 tem b~ .. det::p rd ationabip with &be poJit ;calr judi!: lal, Q 111 tu r:ll and aoeial IJIRm or 111.111.1 It ad IU tbese br'D(;bes are r IJ Qd.ment. Uy b.",d. on the moral .yitem 01 I darn.. Tb en apia tb il moral Iystem doet :101 stand by i tse It but" wboUy g:epeodent· oe your benef in an AU"Powerr~1 .ad. A 11- K D ow in. God an d your ,cose or responlibiUty to Hl ID!I i~ thoe conception of an after-itre: wbeD all yogt actions .. Ill be j udged by Ood r in the' be Hef tbat maD win b6 _PIlDI:5htd or fe"arard .. d accordlDl 10 HI .. J IIdl.c~Dt ; lad. i:a. the &CCCI ptlllU of lb, fact tblt tbe code of 1 •• aad. morality wbic:h MubarDDlld (~ace ~ U poD him}. Ihe ~ Me:lsefJ.~r of God t bat placed before you a .. rrorn God (01 'Wbieh ibb e~an.omJt: sJJtem 1:1 oaly "p.r.) il rea[1, based OD Diy j"e auidaacc iJ:ll til its de-c. ill. If yo~ do not aU',pt t hil ereed. thil lllor.l .ystem aDd the whol IS of C b l:s code! of ]i re co tttplc-(e 1 y as it I... the: e(:onDmi(:: Jystem of I .... lm~ di'lorced. from itl IOu roe, c8Jlnot be ml.infa i Be d or ad 1J31 D istered iu jtl pllrity I:!YC'D for a ILnile day. nor win any appreciable Id"ID1.t.e aeerue from it ~r you t .. ke.it out of itt wider ~nfe"l and theD seek to apply it to your life.

Economic Precepts of the Quran

1. U.1k Pilcts

Oat b.si~ flu:::t raglrdios .social El:oDomy upon 'i\lbje-h thCl:

Holy QLLtaD repeatedly J .. ys stress is. that all ~hc: means and rt:5l01IfCe1 tb.tOLJSh which ltI .. D 1!2tDS his livf:Uhood are Divinel, create-d.

It ii ·Allah Wbo created these resources and mean! in s-uch form ud 00 1Q.Cb. DatQral ptiDclplt'! tbat tb.:y lofQd th.:m!eJ¥1C'a to bUDI.n u.e ~ IJ1d ~ t is He aloee Who afforded mad th: opporru&oit, to bene8t from them alld g.ranll!d bilD tbe riaht to n.plob t bcm4

uft f. He Who bas made the Earth ml.n.lltabJc for you.

So trave ... 'ye thtou,h its tt .. ct~.. ADd t:Qjoy of tile SuttellaD.~c!: wh~h He rllrQj,hel. Aad unto Him is the R'::IIurrectiob."to

(AI .. Mulk: 1')

.

oII·A:od it ~I & Who 8-pre.ld 1hce Earlb and u:t the: lIlount.ios

00 il~ eaused the- IIYC'fl to :Bow II) it .aad crea~ed two \l'arir::lh::11 in. eY!ry ~pecie or truit./' (Ar ... Raad : 3)

.. ·It Is H~ Who cr-eated (or ~iIlU curytb.ia..& tllat is iQ abe

Earth. {Al-Bu q.rl! b ! 29)

ult is: AJJ8h Who created Heavens and Eartb and pour~d WQ1r:r from tbe sty add throulh tbi:s means created fru.ih- for your su. .. tc:nance • and save you control ovc! lbe boat whidl I.US in ·tbo sia by Hi. leave ~.aDd "VI:! you 'CDllttol .oyer the rb~n; and .. t the sun ,:dId lb. moon OIJ a reltiIar cours-=: tor yCN.f slke $0 that ,hey conUau 1 *y mo'Vc 'Hound lluil' or bit ; and .ub-t-

37

!CONOMlC BnDI 0. isLA.M

jet te d the Djaht aDd day to a fixed Ia 'fit r or your sake ; an d E.1. v e you.. e \"c: r)l t hlll ~ t ha t you ask ed for. II Should you Co llUt the ble ss LDis or AI lah, '10U could lleYCr nil m ber the m all ~ ••

[Ibrahim ~ 32-34] II We gave yoo a mhcr i ty in t be ea rth f1 D d p (0 If i ded resources

in it for your Iivelibcod". (Al·A~r~: 10)

i~ Do you tVI::r refle: r:t ~ A re the erope whjch you sow raiscd by you or it is We Wno rais.e thcrn'\ [Al·Waqi·ab : 6l.64!.

2.. n.ftermiBii r IOD or R1 gh t aDd WroJ)g is ihl.: p, CI"Q1£3t ill' of Allah+

It is on the basis of thr! Trutb that the Holy Qu.rao f:1Jiu.rt .. e ia tes the rule tha I rna n has nei tber l b I:: ri gb t to unrestrtcted p01i~:5 ",ion a nd use of the economic mea.as. nor )5 h t authorised 10 rra m e lelis I a tioo li C!! te:t"ID ill in, the right an d wrotl& in th it matter. It is; the: Prerogative or A Bah to make the law for th-:

IJ Wn1! rsh i p an d Cl: P 10 ~ ta t ion of ec on 0 Ill. lc me :1D5+ The Qura. cllstiiK tes ao ancient nat ion of A ra bi a. the Med i aus .. because tbc:y be 1 i c:ye-d i n t b I:: IlD bri d ltd ri ght of I man to cam and expc nd wealth.

Tbey said; ",jOtl: Shu'aib! Doe:8 thy (n:li8iOtJ of) pra)lct comm aDd t b ee t ha t we leave off the wOn b i P \Y hie b o1,ll' fatbt:fI

practtied, Or 'hal we: leave oft' doiDJ wbat we like with OU1 propert y ,I ~ (Hnd : 87)

The Hob Q ur an decla re s it u Po ul" tha t man 5 hcu 1 d hi mlelf determil1e whal i~ Tight and wb.at is 'WIODI.

lot A nd do no l i ssue fal:u dec: rees that this is r igh land thac

is wfcng.u..,. (An·Nabl: 116)

-- _. -.~~

... T.ba l ~;5.. -C:~ I;t')' I !:II i n I you n e I:; j II: d and Your .!i it u;lli en re qUifl;d trreip... $l;:ti"e .or wbC:lnt"r )I Oil sel LC lied It ow i t.b your rO.£liue: or :DDt. "

[Ri i d'1'IN i, Allwar·ul· Tar:! ::!:i1 .. Vol. l. 1'. ] 6] t M ultafa al- BII. t.'t E.jypr~·

[] 330 HIJ su A. D~l

•• • ·TI:I tl a yiiLb .... C'b~mt;nt Iy f(trb;d!. ttl II t ~opk .she IJ Id dc:c-jdc: what :I, .rhl:bt and ...... h:lt i.ll WrD:Il, Sic-cord"jDI "0 their own y;h:wIJ I.l1d delira:· (Baidawi. Yol. 3, p. 193).

• jTbe; IU bau,Dcl: of lbit a yat j s, as A.lkat.i pu.... i t, lha t if AUih'l .aDd HiJ .Proph'1"'J ord-e: f.::aard in, the, ri Ibt Dr .. to.u i: gf II matter dota Dot rtadL

39

The QUlaa reseryel 1hb ri&bt ror AJiah and~ for His Apo.sUe (peace. be on hiDl) &.I;Bi~ deputy.

HFoOr h~ {tbe Apostle} COUl:tna.nds thtm what is jl!it and forbids tbem what is. eviJ = be aHOW:9- them what is. good (alld pure] aQd probibita them hOilD wbat tl bad (8Qd impure)- He releases th-=_ from their' heavy burdC:Dl from the .yok=, lhat ace upon them .. •1 . (AI .. A'rat: I Sl) 3, A.mat •• of , ..... yidu.' OWDel'shtp 01" Property ..,itbln the boG.,. axed hf Alla~,

Uniler the .. upreme ..,wa.enhip of AUab aDd within thIS baunds tix-=d by Him, the Holy Quraa sanction$ individllal OWDer !hip or property ..

CJDo not devour one .notberl, ptoperty by fcul meaQ.! .. (inate:ad or it) do bu.tjneu, with mutual cons e-n t. I'

(At.Nisa :. 291).

II!! Atlah hal made trade lawful .ad ioterest II Dr.wiu I ~\

.... (Al~B-.qarah : 215)

. And if)'C repent (from tak.in,.illtal't1t) thea yuu bave the

rJgbt 10 your prjJldpar\ (Al.B.qarah ~ 279) •

.... WheD ye contract a d~bt tor a. tiled term, ftcord it iu

.riling"· (Al-.Baqarah! 282) ..

II .. U you. be iB jourDC)' and QDnot ~nd a sctibe, ,he .. a

pledge ill haad (~uJJkn). U (A l- Be.qa.l'ah ! 283)

""Unto tlUt .CD (or a. r.mlly) beloZlsc1b _ sblte: of that wh~cb pareD' •• Il~ oear kindred Jea'ltt and unto the womco. shafe of lb. t whicb. pateDts and Dear k..i il d lid lea VI:. tt (An- N is. : 7) "Ye wilo belicvet Enter Dot houin othC-f tbaa your 0""0

wi tholll per. inior. .. t I (An- Nut : 21)

•• Have shey nOI $"D how We han: c.reated tor lhem Ol,lr haadiwork the Ca.ltSC!l1I so that they are thele owners. It

(Ya-5ID : 71)

~ 7cna ~d IIDt d4Cermia. ill ri_c or wr.oOI br ycurtOlrt otMr1ri .. 1011 win bt twit)' Clr AMtibIDI f.IHlIaod to Alia"" for tIM! rlaJd or wmq b.u 80 D ...... rou.cr.doo ..... 4 tho"r Df AU .... :'

(A"lutt, .QOh.uI-Ma'lDl,. Vall-l, D.. 2l6, 1.0 al.Y.bue ... J M'~"'Jd •• E.Qpc" 134$ H-lt

., A, for tbe: thier both male aDd fc,mai e, cu.t off lheir baad.a.

An -e:~, rnpiarJ pun i.b mtat rrom Allah. It. II ah 'I M ilbtJ to Wile. n (A.t .. Mliclalt : 38)

ill II And Plj the 4 ue t bereef u.po., tb e bat'YKt day ~ ud be

not prodi.L~' (Al.A.DI:I .. : 141)

'!;b.ct .1 ml ot tbe ir we ... l th.~' (A t- Tan'ba: 103)

011- Give WLto orpb.aa Ihe it wta.ltb t ~. _ • +. Dor absorb t)u:ir

well tb ioto you r own "callb. '" (An .. Nila : 2)

~ ~ Unto you aAi J. wfu' a 1 L beyond those mentLoaad. to tbat y~ tee- k tbem w j th your we.1 t hiD hODest wed loc::k not dClbau.-

c:be ty. 1IJ . - (Aa·N""1P ! 24)

." ADd &i-v.e unto tbe .. om-ell (whom yc maTt)') williq.l,

their ru arri ap port iODI~ III (A.~-Nila : 4)

. J. ADd if ye wisb to nchaop· ObC wife for ID04her .ad. ,. hay'£!" siven UDto eee of tbem. IU m of mODe)' (bowtver .eat).

lake Dotbinl from it. ,., (A,D.MIIa = 2.:5) ~I fbe nke8ft! of those .ho speDd r.boil· we&Jtb m AJI.Jlk~1 •• y is aa tbe likeaeR of a Irai n wbich 1JtOl'tlb II'" tan. .ia every ear a huodr,d It.iDl.~· (AJ.BaquU! HI)

J J Yo'" lbou I d atrivo ror tbc ca lISC of Allib "itlt. yoGI ....ttl

Ui~ YOW' Ii VI:S. ... (..v-s.c ~ II)

011 ~ And i.Jt the ir wealtb the bespr LD d ,be ODtCIN W d~

~haTe .. 11.. (Ad.h. Dbuial ~ It)

u All arder, and lajn.acC lont reproduced abo.. ~pGH tbe tliJteQu of priva t r:: property.. The Hn] y QDrlD q:lCD.tiallJ pret.ent, • zyJtc m or economy wb it: h j tI .n its a-spteU il ballt oa tbe propeie lary rig ht of i Dd i vi du ali, It ·do!:1 no ~ eoaD .v, ... I. fa 10 t Crace 0 r th II: eone e p t w h ich se ts II P d iSl lnetiea bet wee a eonsu qll!!lr good 5 and m I! a us [] r produ c ti on and l i Olitt iDdi.,idulll OWDe is h.i p (0 ~b-e (ortner wbile- as.s.i:an i DI tb. la ue r t:lc Illthd.7 to pu blie control.

Likewi-se no dblia.CljOJi betWeen earned i"~om.e u.d ua .. tUMd Inc: Orne is. appar1!:al in [hc Isla m~ e doctdue. For aample1l it i.. clear t ha t the· j ahcr i taacc Iii'll ed by • perioD. from bb pareou. t:!l sne. wife I bng.Dlod 0 r broth er aud $i.ster doel DOt 'ill U under the be-.d of rafD.d j Ilc;:omc II DOt is Zakll t.bt: ....... iJa""

ECONO~UC PlK!PTJ OJ lHE QUIt AN

41

com I!I of tba- be: oC:ficiary. Moreover. i D this eCODom ie Icheme 1 bore: is DO notion or an i ntcri In !it.Be.. I~ adiDS to lome fi 01.1 gOAl where prl vat e pro p-erty ISbal I Ii lie place to Comp 11::tc M t leaa 1 iut ioo. Had t hi ~ 'Mell tb.t re al 0 bjec t or th.a QURn it would hi ve explained it to. U031ObiguOUI terml all d woutd ba ve provided hl'WS BDd jnjl.loCltioll1 on the :nlbjeC't. Th~ rac:t tbat at on e pl ace 'be Qu ran "Slatt!i; ~

• ·Tbc:: earth belong! to A Ua b' t (A [-A" I if ~ 128)

is II ot :§uffich: nt grou nd r of the: 'heory 'ha e the' Qut. r. a boHsb 1:::5; priva r c olVner~b. P .Q r 1 and and su. nction S i lS nat iona I iutioOl. The Holy Qorall also $t:!ltc:s :

U All tha ( is, ~ 0 the s.ky a o.d in lh c eart b D!!= I ODp to AHab tt r (A l·lJ.aqaIillih: 284)

11 ea !loot be inflrre d from thi 5 tha, ~ nd i" ld uals are do bl.rred {tom owni ng an yt hing on l h e lind or in t be tty, nor call it be deduced from the text thEt.l So Il l hing S iu l he c:.rtb aD d Iky ,bol' Id be nil ion!l prDptlt y + J f l be DiviDe: ownerlblp eac lod tIS bum.ll owc,ers hip til en it abeli !5-he! t be riga:r of both 10 d i'V iduals and nations to OWD an~ t bio &. S imlla rly it j I inlCorrecl to lUlU CL rroDlly.a t 10 of II. Mlm As-Sajda Ul& t i' (he QUlaD CDV iu gel ~q ual dis Lribu l iOD of the elrtb&' r-tl.ol.l n;:CB' of r Dod amona bUman bein gil and t hi:!! c'Iualily cannot be est. bLished w ilhollt nationa I iz.a noe or t he!l G resources, H eaee d:u:: in ten lie n ar tbe Quraa

., to caForc:e lJoc.laJia.m.u .

SUPPOlill8 we accept the interpretauoe of the ayat as ~ -Allah placed in proportion in four days rhe resources or rood in the earth .. for all the needy, ill equal mea'l!urc:. u • Bven then it would be wrong to: tbi.o.k: Lbal • needy' rtrer5 on}, tu

• Thll i! !:lot 1;1:1; :lceurUe tr .11.5: la liOIl i.q i t:se If. Thr;- &~t U,g I 'WQt-d:s arc : ~iJUJ .. TJ- rltl ~ ... 1 J Zaftllahlbrl. U;li.dawl .. R~.d, Alu:ti IID~ O1bClt .(!:QftI~e:c.t'turl take: ttK! Word. ~ ~ •• "..."~ 1.a be ~OOIl~ Led 'W I tib .. ~ ~"I' I ead ,Jive

1bi. intC1'~rc1ujQD ... AJJah did Ibis 'WOrk ill (wi rOUT -d.[J)'s'· r -

. ThCI O(Uumli.DtalOi~ who .hold that 1I.1J""' fa rel:ue:d to..:r-JJ WJ underill: ud I t to tMaft ~ - PJ~ idt: d! f'o-:t a n tb~ 1I1C~d'y" or U A.!::'C:on:Un. to lbe d t-1t'I:lnd Or aU the .IleIlH.)'''. f (If fur tber up I • .,~ ti CD rdc:l' to T,fb ilEl-ulQurlD .. 'Vol. 4, ccmmtJuary 11:1:11 :sur. HaM im aa-S';da rootn..,~ •• ~ ..

4.2

human b"IDgs:. The needy :n1!t"euarH~ iQCludClI beiidC!l human beiD8s,t all Other kinds. of liviaa creatures .[:10, wholCi resout';C:1 of food b ave b ee Il pi aced by AU ab iQ. this same e af C h~ If accord i oJ to thi, ayah tbe s hl.tl:: of all t h~ • needy I OD~f is equal .. lben there it 110 grt'lua.d for c;ooiniDg the rilbt of eqllaHty to the human species aleee, Simil.arlYJ it cannot be argued ftom those ay ab iii of the QIl ran "bieb ltre:S.1 tbe ne:ed for pr-ov lsio a. of food to the poor elasses or iocie:ty that tbe Quran ibtendfl: to establish a soclallst order to achieve this purpose, WhereveT th.e Qura.n mentious tbli n~ed.+ it eue.bt1a.Uy Jay! down jUiilt one se he lilt! fo r fu 1ft!) i n g 1£! W h j cb ·is. tha 1 mem ben o( the am u ent c tass she u I d 1 i be: r all y spen d rb-eir wea l th an t heJ r poor relati 0 D.8. the orphans, and tht destitute .l,l)d other deprjved or lndigent people ht the: :sociely witb tho! sole: objc~t or winnlcs the- favcur or AUah. III additiotl to tbis the sll.le also is ~hs.r.s:ed with tbc dUl)l of C"Olle:-cUtll a tiK.e'd pcrtlon or tbe wealth 0' amutllt members of th-e socje"lY and speddins: it on the finlZlciilUy depresse d c i ti"El5~ Apart troin this practical l:&btIDe, 1!~cre is I1b~olutl!:ly 1]0 trace or ar.y ether pla.n for ac;:bievlD8 tbis pu rpose la the Q uran. Tbete is II 0 doubt that no injunt:tiOD DC the quran Obnrll-r;l.. the nationaliZltiO·D of a particu.l.r lector or· the- cc:anomy wbeDevcr the nee d for s. ncb aa act iOIl arlsee. But a total baD. CD private property aDd ebe adoptioJ! of sociaJh:m as a doclrin" and system 0' Hte is IDt'Gue:iltent with tbe economic $C!h~me or the: Qu.ran. Mon:over accordi.nl to the political system envisa2ed by QI.IIllq DO I.ID,llc: patt)' or grou p has 1 be au I he r it y to dec ide t hat a se~ tor .of f!conomy thou!d be transferred from private to public control. The decis icu fOt su.ch a move li~! with a consunatlve body whole" members hav-e been elected by I free vote of tbe people.-

4. The UD-".llITI.I D IX t1[ae .o.f ~ODOIIlFt Equitli Iy.

Tile f.ct that like olhn D.tur~~ .I.bj,np there- is no equality among human beiog .. u upr!d'.J~e~prP'fjsioD of rood Hid other me~bl .. 0 f I j vel i b~&d II p~e Dte9 bY 'I be ~~ r~~ q jast aaolber

.. For dt!ta ill of fl.. PolJtkal .$yj.-em ptcKribed b7 Ibe. Qur ... ~ refer te

mJ' "0 rk j 'Kb:"E.du-Q..-16ul 091':iaL ~\ ~.p~.r I ~ I

b;o~OMrc fll£CI!IPTS O'F Til! QUll.\N

4j

IIJt«;t or t~ Divi ne Orde r • Lea. vi:o, I!side the a rt ill c i aJ dlspat:itiu el~abJi'5hcd by various social systems I 80 rar as the 11.1. tural ineq uali ty l!ll C oacerncd, 1 h e Q ur aD reo 8:a rds it as l h f: result or Djv1ne Will and Dis.pen5irlticio and there is no evidence iD 'he eneire scheme of the Quran tbal H iatenda to elim}na(e naWral it,.equ.llUty and i:::U a~t1! h an 01 de: r w h erein ~ ve ryo Q c ,buoM receive aD equal 3 h"n::: of t he eeoc om le means.

I'H= ir is Wbo halb placed JOU HS vittfO}"S of the ellrtb and ha lh .exalted So m-e of yop j n J ank a bov~· 0 ta e rs I t hilt He DJ jght try yoo b}l tbal which He hath gi .... eo YOd~"

(AJ·AfI'ilhn : 165) ·"'See- bow We prefer one above .8 nothee, and verily lhe H en.':ter wUJ be. g.rl;.IL t C r 1 D d~&1't'C8 and II!l tE!'at e r i tl prc:( ermeat, ,~ ( Ban i J sr ail: 21)

'Ih it they who apportlr .. :o thy Lord's men-y 7 We ha:'¥i:

Bpportjoned :tDlOU,S t li'C! en 1 he i r J i vel ihood in worh.Uy I if e, an d r. illfld sOtQe of t bern a bovc: ot he 15 i tl ra D t tha t 5.Ome of the m m.y tab labour rrom others: and the mercy or lhy Lord is better- tll.o (tbe wealth) that they .maI§5. ".. (AJ.Zukbrur : 32)

'ILo"' thy Lord eoJI.J'&elh the p:rovisioD for wbom He wjl1 and II:t raj ttuc:tb (i t fg-r whom H~ wi II). Lo I He was. fyer KIJ ower to Seet of Hil dl,e •. rl (Bani lsra.,J : 30)

uHil are tb. kcY'l or the heavens aad ea.rtb. He enJaraetb provide'Q1;C for wbom He wiU and :itrahellth (il (or wboItl He wiU) L():J He is koower of aU things." (Al. Slnlctli ~ J 2)

4·Say = Le, my Lord c8'argeCh the provision for wborn He

will ur Hi! bondmau and narroweth (it) for .him.'~

(A1.Sol ba : 39)

-_----- ~- ----

. T.hi:i blli bell!ll. I~a"'d ill lbe con h::::Kt of l.U vbjec.fion 'tiled bJ , b.

Hal, Propb.lt~. CJ:I04Iics that b"d AU,b wdbed to n.iH a Pt.ol'~t lh ~[d ha~ 1i~t .. d :onG of tho Chief. of N-.::ct er T .. ir to 1b~ Office. Wbl.t pouiblc: h: .. 101l ~uJd Ht havo foOl' .l,p.POmtill' M uha1DMlld (DUell!: be

.£III him) at IUa .. p-mt Ie ? .

!COHOMlC IYITBN O' ISLAM

The He ly Quraa enjoin 10 that mank Ind Ibou!d cal III ly accept this natural ine-qu.aJhy aDd neee Ihould. CDVY the .dvaolag e gra nttd to"1'I nother by AJ lih ..

n And covet [lot the thiog in which Allab bath made some of you excel ot he es. U D to mc-:t1 jill r 0 rtune from that whi-cb they have earned aud unto women a fortuae from thlt which tb IC)' ha y~ earned, A:sk Alill b of his bOUDty. LI), AU:ah is cv.r Kll ower of aU th ~ DJS ", (AD. Nisa : l2)

The two • yah Ii: from IN hkh a se eli on of peopl e ate tnrial to derive: the conclusion that the Quran wa.lJts absolute economic equality among human be ings are • .s (ollow$. ~

uAnd Allah hath f a voured lome of you above crbers in pro visi 00.. Now tb ese who are more: fa voueed will by no me: an I II aDd over the i l" prov isi OD t 0 those ($1 a VfS) who m 'the: i r rj gb t b and I po!ues.s. $0 t bat they [I] a y be e qua I 'IN i Ih them Iu respect ibereor, Jig it tben the sr.ace or Allah that tbltY deny ?t1l.

(Au .. NI.b.] ~ 7 Q

II He eoineth for you a similitude of Y013fSelvn- Have ':i~r r rc IlJ a mo 8.1 tho se w bom your rIght hand ~ posse: sa, partD en in th~ we: alth Web ave besto we: d upon "1 em ~ c-q ual wi tb you tbeteof ~ so that ye. Tear them as yo fear eacb other tTbat yo, ascrlbe unto Us partners out of that whjch We I;fcl\t-ed 1).. Thill We dis.plllY the revel at ioul for people Vi' h c ha vii: Icns.:;· ",

(Ar .. Routa ! 2&)

But thi: word.s of these two ayabs clearly ihowt and tbe cnntext in which tbey hay! been revealed also maket it plain that hereie in fact GO exbertarion ha!li been :mzdc: to eradicate eeonomle inequality 35 .I fOUl tbin, and establish JD us stead a :a.ys tc: m of eco n om i t::: 1:8aU t ari an ism. On I he other haD d these ayah, present th e fact: 01 eccnom ic inequality amon 8 hlLml.D. be:ings al an argomera .piast PolYtbcl:sm~ which is that linco you a r~ not pre pa:r.f:d to ad mi t you r slaves al t'q ual sharers ot

}IOU r w ea 1 th~ how pre! pos1 erous is your Dot jon lh a l aflY of Hli

ICONOMlC PUCEPTI Of rna QUIAN

£:rc.tUftl ea1l .hln ia Hil Divinity 1-

S. MGd."u.:.. .... ObHl', ... " or Lb.it! lure .. d 'l)f A.lCtlld ...

The HoO!y Qgrlo liso repeatedJy empha,luI the r~ct that AU.h !las oCrpt.4 Hia boODtj-e1 ia the 'WOrld with the !iolepul'poee tbat H II crettu rei sbouJd eJljoy t be at· It ce rt.in 1 y i:i II at the wilt 01 Alllb" nor Clio it be, that man should ren~un-c;c: tb-! uaa of tbe:ie bounties and turn 1.'0 a'!lc~Ucism. Wbat He actually f!lDjoJnS u tb.t diuioClio.D. !.bould be observed hetw-eeo Good aDd Evil, the ulllaw(lIl practice!. aDd tba,-e that ate lawful:

IDd that enjoYlDeDt -.nd use should be contio.ed. to tbe cfl.ttsory of la.tal .nd pln~ millil and C¥C"1l in lhi. the bQuoda of mod era lion ihould not bI elceedr:d :

I"~e is Who ereB.ttd for you aU that is in the Eanb"lt. (AI-Baq.rah; 29) "iIISay : Who hath forbidden the adoromt:nt of Allah whicb KG bath broulbt forth tor Hi!: bondmen, and lilt good things of Hil PrQ1'i d i III ?:It ( ~.1-A .. ra If : 32) .IAbd e.t of Ib051:' thiDa' tbat AUab hu, ble~sed you .... itb .. 1 •• rI1I and pUJ'll ~ a ad .a vo td ear Ding the wrath uf H i$ iii Whom you lta"e put Jour fajita'" { .... I-Maidah : IS} 110 MaQt in d. Ea t Dr tbat wb icb is 1 .... f:g 1 an d '" h., r C! soma!"

in. thll:l world and follow not ill the footstepz or tbe devil. Lo, b. is I n open tDe-my Io r you. ", (A I· Baqr ah : J 68) I" ADd cal aDd drink, but be not prodill1l. LOt He rove1b

not tbe prodigals". {AZ·A"'taaf: l])

t 'BIt mona5tlciJm. Ibt!Y inveflt-ed· We :otdaioed i~ not f.or thern bat only seei:illg AJlab10s pleasure and they oblerved it not witb rtsht .omr::TV3ince"\ (A[-Hadeed ~ 2')

--~-----__._- .-

.. Tbll poiiDt ~cme!l ve:rfectly c:!eu after fe-.dinl uahl 1'1 ~o 76~' . hr. Aa.·Nahi (The DI!:~) :aed ayah$ 20 to J:S of Sura Af-It,Qlum ('nc: 1truD •• :III!II). T'bI!t t~al t:'e-mt: Qr bOlb ~~u i:t the rftLlI.ation. or l!ihij"~ (~'I:ttli'lf "''' patlrwsn wl10 AU a.b, Pofyrbei,m) lIod .affinna1 iOIl of A lllib 's Uflj ty. FLI-l

t .. dll!:tliUe~f comDle'lItl.l"1 .o-n bot b Z~U:l see I I Ta r.:. im-ul-Qu fII n 10 '. "Y.;)t 1ft r, $-'1 ,,~d '11)1. III, pr~ 141 10 '156.

6. D~!i: rJl]C t Ion Be t ... e e n L.wful.D.d. U .II""'a] Mea II, Qf EarulDI Wl:aJtb.

The H~ly Qur.1l lays down the rule that weaHh ISbould be o bt a iae d tb rou gh Itt wfu l m eaas only and un] I 'PI tul me;a 01 shou I d b: avoided.

~ , 0 yew 110 bel ie ve t Sq uatl, de r Dot your wea I th altior'll yourselves in \'anilY~ except it be a trade· by mUlual consent, And kill not ODe another. Lo ! AU.1b is ever Mer~ifu 1 unto yr.u ,'" (An·Ni5a : 29)

-: + Vola ft foJ 1\-1 e iDS of Si!C"Ol iug Wea ltb.

A derailed d-cscr iplJO"d of the unlawful' meaJl!!l of obtaining w ea 1 t b bas; been given by the Holy Prop he t (p~ ace be u po 11 him. in the traditions and by rhe juris.ls in the books Oil Islamic Law. Some of th e, e me a us w h i~ h ha \If: bC'I!!:D .specified in the Q u ran Ire as rouows :-

'I A nd c. t not up your propc rty am ona yo uncI \' ~I jn v &nity t not seek by ~t to gain th~ hearjlli of the jl,ldSCI that ye. m.y k Dow in g ly d evo u r ! p orti on of the p ropert y or 0 tb-e:ri wr ona .. {'.lny,I'* (Al .. Baqarah : U8)

nAnd if one of VoU entrusteia to another, let billl who il r : IlU e d cl e t i vc r up tha t which l!. en trusted to him (accord i 01 to i.he pact be~weell them) and let him observe his dlJty to A.nah his Lord. JJ (~]-Baqarab : 283}

.. The- 1~ em f ~r:!dll!!· de:n{l t~~ e Icb ~ tllI!lt Clf lood:l :lfid n~ic.f-!io for mo;c,e-f'Se~ A J~ 1 a~:'i 1;t A ~"It:.am . u] ~QlJ fSI Q.. Vol. nIP. 210 - M .. tbut· ... I~ Bah ia, Earp, J.J.4iH. Ibu-al-Arabi, Ahkam-uJ..Quu,n, yo!. 11 p. 110 .. Matbau- .. l~Sa'adii.

EIYpl IlJ 1 H, Tbe con Ijj I j OD Q f mutual p gret:mt:n t iuelf imp I iC:I lb •• "c:ba.ll p: ~l:Iou ld not t:a..k ~ place und C r lin)" ra-rm 01 dUn:!u I nor ,hol,lld i 1 itJ"I'o 1'It' rfiillJ.rJ Or prt: tc=;coC:' Wh iii: h if 11 Wi:U tDown tc tbe; cnhc::r party would Dot s.C'CU re r t:!li iI g reo!:! me nt, .

• The ph t a..:;e j j T 1;'1 ~iI;j n t he bcarinl of tht' jod;JCI'" ia::tpl:ie:a: tt.r(if,ll • 1 alPa'~~ll it wr('ll1gf LL i!~ I;: ~ iii I ,,'.J n I thli: prC-pi:r1y gr ilnothf:r :I1Ii ,,""U Ii CQr:ru1l ltal ! he .luth Or ~ ty j Il order 1 e 11.& Ltl i rloC:2a1 PC-UHliol'll Of .I n Othtr~.I pro]:.'loettY.

(~IU:!lit Riih·ul."Mlaait YQl. 2. :p. 6:).

41

14Wh,olO d,ecoi'tth will briDI htl deceit .ltb hi~ Cb tbe day of RftI.1uccUOIl. ThC1l .ycry loat will be- paid illi full wbl.t it hath .,..med. II (AU ..... lmr.o ; 16J)

lilA. for tJl~ thi-cft both DIllIe and fem.let ~ut 0:1 th=-h haDd •• hit tM rtward of their OWD deed., an e~emp[aty pltn;,s;hmeo.t from A11.b. Allah i. Miab.ty.' WiH.·~ (A.l~Mlidah ! 38)

"The oaJy reward of those who make .,.r upon Allah lind Hil MClleDlu and Ill'11;e af~1' corruption h1: the land· wiU be tllat they will be 'k.tUed or crucitaedu• (AI-Maida; 33)

Ii La'! those who dc\,ollr the: wealth of orphaos wrollgfullYI

tbty do but atf.Uow are into their beJUe~. and they will be ~J:poted to buroi'llJ lame:' (Ao.·Nis. ; 10)

II t Woe unto the defrauder. :

2. thOle' ,1iI10J .be'D tbey (ake the meilUR rr.,Dl ... aoklncl .. detalna It fu1l.

3. But if they mealilre unto th~m or weigb tot them. tbll!:Y I

Clute th.Jt110ll/~ (~l-M.,tlllir"D : 1-3)

IIoIILo I 'hoM wbo love lhal shinder !hourd be spread corJctm ...

LI.I U.OH "bo bcUever lQ them wi)) be a paToful plLDishmc:nt in tbe "tiel tad tb.e Hcreaftel'/· (AD Nur : 19)

~ And or mall kind i, be who payeth Cor mcce pastJmc= or discoluse lba.t be nUly Dlislead Crom AlJah"s way without koowledpt .. ad tnakiDI it thee butt of moc:kery. For !ucb lh-=~ i1- a Ih~m.erlLl dOQbi~··"~ lLu.qman : 4}

• l1li1 ... relCflmCil Is. to r.ohbcQ ao4 btipDd.· ...

(AI-J"I ••• vot~ 2. p. -494'.

" Tba ten.: ··pudlEllI:I of clitCD\lfI'II:I" ia 1hi! iI)I'.h illl: lime. ~i DPII" IIlQiLc llIul .11 olMr ladccC-AI aGlUJM\CQtl wblch Ifltd .1h'I.Y from ihl: \irQ' rA A.1I~, (l'bJl-J.J.III'Jra JIlIli •• f.d-a.YIIIID PI Taf.tr :It QlIr'.h Vol. 21, pp. l"9-41t M "~Aoweri., Bl1pta 1311 H.)

4&

Ia»«HQC SY5nll OP ISLAM

~.p (J ret 1)0£ your 51 III V~lirll to wh ered om. if th ey would pre ..

Serve their .ch.sUty. that ye may 1~r:1:: eDjoYUlcnl or the World. t'll

(An .. Nllt: ll) loliAud ~me got nc:ar co adultery. La! jt is an aboD)lnacioll

and aD e Y j l wil Y • ., (BaDi I&.ra.iJ ..: 12)

'"The ldulh:n:r and the adulteress, scourae yc c:.ch one of

,

them {wjlb I: bUild red stripe~r'.1 (Al-Nul ~ 2)

uO ye wbo bdievc! liquor t g~rnbUng~ ca.m tin, lou, before jdcl:!! Or by di:5chara:iDJ arrows or by dice, are foul devirish actsavoid LhelD. "I (A l·Maidab ~ 90) ~ ~ AIJ.ab p.etmhteta trading and forbiddelh uSI,J:ry." (AlaB.qa.rah: 275)

l. Tb.c r~ar objecti"'CI of tbtlli ayah i;l to eli r'DiD.1I.k: prc!.linl1.ionr

. Sla-vt--Ilrll ,ull!: Isp.ecj .U! me.o tjo~.d bk:olllSC. I.molll .ncj tDt Arab:t~ ebc butill6i1 of pro~ lJlUlt ~Og depended euti.re Lr 0 n . alli ve·\,\IOrneo, MII.!!.~n uxd to III tbeir 'O"nj lad beaut ~rul Itl,a\pe-.i rb iu bUJ1l1::f1!1!I U prOlli rute:l .l:I:d Uve-d Cia. tho1r ~fDiD,p. ([bll~j-ll111:r1 r .. Vol. ] 't pp. j~-$8.1 OJ~ 104. Ibn·i-kal:hl r, Tmlr.&.I·QL1fln al Alhl), VoL 3. pp.89-2tt:1. Malbtb MU1iIu.fa Me-hammlet. E.J1Pl, 1:947. JbIH·Ab~:hd Bar~ AJ~[steabr VaL ;t p. 1~ DoIIil .. tul~.w.lai( ... Hr4c:rlbad ~ HJl It.

2.. AIOQIritb. for-bi dd'~ nil: adulte!"1 at a loiD the icecuM d.ril'"c:d from adnlterY ... alto dKI:il"f:d \Jn~1I. ~flJl b-) 111.m all d ~he Hoi, Pmph¢1 (pi:.a~ aad blmlDp .of A !I~b "be on him} PWDoul)Cd it I., lh~ fou It:l!U. lDeallS Df illt1:I:I:IU: r' ~

~8ull:bali Boot 34. Chapter Ill/ab;o liO'Ok 37" Cbapt~f 20/8001:: 6B~ Ou.pU:r ~/BOOt U 01 a ptt;~ 46/&.01 17. Cbl.p(l::r 96/~ u:Shm.. Book: 21 H~lth Ho. 39--'* .. Abu Da wu d~ 800k .n, Chll,flter 39----6.3.

Tlrmidbit Boot 9. Cb.p.u 31t Dool: U. Cbl.pter 46~ Book: 26.

CbI..PU::f 2lt Na.U, I ~ BO'Ctk" -42. C.ha.p ter ,. Boek 44. Cb.a ~!e:r 90~ 1 bn·c:-M.j.~ Book J 2.. Cob.pler SI}.

J. The. m.aIH,;J .actu re and e.~chill.nse of .11] l hi n I!. rorbldde[] by tho!: ~rJJl Ii ug]..awlul. for :prohi"bJri-on implie, that DO benefit should be derl ... ..::d from tb~m In olll)' '111' a ,.." (AJ·Jauut Vol+ 2. J)~ 212J.

·4. This. :UJO'M1 thu :in the UM cJ II bu.i!:leu 4e al, the: prafi l u:rn«i b)' ........ d ill id 1.1&1 em 1i:IJ: C1P~ tal OJ 'ill :the case Clf jQlDt I. toct" coznpu,. ~ tho!: divi dC'~· freti yt:d b}' a Ihl.rt!boldcr ill propc.rtiQ.n tQ his lu'Ye Sta:u:nt i5 La. .ful. But In lhl: . ,:as. or II !a In ~ iiOylbilii in c:xceu of the p rind pal amounl re~~'V~:Lf by 1hc TC'cdcr !roOm the cI. blOr i$ uJllawrul. bec:uJ:$t! ual i ke fbo p~ 1 ~iI r.Ded ill tnd 1:. A I r II b d 0¢1Ii '-lot b'l:dd JC 1.1 lawru I dfv jd'tDd~

ECONOMIC P.lECU'I"J or TKB OD.AM

o JC who bl!:l i.vc:: ! obsene yoor duty to AI t.hl! .. ad Ii .. IJp what reml i neth (ddt 10 yO(l.) from Ui.Qry I if Jt a1'C (ia 1 ..... th) bel levers. And if yf: do Dot. t h.n be .I&raed or war (.sa Inll' you) trom AUab aDd His m.mcl)ltr~ A.ad if yc re,pcntt tbea )'8 haVe" your princ.ipal (9thboat iQt.rll:ll). WrODa DDtI' and. ,. Iball not be .rO.D:lCd. ADd ir Che de,bl.ol is 10 :llraittned ~irC1lID"" :ltan.r::cs. lhell (Ie. thert bt) POltpollClml!!o1 to (r he, tim 0 of) c;IR ~ and that yc HI mit ibe debt al al mI.!:, vi DJ wou.id be- bellet for you if )''= dj.d bae kilO.. (AI. IJd qarllb ~ 278w21O)

ThUi thole roo-an, Df 1.1, I ~f", .~ah b. wbir:::h I be Holy Qllt aIL de.:: 1 ate:i unlawfu.l are briely at rolIoWl:-

1. y"k.ing proper l:~ or JOod II without t.b e COD!.C Qt of the OWDel and without pa,meJiI:~ or 'akiDI wUb. payment Of with. Out pay .. ee t bpt wit II CODIeDt JD Iu.c:b •• "Dat'r tb.t thel 'conSltat II leQa.red under duress 01 rnad-.

1. Bribery •

3. Fotcible OCCDpaUon.

4. Embezzlement of prj'i'atc Of publle wealtb.

5. LarcellY a Qd' robbery.

6.. .Exptoprladon or "elJ lh bc:loa8iGI to an orphln. 7 ~ S pl1Tious 1¥e1P ts IIDd measurel.

8 ~ BotJ Del & proJilolint UeeDt i ousness.

9 r Ttl I, 'l'oc.atiolJ of lialia.& .lid d a.uoi:Ol. 10. Pro!; ti tut i CD a~ d lacott:le rrom ad ... I h: ry.

] 1. :tdanufacture, sale Ind trao!iportation of li.qllor.

] :2. Oa mh 1 i ng a nd all luch pnctices jn wbJch 'Mea] th p3!J Ie, from ope to: anotbc r j IlSt 'by luck Of cb.anct.

13. Scu~plurc and s.lc: or .i.dob aud slI:rvi.;cs rendered 10 Ie mplcs of idol- .~rsbi p,

14. FortlJnc-t~lhng and dl'awiD! l011.

I :5. U aury) i rf ~Ipcct i ve of Jo w or bJlb rate and J~ga rd!titS il'r whether interest is c:b.l'S-I:!d QD loads adva~ced rOC'

private u. or for coauaen:·i I] t ia.d .... lri -I o:r agrieul· tura] enterpfi'II:~·

I, Prohibftl!). of 4'fUlee .... HOIrdlal of WIII.th,

Alonawith ptoscribi OJ ecvil !M11lI of ICf;Griq wealth theHoly Qur.a sCrongly disapproYCI of the hoarding or ~n llwtutly earned wealth and tcachos ':I' tbat avar~ 11 a Jreat I:vil ..

I. Woe DlllG every s[aadtrio, tradllcer.

It Wbo batb pthered wt.Uh (Qf th.b wo:rld-) aud I.y-eth it by~

Ill. He tllinkctb that his wealth wU' render bim immo:rtal. tv. Nay, but veril), he will be 0111:1g to tbe cOnJ1,uni.G, ODe. (AI·HutDIuh : 1-4)

"They 9tho ·hoard up sold and .. nver alld spcBd it a.o1 in tbe way of Allah" "Dto 'hem live tjdJnl1 (0 Mllhld1l2tad) or. p .. inrlll doom.u (At .. Y.uba: 34)

nAnd wboso ,. Ii.v~d rrom bi. own 8ffId. IGCh are tho

'1iSCCC"S:!iI rlJll' '.. (At-Taahlb\lll: : L6)

'~A:Qd Jet. not tho,. who llo.rd ilP tbat wbi~b A.lI.b. halh

bes,Co wl!!d QPOQ thl! m of Hit bolDl)' tbiok th.t j t is belter lor tbeOl. Nay f' it il wgoe tOf :them. n.l.l wbich tIley hoard. will he l bcit co 111.' OD the Oa., of RcsurtectiOD' t I ill. (Al~lrqrt.a : (10)

- ----.____,-- ~----.-~--------.-.....--------~--

• It it 1C1f-ftidcat froID tIM: ttlt at mill ..,.ab .b .. t .bb OfdlllatIICC ~Iatol to dAb .. and tb.t jll at,. 4 III ill 1 JQYQhiDI • ~Q if nm cNdhor -t1 l CG04itiUD tl1at M wJU lcoc:i". fro", the dthCur aomelhi.,. JD u:cctl ~ lit, .,..incipal all)OgD(~ ,~wUI t.c • CM-e ~r umry (tUba). Th Quettloo .-b.dlCr th. "fa~" of internt it; ';Sat.. or 1(11" iii iRlmat.erJ.1 i.ei nlil cue.. IICIr it the Q .. ndoll af thl fJ":~ of lb. d,blOf rel"~~u1lf. Tod.)'t & lDC"fion of .-aol. try t~ co.afiaco t,",,. be. M U.Juq to CMre loan" (filly wIlil:h $I plrloDu lItel ror p.riY.~o m.::,..4... ThlY Clxt:mpt the: in tlllr.est chupd 0.. cowOltrcl ... Cllredi'll or hn.k l~tM frenD 1M prahibjcitlll: M u.j_"" n..ir aDtl'liOlil1 lire·' b.ltelen tor tl'lo, aro IUpptrtad ~i''1er by (.be Qa'aot aar H.adJ" !Ii"'r Fiqh.

.. Thi:!l lub)eet .h. III belli IrequOlltly lD!"luiOilt d i1l tbc: H-o-b' Qul.n in v~rioll' tGf"m.J~ 8«: for Jz:u,1anee- 5 tin, M II h~mm .. d~ .a)'ah. llt.Al Hadeldt . are:it 2-4, A '~AII tab.,. t. ay.u 14~ .!~ M .R;p.rij, a)' oIb 11. ,il.Mudd.t.'t I' 1)";1 b ",,-

.I-FaJrl .Y8.b:llS to W. .... r.,.ilt a,ab II r II·MII"'OO.D ;I"i-lllhi 1.2. 3, .s.

IICON'OIOC ftlC"m or Till QUL\ N 9I~ Cande~tloa ol Mate-II.n •• aDd Greed.

At the iun:· t Lme 'btJ Haly Quta!ll .1 '10 ~vca 1, tba t m a teli alb;m, &reed and craze fa r wor ldly wlII.hb a Q 1:1 pride lod b augb h:a eJl of riches lead ma D. I.ltra), aDd .r. iI mons t be ell ier CaUietl of bb. ultilB.lte: ruill t

4oI"~i) R:lnJry it!! 'Worldly intra.,. d~ltraeteth )'ou. (Il) U Dtil ye COD) I:: to the If ayel.

UH} NIlY" bur )Ie wi Il cO llLe to t ao W !' ~ (A l- Taka thor ~ 1-3) • ~ And ho.. many a commuoity h. YO we d~:aroyed t. bat "1.1

t baatlen foc i IS meant of J i vel ibood ! And yOq der are t he1, d we 1III!gs whicb have no t been in ba bi ted after them !U:l.ve • litlJI. ADd We wert.; tbe illbl!!lrhorl,l' (Al-Q.-. : Sa)

M A ad We :llent Dot U:D LQ .at 10 wnlbip a warDG,r ~ bu t 11. pi mpcl'.d uoo. dtollred ~ to! we aro dis be I ieVOfl io that wherc: .. i ,b .,. hi VI bl:"l1 HDI. An d the:; lay: we are mort:! (tbl n you) in VN.ltb lod c bi I d rea, We are not ~ be: pllnisbed !'.

(Saba : J4.lS)

10_ CO .... ' .... tiGIi. of E.I. t"'''.1'1IC.~

011 Lhe o.tb~r baDd the- Holy Q ~ r aa fCiVC re ly cO I1d:mD I • mao who: I-pendl!l h.i 5 la 91 fally ca rne:d we!lLtb in unl,,,,fu. pUUu ~u or apep dl it .::xcIU'Il vc '11: ror '~Ctlri"'J luxury ~ pll:llluro and wmfort. for bi~ leJr aud bas DO 01 bet UIO for b~s JIlGllf:I'y but tD rahe his pri't'l.t-e nand,aId of Ii villi to. tbe oplilllilm Mvc:k

.. t , ••• u AlLd be uot prod i.ab. Lo! A I lab loveth' .ot t be

prod ipll~ ~~ (AI-An ·.m :: .'1)

4-' Oiv II:: 1 he .k.ltL sraan h hi due, aDd tb e needy and tbc way f aref • aud lqulU1der D.Ol (weahb) il:ll Walil(uu:u::!Ii'_ Lo I tbe iquila .. dlC;[CfS w .. rl! bl'l:th.ril::l1 of t be de"Us, :a nd rhe dev iJ wall t: ve r II n. In,rlte to hj, Lord. rr (Bani J !U''::II.t::l : 26-!1)

.S:l

, "

t 4- , ..... Ia.d e:u • ad d riuk. bu t be not prod i ~I.l. Lo l

He IQ'Vt~h mot tbe pfDdlpls.·.. (AlwA.4ri.f ~ 31) hJ t ~c 'oj' ic w of , be Quran t b e c::orr~t beba'\l'i ou r r pr IJ1 iii q. {I

S2

to Jpead at • moderate rate on IIhuse)f aDd members or h.h ramil),.. He and !lis, '.mily bl.v~ • rilbt OD bis w~.llh and he I!lou!d De'f'Or be sli .. " i~ dilCbaqjD;8 thi. rilbt. But thea. tbi&

_ is. not lbe only ri Ib t iu tbe ditch Ifge of whIch he: ihou.ld l§'Cud aU his re:t.llUZ'CC1 aad nell ect Iht -foUU m.e.r.l or other rJabts.

oIl=And. le1 Dot thJ hand bl: -chaLned to thy peck not ope!L it to • full e.lteltlt. Ec::Jt thou tit down rc:buked. dc:aouneed. n

(8 an i- luan : : 9) oj:j: And t bOle "110. wben Ihey Ip I! Ddt are nil!!: i th I! r prodjpl DOT ,grud,iiD I: : • ni! tbe:tc is -ever iIIII firm sta tion be t Wfe D I he two. ,.

(A r- Fl,U'Qb ! 01)

U Sut t.eel: the- abode .of Ibe Hereafler in that whlcb AUab hath ailfl!:Q tbif! .nd a.,lect rlO~ thl!! portioD of the WOJld. and be ·thOIl I: iad .vea .1 A n.b batb been ki:Dd '0 :thee:, an d leek not e[}(fu.pUolS La Ib~ e.rtb~ Lo ! AU.b Ioverb Dot eorru.ptela.~t

(AJ.Q ... ,: 71)

1 t. L.w1.1 W If. of. S,....t II Wt.J lb.

Out of lb. 1 • .,fully eat .. ed weal t" I the :S Dtplul l ba t re: m Ii DI aCte r rea &on. ble C!'JI;prnsct OD prj,. 'Ie 81: ~d5 s!:loul d be speet in the !ollc.i dB "1)'1 !

!.lAud lbi:y .lIt lhee wbat they ousht to spend. Say: tbar which is .upc:JftuOUI}'~ (At-.Baqll'ab ~ 2! 9)

• ,It is not riShl ee tlIQ~S5 tha t" ,e [urn yo u r faces [0 East and the W~!H ~ bur rilbleOll1o h~ he wbo believeth in Allah JUld the Last Day and the aft8eh aod the scripture .aDd lbe Prophets ; and giV~lb weshbjo for love of Him, to kjlufoJi: and to orpha.ns iIInd the nec:d)l al3.d thl! w.~rarer and to those who ask, and 10 set sJ.1Ve~ Iree." (Al-Baqarah : 177).

"Y ~ will Dot attain piety until ye Sipend of (bat whic,h }I.e 10 .... e. Alld w h a t S oeve r y! s pc ad. Al~ a b is I. ~are t beteoC. " (Ali-Ill] J~n : 92) ADd serve AlJah. Ascribe notbing as! partJlf:r UIHo Hirn. (Sbow) e:kiod ness unto parents, and unto near kindred and orphans, and t.be: need>,. and uato the Dei,bb(H.lf who h af l.iQ

S3

(UDto you) and the n~ilbbour wbo il OUit or kin, and lhe: f cJ lo w· t rave lief and the .4Y rarer and (tbe sla V~!I) whom your riJ,ht hand POIiiSC:.lUI. Lo! A IJ ab. loy e l.b dot :itlcb as I re proud a Ild bo'i:' fu I, who bOIl rd their we." h ~uld II!: Djoi Il a yal ice 00 01 ben~. od hide t.ba t which Allah hatk bestowed U.pOD the: m of His bal.)n ty ~ For di abc I j eyers. WI£!! prepar c a Shaitlie rnl doo1D, A nd those wbo IpCnd t he it wealth i El order to be seen of. men, a lid be he 'lID Dot ill A nab Dor the Lad Day r W koso t a k,a lh 1;\ t an foe a com ride, .a bad eo III radc bath be. tt (A n- N isa : j 6- 3 S)

(Ainu aT!:) for the poor who arc: 51U.jlcl1cd (or the cause of A11ah!o who cannot move ill the land (COl' LTade).* The unt h i Ilk i og man aCQOU 111 e t h lhe lJl W e&l Lby be:(:& use of I b ei r r~:!I ira i nt ~ Thou::II ha n know the m by lbei r m:l r k : They do nol. beg or men wiLh importunity. And Wbal:iOcvf:r Hood thing ¥rI IpeDd~ Lo t Allab ko.owc::th U. ~~ (AI·Baqatl1h : 21l}

nAnd t b e vi t L uou:i for love of A 118 b ru d lhe poor, tb c orpb an and the pr i9.oner and !:!IIy we f ee d y.nu only to earn the. f. your of AUab. W II: del i re DC) eecompen se fr om yO\.! t nor Y(J u r . trath~lde, t't (Ad- O.br : g..9).

t ~ A Dd in wh oae weal tb lb ere i~ a d&b tl a c k:Dowle d8td. fot the bee;pr .i!lnd tbe d~stitUle. (Al+ Malarij ! 24~2SJ

II And 5uch tJf y.our a I a 'YI:S .&:!I. ser::k a writ i Ilg (0 f e ma Il cl pat IOD), wri te it fOT them if ye art a ~I re of Bood ill the m I and bl:itow u po Q the m or abe wealtb of A nab w b iell H II: hath be:&. tow.:: d U pOD YO'U.·~ ( An-N OOT : 33)

Not only does the QUfan re gard th cs II:: tx D.!l'1'!!!: es 8 s II 'b as. j e

III This H:f.n 1:0. four h undred ~alull teen ~II ehe Lime o.f rh~ HI,) ly flOphd (peace be on. .It 1m), ... ho h.a.d f QfHI ~e.fl ttK: ~f born'=::iI and IP I hered ~!Oi Med ina fftJIlD ""-II part:!li .of Atabl a. . Tbf.1 bad tl-e vc tc:d t hit: ir life to lc UIC 11::., iln.d. propaaat ioa or rcHlicU:I. Tiley 'WC;re: • ~II! r 1.1 u dy 1-0 Ola.n:.h Q~ all)' l:Di:iiaioli. of prCPI.SIUOQ. 01'" of Ji.Q.d IjI.t l.b. b.iddi.CI1!: or 1M! HoJy PMphU (peAce .and bleNU.IiI of Allah .be .• HI h'm). .BtiDS eJ:I.I!l.ajed flj 1l-llml! io .besCi dUlles tbeJ' .could a.ot attty. for utoinj lheir lil'jD~+ (Zamd.hsbd. ill·KasbJ.b:ar. Vol. I. p. lifill' AL..-M.albu~nl.BIIIJ,.at ~;ppl 1143)~

The: erdee ill I bl:l &y.b wiJl apply CViI!I:D toda, tL'J thollCl people: who dllve1c:: 1!J1I:: 1EII:Ic:~ fa I I-Hm. '1:0 hl:Khlll" pl"Clli'iIII,l.lioA of n: Ii ItOQ -IllIid wort. of r ... bJj.&:i &tIOd .p nd COl1lcq UClllt ly Cill Da.ol t.J)galCl in II:CgllGlEl.h;; .IeLi", ill'

'Of ,tr.a i t OW D IBtc..

virtue but also emphasjzes that nolt.-pctrotmiOCIi: Qf tbel~ .,in IlOtU acU .. iJ l Ie ad to IOC la 1 eel lapse~

"l-Spcnd your wei I tb for sb e cause of AU ab and be not ell SIt by your own baud. to ruiQ, and do lood. Lo l An~h loveth the bencficel1t~ ~~ (AI-Baqara: 19's)

Il.. Montllf1 A tODt-me:a.li.

81:"sJd es this &1:: ae ra l and v olqo ta ry spen d i D8 for the; sake -or Alul:h tbe Hol~ Quran hall also pf(l;$Ctibed Iinancial atonemen: is rot some .sin s 0 r U mj :uiOBS4 For jn:5- tall c e t b e ord cr {o r a person who ta.i:ei a vow Bod then break.! it is a:5 follows ~

.. Itl atonement is teedins een poor people with 'he. 5-3me 8. vc rage kind 01 fo od wi lb w h lch yo II f eed you.r clJ.i ~ drea, UJ else givinl them d ress es : Qr rrtc:in. c no 6-lave ~ bu, whoso cannot do the above sbnuld k"(!lep fast (or three da)'s/'

(AI-Maida ~ 89) Siin~hH11 the order for a man who wbhl:5 to turn 19o bj1r wife af~~r ha Villi 1 ike 0 e d het to his m othe I or :'5jst er ID d declared her UQlawfu! 10 birJl5.elf is : .

tor. Th '.18 C' Vi b 0 puC .I way tbeir wj ves (by sayi og t bey are a5 tbei r mol b" rs) and Iln erward would 10 back OD to I w hic::h tbe:y ha ye 'S a J d I (tb e peoahy 1 in tbat ease (i s) , b G free: iDI of a slave bC!fofe: t.b.ey touch one anether, ADd he: who fiDdeth aot (t he 'Vi' h !l'e wi t haJJi), ) et bi In fas t fot two I Ilcct!irSi ve moo th$ ber ore they t01..lC bone a not her ~ aDd for him l'I ho is un able ~ to do so (th e pe 0 ance is) tb I; fe e dl U8 of .Ii b; I'y 11 eedy O:l1CI."

(A I-Mlljadllab : ).4)

ElpjaJiOIl$ or the lame: kind have also been prescribed for some emissions in the course Of Hajj (Ste Baqura : 196 .. a nd Al~Malda ; 95) and a Slimilar peIl3ru:c: has been lc:vJed whh .re ia.td 10 aD)' g efaull 11l 0 bservlng [aSiU. (Baqo'lfa: 184)_

13. Prr-1l "1' iii trl1:l rot the Dil IDe A.;c ep t.aJite 01 I ttf. , U LiSt (Spgnd iD:E ID tit If.,. of Allah).

But rob i~ Spell d i og .. i U be l'csard e:d as in th e way of A 1 tab onJy wilen it is d~ojd of

,. ID)' tel fhb moUve

~~Q1It~C n1CIIPTS Q' tit..,. Qt1RAN ,. de.l:lptlon or dispJa)'

l1li allY aut III pit II,') show fa vour In or t. urr tbe fuli 0 1I:ii of ttl e be:lltlfida ry

.. a~ atterDpt to .Rot. out Ule '8WOts.l mat~ria] for donation .

..

The erde r i l 10 d onate t h.e belt aad fiDen Roods 21 nd apar t ftom Jove ~r Al ta b .0 d sec:l.i"8 His favour II -=-0 otbt"r 0 bjec live

&hou.ld be kept hi vicw. -

~ ~ J~ nd (also) \bose w bo spend thei r wc=alth i Q ord tl' to be 5-!CD of JDmt apd be]i.e::vc Dot in Arlah Bor the Last Day.

Wb 010 t al..etb sa tan for. tomrlde ~ a bid c emrade ha rh h e, ;r. (An-N isa ~ 38)

~1I.0 ")I'I: whu b=1 leve ! R.ender Qat vain your al.lfls:givilll by rcprolcb &Ild iDjlJ.ry. like him wbo 5pendelb hh we-alth ooly to be seen of men Bnd belie'letb DOl ill AI~ah and the I.all."

Oay.n (A1-Biqarah : 264)

nTbose who spend lbeir ~Dlth fur lbe. c:ause: or An.h and aftcrwards make not TCiproacb ... d iDJQlry 10 (oUow that wllicb Ibey ba'it: spell I. t.h ei, reward iI -jtb lllel r Lord, a nd t bere ,-bltl DO fCII r come. u poOl theDl1 IIC itbe t abaU the Y 11' i eve, A .. io(l word with fora:ivfi!l"I~ls is bettet tban lhilSia:iving fr.1!owed by iD:8i:l;tiOD~ Allah is A bsolute, aod CI.eroent.'III

(Al-Baq.ra;' : 26'2-263)

foliO ye who believe! Spend or the .eood tblott which yt: have ea rned ~nd of t b at wh icb We bri ng forth from l be e a ftb r or )' ou I' a Ild seek not t be b"d (w hb inte ot) to spend the re:of (i 11 C'kI:rh.y) 'VtIbl!!Q ~e would noL l&'kc: it for YQurselvcl save witb dis.dlin ; and know tb.t AUah is Absolule. owner of Pta.:;,!:. '"'

(ltl- Baqar ah ; :267) Hlf ~ pclblish ),001 .1mI8iyID't it il well" but If ye hid~ it Ind liYe: II to the poor. it win be better for ytlU and .in atone rot Jo~e of Jour IU .. deeds. Allah. it: iDformed .. bat ye do/t (AI- B.qarl b ; 271)

14. The Re-a I S if1lilll;.l..DC~ of ",IIII' all (Spd.d\D.~ In the way of Allah).

Th;, spelldjni in the way of AnBbl wbich the: Quran "!omf:time:& terms as t '01;; f" sometimes (.,w, J.~ J Jt~1 r, {ipelldi.Dg in the way of Allah), at other places a~ "II'Ii~I' (A 1 ms) a 1] d I!iO meHme!li as Zakat (Poor d ue) ~ is: not mel".ely aft aet of .piety ot cbarity. but an act of worship also and is tne lhi rd a mang t be: five a rtlcl es 0 r faith ill I sla III 1. e . Be lie f. ~ra yer , Za ka t, Fas ti o a, a G d. Hajj (P i 1 gri mage). 1 t bas been me ntioned together wilb Namsz (Prayer) al 37 places in tbe Holy QlJranl aDd il has be-en c-mpbatit!I1Uy mad= clear that both Namaz; a~d Za 1:: a l are the es S.e D t ~ &] renets cf Islam and tb e j r obse rvance rbe iodfspeosao1c cond ir'on of salvation, III

The Holy Quran pOint.s OUI tbat Zakat has always been aD attk] e of filj tb iD J slam.

U And We made tbem chiers 'ttIho were guided by Our comm.a:cdt and We iU:!iIpired in them the doing of good deeds: and the right establishment of worship and the giving of alms, 30 d they ~crC!l wonhippers of Ue (alone), It (Al·Anbiya : 73)

~ j A~d tbey are ordered naught else than to serve AHah .. lt~pLng t~1i8ioll pure fOT Him as men by nature upright, and to establish wonhip 30d to ply rbe poor due: That is true re1i,i j oa, " (AJ r Bay y in a.b : .5)

U And make mention in the scripture of Ishmael. Lo l he was a. kee per or b is prom i Sit: and was a me sse I] ger (of A nab). a

• For iaatance look up the fo110'W101 rtf~ron.:e~ L:t:L ~he Hob Qurw:.:

A!-BII"Q.iUII.b a.y;aahl 3, 4.1, S3t ]]0. An~Nlsa ; n. 161

171,.111 A!rMaid.a. : 12. 55 ....

Al·Am.al : l A.l~Tiiuba ; 5~ 11, rs, 7]

A,·.Ra4ad ~ 12 Ibrahim : 31

A1·A D biYIl ; 7.3. All~N:amI! 3

AJ..Sboura : 38 Ai-Mudd a ththi.r : -4) Man I.CD : 3111 S.s Lu.qmao ~"

AHrd L1j adlh ~ 13 AJ·B.;iyy uu,h .: -'

A i-Iwlum !nu[] : 2 AI~Abnb : lJ. AI· M a"a.rij : 21

A l-+M a 'eoc : ;5 AI-Hajj ; JoS. -41, 7i AI1·NoCil" : ]7, ~ Fatlt: 29

AI·M u;1:l4ounli ; zo

Fc"ONOMtC PR:ec~nS OJ!' THE OU RAN

51

prophee. He enjuincd upon his people worship and almsgivjng Bud was: approvabla it] rhe ~iiibt" of his Lord. PI (Maryum .: S4~55) ~.: And (remember) wh.en We made !I covenant with thn cbildren of Israel (sayi1'18) : woubjp nune save A Bah (onJy):

And es t a blrs h won:hi p 11 nd plly the pn 0 r- d ue . ~ ...

{AI-Baqarah ; 83)

""He spol::i:. LL? ! [ am the- ~Iave- of Allah. He bath give!] me the ~crjpture and hath appointed me .8. prophet, And ha t h made me blessed wberesoever 1 may he and halh enjolned upon me prayer and al msgiv: ng 5.0 IO.llg as I re main alive, H

(Maryam : 30.31)

In the same manner Zakat (poo r- due) is all article of fa.ith in tbe religion preached by Muhammad (peace an"d bJ.e~H!;in.s:':. of Al1ab be -ou him). Like affirmatlou of fa.hh and Narnaz, Zak~~ (Payment or poor-due) alsu i~ an obligatory condirion Cor entC!:rl.ne the fraternity of hlallL

U And strive for Allah as strivi Ilg for Him is due. At bstn chollil!ln; you and h~tb not laid upon you in tel igion .any hardship: the hitb of your father A braham (is. yoor~). He hatb naml!:d you Muslims of old time. So e:stabljsh worship. pay lb-c:: poor-due and hold fa ~t "to A J lah . ~ , ( A 1-11 ajj : 78)

I~Tbil i$ ttl.., scripture whereof tht"n: is no doub«, it guidance unto those wbo ward off (c:vil), Who bcIieve i 0 the uuseen ~ and e:l!itablhh worshipl ~nd spe!uJ of thar We ba-"'t bcst.clwed upon them." (Al· Haq arah ~ 2.3)

nTbey oDly are 'Ile (true) bellevers "",ho:!§e hearts f~ef fear when Allah is mentioned :l1HJ when Hia revejarions are r ecired onto them tbey Increase their Faith and who trust in tb eir God, U (AJ"Anral : 2.4)

t' Your frie ad cal] be 0 nl)' A Uah ; am d H hi Mel11!: QatI'" Jill nd those l\I ho b~ He vet whg e sta bH,h wor1hip 10 d ply t he poor-due a.nd how dawn {in pray'r)" ~ (AI"Maidah"~ ")

~ ~ B LL l j ( they repe n [ all d e, f,a bJis b WOrihip .iii nd pa.y til. poor.du~ t then they acC" yout brethren 1n reH.ioQ!t

(At .. T au.ba ; 11)

£CONOMIC SYSTEM or lSLIt.M

This. Z.akat( payment or poor-due) i1 DOt only a .s.o~i:d welfare schem e, but is & n ecessary me .:sure fo r the ,pi r i t u a] prog re SI. m ora I re for ma tiO.ll:, we Uw b ei 08 and sal vat i on of tb e donors. It iii DOl a tax, but aD act of wo~;sbjp, like: Namaz:. It ia an ind ispc asa ble part ()f lb c pr ae l i(:a I :sch e me prese nt ed by Isla m r or t b ~ s pi r i t II! I ref 0 r m a lion of m.ll:n.

I I Take 31 m s of t be ir Wt ~ H b. w he r.ewith thou mayst pu.ri! y them and maylt make thern"grow .and pray for them. Lo! tby

prayer is. an assuagement uf tbern, 41 {At-Tauba : ]03)"

jj Ye will :not attain unto piety until ye sptnd or tbat wbi(:h

}' e J 0\1 e.' ~ (A li-Imraa : 92)

'I S(} keep ~OUf duly to A Uab as best as )'I!: ca:a.j and listen, and ob~y I and spend ; that is better fot your soull. And whcso is sa Ved from his" own greed, such ale tbc successful. ..... (t\t .. Taghabun ; 16) IS~ Obl 'I:. tDry Zlil k. t (Peor ~q@:) :ill pd its T .. teo

The H 0] '1 Qu fan did Dot C onfi ne i tltlr to inculcat ill) I. uni versa 1 rtpi J i t of volu n t il ry pay men t cf poor- d .... e iD tbc: way of Allah a mong mtmbc~ s of the: $~j-ety by precept Ind injunction, but directed lhl;: Holy Prophet (peace: and bleuiDgs or Allah be ou hjm] to fix the minimum rat-= or poor du.e and arn~n~e for its cclleetion and distribution 1.5 all obligatoty d ... t)' of the ls]amic "State.

14(0 Propbcn Collect a pcrdca or alms from tbeir propert y ~ 111

Tbe. implica! ion of the expression "a portion of alms" wa1ll thal in a ddl.t jQ" to the usual charities given individullillYI a ftxC!d rate of poor due should be made obli8atory~ The

deter rn ina l ion or (b c rate was left to th.. He ly Propbet (p=ce be OD hlm)~

ra. pu r:!il ua nee 0 f t hi 5 order, the Holy Pr.ophet (P pee be on him) fixed the lowest limh in various I;~tc::.oric:lli of wellth below wh le h pa ym =: D t of pcoe due 'tio1114 Dot bt obJi_ga tory r Tbe "oJ y Prophe I {pea ee be OD him) U.tD pthl:ribed the

f el low j DJ rate or poor due acco.rd i 118 to the w inim u OJ Um.t or above or wealth ill ear: h ca! egory . •

1. It% per aD 0 lim. on ace ... OJ u 1 ated weahh i D gQ I d I !lllvn or ready moOney.·"

2. 101.· per aenu In on &81:' [cu 1 tu r al produce of ba rani land (land wat'=Rd b1 ra,afaU)+

. 3. .5% per annum OD ag.r icuJ t uri] prod uee of I a nd wate red by arti:ll.'~ial d.vicel.

4. 20% per an o.um Oil prod QU of m lues under pri ~ II te ow DC rsh ip and Oil U'1Il! .sure t rove,

S. Tbe rate of Zakat (poor-due) en illlimah. ;kept for breed iDS or sale varies iD the ease of sheep, goats. COW:I or camels, .Por detajb, works OD Fiqh m:iy be consulted.

By order of Allahjo tbe Holy Prnphe t (peace be OD bi81J hll prEscribed this rate of Zakat al a duty for tbe MI1!Hms le the lam. way a~ he bl.l rn:ll,de obligatory upon them tbfi·; perfotmuacc or certllhl.tallll"K of prayer five tll:1Jes jD B day.·

I D terml of a re 11 Kious du ly an d a to In p U ]SOTY obi i,a t ion" Zal::at .lId N.a.maz stand on equal footiD.. The Holy Quno rl::Bards it all oil mOQS tb.!:! pi i rna ry du del of the lsi a 1]] le Oo".,r:q. mellt to maio. t&.iD. ~lu: loatitQ t ions of N am az. a II d Zakal+

f j Th05~ .. no, Ir We Si VI!! them pow-er ~ b the I aad t es lBbUsb wah bip _"d pay tbe poor-due and enjoi D ri rt ue and forbid i niq uity r~' (A]·H Ijj : 41)

I ~ ~ II ab ha tb prom ised su ch of yOIJ aa believe B ad do lood WOE'k:s that He wi II sur II!! ly rna ke r b!Q1 to :R.ucc~ed (tl:J e present rule rs) ... Esta bl is.b wo nh ~ p ~ n d pa y t b e poor --d ue all d 0 bty th,= Meu,=o.ger t that haply )'~ may find mercy. j. (An-Nur ~ '.5 ......... ;56)

Bilt as the s ludy of abov i! -q 110 t ed ayah de. rly II bOWl, ~ I thoush the collect ion ID o d rs I ri bu liQn of Z.k;at (p~or - due]

~~""'--~--~ .......... --~--~Y'~------""'------""'--~

IJ AJ-$.blil.umj. N aU .. .a.I-AIl 1.Q.r.. VoJ. .(, pp. 9g..) l6 ~. Mw latil aJ Btbi.

ElYpt 1l"1~

- La.1er i I was re4olv-c:d bY t.OW.eDIUI !b.&t 1.be a.a me rate of .PoOl due i. ~ ~ 11% per aDDU-In ~uJd be I ..... ied Oil ID~rcalllllt!! I-L')ode. (Al-S.baui"ani, VcJ. 4~ p. Un. Th" n.to of C".Qm~~rcjll1 Zakrd (pt:Por-dlle) "'ill 111100 t. iInpGaR 011 fECoriCI mac.uf~t.uiQ lOod, fIX' ,1&h::.

!CONOMlc 5YSt:a" 0' ISLDM:

i:!li inel ud ed a mon a t bl: 0 b U ga.t ory d uti es of the Islaaric state, yet ia th.; absence of an Is.Jamie state or when the: hlamj.1; ,tile D egJec-t:l % a perf Or m th is ob U gato ry fu nc t i 00 J the d u t y or Muslim~ to pay Zakilu (poor-due) ii Dot extlagulshed, ju.~l ., the duty of oH"e:rillg Namaz: is Dever suspended, When 1110 a~eDC}' or institution for collecaicn and distribution of zak.a.l exilt:ii, II::U: h ~ iad h'i dual M nsH In u pan w hio m Zak..a t is ob U,&alory should set aside the portion of weaHb due rrom hiro and dlsttibure it bitil.liicif,

16. OnerJilltb of IlJII: SpGlb of War.

To the fund establisbed by 1cvybli obliptoty Zakat, the!

Holy QU[.aD a. d d!J anoUl~r bead of revenue, w b ich is OD e port ion of III c: 5. poils of wa r. T.h e Holy Qllran I &YI dO'ilf'D the raJ] e that t be so I d ieu. i IlS1-c a d of c ~ propri a Un, the i r hI di vid U I! I loot should deposit it witb tbelr commander, who· shou.ld divide il into five -equal portion. 3nd dlSitribuLe four portioDs amona tbe trooPJ wbo took part in the: battle, leavins tbe .fifl:b port;OD to be deposited in th, Oovef.Qme~l a!;-Count,

dAnd know that wbateyt:t ye take as 5pojl~ of wart La t a fi ftb th ere of is r or Allah. and for the m e55engc r (i. e, (or the state, to be used for that ccmmenweal) aDd for thl khnmaa 1 (n eed y) .1 tid 01 phil ns an d tbe netd yt and t b II!! wayrari!!t. ~.I

(A!-AnfaJ : 41)

1"7. Char£;f1 on tbt' Zakaf FD lid·

The fund collected from lbl!! above two h-tads of r.r::V13uue

1. DlI11C, hh!l lifetime the Holy .Pr'Cphflt (peace be OIl him) UJt!d fO rfclI!!h"e a pOrllOjl of lh' Hflb share or the Ipcili .of war a., flCnlOlllill13ncl fami],.. anO.fHl~l:. fo! bt..(P<I.l.Qe. be "'!Ii b.in:.} I.nd bi:lii bmll1 bad DO .bar!:: ;Ell Zaklll. Arter ~b~ Prophta', death, , debate atOM" a..& to who sheuld recti1l"~ tbc: :s!u:ue pri:vIcllu,l)' ;giv4!.DI to the PU::I:ph~t alld bi!. frltmHy. Som~ IIr,iUed that lbi s :s b a r Ii! WI.:!! paid • 0 tb~ Hgly Prnpb.::t (pe:.ac.1: be on hi m) u .an bo.dOJ· arl UIZIi tar h i:!l d;u ries a:t h~ad of rb.:: .!tatc and h.nCt it. bouJd .DOW ~ rtmit .. ~ed to tb~ K.b,tifa lind hil family. Allotba:r ~c:ctiOD ht:ld lbat tbl, .&hlr.! ii Ibt perpetual .riaht af the: P.rophe:t+. flD'llly and Iboukl bel paid to QI:!I1'n .ven after lbc: Prophet' .. d •• th. Ie wal: baHy I:l1'efd to •. Hoc.1e: the ...... r. tonocllJ FI.lld to tbo Prg,phel ud hli laDlily to lbc: Dcf"etK.f .BlJd.et at tbII: hll.mliC Sr.a1., AI-JaMal, Vol . .!I P'pr 1s-m

(~Ur..)

ICOMOl«c raECBm Of nus QUl,Al"(

6l

doc! l:Iot form Plrt of thl: Public c:tebequet. 'Wblcb it meant for providing facilhiea aad ell.entll.i tc:nlt:cs to .U c;:itizelll, indud .. in, the doaOlI of Zakat. The Holy Qurao baa; allocated lbi .. fUDd 10 the rollow1J11 bead. o( eXpeDS., ;

IIITbe tlm. I.re ooly fot tbe poor. alld UlI: Dledy. Ind_those whOi. bearts are to bo reI;Q1lJ:iled,." .nd to tree 'hI!: (:a])ti'f"ea.' .Qd debtOfllr Illid rOT tile ca...:.u. of Allah,,' Ind rOor the .ayfarer, '3'

1. Tbe roOt mtwial of the word ,}j ." paq_I"'. is ~4g.c:td·:. The te.rm ~ uF.~ir"1 dt!lIota. "C:VC:'Y penon wb() ~lIire!l: help bt{!~u:5JC: his iDC'OJII~ "'lIs abort IDf 'hI:!. need, (Lin I :U1 .. l "rab, Vol. ~I ,P.,. 60-61 r • [rut 19;6S).

)~ Hadtal Um:tr d~fi.lLed ·'Mil:llkiu1·1 "" I; perWD wbo .bas IW 'I:.apaCily

to fl!a.rt.Ii 01' c-..mot :H1ld: 1:11. oppormDilJ' of,urlli~l. (AI-.Jaual. VQI. 3. pO' I~n.

AccordiDt to nus de6aliioD IIU poor IChildIlI:Cllllot Jel .ble ~o ~Ultl the. dil!llablc:<I' .dull!!: aDd Qld pcopl. 'Wbo have l~~ l~ cl.pa<:itJ to ellrll. lind t... U:aIB 111910yed Of ,le\ pe-cpY ... bo bavCII li1mpor -IIli Iy lost lhe QP~OrlUDHy to •• ru, fIH uMi1kin'''r

.. III tM: IIIIH of the Hill ~ Propblo'!ll (PColtC'O tic: on hi m) mooe:tllTY .. hi, .... li'Rq '0 tbra ea.tts«les of people iQ order to Jt!CCriCUC tblCli r heam: (a) Tba ":flemR:1 .or hll.CD who p.c!rtee"a:ttlcl the IWCI.k MuIH .... !II or dbpJ.yed .utlln hO:,tjlity wer= paid monall.r' :!Igbaldillrie:' tl:l Mder fQ peJtuadl: thl:m ~o lido., l a hum.llol uti lLfd e.

(b) MOtleY '!WI p:lid lO bu., oft thG hattili Iy -uf tho. eklDelill '" hu rOJ1:ibly prli'Jc:l'Ikd 1ht! peerple of their nation or triM from enn ..

'1C:I"Un,£ ~o I:!Ilun.. '

te) Pl'nh CGnyt!n!l 11:0 h lam W'.c:NI 2i'\l'ca m tln"tarp h.c-lp te .. Uev ia teo rhe.il' 'Piorriofl!; A.qd to II:!II:tbTl: lhlC'lU 10 .a!3i m i1s!f! III. II!bll!: fratC," il,Y at 1,llIIm • '!I 00:1:1 te n ted me-.m~H. (AI·ll1uas .. Vol. J, P+ 1 Sl'~

5. This ~tol! n also tDo Cb. M'U It{ I'M wno wu-e hllken: prl!Onfr in wa r by tbe eIIIe.,... -..nd pu I i:l:l.o ;l$'II.e:r)l' • .IId the- nOll·Muslim pri!!Gnen a( wa.r {D MIl:sUm 'balJd:i. Who tmd to iPul"t'bne lh6~.t' f.reerJom by t'z.Yflll compll:!l:Isa· HOD aflld tb~ 'otm~r sla"'~I.

6. 1lJe u~re'lil!n "Will' of AUahl1 :rt-fen teo lihad .nd Jhj. Even i.f tho Volu:n reer whQ II:U 01.1 I {-Df leh~ d !:=IiIID otuiJy 91t'ord hi:'jl p~ n;Ollolll I aeed':II, yet he III lin titled t~ fRCi"" Zl;IIk II roo foOr thl' pr~ .... ate m.a D:!I qi • J'f!r ton .c.l:inOC be 11,dficsrnt foOt matins Q-rep.ra tior'l'5i for )c:had imd 111«1 in. t?I ~ru" or t.rasport to U •• 'baUIe frODt. SlrniJady if. piJgrim rUI1I aut -uf rese IJr-

~ .ia ibc iC01I.rUl of hi.; joul"Dl:Y~ ~.'I 1\1.8 I. -riaht to receil'e Z1I.k.t.

(AJ.J .... s.., Vol, 3. pp.. JS6-U7t .I.[W N'ilU·:lI·Aut1l.rl Vol. 4. pp. 144-1(6).

7. A t.r"al'eJlt:r .. bov.-ever flr~perol.l'& al ho ..... hal .. tiRbl to r~ivc:

Za.k.t ir be neech Mlp II} fbI:! eoUtiC 01 hb JOllf.:leY.

, ~ Al·Jtl:!liU. VoJ.). p, 1!!7}.

61

ECONOlIrc nSTa:ht OF DLAW

a d 1,31)' imposed hy A II ... b. Allab il K no .. -er", Wi!c. U

(A1·Taub. : 60) 111. De taw lI.eeardtDE tlte Di, bioi! or I QlIl!r. rile!!.

The Q 11 raD ic law re 8& rn ing the lelllle~ of • d ecea sed man tJ r woma.n is. that it should be divided among bis or h~r parents, children .. wife or tm~baud according to a ti .. u~d ratio. Ho_eYer i D the: a. b!loll! Dee of p31 rents or cbj I d rea of t be der::eas-ed this or h.e'r A.khya.fi (of tbe same mnther bUI diff~rl!lIt father) or Allati (of the sam e r. the r b ut d i fE'e r=p t m other) brot hen all d s iste rI S:hould sh 9i re j'D the i D her i ranee + Sora I'l i ~a co tl U i Q S d et ail ed ordC:f1i OD tbi, sub} 'ct·. (S'e Iy.ahs 7~ 12 and a)'ah l16). Space does 001 pI! r m j t tb II!! repro duet i on or tb ose oro en he:re-.

'The prir.cip[t: enenelated by l!iilam in tb.i.s matter h tha.t the wealth wbi~h a perffuu hI!!: accumulated ill bii lifetillle: :5hOll~d not remain couceutrared .a.fter his death, b.I.U sbould be diSh-ibLlt~d among his r~btion~. Tbis principle is the anlithesis of tbe •• w of primogenhure" the jOiDt f.amily 'SYstem and other c'u.ltoms ot usag.es of the same nature, .bieb. buicaUy seek. to keep the aC'Cr.1mr.l.l~t.e!d wealth of I person cODc'elltrated even aft~r his death, Similarly the Qura,n repudiates tbl:!: rule of .-ioptiall, and 0 rd a iUI tb. toni 'i c be a tDU i at re hI: I i y ell Ihou ~ d shlre te the l n he rita n ce ~ No It ran gt! r can be ado pre d as. loan fDf ~ b e purpose of ap polnt ins: hi m a b ei rill th~ ,"j 6cjal m ..... ner,

, .... Nor hath He mDde those whom )'e cla.im (10 be:) your

'ODS. Tbi!. is but .. saying of your mcuths. (AI·Ab.zab : 4)

... And ar::cord i DB to A na h. 's Book, t he r e 1 at ions have 8.

STeller right upon Que another". (A]~AbZ:ilb ; 6),

But having fu!ly sa~eiu~rde,d the Ti~hl$ of relation. wbo are the: rta\ hetrs, lbe Holy Qu.ran eujai as them to vO~lInt.ll.rl1y

• Acc.o.rdinlll to. thl!: HC!lly PrOophef So (P-= 1C'(' be Cln hi m) ~ IlIt! rpret.l.ti QII. of tbi,. li1w, ~ n th~ II bsence ~f ttJot oeare!'j.t r~b ti Ofl$, ~h~ pl!!ilril:r ul.t:Evt!1 shan i5.'hu. in lblt le!~c)' .. 6nd in the, a~rncC' or the nearer tc'lu;"ICI~ tbll \I!g.,c) ,ban hfI divided limon! lhQ!c who J! nnd in II n l:u ;ye:lJ' c:l1D~!!t re:I.~ lOI:ll ~ltb the dee1!!uell rh Btl fhl!! 'St"'l.n:a:~ r:,:. Rvwevl!{ [n the abK:I:i~C of .. DY rlfllalic:t!l~ lIelif or -d 151 taM. the h:uc.y ib.1H bill 21 nnexed 1O lbco pl.Iblio ':R~U~f or lhf!' Is] amic Goverl:l.lll'=1l t. IN Iii 1- a.1-A 'U t II r, :01, 6. pp, 4 7~S6.)

I!CONOMlC PR!CEP'n Of!" TN E QUR AN

63

gtve lome 1~3.re or 1be lesley to those relatioD.~ .also who !lave no claim to iDherilA'!lClOt btlt who au: present at the l ime of division ..

.. A Dd who!:: Ii l:: in !foJt and 0 r plta""$ and t he nee: d y 00 CS ar£! pre~eQt at the- divi-STon (of (he: heritage) be-stow 011 tbtm ~ here-

from IDod apeak kindly uuto th~m. ADd let thole f~af (in their be-b. vi our taw3Td orp:h.e1I, wh 0 if r ~-!y l.eft be Iii od the w We-i k otrr.;prinS would ~ afraid for them.· So let them m rod their duty to Alla.h~ and IIp~at justly;' (An-Ni~~ : ;8 .. 9)

t 9... ne: Rulli of Making II Wi IJ 4

Bcsidl:l el"l:!ctbg the law or inhe rit.ance'!> tbe: Holy Qorall ordainl tbat a person should mako: a will about his: prOptrl.Y befat. hi:; deafb ~

"lIt is pre-s.c:ribe:d for yolll when dea.lh sppreaches one- or you, ir hr:: ~el'les wcahhj that he bequeath unro parents and near relaljYl:15 in kiodneS1+ (Tbis ill a duty fol a11 these .ho Ward off (evil), U (AJ-Baqarf,h ~ I &OJ

Thl: 0 bjec~ of t h i~ i Dj uac lion j!5 t ha tin th~ arst p] at:e the perIOD whese end ·is. Dear should' I:~horl his children to be .good to the i r .a.raDdparC! 0 ts, for }'OLU1, pee pJ e can be scarce I y expeet.::d (0 do ,eood '0 tbe ale d p are II t s of rbe ir d e-cea.sc:d fa ther ; · a.r.d Il£:colJdfYi if the-r-e- ate lLOlTl"C persoas in tbe family _ho are leSaUy uc:luded f.rom lnherltance, but tbe JC8a!or wisbes to belp them, h~ should include ~l1em as li.h.lllrlff.S in lh~ wijt I.d the

!I:.:!I me ltay jf • lililn j:j. lea v j ng cons j der a.bl., We al th, h. caD wi 11·. porlioo to ~e donated to work:!il of public welfare) for the chj~c:t of Lb~ abovC'+quo~d ayah is cerlainly Dot to ljmjt the

a ppJ1ca. ticn c-f iLl'"i]J to pa re n rs ao d rela. ti ves alone·. T be i a. w of

._...._ - . ---.---

.. N.li I-ul- A:&Ha..r r Vol. ii, pop, J 2· H. r F'L til i, ca se the 1.0" j I:wpc_n1 cf I bit"

Qil ran ~!: lIt:(pl.njllw by ,hI; HolY Proph';l (PI;: ace be' on hi All -IIppe.US . 10 till:! thu it j s nor lIuda ble fOr. m I n tQ II:EiI 'r e II i.1 -ow.n tola!i .... es ~D aa .Dd{~n' lI;CI.Ddit~.QD .Y:!:J d 'Win bj I ~~J fh 10 proje-c 1I of pu b-Ue w.lf ere, T.h.e "It'ords -of th-= :H o!y i'n:Il'h,,~ f peKe! IItId bi-!!u tll n . Dr A I ~~h be: q.g h! m) :J I rttortlu In Nl!lil~.II·Al.lt't·o1l: the iIluthillltity !::If 811J1.:h2l1"i, MU:!iitim .. 1nd' other Booh or Hildi. h are t~e-: 41f, l! be tre r (Oot yo u .0 lea ..... YQ11T h.~ [t!§. PJ"(:l~ I:I~ rcut tI'lI!I.n to 1~1.w; them i.D 01 cQ-I'Hfi. i on of wan I 1.I1d fI d\' ~ ttun :~II;cld n,t n h:l'I~ froQfi· 'he- ~cprol:. h

64

ecONOMIC s.YSn::M OF ist, A'M

will aud iuberltance makes .t explicit that tbe Ialamic schem e rcga r.-l t n g th e leg acy of ! D j ndjyi d ual is t ha t l WO" third of the legacy must be distr ibuted accord ing to the La w of TDbe,rllall~. The distr:'but Ion of th-e rernaininll oqe-third.may be Left to tbCl discretion of the legator, 10 th~r be- or she may wHJ it to be spent for any purpose, provided that the purpose i~ Jawf1L1 and also !lIat the right of nO one 1, jeopardls-ed •.

%D. sllt~auIIIT-dln, the Interest of Persons of UtUioun..t Mi.lld.

R egard ~ tl3 pe rso ns or 11 nsou a d m i11 d who ca nnot man a Be their propert y aud ~H'e wasting it 0 r are nilt~y to wa~te it .. the: injunction of tb.e Holy Quran is tba.t thl:::ir properl_Y _ shouJd be pla.e.ed under tbe control :)f raelr guardian or court of wards, Tile "Top~rty shall flO! be restored to the independeDt control of a rHHson of unsound mind u~til there is absolute proof that b-e or 'She haa tb~ capacity to mlllaie il,

UO~YC not onto the: foolish {what i!li in) your (keeping of their) we-aHa, which AlJab h.atb 8[vell you as maintenauce, bur

feed aud clo~b1!l tbem from it, and speak :lindly umo tbcm+ Prove orphans lin t:hl!lY rea.ch tbe nt.1rri~g-cab]e age ; th~n if ye ftnd the: m of sou n d j I1d ge moen l, dellve r over ua 10 the m the ~ r rortunc.s. It (An-Ni"S& : 5-6)

This ayat enuaclates :tn ilbporHHlt poitlt whh:h is tbat though i ndi viduals are cwaers of the property to whi~b they have a l~gal titl~. yet thejr owrlersbip hi Dot fnil or absolute .. in 'So Jar as tbe eolleeuve interest i:!il also attached to the individual right of owncub lp, I" is for this reason that the Quriin BUS thee term. ·'~1>.,ltt (yOUl" property) Instead of oIIir"aJ1_,..PI (their property),

-~---- --_

.. B~"lail:linl!: th6 la'lloP of .".Hli the: Hoi), P,:-ophet (pela: !lie 0 .. bim) lubjecred tbe rflht cr 'W i U to. three: rcstriel ioes : ouc-. & min -can lIiII;l;~iK his· Ii pt of wi II u pto onc:·fh~ rill pO:Ltiou. .,r his It!;l!:.icy lilt the IDPimu m ; -e-ecoad. !lOth Ia;a: can b~ 't'.ritled -'tCi ·IU:lyont! wtl Qo hM II!I. It:nl :lihue ;III I "h-eri!lloc-e- ",Uh· ou I the OOnlCnt Qf other hdn ; th1td Iy I no lifalll belr c.a be e~d't)ded from

ioberhulc C: by will .Ql:Jr hil .hU$ 'tw!I d eQ.J¢ ~sed, .

(N .. u- .a1~A u Iii r.ll Vol. 6, pp. 1J .J~).

!CONOHrc PIl!CflPTS 011' nUl QUR .... N

[I i!!il on tb i s S3 me bll:a is tha t w he D prj va re prop erty il be: iI)I man aged to the detr j men t of p ubI i c iq te res t, or is be i [II 5.Q rn !na,ied as to crl:a te 3 r~aSOD a bJ I!!: 3 ppr~ h-e n:51 i On of pu bl it: 105&, the Hc-ly Quran authoris!s the guardlan or the judge (Qui) to ta.k-c over r;:barl~e of the property, lc;avilll the uWDe(iltitlc aad rigb t of use in to1ctl.

11. Co.nall_ Interest im Sta h: Property.

R~sardiDS estates, goods and revenues wb.i!;h are stete propt"rty... the Holy Quran ordains tbat lbey should Bot hem a n.1 g I!! d i 11 the in tc rut of the wea I thy c 1 aases but in the in t erese of gentra] plLblic and more' especially for the benefit of tbc: poor classes of the: socie I y.

"Tbat whh:h Allah givetb as spoil unto His. Messenger [rom 'he pl!:oph: of tbe townships, it is fot Allah and "is Mc:ssell~ert aad for the Dear klQ 3 and the orphans and needy and the wayfarer jo that U be come DDt a com mod j t y bet wee D. tbe ri ch amo!!& you. And for thl: poor fugitives who hElve been uri"en out (fOUl Ihej r hom.ct and t heir bl:! I ongi n gs ; Those wbo entered tile city apd the r a ith be: {o re the- m.

And thou ~ho came (ic 10 tbe faith) after them deserve

also, jo. (Al .. H~:lhr : 7-] 0)

11~j Bade Pdndplt of Ta"X.ltlGD in Ialam,

The principle of taxation as; i ndieate d by the Quran is tbat the: burd!R of t4l.lllion should f!lll on the classes which pOS5ei!ii1 more wellth than they need ... and f:1EpC:d3I1y On ,bal POItiOD of tb~ir lftaHb wblch i1E left over aher fylttt1i I~g :0.11 their needs,

]. 1 b.D-lil·A u bl, A b 1;; am-u I~Qu ra n, Vo]. II p-. ] J)~ Ibn~I·.K;ltbjr 1 Ta r:si r~:lI·Qt.lr an .. 'i Qt. I. p. 452. l\I·ll11l!i.~ Ahk ~m·af·QtJra, ... ·Vot :z. pp. 12-1 J.

2.. 1 .. ,. fer!!: r. 10 1!~'penSH an admiIlI11.r .. tjOD. and derolC(: w tblC' Isllmic St .. llI. Tnt, inc:ludc:a IU a11DW1l1lC1I:! d r.aWD by tho Holy JI'ro:plH:t f pt-aC'I 1M! 0111 .. im) and j,Utr by bl.l elll ~phs (A Ilab be pieillcd w:Uh I hem} (Of lbtlr P-Ct~t ~JNlI:l1et. and tile .lI.la:rllCI! of .'hl!: if staffl (e~1 (jdh~.· tb~ II: ler ill. CI r .Ibe ruru:fi oil~j~ "r Zak at dcrpa.n meat). 111(: Ulltl.riU of !.be ru ru:lianl.JftiI of the Zak,fU d IItpUlnte.n t wtlrt: cha tlC"d on lh 0: Zakill fl.u-nl.

,.~ For dttaHc:-d ~~l"IlAtiQD rof .. .r Co f'Qit'l'lIiGte'l ilt hit No-.. 62.

ECONOMIC SY5tDf O' ISLAM

IIThey :a,k thee: what tbe-y should spend, SlY: 1 ba.t whjch is left over arCer meetilJg your needs. ", {AD-Nh:a: 2'! 9)

Cbar~e:t~rf~tl(s or fbe: EconOO1lc System ot Idam.

The ba.llie principles: and out'taadi.Di: cb:..racteris.ticl of the economic system enunlcated by the Holy QUran ie twe-ncy-two poin rs .a re as folIo W!ii :-

Pirs.tJy, Islarnle schem= lay.e. down such methods or aeblevlng soclal justice as suppre~" aU forms of eeonomlc oppression and unfair exploitation 01] the one haod and On the other generate aud develop moral virtues in society+ The Holy Qurae does Dot envisage .. social order in which there jg, 110 It:"ope ror private acts of ph.i1anlhroDy~ eutrusring the entire .field of social wl::lf3re to, a Bureaucratic Machine, for ill sueh an order there is DO room Cor the ;i:rowlh and developmtnl of moral vi rt ue I. 0 n the con t rary l hI:' Hoi Y Qu ran esta bl isbed a soci at order in which while doe.ling witb one another the indi~jd l.1.al5 are: actuated by Ii sptrlt of vol untary and selfless i;C'Detosity, iympa~hy and benevolence, which promote love and concord anlong them~ To this end, Islam large-ly concentrates oft devising rn~an~ to inculcatefaith among 'be people and to ltut"t c t b fl In be tte r hOI!! a II b@"i[lSi by ~d II cat i 0 D an d tr& j niDI .. To make up far any dti::fit;iency that mly stHl be le{lll bl:UD. e nfo fees g u cb co m p u Is-ory or d c ra a s are j ne.., i l ably needed to promote social weifare . (See Pojllu 8 to 13 and J S to 19)

2.. Instead or maintain ill,&: a distinctioD between econonuc and moral valul!!:s. Jstam harmenlses both and rather tb~aD

. sotvjng eccnomtc problems from 8. purely economic 5tal)dpoint. it resolves them accord iDg to I heir proportionate \liil ue in t hat coJ] ective order of Iife whose edifice Islam bas raised :soJely on the fcuodation& of lhe Divlne concept or tht universe and tae Divine phUosopb.y of ethics.' (See POiDEs 1. 2" 4~ $)

3~ 1I1am proclaims tbat the economic means and rClources iD the earth arr: Divine blessings open to a.U,; ·wh icb impHeg UHlt no. I: ind of :moDopoly whether persona], JieclioDal Or aarional will be eneeuraged. hate-ad fuc-dom of ECOlLOLD ic

BOON<llrllC n.rarn OP THB QURA N

61

Endl!lVCllJr shall be aO"orded to ey-ery hlllllo1n beirU1: to thCl ut .. molt pOS! i ble exte 0 t. (See Po i nt ~)

4. hllm ,srant:, to the ind i vid ua I the r ilh tor pr iva. [e ptoperry, but Ihis right is nOI unlimlted, III addrtion to'impo&ins necessAry rc,ddC(iOD:I on the right, of priv a tc ownenhip in the inLc:rCl!it of otheT iDdividu&h a1ld the ooUecdvc soeial ord-er~ the ecoDomic: :lcbctoe of l:slall1 est. b 1 tshe:1 t be r ilb t of 1 he re I iii ~i Ve!lt oejghbonrlt fricadSt the ueed y a nd the d ~U i tute!! and cO lleeti ,..eJ y, the rigb t o f the w~ole Soc iet:)l .:til the wea ltb of e ill eh i nd i v Jd u: Id. S ome of these righ l:a a re to be e of orced by law", aud for t no r!!lcQoI ~ ition and ftll til men t Q( 0 t bel', prov I!: ion has bee n mad e- to tr ai 11 l ht ladi vi d uRI, by h1 tellectu a.! and m or a] educatlcn.

(Sec I'oint:l 3 • .5, 7. tu 1 S. l6~ )7 ~ 19, 20)

:5~ Accord iIlI to thi _ sc:-hcm I: the n a tu r &J process, of 1 ual'IioJ the econemic ord.er Dr humaD life 'Is lhat the individLlab sh ouJd 0 perate and develop t b i 1 . orde r by free e 1::1 dca vnu.r. Hawevel'" thii!l freedom of .,.ndeavour is! not unlimited. but in the i aterest of tbe :51 ec i.e-ly and for the ind ivid ua I' s Ow n m oral ~ c:uhlltal -ilud economic we If a ref "SOme res. trl C t ions. b a ve been

i tQ posed on individual {rt~dorn. . (Se e Po i D tJ ~ 7 J 1 SI 22)

6.. Islam Hl\'I!S equal right of ownership to rna.n il.l1d worn.1lI ill their earned Of inherited weahh or wealth secured by any other lawful me-iii I'l! , BOlh scXI!:!i. have bee-B sh.eD. eqUid rightS It relard. th-e use a ad cnjoyml!!nt of C be i r prQ ptfl)'

(Sl!e POJnq Jt 4, 18)4

7 ~ I D order t 0 ma i ntal D. • balanced ¢COD081 ic order I OD the one hand hlam enCOllra!i:C:i people to cojoy A[]l1hls b1ess:inSI by ~u d em niDI a va rice and ascetlc Ii vi D g and 00 I he ot b e r ~ the p~-op]e .M 11riClly filrhiLidC'J] to indulge in oat-cnt.titJl1 .. extrava .. pnce: ilnd b i ab III iDg. (S ee Points ,,. 8 to 1'0).

8. til aid e.. to e:nabti~h econo mic j OS Uc:c I ~[am provid cs rh. r Wl:'8 I th s heu I d not 1I.0w til rou gh WfO III t;:haa:ad:a fD one particular directioll Dol:' Jhould {be unlawfully gained wl:a:hh IcCUm ula ~e i.o DllC pl ac C and remain UD prod u ct ili'el"i bloc' e-d th~rc. At t~e same time Islam provides that money IIlhot1l~

68

IOONOVIC SYSTEM OP ULAN

Come into rapid use aDd circulatlon and ils. flow sbould cap.eciaUy benedt thOle ~ettionl of the 10c;i!ty which for &omc reaWD Jagge:d bebind in obtainjng their due sbare,

(See Point;. 6 to io, tz .. n, 1 't ] 7 t<J ]9, &. 21)+

9. The eecnomic !ilcbeme of Islam does not largely depend on law or state to intervene in the matter of e~labH!hilig econam; jU51i~. To secure thls pu.rpos:e l$latn .i!USiaOi only certain uDBvoidable duties to the Stat! a.od enfercea the rest of itt economic plus. by intellectual and m,ora] trajoioa or individuals .lind by .etro!c::tLDS jeD.c:tal reform of the lo:::iety So that eeoaomic justice may be estabHsbed k=eping In view the logjcal requirem:e'nt.s of a free economy, (See Points :5 to 22).

10. l:r:ntead of c:reatfDg class conflict between various sec .. tions of .s(Jciety~ Islam etimlnates the causes of confHct and promotes a :ipirit or cooperation and nul ty amollg tbe classes, (S(!!:e Points 4, 6 to 11) 11) and 1 S 10 17, 2 J" 22).

Several more details of the,.. principles in th-e form of fute! and precedents fl.:! the:y Were puctic.aBy eseablisbed in tbe system ot state aDd 50cI.J:ty in the time of the Ha~y Prophet (pea-ce and ble$!I;iDgs: of Allah be OD him) and tbe rigb1-guided Calipbs ('...Uah be pleased with thtm) lire a~ai].ble to us. Bu1 this discussion falls. outside (he secpe of. this chapter, The literature of Hadlth, Jurisprudence, Ristory and biographies .of the Holy Prophet (p~.aC(!! and ble-nin.&s of Allah be 0(1 him) contains a v.ast material OD the: subject, aad lhr- reader should turn to it for dttaih.

SibUogu.phy of S"KC" . The: Holy Quran.

BB.i~~wt Auwar-al-Taareel, MQ;s~a.rJl at-Babi Haibi. Egypt. 1)30 H~ (1912 A.O).

Alu;sit !tooh·u.I·M.a~aoil Idara-al-Tabaha-al-Muuirla, Egypt 1345 H.

AI·Jass.a.s. Ahk.aw~al-QuraQ~ Matbah ... al Bahla, E.gypt. 1341 H.

Ibn at-Arabi, Abka~ al~Quti1n, Matbab-at-Saada, Egypt, 1331 H.

Ibn-i-Jarir, Jazni-al-Bayan, M.atbah...al-MIJ.D~riat B.llil"pt.

1328 H~

I bn·i- Kat b ir, Ta f5ir-al~Q uran a I-Au-em t M.a tbah- Mus t a.f a Muhawmadll EI),Pt 19"41.

AJ -Z.makhsb ri, ~l- K8.1il ,11 afl A 2· Ma tbah -a I· Bahiat B IypL.

i343.

Al·Bukbaft Sahih, Mus] im ~ Sab ih~ Ab[l+Dawud .. SUDIiIl. AI-N.,aj. Sunan,

JbDwi-M.Jj3~ Sunan a1 MU8tafa~

At~Sbaukani,. Nail-al-Autar t Mu,tara~aJ··:Oabi. Egypt ]347 n,

Sbn Abdal Barf al-Isteab, Daira tut MtlElrif H yderB.bad 1331 H.

IbDni-Mallz;ur, LJsan.nl-Afab. Beirut, 1956 A.D.

Basic Principles of Economic Life

(F Or mulated ill tbe: U,bt or the H&ly Qor ... ).1

FUDdar&)enfal l'alue~ (II Jsl~mic Society.:e

U Lo Allab enjoineth Justice and kindness, 'and Siviug to i;jn§.rolk~ ~t]d forbiddetb. lewdness and abominaLion and ~kk.edDesSi. H~ exherteth you ia ord er tha.t ye ma.y lake hetd. n '. (An-Nahl : 90)

Thla: sbort verse coutains thn::1!: orders upon which depends 311 soc i a 1 re rOt rn. Fi rs tl Y t th-ere i s J ust ice. Th I!: cO Ilcepl of J U3j, tic~ i~ co mpos e d of two CO!1 5 t aD t fa(- to rs,

(8.) MILintcoaDco of Equitable and balanced rigbu amODg people.

(b) Everyone should reeciv!:! hi~ due rjght Wllbout felr cf favour. The: Urdu .equivalellt of Justice is 'Insaf\ \\I b ie h has; -3 m is lead ing co nnota tiou . The U rd u word con .... eys the i mpressica that two men should share iighl!!i in equal proportion on the basis of fifty pe I C'C n teach. 50 it i s commo Q ly he 1 d that J ustice mean:! Equal d istr ibutioa of rigbts. Bul this is

1. We have i:l:lcor t':IOt.Ht: d rel ~V.3.D t not I!:I5 and: d I.SCiLl550iQD$ rrllm T;jilbj mul-Q UfII..Il a I su h~ hit:' po in IS iQ l h i:i boo k. Sa III e itn p-Dr. an t 1:1 011:1 hl)~ VC r .. couid n CIt fitld t()QIZI U:r:J de rant" poII.rli e u I a co thapt~l hc,ad LtJg. A fe'N of 'tMM! .Dc-lf: B. are pr~~enllCd I::t: tow iD e. set order . :For th: :u.h of cc-tlit.i:tn,dq par ~ ial_::II mend m I!!:I:I t h:1I:I bC!lI!J:I made: at I:t! r ujn po [1'1 t. fn the text and a -word ID~ ~~l1t~l:Ice tJ.u l:it:ell .jl,dd.td 1'1t-.-e :;tr. d t hi I!:r'l!!.

Editor

70

1(

un D atu r .1. Wh at lustiC:1I:I iu fal;t... demands i s not equ.ality but b,:da~co and Equity. In some respects,

Ju,ti« ElO doubt requires c:omplete Equalilt among ch iun-s such is ill r. i v ie r igh ts, B 1.1 tiD s.oml!! ot btT

'rtlpc:(tl the prindpre of Equa llt y i, eomrary 10 JU1tJcel fot in SUI ace soc, al aD d moral eq ua] i ty be l w ee D parents aDd cH"spri a& I "Of eq u a 1 compcnsa ti on to his"her and hJlifer cadre! of servlee, He-Dee what Anah bal decreed is not Equality of rights, but balance and !:.quity in the rights of various crasses or people, Tbis deere!: requirea thal each man should reee lve hil due moral, social. eeonomic, regal. pcliH".l arid cultura] rightll ruBy witbODt feat Of favour. Secoadh'r ..J'-~ raVOUI 'Which denotes fair dealing, Ji be: ra Ii ly 10 !iym pat he lie II. It itud e. co u r tesy I m u t ual acc::omodati.oD1o m .. tua1 ~8ard" SiviDg fbI!: otbeT slightly more than his due and be content with a liltJe leis than on-e'l dQO risbt. PavOur thus is a complement to JustiC"e and be'JKe bears sn a ter social valLJ-C than j U:!Et tee. J ustlce is the b.ll.l:l:! c f soc i ~t Y ~ Fa vou r Its ~flloe lad esc e UeulI:. I: 4 I u,Uce removes. (:0 Qfli c t an d b ht.ero.e:S.s from Ii QI;:j.CI!ty t f. 'V-our 1] U s i I wi tb p1eal!an t barmony and 5.U:t aeecrd, A t:a!c:uiatjDi mentality a.mon I ~qd iv id u ah .0 d 8. busi DeS.. 1. ke all itud e in l he pajl m~D t and rece i pt of duc.i .:;:annot be L he oDly ba~i s of iocial Olll: a.rl i z.a I iOD.

S'-'ch a cold lind impersonal 10ciety rna}' be fft'e (rom ,·on.oi(tl but it will :d:&c lack such Virtues as. love:.. arlitHu.det magna n I m Ity + se If~ sa\r i fk ~, sincer i Ly a. Dds Y LO pa t h~ I wb i c h make lit'~ p!easallt and :!iiWfle( :lind promote collective virtues. Tile tbi.rd order -C::O~tllill~d 10 tbis Ayal relates 10 u.-; :t, killduet, which s.u82CU$ a special form of doina; favour to rc::latiuDI.. It dots net cilly im.ply goO<l eoaduet towards relations. ahariDI tbdr joy and Btief a Dd lend j 118 SU PPOI t aEi d alliis taQl:-:: to tb.t.IID. VI' i thi n Just i fi. ble ] i mi II ~ but .Iso cant. i D& the Ibe.ni 08 that each a.m IItDI perlOa Ihould :aot on I '1 rc:cogll i z~

12

tbe rLgbt5 of himself and his f~mil)' over hls wealtht but .ad mil that he ewes oblh:ari01H to his relariom also. Tbe Sha.ria:t of the Djvin~ charg::~ affluent individuals of each family witb the duty of provid i ng food and clothing to an indigent member of their clan, A society cannot be in a. worse :Hale than when oue of it'S members b::u all the joys tbal lire can give wbile other members of his clan cannot afford even bread and clothing. The divine Sba riat eoasiders each family as an important organ of the- body-pol iric ilnd lays; down the rule that indigent persons have: a priorclaim Of'! aftitlent m-embers or their OWIl clan and afterwards on others. It is this point which t~e Holy Pro;:ber (Pea.ct and bles.~tLl~S of Allah be on him) has. elucidated In many or bJ:& statements. Sev'C1'aJ tra:ditio.os explain thal the firs[ cha rgc :>f a pe rson 3 re h i-s pa re II ts:!I hjs wife and c hildren .an d h ls brothe rs an d 9. L s. ters, Hi 5: next c ha r,ge are pr ox i m It te reb t j VC':s in t ht! -d escen d i [] gOld et.

It Ison rhe basis of this rule: that Hadrat Umar (Alla:b be pleased w j th b j 01) beu D d ~D me pelion; to take char ge of the ir orphaDc d CfIIlS i n, Del i ver i og h is: TIl J iug in fa v-o u r of a no ther orpha D ~ Had rat U mar (AJ lah be plea se d wi l h .b im) obser \Ie d :

"If this cbHd had even a most d i5~",nt tdative~ I 'Would ha Vi! force d him to ta 1:: e eha rge of the chil d ~, .

Tht!: leve lor ec one m i c 11. m ueace, socia l bar men y and mor at :puri I y and exee Ill: nee of a soclery w b e re in eae h un its up por ts Hs members in this; manner can be read;'ly imaglned. As a.g3jn!i~ the above thrt~ virtues, AJlab forbid., the following t bree evils

-bic:h C3.Ulle destruction to both individual .and soclety. .

Firstly, obseenity wbicb covers all absurd and indecent acta. AU evils which a re heinous in [].rHlU·~ are obscene sucb as 5tin_gfn ess, fornlearrcn, n udI,y and exposure or body, sodomy, marriage betYl'-C'c:n collarerals, Jelony, 4.1iok:ing!" bt:ggiDg, reviling" aDd fou] speech, SimEJarly open indulgenc-e In evil and propagation of t::yi! lire also obscene acta such as false prcpagauda, 11 aade r II pu bUcity gf sc:cre( crimes, pornol fa ph i c .3 UI" short atories, pJaya: a od IiJ nu, fe ma le e xhi bt t le 0 ism! ope n miti n g of .sexes an d s lase p I::rf OI.ll1ance::s of actresses,

73

Sec:ol:ldly : the~t' it ~ wbi-ch refers to all Ihing$ which p~ople ge-Dl!!rally coasider and biil'Yc alway.ll cDnsidel'l!!d as bad and whit:'b have ~~n proscribed by all Di ... lne Scrlptures and Prophc:t!i (Peace be on (hem). Tbe third tbillg)$. ~ wbicb jmpH« exceeding one'! bounds: and tr-es:spassin,g on the .right! of olbl:nit W bether of I ht! ere. tor Of the CU3, tures,

These: are the fdOdamec.tat 'Yalues 'Or b.lamic Society. It is the duty or the citizens and tbc OO\l'el'Dmeot to safe(Uard them.

1bClR thea are tbc: vatues which fonn tbe: bilsls of Islamic Society. It is th-e duty or the: citizen and the State:: to :safeguard' tl.lc:SiC values and use aU the force of La.w and morality to aUaiu [hem.

Tile Co.rse of Mora) .ad ECOliomie EvoluUoa fm Islam.!

~·so live" to th~ kinsman hi! duet and (0 the otedYt Bod (0 the way-rarer. That is bCJit for thole wb.o seck Allah'l ceuntenauce, And such are the)' who are successful."

(R omaes : 38).

Tbil Ayat dOC:1 not'say that you .should a:lve charjty to your rehlU..,ns. the peor and Ihe traveller, Tbe text rather says that it il thejr lilhl and your obligation, which yen must discharge, when paying the rilbt of a persoQ iu the above t:o.t~gory do Dot think thu yo.. ate doiug Slim a f. YOu r or that you .lc • 8 racio II! b.::img and b.e i. a mJurable creature livin. 01:1 your dole. On thl! Q the r b.and yo tJ sll oul d el'er be: d~e ply CD1l8Cious: that if t be True Lord has. ble s.sed you w i( b more a lid othe rs wi, h less, t b en the surplul that you bavl: got ii the rjihl of others and by e:ntlllstio. this surplus {a you Your Lord puts Y01l 00 trjaJ to ;See .bctber you pay the. .tia:hts of tbe needy ones 01' not.

Aayonc who refiC'.:I:s upon the letter and !pitit of thjs ni\l'i~ O.rder wiil Dot rai' to realise- IhBt tbc course of moral and spi ri tuat evo] UtiOD of mao Bs I] ut .. hue d by the Qur.n. preIllppoSlC:1 tbe eJ::llteuce of a ft'f~ sociery and B rree eCQDOm.y. Such ar. E'I'Ohltion it Dot possibJe in a social envlreament wbere proprl.tory risbt:s or i IIdhidualS & rll!! a 'bol is bed, aU coone-mil: reSouNd are: nationalized and stlte ~;p;ercisclI monopoly cOlltlol

tl Tllfblm-ul·Qur8D Vol; III P-1Y1)r

74

over dii~f~btnioD of wc:aJt.b amOD& cidze"slI tbereby prererdin, .aD indrvidual rrom. owillg any obligation to 800ther at to eherisb s.e:ntimcnts. of s)'%Dpa\h), and goodwjll for aoyoDe else, Su.cb a pl.rrdy Co mmuniat social and eeoaomlc system whi.;:b rn OL1t country is btioJ B.ggres.siv~ly imput=d to QUraD undl!!:r dU!I dece p live: ti j_1 ~II of .. III a m ie Sod a 115 ra" or .. Qoran i N b:alll- [, Ra.bubiatlt\ is the I.DthheJiIs or tb.e Qu.ranil; Scheme. roc. the CDD'HtiUniB.t system :stultUiel the devc=lC'pment of i adivjdual morality end totally .curbs the form.doD and arowlh or iadividual ch.aracfo!r. The Qura:qic Scheme cau only be impJe[olI!!Dted in an environment where fndividuals owo some economic resources, have tbot right and autborhy to uae tb~.m frc:!ly, add then wi II i n gl"j and wj l b CPC'D he a rt pay t.b.,. ri gh tt of God and mao out of those t~s.ou.Tce!.. It hi in such a s.odety tbat Ihcre Irises ibe pheacmeaca of .I:f6uent jDdjvjduals developing the su b H-m II: v 1 rt u ~s of s y II3l path Y t k i b d deal .. a tJ".ecti OD! s c:Jf·s,a.cri See, eonsideraucn and fulfHlm.eDt of obligaUoD and the bene5ci.,rie:l tDtenaini.Dg lhl: pure lentiments of support, Iralitlldl!:. love .. sincerity and fdLlrnin,g favour for favour toward. [heir benefactout till such aiD ide.) environment is created whereiD the eurbing or ~vil aDd promotion of lood do~. not depend 00 the iarerve nlioD of Au thoricy. but -On t be pure reselve of the indhrjduall to di!r:harae their oblisations to the fun.

Prol'iMCra ani it, u.n.

"And IItrain not thioe eyes towards. that which WI:: cause 150llIe wedded pairs amon, thcm to enjoy the ~ower of the life or the world, that We may try them thereby. The prevision of thy Lord i& better and more: Iastieg". (Ta' H .twill)

. J h a ve tr .a.n~ I ated 'Rizt.J ~ !!I s ~ l Lawful provision t .. • for A IJ ah has: n owhet~ referred to iU i ~it things as R i zq-I- Rab ~ ~ the Ptovision of tbe: Lord.' j The: im plic aeion iii th at it does not b!hovc you or )'uur OO.DIp.1riQtI toO Ieljgion to envy the- .glUlOfOUI .life of the wicked and corrupt wbo amass weaJtb by illicit means. Sucb wealth and gJaJl:lour is net at aU enviable for ),"OIL The purt Jivel] bood ow ruch YOli earn by J a_ful me ana, how.socvu

meagre it may bet U: better for trutl1fnl and faitbfLJJ men and it contains goodrleSltt whi.cb will Jast till eternity, ~

4'~ Allah giveth bJru.iD.!1iI wjtbout !tInt to whom He wiU,u (An .. Nur : 31) UAII~h enJargcth the provl,ion for whom He will or Hl' slaves and strartenth it {for whom. He wUlt.

(AJ·Qau:9i: 82)

In other words Increase or dec-rease of llvelihood depends on Allah's .iU, which h; b8sed OD f!;everaJ other cOMtdetfttions. lbe beiltow:rd of ampr", IlveJibood upon 11 penon does Tlot neces- 5aril~ imply that he is h~&h in AlJah", favour or that he j~ th~ recepient of D~vble Reward. SOll1ellm-es it so happens tbat s. person js; hjghly discredited in the Eye of AU.h, yt::t Hoe continues to bestow gre.lt w~ahh. on hjm-:-tHI Lhi!r; samt:. wealth briliis. over bim the biah wrath of AH ah, On the other hand if a man J'UJ:!I&(!~i Dc IUlly JJ vel iJlOod, It does not nccc l:O,ul.-lIy in. rJ y lila t he is the objett .of Allah's wrath. Often ljmef!; the pious arc in strai1ened circumstances -des-pile the fact thllt "Un'" loves thcm~N .Illy their poverty i;ll nft~fl n Divlne hi{ls.r.:ing in ,ti:;l,J:tui:lll('". h i;s; duo to incomprehension of this fact Lhat man Iuoks upon .he prO:!liperOU' witb envy even tb eugh In real i ty tb" Y ur ~ lin ole to !ilutlcr Allah's wrath.·"

UWhooc: hearts fear when Allah.is mentioned and are patient of wbate-ver may bef.oll thtlllr and those who establish worship and who spend of that we have bestowed on them."

f AJ-H~ ! 35).

I have e:JI:plaincd above that Allah has never referred to unlawful and Impure article!; as "Proviston '.. Hence the implic .. arlen of the Ayat. is that (hey 5J)1:1H.i out m tho pure provi~ioM and ~awf,",J incomes whkh we hive beslowt:d on them. Again -eltperue does not impJ), "81J sorts of expense." It means f~"JlI· .ment of the h:'gIUmutC' 7IC~th .of ~t"1f ~nd fnrnHy, knclin# J1~ .. lstnnce CCI n!!lnHl'~PII. r'lt'!i~hbour... nnd the llt:oC!dy n.n~!5.. cOB{t~bgti:n.R to

----_ .. - --_ .. _. -~--

"'Thndm·ul~Qu.r"D, Va) : 1 n e- "'l.g~

.... ,. 1111 til- Po 664.

16

fJeONCWIC s"YstEM 01 ISLAM

work s of publ Ie weH"a re ~ and :tir. anti al donations to the cause of the estabiishment of AUah·s creed. Extravagance, expense 00 ple as u re ~ ostent aticus s pe nd in g are not W ha 1: the Q uran calls r"/aQ .. jExpense". The Ouranic terms for- Hds type of expense are ~ ~ Exta valance "rut ~ (exces s), The Qu r anic tor m t..i...&.; ~ n Ex.pen se" Hkiew ise docs not pertain to t he niggard I)' and rDjserly expense of a ma.o. who does not spend on the Iegitimate requir ... ements or self. famUy~ and needy people or God in fuJJ measure according to his means. The Qur.il.I\ refers to loch 3ipcDding as

...

I , Stl nginess' P and v-ii ~ "

The P r lndpJe- of II M! I

• ~j Eat of tbat which AU.lh htUh bestowed upon you, and follow Dot the footsteps of the devil, {Dr tor be is all open foe to you." {Ar. A:a'lm : 14'2).

Hen: Allah enunciates three points, one, that the garden •• (idd s aDd c attl e \Ii' biob )' OU possess are .1 bounty from Him alone and no oneelse Hence no other being C an claim a share of your t 11 a.,ni:.5.8iv] ng .

. Secondly. since: you have received these thjn2s as a. sift from AlI;Qh~ it follows that }'OU should abide by the- rules whk:h A1Jab h as set for their tI se , Noone· el se h as the rlgbt to determine ru res for the us e of these gifts.. Too bserve the rules prescri bed by other than An ah and offe r th auks.giving r or the boua ties to other than AU ah amounts to tr ansgression and foUowi.nS the path of Satan.

Thirdly, all these ~ifh have been created by Allah as food and drink for man and for hi!i other uses. He has Dot created them so that man should renounce them. The curbs that men ha v e wh.onkaUY and ~upc1"~titious1y imposed on articles of food and 0 ther things prov ided by God a re con trary to the wiJ l of God. III·

"O bellevers l forbid noe the .&ood thing which God hath allowed unto you and tfansgress nor, for God Joveth not the

.. T afhim-ul-Qu.tA!:l. v 113]: IU p. 226.

II T~fbimru.l- Qpran VoJ:I p..S~

77

traosgreuOI'I. And ear. orthe lawful and ~ thiDgJ whlch god ham J;iveQ you and fear Ood in wbom you believe.'~

(Al·MAid.ah 81-&8)

This Ayat ftvcal:a t .. 0 points. One, do not dll:tenninc proh.ibiti 001 .od )Xl'min!ons .1 wilt Permitted is thllt on] y wbich AUab bat made b,.rul ·and forbidden js that onl~ which All1h h.as made unlawful. If you prohibit the lawful on your owa. volitinl'l! yOg ,.,ilI be guil~y of foil (lW!I'l;Q: rbe d icta tes of ),(iut own desire rather than the dictate! of the A1mh~ ht y .

Secondly j do not f,?U ow t be w~y of Cht lstian monk IJ. Hindu uc::c:tlcs. BudbiJt III onks and Eastern Sufis. Among the nobJ.e ml.aded rol]owers of I!:V=ry _ rellgloa there has always e.:!II;isted a t=dcDcy to eonslder the sa.ti3faclinn or pbysical urges an obstacle i.. t helr splritu al develepmene, Th-ey are inclined to believe that ascetlc li .. ina: and rtflllnciation of ai I pl~a,ure and ~ort ... vjrtue without wbich Allah~1 favont connot hi! obtain.c'tL Among Ule H lUll nmq. companloas (AUah b= pleased witb than) also, theee Wefl a r~w wbQ subseribed to thIs ",ew~ The Hol,. Prophet (peace be on him) once learned tbat some wm:paDions had taken a vow· to ra st dur ing tbe day. paM tbe nighl in .onhlp~ abstain from meat and fat and· rl!:noul'l~ intercolJl"&e

with women. Thereupoa he (peace be on him) deliv-ered B !ilc:rm.OQ in tU course of which he observed ; lLThis ~" not my creed. YOUI' body II II righrs over you. You shou Id ralt ~ but eat· and dr jnk alia. Pl"ay!d nJibt~ b"., :deep also. Look at me. I s.b::C'(J and ] pray also.. I both kee p and 0.." it f 3StS. I e a t beth meat and f.:!l r.

So whoso does not su bscribe to my way ~ be ill nor of mine ."

He (peace be Oil hi 01) tb.e-n Iii akl 10 • j What has h 3ppeDi:d tn

people that they .bave renounced "omeJl~ ,good rood.. prrfurne'; sleep and worJd1y plC'3!1ure? I have ne ... er t .ught . you to be a mODI::: or I priesl. I n my D~ (Creed) there b no provision r or renllndltfon or WOI!le'U. or meat DOl ror abandon[[}1 the: world. For 5df -eontrol, ,. c:njoi n rut. A! [ the adval1ta.ga or ascetism ell n be bad from the J1Julil of hlam. WOfiihip AlJaJl .and do not associ ... te ~qgbt witb II im. Perfonn Hall aDd Umrd. Establ iih NDmoz ~ pay Z 4idf ~ and keep fasts in RalffqdiM. T~ e people '" ho ~ a.r:n~

78

to ruin before you ruet this fate be~i!luse tbey wert: hard 00 the-lOsel ves and Allah was hard Oil them too. It jl. the: rcmnant:!i of these people tb at you see in lIlolUl.SleriC6 and c~nveou/'

Some other tradition!!: on the saoe 3ubjeu relate tb at t be: "ory Prophet (pe a~ b ~ on kim) 0 Dee b:aroed resudina & compi.Dioll. that it wa~ Joog since be h.ad gone in to bu wife and "Wag en&agC't.i in prayer day and night. Th~ Holy Prophet (peace M on him) Siu!DIQol1ed him and ordered that he :&iho~dd 10 in to hi~ wiff! at once. "I am ra'Hin~(, submitted the companinn. U Break your fa,lJt and proceed," P the Holy Prop"hd (peace be ollldm) told h im III the Teigll of H adrat Um ar .a womaD !Complained :

"My hU5band fain dULing the: day And is engaged in pr.,er during the ni.&hr arid does 00' usociate with me."~

Hadrat Umar appointed .the well-known Tabfa djin.itary Ka ab-bin-Saur at Ziddi to hear this. case and he ga~ tbe verdict that the husband had tbe- r·iJhl to pray as Il1L1Ch as he wished Cor three nights , but his wir~ had exclusiue risht OYC'.r him In lhe id~rth night. The phrase "Transgressing tbe bounds' in thi& Ayat has a wide connotarion. To curb Iawful and to rcnouo.ce tbinl!. ~hich AJJah has declared pure as if they WeR: impure, is iii form. of tratl!&reSlion. Excessive and i!Qrboderal.c use of pure things IS ehe second lind of transgression and over~step'pjDa the bounds of the la".nol to eatee the dOIlJ.ain of the Im!awCu:1 is the third kind of transgreasion, A lleh a bh ers .U tbe-se three affences.1

De PI iDC ipJ. 01 Mod rflt ,.,.,

~; And those who, wh~n they spend, are neither prod~g~1 nor grudging; lind there is: ever a fiill'l station between the twe; and those who cry (lOt unto any. other god along with AJJaht nor take tbe life which AUah. hath forbidden save in (course of} jU'511ce, nor commit addrtery~ and. whQ10 doeth thls sbaH pay rbe pella.lty. (A19Furqa.nl 67~(i:S). In other words they neither rriltel'" a. ... ay tlleh wealth in luxury ~ ~arllhlina, drin.kin&t pa:ties, fC:!ii~i'¥iti~s? wl:dding!l: or ostelltalious expeoSie on food, bouse, dress and furni-shmvt t1?r are they spendtbrins and fanatlc lovers. ·of

_ .... -.------

loUlO f'I.lHCiPLB 0 ... ECONOMIc tIn

1DOr'le"Y:ll deprhilll lhem!leh'~8 and t:hei.r children of l~gitiolatC' needs accordin& to this me8JUt nor do they 181 behind in ma..kia,8 volun'aJ"Y GODlributiOJ1I11 to good causes, 80th categoriC! of people wen: found. iQ large nUDI ben inA ra bla. On tbe one h and l~re were pmou who were hig spead-=n ~ but tbei r predomiaant motive' wu tither 1.0 buy enlual pleuuTO to secure, on boaoured plac-c in society or to aain a repu.talloQ for Ubtrarity and rnunirlC6CCC'. 0.0. tbe other hand were mige[J~ who wert nototioas for theit stlIlgWCSI. A moderate way of nrc was notice a ble in a very minor .ela.s,s whose most prominent ll1embc:u Were rbe Holy Prop-bet (pea~ and hteMilll!l of AUu.h be on him) and his illustrious companloes (,6..11311 be pleased with them). At thl. point WI' iDust a8Ce:ltajn the cor~t meanioa of extr&\I'agance aDd ",tin,aitRH. FrOM the view-point of Islam the (oUowin, three practice. constitute c:xtra vaaaoce ;

t. Expemc of ~veQ ODe penny on unlawful acti.vhjes~

1. l:tlotdidatt: expense on lawful activltie:a. whether in tbe senac: of IpendiDl beYDnd one", m~8JU; or spending one~, liIurplua weillb on private pleasure or pcr50Ilai glo.ry~

3. Spending OQ pious activities not fOT AUa.h~8 Jake but with the motive of Mlr .. projection~ In CODtl"ut to th.u. tbe term .tfn.gineu applies to two c8SCS ; Oaet that. man does not provide for the needs of hirn.aelf and family accordinJ 10 his ft1cau. Second1Yt be ,ho-uld make 00 contribution to the promotion. of good IDd pious eau ses.

&twetll tbese two- estremes I sJ 1m presents a tn iddJe way. reau.rdina which the Holy Prophet (peace and bl«tS.inp of A Hah be on him) obse rved :

u~ ... J M.Ai ._k.)1 ..- .:r- I'll

"To follow the mhldl-e way in one·, eeeacmic living is ODe of tbe .arks of a faqib (a wilC' m.IID)+ II

(Ahm3d .nd T.brani on the a.uthoJity oi A bi af-.D.lrda (Allah- be pleased with him)

. ---- ~--- ._---- . .~-- --___,--~

I. 1bJ1tf,".~~ Vol, t If ~ pp. 463. "'"

10

lIoDnty III:( Jus UCe in E(:ODQtq jc: L lfe

oF~ And unto Medi~D (we sear) th=h" bl'otll!t", Sb.IHib. He aaid : "O, my people I Ser"io Allah! VI: have no ol!i:er GJid live Him" Lo ! • elear prone hath come unto you from YDOt Lord ~ :10 giye fu II me as LU=- .. D d rllJ I wl!"i s:ht aad wrong. .6.ot mill;. kind in tbelr .goods" .. ad l¥eak: IlcH coo.f.uioa]11 tb-o Earth after tbe f.ll.lr order therecf. ~ Th2lt will be better for YOIl, if ye are: believers". (AI-Arar : 8S}

,4 But thl: chi~naiDSi of his. psop le, who were disb,:lir. ... iDg. said :11:1: if ye foJ10w Shuaib, then truly yo shall be thl; losers" .. (Al·Arai: 90)

. The firit Ayat reveals tbat Hadrat Shuaib·, natio£l ,utrered rrom ~wo priocipaJ mal.dies : Oue, Potythehmt teeQlldt uDrair bus-incSI practices. The purpos~ or Hadrat SbU41b's ,plopheQY w.!§: to remed y t hcse mil a dies. T & e rea ctlon 0 r tb I: lead e rs of tbe Dation :&bcuZd not be paned over liaht~y" One mun pause &lId cam"!!:i df) r its e (i ously ~ The poi D t fh"l t the lead e fl of M edi lrt "Ire reilly tryIng to make and hl:ltiJ into tb. mind1 or tboir people WB.! (hat the adoption of Sbua.ibts Code or iQtC!grHy aDd trDtb and permaDe:nt adherence to bis ndes ·of motaIi(y .tld hon!lty lff'HI spell our Tuin. If we alwaYII- speak the: trath Ind do fail transactions, . bow would we keep 'Our bu:siness s.!oat 1 We who the en tbe cross road or the two &Tuten trade routes of the worJ d an dare set tl e d on the' edge I of t be m!ll.eni ncent CivllizltiOD'S or the E.&ypti.a:o and Iraqi ~mpjre'St it we stop molestin& the· caravans Bod become bannlel!§.S and lawflll people, we w.ill lese t b Ii!!! econo m it a nd pol i lie a l a~ va ntagc: 15 ef our presen t .&fOB ra pb lea l pas ~ t io nail d 0 ur h~ geQlon y over our IleighbOllU will dlssol ve, Such. reasoning was not ecntiaed to tbe chief men of Hadrat ShLUli b~, nation. The wicked people of every lje h II ve sensed tilt:!! .s a me da D ge rs ina way of Ule ba sed OD Riallt, Truth and Honesty. In each aBe tbe evil 1D~u bay~ ~heri'bed the belief that Commerce, Politics ':tnd ReligiouS! i!!i:lf'a.it I c • .n no I be m iniged exee pt b)' fa lse p rc t en ces, db. bon 1;:!Ii I me-ans lnci un~thj ~aJ pr!l~tJp elf

• MlC PltNClrLOI OP BCONOV(C LJ fE

81

10 aU plaeellt one of tbe viiotOlnly pre.sed charles against I rtahleaUs. mcuaae hal b.e:en that de'fiation froLQ tbe pre\&,ail iDg custom would plQClgt the nation iDEO the lby~ of dc,tru.;ttQD.l

Principles and Objectives of ECQnomic Organization in lslarn'

1 b ave beeD invited to .fI P ~ai:: on :i fcow set topics I Le l me repeat t bese to pil;:i. bef ore fOU so that you rna y know \...c.C bounds of tbe pfc'9.t:ni discussion.

The ftr~t to pic It ~ DOle! bla III en un cia tc an eCODO mit sy.uem'l If it does wh&.l ia ils fonD ~ ~uld wbat pJa.::.: do land, I a. bour t capital an d manage rna ql oec U. py j D C hi.8 for.lll 1 The $iCCO cd t up i e i s : Can tb e revenue: I; of Za 1(111 and cha rJ ty be cbann!:: 11 ~d ill to iociaL welfare WOtk.. The th ir d top ie-is : CaD we set up aD i nt.e r'l:::it frcoil! ecenom ie ord 1:1' ?

A detailed d h.cu5s1a D of eac h of the abn ve top~ es may run i 0 t 0 8. vol ume, Bu, k 00 W,; a.g tha.t III y a ud Ience is CO mpos cd of b i gh ly ed UC8, ted pc no ns, I Ihlll on] y brito.y touch u POD these topjc,.~

Fonn of tbf: Ec.onomic 511 tf"m of b:laD1

There I:re- t.o pArts of the firlt topic ~ DO~!iI Islam "lluDc:iatf: an economic "y~tem ? And if it· doc: I , lip' ha t pI! ee do JI nd .. I a bQur t ca.p I t 81 aad maDaaeme at «:eu PJ in t hi I 10 n:n ?

T he an !lWICT to lh- tI nt part iJ tbat r darn d 00' fD ulldau: aq eeoao m I e S ysl em. nit does DDt me-. D.. ho wever t tha.t Isl a m bas de ... ised a plI!:rmaul:nt economic order eomp]'Ct~ in aU detaih wbich may be- valid fur all ag.e:l. What it rea1ly implif:! is thl' Islam b3'S prescribed il.li:h fundamenta] rules 3S eeabte USi t~ con s I ruet .a D I!!CO.,.o mit ph n suJ lable for e '(ery a.ie. The Ole: t hod of lstam is, aDd caretul study of Qu['a.n and Hadith makes h eXJlHcitt that i., ~bl: CH!t70f -everyaspett or lif.e it. sell UPt III it

1. (Tb Is addr-tu wa. dill! UVlI'fed .I.t 8 SYIll pOt;i'bm illl tile: DlI!:parUne:D' 01 AdministraUve kicoce"a. PQQjilb llnlveni ry on 11 DeceQ1ber 1961.

-EdHor)

82

PI [NClPLrt!: A tr(D OIJIC nva 0:' 8COKOKIC

8]

were. rOtlt earlier! within "hi.;b the aO"lirii Rlatius to tha.t .s peel maybe ord II!! red, TtlDIJu:l.lion of (!lei e fou' eo merJ La fOrbiddeD. Wi rhtll these four corners .. howl!"~r, you aTB free til settle tbr: delail!. of your ]jr-c:-otd~r Iccordiog to tbe condiliOllt n et"d aald ~xpe rlenee .of you r -II:.

T.a III .'1pe:cts or llr C"" from pri vat e .!I.its to cuI ttl raJ ~ nd lOci:" ra.UeH, hllm lays down the !ama rotc rer the luid4lnce of maD~ Atld tbe ii.me rule appJiel to eur economle i)'lj.t'=tQ .. J n 1 be eeonoro lc sphere a 1110 J sl afJl has e-n U Q-C lat ed scm e ru I es 3'1ld ha!. Set lome: bcnnds whbio whfch \\te may cOl'utru.C:l our economic System. The detail!: may her I, thl!!y ha"e been, ~nled accOJ"d~DI to the cendttlons ill every ale.

Y~IJ wiU Sec that witbln tbe bounds set by [slam emillent: jurjt.tt Jaa4 fo!'mlllated rulei of economic life: in IT~at dc-t.llil • .. b~b .. rc~ nta Q t iU 000 ks On j uri $ pru d.eOce, The (:Coo 0 m ic codq ~mpUe cI by lh CI j IJ ri&ti arC' d eri ved r rom tb e bas ie )H'ineipilB of' hJarn and are cin::lJmicrjb-ed by tbc: limit!; 1tl by Islam. or thl:! dttailed rates framed by tile Jtltis(:I. we aball r~t .in I'UCb -5 eorrespoud to our nee:" ~ ta-d a y. A ~ f ot tb~ n~. rc:-crairemlnts or our own age w..: Jh.n deduce rn=:t.b rutes. These DeW rule, howiI!!verjl _iJl be e-ucnU.Uy dl:du~d (rom the Itla Q) lc prlac i plea and wi U r.J I "i Ibia L he ) truil' PTC:'IC:l"thed by Is]a ttl.

ObJect]"". or &oDOSDic 0fl.nb•tfOil

From the- fo re gOIDg d lseu SSiOD yt"l u: c ao a ~cel'l. i q tbe Da lure of tbe: eeotlol1lic systf'm of lilam. Prior to tetUna cur the economie prine! p 1 es -of J:Ii la m. I wou I d ] tke 10 pu., b-ergre you the chjcctiviI!!l or the economic order of Islam, ror without an U D d f!nt and i og of the 0 bj~c: tilr es, ~ou can Dei lbtr grasp the pTillC:~p]~ :Qor apply Lhl!!m to condi,_io.lll Of ntldsllor I;&D del.ired rules be ckduced i .. eeasona DC III w.ilb their true .pirit.

A~ - I .. .h-W..I FrN40m

The Jir~t all d ro remosr 0 bjecti ye of J 11]... ;.: to ptfterve iDdi'ljdlJ~1 tre-tdam end tr. circUJDfiCribe it to 11U.;u;h elte.Dl OD])' III h (:01 palible witb ComOlOQ lood of hom.lliey. Ilia. put. t be b iSbe,' .... 1 ue OQ lnd tv jduiI( Ii ber ty. Thll!: rll_IOB for I hi;!: J. 'h., ] s1l m holds 1Iucb pC! n9U I D hi ~ iQd j vi dUll Ij:.pa.ci t)' I'

84

!CONOwrc SYStDI OF !Sl AM

accountable to Allab. This 3~countabillty 15, not collective. but eacb t:J:d~~ idua] must answer s.ep~rateJy rot' his actions. JIcnt:e it f olloW1 tba ~ II!! very pe rs on must be a 0"0 rded the maximum oppot!u~y to realise bill full potential. Accotditla1yalongwitb moral and political frec:doms, J&lnm attaches th~ Ifl!:.&test importanee to eeonomie frC!edoDl a150~ Wb~n the eeeanmic f reedqm or tbe ind I vi du 3 \5 is curbed t b e j t mOT aJ and p t)] it iea l frcredom ls abc. e:dll!lrmiftated. You can fuUy rea1rs~ that 3. man who T! eeeuc rnka~ly dependeIll on a notaer person, an lnstltutice nr til: government, ca nnot ha VC' freedom of actjOQ t even if h: !Ia~ an iudependent opinion of his own, Hence 1sT a. In un ncl a it 5 !S uch econom lc ru] es as a fI' ord th I! m 11,\ i m 11m fr.eedom or economic aC-llvity to the ind ivldual, bil3d1na: hi(D o·nly to MJcb llmJu u an: really necessary for s;afeg,uardin2 the COllL moll 800d e r hu m a:o i ty. T.b.a t ia w b y h hun ell v i53 g.:-s a political Jj'${1::1D in which the government is tlecle-d by the people, who also have the POWi:1" to change it at will. The peopk or their I.ccrcditrd representative tun the afi'aiTS: 0,( the ~ ta! e. The r~ gbt of the p eeple to crilj".j!l: e a nd "Vole!' l.b eir opiaicns i-s ll'Dtr~lnmenc:d. The powcu or the GO\l'erllmeJ]t arc:

DOl unlimited, t~l ar.c drc:umscr.bed by ~h~ overrIding Jaws riC the Qnrau and SUllnab ..

Furtber in blam Allab bat voucbsafed cerl!lj n basic: I"lghu. to man whicb. an: immntable aod cannot be suspended by any

hu man a.iellc.y~ All this is aimed at preserving ·the rf~~doTll at the indi .. .idua] and pre'feuthlg rbe rbl!! of a dictatorial S~~~ellJ: a.'h ich LI1 aj' stu It i r)' thl! g ro wth of hu m ElI1 perso D a Ii ty .

n. fl.anfto;oy ill Mo~t :A.Dd Mlf.eriar Development

Se"C(lndly~ the metal ~eveJopm!ni of maa ~S of funda. rr.~ntil importance to 13:1am.

For this cnd .. it ]S, necessary that each i ndjv~du.al ill society s.bouId have the optimum Ch8.Dr:C to pract ise voluntary charity t so t ba t sen d mtIll1 of g~llerosi ~ y, :iY m" 8 t t. Y]l kind ness . :lnd ot her mOTa ~ \,jI1U~:I may beeeme a living for~e in society. That is wb)l Islam dOt:5- not -e~clll:!iiive]y rely on the Jaw to ·e:ifabljsb; s.ocia] jurrice b![1t Biv~:g th~ highest rrJoritY· to the 5pirir.u;l1 reform or mUl by means. of Faith, D~\'otion, E,ducaljon and

PRtNC ~ Pi. U AN~ OR1~CT1V2~ OP ECONOMIC

Moral trainioK. I~ 13 m transforms the taste and outlook. of m~1l .anJ generates in him a s.trong moral sense which may for ever keep him on tbe path of "gh, action,

If all these mea~ore!l f.ail, rhe MU$UtD sociery should be able to t~e-rt uroug pressure on the lndividual to keep hin:. within the prescribed bcuuds, Wb.en even :!Inch pressure fails to deliver the ~oodl~ Is lam r~s:ort~ to the force of law to cstabli.5b jU:!illi~. Every social system which relies excluaive ly on thef{~rL:e of b.w tu esrabt ish justice and so ties up the inrti vid~iil as ro cub him of all vnl U n[ary power ro do ;eqod is: unsound from th.e lslamlc point of view.

(c:;) Coop~tatioD ~ Ac.rord alld I!:sfablbbn..clu of JustiCt

TbirJly, Jsfnrn upholds human uni Ly ilnd brctherhuod aud o ppO:i~ 51 disco rd a nd -contii et r Heac e j t does D ot .J i v ides DC i~ t y iato classes. OD the other hand among tbe claases that nJ ruralb eK.ln ln :50ci'CtYt ir promotes 'Sympathy and cooperation lDSilca.d of class stru.P'ple+

An .nalysis of Inulll;ID ~ocicty will reveal to you the e:t isr enee n f t w.,) l:' pe s a f (.J a ss e S. j nit. One ty pc: or classes are those which are anHic~aHy and UDjUStly created and forcibly ~a intaiaed b)l vicious political, social and economic systems. ID· l b ls category fa II t h~ classes w hi ch we re create d by Bra ham 1;1.1'1- ism, Feudal; un .and tbe Wt:s.t~rn capitalht sy5t~m.

Ialam I:r~a.[e§; no classes of this scrt, nOI envisa_i:-C:s. their pl!!!rpcfu:uioo but eli mi nates them by iu moral and Je'g:d reforms. The «e co n d t}lP~ or da.ss.e-:!iI are those wb tch. form and dissolve i rI a natural manrrej by diflerences in a.bilities aDd cond itious of hU.n'H1Q bein~~. hliilrn doe!ii nor wip~ out these classes by ror...-:c t nor rransforms them icto Ii il!:i d classes, nor sets I hem 3~ainst one another.

On the oth~ r band by its; moralt po!lt1c:al. :iodal and t con om ie pr cgr a m m 1:::, j ( prom ote ~ jus t cOC! pe fa tio n am 0 ng them, matl!!s them the S-!r'rnpalbis.e-r and ally of one another and by affording equD.ii ty (If opportunity to all creates sucb condl-

. rlcns in which these d3:!iI'5C1i conl inue {O dissolve and C~QDJ~ ill a oatural mann.ft,

'ECONOMIC SYStmc OP 1St. ... M

Basic Friw:.pJe,

An awareness of tb~ above three points is. nectss~ry for understlDdi tlS the principles of the economic ~ystem of Ialam it! lhe-ir true spirit. 1 noW proceed to .t;!.cli Deatc the major p'"lDcipJe& ~ of (hi!!: ecolJ;omic 8)'stem .8) follows :

Prj',. te Property aud it6 IjmUs .

Islam :endorses indi,,~du3.] ,ownership of property n.bject to tertairi. s.pe(;laJ couditinus, and i D tile ~a.~e of individual pruperty it does not d ~jferentiate be t ween Means of Production or Consumer Goods aad Earned Or Unearned Jncome. h concedes to mao a general right to hold property, bUl sets .some: Iimits to it. Thl: concept that the Mtaoi of Productlon sbouJd. be difft;I"~Dtiatcd from CQl1l;;u.mer icod~ and fndjviduJJ owncrs.hip of the form=r should be abCln$~ed cOllfinins private owneri-hjp

to ~ODsumer goods is alieu to Jslam. In the viewpoint of Istam just 1.5 a per$oQ can possess clothes, utensils and household furniture:, '0 he can own fand. macbitlery and a. fActOr-1 also. By 1he same token just as a p~rsoll is the rightfuJ Owner of his directly earned we~lth! so he can justi fie: bly pO~1C$S Wl'alth inheriltd from his parents. or spouse and can share &! an active or slecpjol p~rtD~{ in the earnings or another maD it] .,..h-asc 'l'tDlurc he ha.ii invested bis capita.l.

lsla1I\, dots !lot differentiate hetweC'1i one or thl!! other property io lefql$ of wbether it is a Mean9 of Produetlon or a COD.SiUUllI!:f commodity or whcth~r it is eat()~d or unearned inccme. It sel S up only OD~ ct'i [erroo of diuincti-on i.e, wtalLb iaiJl.ed throllgb lawful or urd i!wft.d means and. whether otle spends w.ealth in a lawfur or Uo~awfut WHy. The eatire scheme of ~c(}llomk life in Islam has been built ()D. the liue that subject to certain restrictions an' lad ividu al sbccld enjoy freedoQJ in economic acuvity: I ba1JD jlJst poirttf'd out that fn:cd"M of tb. individual b-o-Jds primacy ln Islam, !;IDd it is en &his freedom lhat Islam bases its C'otire programme of bumatl development. It is for the preservatiou of this freedom tb.a.t jt bee-orne, imperative to concede the ri,abt of' individual OWDl:rfSbip ever tt:onoruic tIlC"ans aud resoueces. If the riSh! of jndividual

PJ,lNClPL!S AND OIliIEC'tl vss OP ECoNOMtC

owru:nhip it curbed and all eco.nomic me-ails are taien under public ccntrcl, indlvid .... at freedom becomes extinct, for all iQdiv~.dU:tll 1brll bc:.::oml employees of that inathutioD wbich C::lerc:iJ.e.s monopol y eon Iro) oYer aU the CCoQom i~ res,OllrCCI of I b It state.

Eq .It.hle D'.trtbutIGI .

Aoothtr lmpcrtant rule or t"slamic cl;ODomy is. to establish

• ,yS,lC! III of equ i lEl hie: T& ther tha Dc-qua 1 dis tr I bu t ion of wGa I th+ ' Is ia m dOC-I not I!! nv Is-ion eq nil 1 d t 5 t r i buti 0 D of eeo nom ic resou rce ~ amen gin d\';I Id u al i at.a. ll, The atu den t of Qu.raa is boun d to realise that no two- things aTC equ~1 in the universe - 'equal di.'itribuftoD i.9. !'Q unnatural", Have all individuals b.:e-n I!:Ddow~d witb Ihe 1~rne d.egr~1!! of heahh'! Au: BU indivi~uals blessed .hh the same !C:\I'd of iDtl!lIi811!!IJCC!? 00 aU penotl$ ha.c equlllly strODe. m(:moriC:1 1 ArC! aft persons equal in bel1utYt i-ll"eDatb a1:ld a bi 11 ty? It, HI .1 t persene born under the 'Slit me cOdd i tiOIU. and do .n of them wat" un d er t hG :Sa me $e t ()f ei rcu;m!tllocn ,. If eq 1111.1 it), in such t bin £!i is aoe-ex itteal, wba 1 IIlt80iQg ca n equa' t Iy tD tile me:aos of prod uctioa 0 r dis! ri hu tion or 'W.flillt'b holds ?

Thi:S. i~ virtually impOllihh!: and whcoflvlr artificial tQoalilY is IO\1ltu 10 be esta hli:8bcd~ th IS a tte m pot will Jnev i tl br, rail aDd win entail vidolJUI consequences, Heocc Islam doc! not ~njoiQ CqIJD] di!itribuLioll or economic QJean! and products, but ordln eq_QiLablt di,.trHnltioll aDd JaYI (Iowa certain regul.tiolls for the ma i uten:ll nee of equ i t y. The 6 r1 t reid I ali on is t bit T !lam let !I up 11 dis ti 11:t:1 iOIl be l w~cn II w ful and unla wful me BDS. of income+ 011 tbe other b,1nd H co~del1he ri&hl of trce enterptise to the individual and recognlm Ilis ttlht 10 k~ep the lawfuJly .eara.~d wealth. OD thCl ether hand it bal d:rawil boundary lines betwe:eq l ... ruf In 4 D nrl "rul 'Ways or earning we-altho In b.laJII an ladh"idual is absolutely rtll!!e to ea.na bit Ij'yelihood by lawful mtiUS. In thhi ells Ii!: DO Telt ri~t ioo i:l j rllpott:d 01] hi m u to r.!:u: _Ibod s be adgp is or t be amObDt or .... e .. ltb he e aras. AD indi.idual i5 the ri;ght(ul owuer or his .Iawfllily carned wealth. No OM h:ll5 ttJ,e: fi&ht to put Iil ccUi.n1 on hil IawCW PO:tKilioQi

as

0.. 4 ppropriate tbem. lIowtver nO ind i vidllai has the right to own B grain or w:b!!llt has Co m e to ll: im tb rougb 'U D la wru 1 m e ans, Tbe 10 d i v i d lJal wiJ I be rordbJy pr cvented from 0 btaiu iIlS iH ici t e.rniD~'+ He ha, DC Icgal title: tn such e:lfDiDgs. He shaU be punished lftlh imprilonl1lent, fille or forfeiture accordiog to t be na t U IC of h j IS cri me ~ i8 n d d ~ ter rent measures Sohal! also be take n to ~r eve %ll 1 be i cci deuce of this; crime ..

The mean S dec late d unla wfu t by lilam are t h e!i.e:: misa ppro pr j a ti OQ* bri be ry ! us u rpa l ion" e mbl:;ulemen t of Pu b J i~ Fundi (rrom. Bair-al~Mal). feloD), t SpU.dOUi weights and me .. sure s. B u siness w hie h pr oIIlO rei imwor ali ty t such AI prostitution, manufacture and trade of wioe and other rntoxicall ts, U!::.I:ry I ail m bJ iLl i!1;, ip.ec: ul at iOD and al J f 0 rJD.I of $ a Ie, under false pr I: ~ enc es or d l1re$:!! t .0'" which gi ve ri~c: to dis pu te ot (rictjon or which arc derogatol), to equity or public interest ... I.Li m eU rbi t be: se mea os. by r orce of 1a w. Beti d C'I.. it bani :boa r d i rJ8 and prev entl th e forma don 0 ( such mOD opo I iea al d.privc: the co m mon pu bllc from a VB.ilint of wet [th .D d the me:.ns of its product ~ 00 Vii t hout reascca ble cause ~

A II weal t 11 w b ieh a man earns by meaDS other thaD Chose Hat=: d :lit bo vlt is b i~ 1& w f u I prope rty • " He: call a va H of 1 bit J8 wful 'WI"J Ih perf.O o.a Ily. He c..a Il t ran!r ei' i 1 at ai n: or re w.i rd to SO meani! a tso, H e oi:i!liD i D ves l i I j n some: cn terpri le to eam mOre:! ~~I.} tb. an d call leave i I as l nh =:Ii ta nee for his neirs. The re il, no ceiling CD tb.b lawful lIi!:allh which curb i~s. further growth. If a. mill hal the- potential 10 become a muiti-milJicnairc: by lawfuJ means, h~m does not nand in bis way~ He can make as mll.(:h money a~ he likes, provided be dues it by legal means. The patent fat( Is thal J t j:!l Dot -t3~y to p.ilC! up milliolls. by ti.shtflll means. He is a doubly blessed person who earns mil lions b ~ ,i m pe ,"CIl bl e mean ~~ 0 t be. rwis -= ord i nB r Il y ther~ i, little r-oom for anyone 10 become a mlllioaaire by honest means. The' bct~ bow.e'ver remil3nl tbat li[arn places no restraint on .nyane. A man "all earn 10 the maximum prevlded he dees so by law-rul means, Islam places .1:10 hi.ndl::r&.ner:: in tbe "Way of aD b(.)n'C5-t man, for ... ndu-c restramt s.uppreJis-ft iJ)ceJlliY':: for _ork.

PllNClltl.8& '" 'N D OBj~CTl VES Oli' tCOl'rlOr.UC ~

Afler aU this., the • ase of lawrully earned wo::aUb l~ .aa;airi subject to Cf!TtJ iD conditions,

As re ga rds pen-ana l ex pe use, I slam I ays down the eead iLion

lha] it should harm neither the moralL1y of Ihe pl!:rs.all bim:self Dot j.eo p ardi!ioC: pu bl lc i uteres t i U Kl!!!u':ral. The ind i '" ~d u.a' is not .11owc:d to. drink; wine, or indulge in rU[llieatlU'D -naT is. he permitted to fritter away his. w~aHti. in 8Imbl~ng, He js absolutely rorbidd-C:1l to have recourse to allY form or uc.I.lLwful ph:a::iUTe. He must not eat in vessels of gold and s.i lver, :!UJ much :SO tbal If he adupt& an abnormally b.gb Stj" t~ o{ living, checks may be: applied IIga.o;S1 him. A5 rCKlifds savini a portion of oDe's weaHh .BDd WilbboJd~llg it f'om circulation, b!am. d isa pproves QF i, L

Islam enjolus that !ii .. ving~ should be put into la.;\'"ful chaneels of circulation.

U pOD lD d jvtd u a I hoi d ~nn r 15 lam imp 05.CS Zak a t unde r 3.

Spi!da] law. I!iO that a portion ot tUl:b boldhliS ii compuhi:Olily trl1fl:iferrc d to de PI i ve d 1ec:tio D3 of SlO~ lety and pub I ic 5 fl rvi ~U. U PCD flit ud Y you w iJ l fi lld t hat 'p ili1l8 up trea suees l s one of lhose practices; which have been most vehemently denounced iu t he QUr-a o. T reasures or gold .a nd :I i I ve r b u j It up by the pe op h: wHt he! I,l~ed to brand them in hell, !Ul)' I [be QutalJ. TM:f I" becauSi~ Allah 1HlS created wealth for the good .of mankind:

So no one has the rjgbt to. store it, The right course is to earn by lawful rm::iilnl!!i. spend un onl!tl!i [eeitimatc:: ne!!ds, and put theta'Vjn,1 jute lawful channels of circular ion,

. FOT l bis same reasnn, Isla m forbids hear ding also. Hoard, iDS lSi de~ntd as wilful ·storiJl: up ef goml~ with .:J. \'it:w to a« ilhng shorts g;~ and r ais i ng pr ic-es. T his IS h an ned by 1 slam tc 13Vl. A man sno uld t r .. ,.iI: in J, fair m anne]". J f you h a ... e st ocks rur !iI.II.ie nod there is a demand for them in the marker, you have

~b rational ca use to wi tbb oJ..1 their s aJ e. .

Wilful b{]~& with a v1ew to crearing s.luJrtaglJ turns 3 tEadtr Into a robber. .That is why lshun OppO~I;'Si the creation of Li.nf air m onopolles, for tb.::)' preve nt the access ul' cum men people to econo.rnje: rUOU rces . IIi am forbids- tbe reilervation or ttl I ain

ec 0 11 om ie opponunities Or m eans for a f cw ptivBeged individu.I,~ famlii.es or das.ses ardl d~barrins others. from avaiJi.Dg tbese opportunities or means, _

_ Jf at all any kind of monopoly is held Iawful by J&IUD, it H tbat which is absoluielv essential for securing rmblic good. OtherWise Islam keep.§, z he fieId of economic activity open to ani aUol\-ing !DaJ.Un urn SC(JP~ 10 individual Pilter-pdse. If an individual wishes to put his b.r.. ·pings to work I he can onJ)' do so in way& W hie b. h av e been appro v~d by h~ am. U nla wiui means as. .il1dtca ted above cannot be used.

Soc: ia I E: ig,hB

Again Islam iIDP(,.:,t~ social rights o.,.er indl,vidual wealth in various forms,

You wiJi fiwd in tbe Quran that lhe rjghts of kindred have been mc::nti Coned. T h j,l im pI i es th a t apart f l'QID him sel f ~ his. relatives too have 3 daJ...lls on his personal wealth. Each member of the: society who possesses surplus weahh 11 Individually responsible for rendering assist ance according to hls means to such of .b is rel a uves IlS c annot obt ain adeq ll.B.k livelihood, If each fam.ily in a nation realises this duty all famiHes would be pro" ided for and a ram iJy needing external a.ss.,iStaDU _ou.Jd :sca.r(ely be found. ·rhat is wby under tbe head of }~n .... _,.;... Rl gb ts of M.1 c, the H"-J 1)' Qu ran ace OI'd J the ·forl!::ttlosl place r (I tbe righ ts or parents and l j lid red ,

Similar~y the Hnly QLl1~n impose! the right or nligbboun Urn" aD individuals' wealth. Thj:!J implies that tbe aMueQt of each lccality, street or ward art: uDdeL' aa (lbHsation to support the n:lath·~ry less fortllnate ~ indigent families of tbe :IIaro-e area, Ne,l;, t to t beslt: t Yo 0 e bl iga ti on s. the H ol y Qur an p U l.s every we:ll-~('t-d~ person under an obligation to support to the b~st of bjs means anyone whu ~HC1t5 Or needs hi-s assistance :

· • The ill p plica:Ol { J.f L.. ) and t he deprived b as a ri!bt on the we.dth or people. (AJ-Qut'ao) The $l... is one who solicits your help. It does not mean

the professlonal ~E.Bar. It refers to a 8£l"Jujnely needy person who solicits your aSl~~tance. Before lendiJ)B .&listadCC. bORt¥er:l

paiNCllPtE'S A.~D 08JICT1YU or £COl-lOMJC J I

you must verify th:lt hls need i;'j. genuine, And jf he is rea]fy needy and provided that you have surplus mC41n~. let it he known to you that be ba:i right on youI' wealth,

A., for the I..kr .. rived, it fol:ft:"f5. to iili person who does out solic It you r u:si;.taw .. : c, bu t a b lJU t w I1Qm you k 11 ow t h J t he is ~ hort of m ca n~ 0 r is to t aU y J~pT; red, T h is pc rsou, too. h as. .;1; claim on your wealth. 'lesiJes these ri)thtl!., Islarn h01 s issued a general injunction to Muslims lu ·~r.eJJd. in till':- \ .... ay of ... \!Jab Hn(~ has thus c!\tablj~lH;J Ute .(:lalm of SOcl-fly anti state nn inUjyiulH.l.r:'i wealth. Tbc purpose of this injunction i_~ to inclJk~tL1 to a f..1us~jfll the qualities of gc-neru:!i.itj' t l arge-heartedncss, consideration and phiL'ulthropy. Not out of s.crflsh motives. but fur winlliog the good. \1p. i II of A II a hal one jaM ushm s b ou ld - gen-erally s.pend his. wealth ill all works of common go.cd and to ruJfil every need of rei ~ &i 011 and societ y • This i, a tre m ~n d 0 us rn or a 1 spit it which Islam breathes into each rndiyiduaJ Muslim through education and (railliog and. tnc genera] environment of r~lamj.; soci-etYt so tElat not by coercion but by Cree·wiU b.e should p1r,.mote the common good t)f society.

Zabl

N9t to thl!i voiuntary ~pelldill&, there i!i: anctber cOJIlpuJtor'Y levy impo~u:d by Islam i .. ~ .... Z.d:u, 'l;\hich Is imposed ('In aecumulated wealth t trade goods, various fonn!. of business, agricultural produce, and cattle. Its purpose is 10 create a fund for the support of economlcally Jtprc:ise.d C~IUs;U.

These two k r uds of spe ndi ng art com par a bi t! to IN afa!' (optional) NaP~M.~ and I Faruz' (obligatory) Numaz+ You can offer NaJal Samar as much or as little as you like. The more spiritually advanced Or the nearest to AHah yQU WQuJd Iike to be" the more Nafal N amaz you would ofl'er~ But Fara.z: Namaz is &1\ obliga&ion wbk:h you mus;t perform. Tile like is tbe case with Fspending for the ~ake of Allah". One: form of such spc:ndmg ~ voluntary, but the other farm h; obH;gatolY and thi!i you mmU' perform, provided that yo~r weahh . t.lceed:51 the statuory limit.

You mwn d isa buse your mind of the 11 otion that Zak at is &-ome kind of tax.. h is n~( a t!:l~ bLlt a f-o-lUl of devotion, in fact

!!CONOM1C SYSTEM OF lSLA. M

..

.d.ke N a m all" it i5 an lDl port. nt arne! -t: of r aitb ill I sl aID. The coaeepu om of Zakat and the T aJ( are poles a pa rt. T ax i s lev y ;on:: i bl Y i I'!I posed on a flerson and th e pc r son . on who m it h. im po!JCd may not necess arB y like it. The t ax-p ayeI is no l til ~ disci p I e of t be tax-cclke tor. nor docs the r orrn tor be 1 ieve itl I b e righteou suess of the l a tter.

The payer eenside rs tIl eta,; a s an e-,,; e rti (In, Fe se n t sit and resor ts to several dev jets to dodge j t with cut det rim til t to h is fait b . A gain tbe bask difference between l h t.: tw CI is. t hat t a. x is imposed to meet tbe expense of public services i.e: the pllyer rfceiv~s some benefit in return for the tax-: The fundamental idea behind taxation i~ tb ut if you demand tbe proV1!liCD of certain services by the :s r a te, yo (2 shoul d PilY to the 50t ate a p roporti on ate .ra te On you r weal th. Thi-s lax i~ a s or r of subscri pt i on wh ich i:g ex acted by ~ f orce of law for rhe p.r 0 vision uf Pu hi ie set .... ice of whkh you are a beneficiary. 10 contrast to this Zakat is a form of devotion, Di ucb like the N am az, It j s lev i ed by [10 act of P arliamen t or L egisl ative A$sem bly. I t is j rn posed by A II a b ~ Whom every Musli..nl .. c k now ledges as b is righ,r u 1 Deity. Any In a n Ij\' h 0 wisht:d :to preserve hi So f a.i I h ca n not resort to evasive

_ tact i~ or cheat ins: j n the :p ay ment of Zak at, Indeed c ven if tb ere is. .1)0 extern&! agenc'1 t (I ailSess 8 ad recei ve Z aka t from hi IJ] .. (he fait~ful will personally assess his. Zakat and pay it velun ... ! uily , A gai D t he revenue of Zaka t f U ad Is reaerved for those dasses ooJjI who fot CI1Ulie or the other , have received Ettie or no share from the common wealtll, or arc de pri ved, tern porarily or permanently.

In in natural basis. spirit and form the Zakat js, quite unljke the tax The Zakat fund cannot be channelled into road, raiI or canal huddi1l3 or administrative account. but is meant fot fulfllling t :It riib ts of s pccial!y deserv j n g person! as ao ac', "of ~'onbill' uruainm by God~ It is Otic: of the five; articles of f.litb

~ in bla&n and no ben.efit of .Zakat $:1 ve tbe! s:oodwiJl of Allah and ~w 3 rd in the Hereafter can aeerue to the dODot.

Sore e peopl-e 5ufl'"~r from the iUu:!ij on ta at tb ere is .Il 0 I ax i D , iSlam s.v-e Zilk"at aDd Kharaj (land lax). But the Holy Prophet

...... , -

rJlIMCI1W A'N 0 O'BJlCTll'U: 0' rICONDM[C

(peace -Ll nd bJegil'l,8!!i1 of All ah be upon him) bas. clea rly dec I· ared~

I ~ Then is. a el aim 000 the w!a rtb of tbe people .a bo .... e and beyond Zakal".

A" ~ matter cr fact the hU,d; .'!IboUshed b}' Shari.at wen:" those which ~re imposed by Cae!lan, Emperors and their nobles j n order to til~ their p"r!nonaJ colfer and fo r f lie r~c~ir t 3 od ex pease of" wbich they w~ re a-ccount able to no bod y + A.IIi

for tb~ tU""5 which a Government run on the principle of Sb u ra (i.e _ a governm I! nt in wb ic h cl e'r.: isionz are made ill consul tal ion wi th an :!dv hliOry cou nc i I) If:vi~$ by pnpul ar eo nsent and advice ~ the receipts of which are deposited ill the Public exchequer to be spent ill coasultetic n with the people for which [he G ove rn rnent is accountable to the pebl te " ,. . for t be im position of such tQ~es there is. no bar til S.had at. I f prior to the est abl Usb m e nt of ttle I'l a.m Ic Oovernmeot, there e:l ids in society an iniqu ito 1,'18 dOl ly5t1l!: Ill, or "Some cl asses h.\'1I: grab bed exorbitant wea.ltb by unlawful me3U:S. the bLamic OOYc:rDI1'IC"t can remedy theae iUs by levying taxes r ather than res nrti ng toe 00· fiscat ion of P ro pet LY • The G ()vernmell.t "ellu also J) ut in f nrce other Jslataic law.!!:, to break the concentratlon of wealth,

T he resort to Con Ils.cation of P.ro perty OC:~SI..it .tf:l:SI tile del cgat lOll of s uch .utOl:TltiQ powers • w b icb once gi v~n cannot be limited, Thus nne fyranny is! !HI.C~JOO hy a worse one,

L.w of Iuhe:rltaMt

I" ad d itlon t'O" thia, I, lam h as also e nacted a l nw ~f 1 nher i tance which purports to dlstributc the estate of the deceased accord in g to a tixaf rate ever the w iJ'I::it possi ble ci rc: le of in hf!:rhotS. The fird nne or he ITS: to the weal th of a deceased person

are bis mother. father , wife and children, NI!!!Jtt com-e hid ...

" "

brothers and $i,ten. In the thir.I llne stand the close r.e1ative:l

of the deceased,

If a m an dies intestate tile whole nation is hii heir and ~tS e nt ire esta te shall be IT ansf erred tot be P u bJ lc exc hequer,

11'1 ese the n":IIT"(! the pri.nc i ples and 1 a ws W h ich I:;.j.it m sets

do W Jl f er the 000 eri n_g or nu r ec 0 n omic lif e. 1'1' it 11 In the sc 0 pe

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful