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Outcomes & Evidence
Progress Inventory*
Center for Student Leadership Development
Memorial Union
University of Rhode Island
Date Enrolled:
Date of Graduation:

Leadership Inventory Revised 8/30/2013

*The Outcomes & Evidence Progress Inventory is the intellectual property of the Center for Student Leadership Development (CSLD) at
the University of Rhode Island and cannot be reproduced in part, or in its entirety, without the written permission of the acting
Assistant Director of the CSLD.


Center for Student Leadership Development Information
Minor Information
Developmental Model
ADVISING INFORMATION (students will include own documentation)
Tracking Sheet / Advising Updates
Syllabi of Minor Classes (Core and Electives)
o Guidelines
o Syllabus
o Mid-term
o Final
Outcomes (Self-Leadership, Interpersonal and Organizational, Leadership Theories, Inclusive Leadership, Critical
Targeted Classes

Leadership Inventory Revised 8/30/2013


Office: Memorial Union Room 210

Phone: (401) 874-2726

Fax: (401) 874-5317

CSLD Mission Statement

To enhance the mission of the University of Rhode Island, The Center for Student Leadership Development aims to:
Provide developmental opportunities for all students to become informed, inclusive, effective, and ethical leaders in the global marketplace through the implementation of
learner-centered academic, experiential, and co-curricular programming.
Engage in research, assessment, and advancement in order to positively impact the expanding field of leadership studies.
CSLD Vision Statement
The URI Center for Student Leadership Development will promote dynamic strengths-based leadership development through multiple delivery methods to prepare students to be
competitive in the work place and global marketplace. The CSLD seeks to progress as innovators for experiential engagement and enriching assessment.
CSLD Values Statement
Grounded in the Social Change Model of Leadership Development (Higher Education Research Institute), Relational Leadership Model (Komivies, Lucas, & McMahon), and Servant
Leadership (Greenleaf), the URI Center for Student Leadership Development values:
Engaged and experiential learning through a constructivist approach
Inclusion, Social Justice, and Civic Engagement
Ethical and Value-based Leadership & Relationship Building
Innovative Assessment and Presentation Models


At URI, we are among only a handful of colleges and universities across the country that offers a Minor in Leadership Studies and one that is customized for each student. We utilize
a cross-disciplinary approach to leadership education designed to complement your academic studies. All courses utilize a variety of teaching methods but ultimately include some
form of experiential learning, practical application, and reflective learning. Employers, now more than ever, are seeking candidates with exceptional skills in the areas of
interpersonal and group management, problem solving, critical thinking and effective communication. We can help with all of the above.


Regardless of your major, you can minor in Leadership Studies.

Leadership Inventory Revised 8/30/2013

Requirements may be satisfied by completing 18 or more credits related to leadership and offered by more than one department.
Twelve (12) of the 18 credits must be at the 200 level of instruction or above. A course grade of C or better must be earned in each graded course. At least 12 of the credits
must be earned at URI.
No course may be used to apply to both the major and minor fields of study. Courses in General Education or for other minors may be used for the minor* (*this does not
apply to students in the College of Business). With the exception of internship credit, all courses for the minor must be taken for a grade. The Introductory class must be taken
before the internship and the capstone course.
Application for the minor must be filed in your academic deans office no later than the beginning of the final semester or term.
Approval of the minor does not guarantee that the suggested courses will be available to you on a schedule correlated with your graduation plans nor guarantee space in any
required course.


Required Element
Introductory Course
3 credits
3 credits

Class options

Only offered in spring for first-year students

HDF 290: Modern Leadership Issues

Offered Fall and Spring for sophomores & juniors

HDF 417: Leadership Internship

Requires 40 hours/credit with a min. of 80 hours & a max. of 120 hours of documented
internship experience for graded credit



Experience through Office of Experiential Learning & Community Engagement


3 credits

Internship Class in Academic Major

The only time the major and minor can overlap

HDF 412: Historical, Multi-ethnic & Alternative Leadership

Offered only in the fall with preference given to seniors

COM 402: Leadership & Motivation

Offered in the spring and summer with Dr. Leatham


BUS 441: Leadership Skills Development


HPR 411/412: Honors Senior Seminar

1 credit


HDF 492: Leadership Minor Portfolio

Offered in the fall and spring with Dr. Cooper

Must be in Honors or have GPA of 3.3
Taken last spring semester of enrollment (some exceptions)


*Additional classes may be appropriate and therefore added to the list; see CSLD for the most updated list or bring a class that you think should be an elective
AAF 300: Civil Rights Movement in the US
BUS 341: Organizational Behavior
BUS 342: Human Resource Management
BUS 441: Leadership & Motivation (capstone option)
BUS 443: Organizational Design & Change
BUS 448: International Dimensions of Business
BUS 449: Entrepreneurship
COM 100: Communication Fundamentals
COM 202: Public Speaking

COM 402: Leadership and Motivation (capstone option)

COM 407: Political Communication
COM 415: The Ethics of Persuasion
COM 421: Advanced Interpersonal Communication
COM 422: Communication and Conflict
COM 441: Race, Politics and the Media
COM 450: Organizational Communication
COM 461/462: Managing Cultural Differences in Organizations
CSV 302: URI Community Service

HDF 416: Leadership in Organizations

HDF 417: Leadership Minor Internship
HDF 437: Law & Families in the U.S.
HDF 450: Introduction to Counseling
HPR 118: Honors Course in Speech Communications
HPR 203: The Prepared Mind
HPR 412: Honors Seminar (capstone option)
MSL 101: Introduction to Military Leadership
MSL 201: Leadership & Military History
Leadership Inventory Revised 8/30/2013

COM 208: Argumentation and Debate

COM 210: Persuasion: The Rhetoric of Influence
COM 221: Interpersonal Communication
COM 250: Small Group Communication
COM 302: Advanced Public Speaking
COM 308: Advanced Argumentation
COM 322: Gender & Communication
COM 351: Oral Comm. in Business & the Professions
COM 361: Intercultural Communication
COM 383: Rhetorical Theory
COM 385: Communication and Social Influence

GWS 150: Introduction to Womens Studies

GWS 310: Race, Class, Sexuality in Womens Lives
GWS 350: International Womens Issues
HDF 190: FirstYear Leaders Inspired to Excellence (FLITE)
(introductory course option)
HDF 290: Modern Leadership Issues (introductory course option)
HDF 291: Rose Butler Browne Program Peer Mentoring Program
HDF 412: Historical, MultiEthnic, & Alternative Leadership
(capstone option)
HDF 413: Student Organization Leadership Consulting
HDF 414: Leadership for Activism and Social Change
HDF 415: FLITE Peer Leadership

MSL 201: Military Skills and History of Warfare

MSL 202: Leadership & Team Building
MSL 301: Leadership & Management
PEX 375: Women in Sport Contemporary Perspectives
PHL 212: Ethics
PSC 304: Introduction to Public Administration
PSC 369: Legislative Process and Public Policy
PSC 504: Ethics in Public Administration
SOC300/WMS350: Women and Work
THE 221: Stage Management
THE 341: Theater Management

Leadership Inventory Revised 8/30/2013


Wilson, 1998 (URI Memorial Union / Center for Student Leadership Development)
Revised after the publication of Exploring Leadership: for College Students Who Want to Make a Difference by Komives, McMahon and Lucas, 1998.

You need to have your own act together before you can lead others:
2. Lead Yourself

1. Know Yourself
Lead Others




Time management
Self care
Self discipline
Develop and maintain family,
interpersonal, and intimate relationships
Academic, social, personal goals and


former stages as you

4. Develop and Refine


Leadership theory and

Group Development
Citizen Activist Skills
Critical Thinking
Teaching and Programming

3. Broaden Your Perspectives

Understand others

Hierarchy of needs
Racial, cultural, gender, sexual orientation,
religious, class, ability, etc. diversity and
Power, privilege, oppression, liberation;
individual and institutional discrimination

In this section, you will track your progress toward the outcomes. Each class in the minor targets different outcomes; all of the classes list these
outcomes on the syllabi (the words goals or curriculum areas may be used instead). In many of our classes, the assignments can serve as your
evidence. Periodically, and not less than at the end of each semester, you should update your outcomes progress. In the additional experiences
column, name additional classes or experiences that contributed to you becoming proficient in that outcome. As the semesters pass, you will think of
things from recent semesters and semesters further in the past, or people or jobs, etc. in your past that also influenced your progress on that outcome.
Do not let that ambiguity upset you. Reflecting on development is not a linear process, but it does help to reflect often. In the descriptive notes
column, share insights about your growth, lack of progress, successes, stumbling blocks, etc. At the end of each section, you need to include evidence
that supports your development toward the outcomes. Copies of papers, grading sheets, evaluation lettersanything that shows that someone has
determined that you have demonstrated proficiency (or not, or are making progress). Make sure to keep electronic copies of all of your evidence to
include in your Portfolio.

Outcome Category: Self-Leadership


Target class

Additional Experiences

Descriptive notes regarding learning and practice

Student will demonstrate personal,

organizational, and academic examples
of self-discipline

HDF 190

Living in a dorm; Honors College;

College life


Student will demonstrate the ability to

manage emotions

HDF 190
HDF 413

FLITE Retreat: A Day of Discovery

Hillel Retreat


Student will demonstrate knowledge of

stress management methods

HDF 190


While college has so far been the best experience of my life, its also been the hardest environment to
stay disciplined. Its not very difficult maintaining a healthy schedule of studying, friends, and keeping
myself active for me. However, it has been a wake-up call not having my parents around in general.
Living in a dorm has made it tremendously hard to stay focused. Im a best friend to my roommates
and a best friend to the people on my floor, so its hard to not get wrapped up in the social aspects of
living in a dorm and on campus. However, I do a good job of maintaining equity. Academically, I have
an ideal GPA, and work extremely hard to maintain it. I realize how hard it is for students to choose
school over friends; its about finding the perfect balance and then making that balance worthwhile. Its
been an honor taking FLITE; Ive learned things about myself that I never thought would come to light.
With my top strength of WOO (Winning Others Over), Ive realized how difficult it is to abandon my
socialness and focus on schoolwork. However, Ive combatted this well and Ive surrounded myself with
great influences and high achievers. I think that you become very similar to the people you surround
yourself with, and thats why I choose successful people to hang out with. This is how I practice selfdiscipline.
The ability to manage emotions has always been a challenging part of my upbringing. Its always been
difficult for me to find the right balance between staying composed, representing myself in a way thats
strong, and being able to fully express my emotions without bottling them in. There are obvious gender
norms in todays society that cause men to not feel encouraged to share emotions; I think this is
outlandish and I encourage everybody to disregard gender norms and share their feelings whenever
they need to. My dad influenced this part of me, and I thank him for it constantly. However, I digress. A
time when I found the perfect balance was at my FLITE retreat. We had a breakout session and we
were discussing sexual orientation, and our personal stories regarding our experiences dealing with
others similar and different sexual orientations. My good friend actually came out to our small group
and began crying because of how hard its been for him to feel comfortable in his own skin and also tell
other people. I think he found solace in his statement and I think some of his tears were tears of joy. It
was beautiful to feel so close to a person and a group. I immediately wanted to cry, but I smiled instead
because I know he was looking at me and preferred happiness to negativity. Inside, I was extremely
happy for him; I still am.
I shadowed the Hillel retreat. I tried really hard to instill my presence into the retreat in a way
that was impacting but also discreet. A girl named Lindsay actually came up to me after the
retreat and asked if she could speak to me for a moment. I was thrown off because I didnt think
I really stood out to her over any of the other shadows or facilitators. Though, she still
approached me. She came to me with some upsetting news. Lindsay was having a rough time
becoming acclimated to the school year and she didnt have many friends. Consequently, she
felt trapped and she didnt leave her room much. She just needed someone to talk to. She just
needed a friend. She felt like she could talk to me about this, and we started a new friendship.
My first instinct was to honestly just start tearing up, but I knew that wouldnt be beneficial for
her or for the situation. I wanted to show her that she could find positivity even though her
situation was bleak. I contained my emotions and offered some positive reinforcement, and Im
glad I did. I think my second top strength of Positivity prevailed. Its difficult finding the light in
the dark, and finding the good in the bad. However, its possible. Managing emotions is vital to
success of you and everyone around you.
In FLITE, we took the StrengthQuest test and I learned that my second top strength is Positivity.
Having Positivity as a top strength means a lot to me because I like to live my life in accordance to it.


Student will demonstrate autonomy and a

minimized need for approval



Student will demonstrate the ability to

manage stress

HDF 190



Student will express a personal code of

leadership / membership ethics

HDF 190

The Four Agreements


Student will demonstrate practice of the

personal code of ethics
Student will express a personal values

HDF 190
HDF 413

VIA Institute
Facilitating Retreats
Humans of URI
Gallup Strengths Quest


For instance, I always see the brighter side to things. My metaphorical cup is always half full rather
than half empty. I think that this optimism helps me in stressful situations. For example, I always think
about how great it would be to complete my homework rather than complaining about how much
homework I actually have. When it comes to outcomes, I made sure I had a set number complete
through intervals leading up to the due date. I find that work is much easier to complete when theres
checkpoints. I feel that some people primarily see the negative aspects of situations and it only
disheartens them. I dont see life that way; there are so many things to be happy about and I make that
known in my own head. Specifically on the StrengthQuest, it states that lacking your energy and
optimism, some find their world drab with repetition or, worse, heavy with pressure. Thus, my positivity
is my stress management method.
We all put ourselves into categories based on our habits in the beginning of FLITE, in Melissas class.
One of these habits was list-making/organization methods, and I was put into the group that cared
deeply about organization and writing everything out. Keeping lists of everything I have to do keeps me
sane. I think its highly beneficial to spell out every task in order to achieve maximum efficiency. I
wouldnt be as successful of a person if I didnt get things done in a timely fashion. I have the top
Gallup strength of input, which infers that I enjoy collecting things. You are inquisitive. You collect
things. You might collect information -- words, facts, books, and quotations. I think this is
interchangeable with collecting assignments and activities. Its far less stressful to refer back to a list
instead of the deep sections of my brain in order to figure out what I have to do with my days. Also, I
enjoy meditation to relieve stress. Im seldom alone in my own thoughts throughout the days, so its
reassuring to allot specific times to just be by myself. Moreover, its nice to focus heavily on my
breathing. Its therapeutic. I think that everyone should meditate; its become a daily routine for me.
In the beginning of FLITE, I was given a sheet containing The Four Agreements. At first, I was
befuddled because I thought there would be many more agreements Id have to make to live a fulfilling
life as a leader. However, I realized that all four agreements cover a wide variety of positive ethics and
they all work interdependently to form a fundamentally positive set of standards. When reviewing be
impeccable with your word, I realized that this agreement is completely similar to my mission as a
person. I always aim to spread positive energy and only say things that can be productive,
empowering, and generally happy. Being impeccable entails using the power of your word in the
direction of truth and love. Moreover, its about speaking with integrity and telling the truth. This is
extremely important for every facet of communication. Dont take anything personally is my personal
favorite agreement. This agreement deals with our struggle of realizing that were all not special in the
grand scheme of things. Nothing others do is because of you. Its sad, but true. Everyone has their
own mission and their own goals and what they say and do is truly benefiting them in the long run.
Moreover, taking things as constructive criticism rather than hurtful words is productive and a great tool
I thankfully possess. This works hand in hand with Dont make assumptions. Im a big communicator
and I realize how important clarification is. I realize that if Im impeccable with my word and if I clarify
what I truly mean, no one will get hurt because of miscommunication. Finally, Always do your best. I
have been doing my best to follow the Four Agreements and they all make me a better leader and a
better person.
My values are extremely important to me and make me who I am as a person. Before taking the VIA
Institute on Character test, I think I had a good idea of what I believed in. However, this test gave me
tangible evidence of the person I really am. Thats incomparable to anything in my mind. The ability to
read my top five values to people I come into contact with is such a luxury. I even find similarities with
others based on these values and its very rewarding. For me, my top value is Appreciation of Beauty
and Excellence. This value means so much to me because its completely representative of my
personality. I like to find beauty in everything I come into contact with and I try even harder to
encourage others to see that beauty too. I love admiring people and things and looking for the best in
them. My second highest value is love. Im a people person by nature and love having deep and


Student will demonstrate practice of the

personal values statement

HDF 190
HDF 413

Humans of URI
Humans of URI- Patrick Guthlein
HUMANS Of uri brings out best
qualities- use that as a facilitatro


Student will demonstrate the ability to

lead a project from start to finish (followthrough)
Student will describe goals and objective
statements regarding personal issues,
career issues, and community issues
Student will show evidence of goals and
objectives that were planned and

HDF 190

Humans of URI

personal connections. I also love spreading my positivity around the world and trying to make a positive
change. My following values are Love of Learning, Creativity, and Fairness. All of these values
represent my personality. While they all work interdependently, I see them all present in my everyday
life working together. Values are things that everyone has and I will continue to nurture them in a way
that helps me become my best self. I chose not to retake the VIA Institute because I really enjoyed
my values and I think they are still applicative today. Ive been growing into my values rather
than growing out of them and Im grateful for that. For instance, Im now given opportunities to
actually let them shine. Facilitating retreats utilizes everything Ive learned in the Leadership
Minor thus far and that includes my values. Moreover, my strengths of WOO and
Communication have helped me connect to the community and also express myself. WOO
opens doors because I work hard to develop connections with people and leave an impact on
them. This is encouraged by my communication skills. Ive improved heavily on communicating
through Humans of URI, where I interview various students, and facilitating retreats because its
sometimes difficult to address an entire group. However, Im comfortable
After finding out my personal values through the VIA Institute and thanks to FLITE, Ive become a much
more self-aware person. For instance, Ive seen my values become apparent in my everyday life. I can
now attribute my fascination with all kinds of people and activities to my Appreciation of Beauty and
Excellence top value. I look for the beauty in all things and I advise others to do the same. On campus,
Im the co-founder of Humans of URI. Through this job, I see and interview many different kinds of
people. A huge insecurity of some of these people is their regularity. They tell me that theyre not
interesting when I ask if I could interview them. I politely respond, The fact that youre a unique
individual is interesting. The fact that youre the only you in this room is exciting. I appreciate
everything they have to offer and I wish they saw it in themselves. I enjoy letting them know that I love
everything they say to me and that Im happy they feel comfortable sharing. FLITE has taught me that
my values are applicative in any scenario I choose to let them show. Values are representative of ones
personality and Im lucky to know mine and lucky to relate them to Humans of URI. Ive noticed that
people have found an outlet with my program. I sometimes echo the idea that Humans of URI
offers an experience for people to share a story or perspective that would otherwise be
suppressed. Patrick Guthlein is an example of someone who responded deeply to a question I
asked, and this acted as a catharsis to him. He spoke of his grandfather, his father, and his
brother. Hes moved around often and found a best friend in his older brother. He told me that
he wanted to tell him that he looked up to him. This struck an emotional chord. I found beauty in
his solace. I loved learning about his inner self and the things that were actually important to
him. Im thankful my program gives me that opportunity. Moreover, Humans of URI brings out
the best qualities in people. I can use that mindset and strategy as a facilitator. Being
personable and communicative is necessary in a retreat mindset and Im glad Ive gotten the
opportunity to have experience with both of those skills.

I have recently pioneered Humans of URI with my best friend Emma Lamy. Humans of URI is a spinoff
of Humans of NY and entails us walking around campus and interviewing various students, and then
taking their picture. With their consent, they go on our Facebook page and Instagram. We ask them
various interview questions like, If you were to die today, would you be happy? Along with other
introspective questions. If the recipient has a story, viewpoint, or outlook that they want to share, its
encouraged. Weve actually had people share their interesting culture stories and struggles with
America. Its an amazing process. Our first goal when making Humans of URI was to have 100 likes
on our page. When this happened, we were elated. Our next goal was 150. Check. These goals kept


Student will show knowledge of the

Hierarchy of Needs theory by Maslow


Student will show application of Maslows

theory to own life
Student will describe personal leadership
style and/or personality style including
strengths and weaknesses and examples
of application (Sources = Leadership style
inventories, the L.P.I., StrengthsQuest,
Type Focus (MBTI), LAMP, and other
career inventories, etc.)



Student will show knowledge of the theory

of Superleadership by Manz & Sims
Student will show application of Manz &
Sims theory to own life

Outcome Category: Leadership Theories

HDF 190

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

HDF 190

Gallup Strength Finder Test/ VIA


increasing in increments until we got around 500 likes. At this point, the URI Facebook and Instagram
actually wrote an article about Humans of URI and our likes began to skyrocket. Were around 700
likes currently and it felt great to set goals and then actually achieve them. Its been an extremely
rewarding process. Pertaining to FLITE, Im sure Emma would have the Achiever Gallup Strength if
she took the test. She pushes me, and Humans of URI, and ways I never saw possible. I wouldnt have
been able to do this without her. While Im very successful with communication tactics and finding
people to interview, she truly pushes us to achieve our small and larger goals.
Abraham Maslow was an American psychologist accredited with his Hierarchy of Needs. This pyramid
entails the innate needs humans have to fulfill in order to live, and fulfill self-actualization. Maslows
intention was to ascertain what motivated people; he also wanted to find out what was behind these
motivation systems. The earliest and most widespread version of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
includes five motivational needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. This five-stage
model can be divided into basic needs and growth needs (self-actualization). The deficiency, or basic
needs are said to motivate people when they are unmet. Also, the need to fulfill such needs will
become stronger the longer the duration they are denied. You must satisfy lower level basic needs
before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. Once these needs have been reasonably
satisfied, one may be able to reach the highest-level called self-actualization. The pyramid is as
follows: 1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep. 2. Safety
needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, freedom from fear. 3. Love and
belongingness needs - friendship, intimacy, affection and love, - from work group, family, friends,
romantic relationships. 4. Esteem needs - achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance,
prestige, self-respect, and respect from others. 5. Self-Actualization needs - realizing personal
potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.
I took the Gallup Strength Finder test and I was extremely pleased with the results. Everyone in HDF
190 had to take the test and I think everyone found out a lot about himself or herself. My top five
strengths are: WOO, Positivity, Ideation, Input, and Communication. I think WOO is extremely useful
when it comes to being a leader. I try to leave a positive impact on everyone I meet and always aim to
make a good impression. Im also good at relating to people and making it easy for them to like me.
This will definitely come in handy with my business major. Being a Marketing major, Im going to have
to relate to people of different backgrounds and Im going to have to convince them to like my ideas
and me. Im capable of this and will continue to improve. Positivity helps me turn negative situations
into learning experiences. The positivity inside me influences my entire outlook on life and Ive realized
that having a positive outlook directly influences a positive outcome. Ideation works well with my VIA
value Love of Learning. Im always yearning to learn more about the world around me and I try to take
a lesson from every single situation Im in to make myself a better person. All in all, my strengths work
together in a way that best suits my leadership style. I am a people person and I value that about
myself. These strengths have opened my eyes up to who I really am on the inside. Also, they go hand
in hand with my values. My top value of Appreciation of Beauty and Excellence makes me see the
world in a positive light and gives me genuine appreciation of the beauty inside everything and
everyone. This helps my positive outlook on life. Ive also realized that I can nurture both my values
and my strengths and turn them into multifaceted skills and characteristics to make me into a better
person and leader.



Student will show knowledge of the
Authority and Bureaucracy theory of
leadership Weber
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Weber)
Student will show knowledge of the
Scientific Management theory of
leadership by Taylor

Student will describe personal application

of the above theory (Taylor)
Student will show knowledge of the
Management by Objectives theory of
leadership by Drucker
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Drucker)
Student will show knowledge of Theory
X and Theory Y theory of leadership by
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (MacGregor)
Student will show knowledge of the
Servant Leadership theory of leadership
by Greenleaf

Target class

Additional Experiences

HDF 190

HDF 190

Descriptive notes regarding learning and practice

Frederick Taylor composed the Scientific Management theory of leadership. The four principles are as
Replace working by "rule of thumb," or simple habit and common sense, and instead use
the scientific method to study work and determine the most efficient way to perform specific
Rather than simply assign workers to just any job, match workers to their jobs based on
capability and motivation, and train them to work at maximum efficiency.
Monitor worker performance, and provide instructions and supervision to ensure that they're
using the most efficient ways of working.
Allocate the work between managers and workers so that the managers spend their time
planning and training, allowing the workers to perform their tasks efficiently.
I empathize with number two because of FLITE. After finding out our strengths and values, I feel that
we all had a better understanding of our positions in a group dynamic. It can be surmised that the
WOOs will all walk into a room and immediately feel comfortable with everyone theyre working with,
but some other top strengths may not feel so comfortable. Its about understanding these differences
and working to overcome them. People are most efficient when they are comfortable in their
surrounding and their environments enable them to succeed. They have to be placed in the jobs they
will excel the greatest at. I can also relate to number three. In FLITE and more specifically these
outcomes, Ive been reflecting on everything Ive accomplished and this is a form of monitoring my
performance. After viewing everything Ive done, I can ascertain where I need to improve and what Ive
done well. The Scientific Management theory of leadership is highly applicative to my own life.

Servant Leadership Model

Robert Greenleaf believes in leadership involving selflessness and voluntary action. He feels that this
action should be completely impulsive and natural. It starts with a natural feeling to serve others. I
think that the epitome of servant leadership opposes people who do things because they feel like they
have to. Its doing things because you feel compelled to. Servant leaders are often times in a
subordinate position and hired to work for another person. This shouldnt matter to the servant leader
because he/she enjoys the feeling of serving, not the feeling of recognition. Some characteristics of
servant leadership are persuasion, listening, awareness, conceptualization, and empathy. Empathy
really sticks with me because I feel that its necessary in anything involving other people. Im a
Marketing major and I have to relate to others in a business setting and I have to relate to all the
consumers I come into contact with. Furthermore, I have to be able to put myself into the shoes of the
people I leave positive impacts on. Character doesnt come out when youre in a crowd full of people;
you are whom you are when no ones looking.


Student will describe personal application

of the above theory (Greenleaf)


Student will show knowledge of the

Principle Centered Leadership theory
by Covey
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Covey)
Student will show knowledge of the 14
Points / TQM theory of leadership by
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Deming)
Student will show knowledge of the
Visionary Leadership (now often cited
as Transformational Leadership) theory
by Sashkin
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Sashkin)
Student will show knowledge of the
Individuals in Organizations leadership
theory by Argyris
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Argyris)
Students will demonstrate knowledge of
the 4 Vs theory of leadership by Grace
(Center for Ethical Leadership)
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Grace)



HDF 190
HDF 413

Learning Contract

Servant Leadership is about serving others and putting others first. Servant leadership embodies
selflessness and doing things for others that dont necessarily benefit you. For my Learning Contract,
Elana Rivkin and I initiated a project to try to share the perspectives of URI students on sexual
orientation, and hopefully enlighten people who have negative perspectives. We want to illustrate that
sexual orientation is just an ordinary characteristic of someone that doesnt necessarily define him
or her and we want to try to change the heteronormative society we all live in. We feel that this kind
of society is problematic for the people that arent heterosexual. Moreover, the straight community
underrepresents this movement; being heterosexual, we had the ability to stand up and make a
change. Its evidently authentic and passionate for us since we dont really directly benefit from this
project. Hence, I feel that servant leadership is completely applicative to what weve been doing.
Learning about others in the process has been very rewarding and has helped my strength of
Communication. When interviewing people and trying to make them feel comfortable enough to share
their most personal aspects of their life, its crucial to listen and make them feel heard. Were working
toward a more open and friendly environment for everyone regardless of sexual orientation and Im
glad this could be accomplished with the Learning Contract in FLITE.
Similarly, our group SOLC plans and facilitates retreats with other groups on campus. Having a
more community-based campus indirectly benefits us, but the direct benefit is to the groups we
work with. We dont mind this. We all know we have a very selfless job. We work to make other
groups better. Its a rewarding process because we watch them flourish right before our eyes.
Also, every facilitator Ive ever met is entirely satisfied with that form of a thank-you. We dont
do it because we have to; we do it because we want to. A lot can be learned from this.
Additionally, we have leaders that push us harder and harder to accomplish our goals. People
like Allie, Caitie, Sam, and more are people whom I look up to. They never really ask for
anything in return. This motivates me to keep being a servant leader.



Student will show knowledge of the

Situational Leadership theory by Hersey
& Blanchard
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Hersey & Blanchard)
Student will show knowledge of the
Relational Leadership model by
Komives, McMahon & Lucas

Student will describe personal application

of the above theory (Komives et al)

HDF 190
HDF 413

Relational Leadership Assessment

Facilitating Retreats- which

HDF 190
HDF 413

FLITE activity in class- acting out

Co-Facilitating Colleges Against

In FLITE, I learned about the Relational Leadership model. The model covers separate leadership
components that all work correspondingly for a relational leader: inclusiveness, process oriented,
ethical, empowering, and purposeful. To me, being inclusive entails working with people from different
backgrounds to achieve a common goal. Its understanding the differences in people and working
toward making them positives; its knowing that everyone can make a difference. Empowering
provides positive reinforcement, encouraging others to work as a team. Purposeful commits to the
position, the team, the tasks, and other important goals. Ethics is driven by standards of leadership,
which are good in nature. Process-oriented entails a common goal and working toward it, while
realizing that its all about the process. I personally feel that inclusiveness is the most important
characteristic. Without inclusiveness, people wouldnt feel empowered to share their opinions. There
would be no purpose because some people would not feel integrated and there would be a lack of
communication. Ethics are present in almost everything, but people will be less likely to follow good
ethics if they dont feel comfortable or integrated. Finally, I dont think that people would share a
common goal if they dont feel happy in the group that theyre in. Inclusion is a huge aspect of my life,
and I think its the stepping-stone of the Relational Leadership Model. While studying for my Relational
Leadership Assessment, I made all the terms applicable to me, and that helped me
remember/understand them better. My assessment is evidence of my understanding of Relational
I think that every aspect of the Relational Leadership model complements each other when
working at a retreat. Were given the responsibility of helping groups and organizations work on
things like team building and group morale. This isnt possible if we, as leaders, dont enable
them to do so. We have the ability to make them feel empowered to participate, included with us
and with each other, follow a set of ethics, and focus on the purpose. This indirectly benefits
the group of facilitators. Its impossible to not feel empowered while empowering those around
you. I became so close to my team on both of the retreats I was a part of, Colleges Against
Cancer, and Hillel. I trusted my group and the leads, and in turn trusted the process. For
instance, I remember Kelly telling me that shed help me out during Hillel if I ever ran out of
things to say or needed help. I completely trusted her and Im glad I did. The Relational
Leadership model is very applicative to our objectives in SOLC.
In FLITE, my group was asked to act out a Leadership Component on the Relational Leadership Grid.
We were given Inclusive; to me, being inclusive entails recognizing, understanding, and working with
many different perspectives. Its the understanding that everyone is different and that these differences
in people are valuable. My group Pink Rock actually acted out a scene where four of my group
members and me were planning to meet at the library and form a study group. We were all being very
loud and giving our points of view, but Trent was in the background trying to talk to us and give his
opinion, and we wouldnt listen to him. This was a portrayal of a lack of inclusion. For the actual
inclusion example, I was the one that included Trent and told him wed all love to hear what he has to
bring to the table because his input is valuable. Us acting out this leadership component made it very
relatable to us, along with everyone in the class. Inclusiveness is valuable to me because I feel that
everyone should feel confident in his or her abilities. This wouldnt be made possible if they felt
Being a facilitator uses every aspect of the Relational Leadership Model in my opinion.
Specifically, inclusion and empowerment resonate with me. On the Colleges Against Cancer
retreat, I made an effort during the Mission Statement activity to sit down and talk to every
group member and try to get to know him or her on a personal level. I found out their names,
why they were in the club, and what made them happy. I developed a connection with them. I


Student will show knowledge of the

concept of constructivism

HDF 190

Constructivism Concept


Students will describe personal examples

of implementing constructivism

HDF 190

A Day of Discovery
Co-Facilitating Colleges Against


Student will demonstrate knowledge of

experiential learning in leadership
development (Kolb)

HDF 413

Kolbs Model of Experiential


made them feel heard. I empowered them. I think this helped me lead them in a beneficial way. It
was an incredible retreat. The members actually asked all of us to get a team formed for Relay
for Life, and asked us to consider sitting in on a meeting. This meant a lot to me because they
were using inclusion also. I noticed that Elana and Connor were also developing connections
with the group members. I think we did an effective job. I value genuine human connections and
I think these can be achieved in any circumstance. They make people feel included and inclined
to participate.
Constructivism is basically a theory based on observation and scientific study, about how people learn.
It says that people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through
experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. Reflection is a huge component to any
learning experience. Its easy to go through an experience and let the memory quickly dissipate.
However, this doesnt promote any personal growth; personal growth is achieved when reflection is
done. This is simply because we need to have the ability to perform constructive criticism on ourselves
to get better and see the world in a better way. Jean Piaget is normally associated with constructivism.
He suggested that through processes of accommodation and assimilation, individuals construct new
knowledge from their experiences. A schema is a developing framework for something. It can be
updated and constructed whenever a new experience happens. When people assimilate, they add a
new experience into their schemas. These experiences may change their perceptions on certain
things. When people accommodate, theyre actually reframing the mental representation of the external
word to fit new experiences. This is important for reflection. For instance, this goes hand in hand with
learning from experience and failure. Overall, constructivism is learning from experiences and
Coming to URI, I realized that it would be an open environment full of diverse people from unique
backgrounds. I also realized something important: Id be embarking on this journey of immersion by
myself. My parents would not be coming with me to college, thankfully. Thus, I had to construct my own
understanding and knowledge of my own world at URI, through experiencing things on my own, and
reflecting introspectively on those experiences. Specifically, A Day of Discovery at the FLITE retreat
gave me entire new outlooks on certain things. When we met with our small groups, we discussed
things like sexuality, socioeconomic status, and diversity. We also talked about the things in our lives
that influenced our thoughts. Thus, we talked about our experiences and then reflected on those
experiences. I never truly got a chance to think about these things before FLITE and A Day of
Discovery. This gave me a chance to concoct my own thoughts and opinions and then share them with
a group of people. Its extremely valuable. Group reflection is an extraordinary process because we all
realize how closely related we really are when it comes to our thoughts. This day gave me a new
perspective and Im happy FLITE could do that for me. As aforementioned, constructivism is
learning from experiences and reflecting on them. I wouldnt be able to facilitate a retreat if it
werent for the diverse group of people Ive become accustomed to. I recently co-facilitated a
retreat with Colleges Against Cancer. I believe Its essential to learn about the people you will
be working with. While Ive been directly influenced by cancer in my immediate family, Ive
never really seen the potential programs done to raise awareness for it. Ive always had this
entirely negative schema of cancer and thought it just haunted society by collecting names and
destroying them in its unrelenting path. I couldnt possibly see this uniting people. However,
working with these kinds of people painted this picture of hope. I saw a group of motivated
individuals focused on raising money, spreading awareness, and promoting positivity. I now
know that I can make a difference if I choose to. Ive learned from this experience and it updated
my perception of cancer in general.
Kolbs Model of Experiential Learning epitomizes the process of leading by example. It asks for an
activity, questions what we learned from it, how we can relate it to our group, and then asks for an
implementation of what weve learned into active experimentation. All of our memories, outlooks, and
personalities are defined by our experiences. Concrete experiences are a central part of all our lives.
We adjust existing schemas to reflect the evolving world were living in. We can choose to take


Student will describe personal application

of experiential learning in leadership
development (Kolb)

HDF 413

Buddy Ball
Humans of URI


Student will show knowledge of the

Social Change Model of Leadership
Development by Astin et al

HDF 190

Social Change Model


Student will describe personal application

of the above theory (Astin et al)

HDF 190

Learning Contract

something from them. Its clearly beneficial to make positives out of the things weve overcome and
lived through in our lives. Observing and reflecting is asking what can be learned from the experience,
or what you had to go through. Then, the formation of abstract concepts refers to concluding from the
experience. How has this changed me as a person? Finally, we enact what we learned. How can I
bring this forward and make a positive change? Its an interesting model because its apparent in
everyday life and its continuously impacting who we become as people and leaders. Without learning
from our experiences and implementing, wed be flat leaders. To become dynamic, we must evolve.
Kolbs Model of Experiential learning is crucial in growing me as a person, and growing me as a leader.
In high school, I participated in a program called Buddy Ball, which involved helping kids with special
needs to play baseball. Members of the program would head down to Rogers Park baseball field
around 9 oclock, get suited up, and play a baseball game aiding our buddy. While Ive grown a lot
since high school, this specific experience changed me. I was somewhat hesitant to work with people
who were different from me while I was in high school. I wasnt exactly open to the world at this point. I
accepted all kinds of people but I just never really had the chance to work with them. However, this
immediately vanquished when I helped Thomas, a 13 year old with Autism, round third base with a
smile on his face approaching his first home run. I glanced at his mom who was nearly in tears
because she was so happy her son was so elated. I noticed the monumental impact I could have on
someone by simply helping him or her out. I felt euphoric. This made me realize that I could work with
people who were different from me, and even help them overcome adversity. I learned I could not just
tolerate diversity, but I could celebrate it. Ive realized over the years that we sometimes fear what we
dont understand. This is a strange concept to me. I think that once the human race can flawlessly and
curiously celebrate our differences, there will be true strides for experiential learning. I overcame my
personal hesitance, and I now co-run a program at URI, Humans of URI, that applauds the differences
between students on campus. We offer a unique experience to share opinions, stories, and anything in
between. We give a glimpse into the lives of the exceptional people here at URI. I undoubtedly took
what I learned from Buddy Ball and use this knowledge going forward.
In HDF 190, we learned about the Social Change Model of Leadership Development. Social change
starts with an idea. Once you have an idea, you begin to grow let it grow into a lasting impact. Social
change is about changing a culture positively. In turn, it makes positive impacts on those involved in
the process. Its vital to make sure the conflict is applicable to more than one person, and that people
can relate to it. Its hard to begin a snowball effect of change without relatedness between people. The
model has three aspects (Individual, group, and community/society). Individual features selfawareness, personal values, and personal qualities. It requires the change agents to be self-aware and
have a good moral compass when trying to make positive change. Group emphasizes collaboration
and interaction between the group and the individual. It really entails forming a cohesive unit. Society
focuses on change for the common good. These three levels coexist and even work together. There
are also seven critical values in the model (consciousness of self, congruence, collaboration,
commitment, and controversy with civility, common purpose, and citizenship. These play a large part of
the model. The knowledge of the social change model has helped me become a change agent in my
own community. Specifically, I enjoy common purpose. With a common purpose, there are no limits to
what a small group of individuals can do. Passion ignites the metaphorical flame of social change and
rapidly grows among others.
Elana Rivkin and I joined forces for our Learning Contract. Weve begun interviewing people for our
ultimate goal of sharing different perspectives about sexual orientation and trying to rationalize the
thinking behind these perspectives in a video. The social change model is completely mirrored in our
project. Our project is purposeful, collaborative, and value-based. We truly think that there is an issue
in society with some peoples perspectives, and we aim to fix it. We are working together and working
with other people to try to get this accomplished. Moreover, this project is driven by our own ideologies
and values. I think that any successful project requires strong moral reasoning and passion. Without
passion, it will be harder accomplishing the goal because its not as personal or important to you. We
genuinely feel that all three clusters of values: individual values, group values, and citizenship are


Students will demonstrate knowledge of

the Leadership Identity Development
Model by Komives et al


Students will describe personal

application of the above theory. (Komives
et al)
Students will demonstrate knowledge of
the Strengths-Development Model by
Hulme et al
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Hulme et al)
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
behavior theories of leadership from
Michigan and Ohio State
Student will describe personal application
of the above theories (Michigan & Ohio
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
Charismatic leadership


HDF 190

Leadership Identity Development


HDF 190


represented in our project. We plan on posting our video on social media and hoping that it goes viral.
We want the entire community to see it and hopefully work toward our goal. I feel that Elana and I
share a common purpose, which is extremely helpful because its easy to work collectively. Weve
collaborated entirely and the project is a group effort. Individually, Im extremely committed to the
problem at hand and want to continue with it even after our project is through. Furthermore, I think hat
were both self-aware and know what we want out of this.
The Leadership Identity Development Model by Komives et al is very useful when it comes to the
understanding of leadership in general. There are six main categories (awareness,
exploration/engagement, leader identified, leadership differentiated, generativity, and
integration/synthesis). Awareness is the first stage and its one of the most important to me. It deals
with the notion that there are leaders out there who are external to self. Exploration/engagement
deals with the time period when people immerse themselves in groups and group activities. These can
come from any kind of group. Leader identified is the awareness of hierarchical nature of relationship in
groups. Leadership differentiated juxtaposes identified and deals with viewing leadership as a shared
group process. Generativity deals with empowerment if others. Lastly, integration is significant because
its the understanding that leaders can be anyone and that leaders dont necessarily have to hold a
positional role. All six stages work collectively to form the Leadership Identity Development. The
Leadership Identitty Development Model is very important to me. When I first think of it, Connor
Gowland immediately appears in my mind. Hes one of the greatest influences Ive encountered at the
University of Rhode Island. Connors encouraged me to try Greek life, take FLITE, and pursue the
Leadership Program in general. What sticks out to me about Connor is that he doesnt want me to be a
spitting image of him. Instead, he wants me to do what will make me happy. He wants me to make my
own impact on URI and be my own person. Being a leader is helping someone to become the best
person they can be.

In the beginning of FLITE, I took the StrengthQuest and VIA assessment. StrengthQuest identified my
strengths while VIA identified my values. Both of these tests taught me a lot about myself. Being aware
of what I truly care about and the ways I work best is the key to success in my opinion. Being a
charismatic leader entails the ability to inspire and motivate followers to perform at high levels, and to
be committed to the organization or the cause. One of my most memorable moments happened when I
shared my feminism project with my old high school social psychology teacher and her current class. I
gave my presentation and then took questions at the end. These high school students were eager to
learn more about what I was trying to do. This was so rewarding and gave me a new outlook on
motivating people to learn more and perform at high levels. Moreover, having WOO as my top strength
is very useful when it comes to being charismatic. Winning others over requires a skill that involves
getting new people to like me. Im rarely at a loss for words and this helps me lead in a way that is
informative and energizing. This works hand in hand with Positivity because my enthusiasm is
contagious. I think that this inspires people and motivates them to be positive and work hard. Moreover,

my VIA value of Zest works hand in hand with Charismatic leadership. I never do anything halfway or
halfheartedly. I therefore approach everything with a great mindset and stay committed to my group
and our cause. Also, my Love of Learning VIA value is heavily involved in my charismatic leadership. If
people in a group see that the leader is infatuated with the idea of gaining more knowledge and
becoming a better person, theyre much more likely to follow him/her. Motivation is contagious.

Student will describe personal application

of the above theory
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
contingency approach to leadership by
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Fiedler)
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
Path-Goal theory by House
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (House)
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
Leader Member Exchange (LMX) theory
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
Leadership Substitutes Theory
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
Models of leader emergence
Student will describe the impact of traits
on leadership emergence and
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
Chaos approach to leadership by
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Wheatley)

Outcome Category: Inclusive Leadership / Diversity and its Application to Leadership




Student will demonstrate how cultural
anthropology / paradigms relate to
Student will describe personal example
of using cultural anthropology /
paradigms as a leader
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
the Cycles of Socialization (Harro)
theory and its uses in leadership
Students will demonstrate personal
application of the Cycles of
Socialization (Harro)
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
the Cycles of Liberation (Harro) theory
and its uses in leadership
Student will demonstrate personal
application of the Cycles of Liberation
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
the Configuration of Power (Franklin)
and its relationship to leadership
Student will demonstrate personal
application of the Configuration of
Power (Franklin)
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
racial identity development via the Cross,
Helms or other models (Ferdman &
Gallegos; Kim; Horse; Wijeyesinghe etc.)
Student will demonstrate personal
application of model(s) of racial identity
development above
Students will demonstrate knowledge of
McIntoshs theory of privilege and its
relationship to leadership
Student will demonstrate personal
application of McIntoshs theory
Student will describe the differences and
similarities of individual and institutional
oppression and relationships to
Student will show knowledge of effective
leadership as it relates to change agency
Student will describe personal examples
of being a change agent

Target class

Additional Experiences

Descriptive notes regarding learning and practice

HDF 190

Project on Feminism/Learning

First semester freshman year, I took an Honors Journalism course. For our final project, we had to find
an issue that is underrepresented in the media and research it, contextualize it, present it, and
encourage people to learn about it and possibly change their views on it. I chose feminism and I
decided to try to erase the negative stigmas attached to the word and the movement. I made a video, a petition, and a Facebook group. The results were incredibly fast and incredibly rewarding. I
received an immense amount of support and it felt amazing to fight for something. I realized that I was

also displaying servant leadership because I was putting others first. The feminism debacle didnt
exactly affect me negatively, but I still fought for it. I think I really educated people on feminism and
moved peoples opinions in the right direction, making me a change agent. Moreover, my learning
contract entails changing the heteronormative society we live in, one perspective at a time. Were also
trying to contextualize the issue and present it to people via video, and our learning contract. Were
doing this through the means of interviews and talking to people. We feel that educating people and
making them realize that sexual orientation is just another ordinary characteristic will move people in
the right direction. Both of these projects have labeled me as a change agent.

Student will create a personal code of

inclusive leadership
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
the Model of Intercultural Sensitivity by
Bennett and its uses in leadership
Students will demonstrate personal
application of the Model of Intercultural
Sensitivity by Bennett
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
the ally Action Continuum by Griffin &
Student will demonstrate personal
application of the Action Continuum by
Griffin & Harro

Outcome Category: Critical Thinking


Student will show knowledge of principles
of critical thinking (logic is used in this
Student will demonstrate proficiency of
critical thinking
Student will show knowledge of
metaphorical analysis to critically analyze
self and leadership situations
Student will demonstrate proficiency of
metaphorical analysis to critically analyze
self and leadership situations
Student will show knowledge of at least five
decision making methods
Student will describe personal examples of
having used five decision making methods
Student will show knowledge of at least five
problem solving / conflict management
methods, as well as understanding the
roots of conflicts

Target class

Additional Experiences

Descriptive notes regarding learning and practice

HDF 190
HDF 413

HDF 413 Class project

In FLITE, we learned how to achieve group-defined success and positive personal experiences in
organizations. There are whimsical yet relatable titles for the five stages (in the beginning.., what the
@#$%^&* is going on?, were on the same page!, in the ZONE!, and saying goodbye!) I enjoyed these
witty labels because they made this model much more relatable and enjoyable to read. Corresponding
respectively to the five titles are (forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.) Forming
comes in the beginning of group activities and addresses the mission/values/roles of the group as well
as getting to know group members. Without getting to know group members, a rooted problem would

be miscommunication and a lack of comfortableness. Storming deals with appropriate reactions to

group issues and hostility. This could arise from negative ulterior motives, hidden agendas, or a lack of
shared power/work. Norming works with the cooperation process of a group. Groupthink sometimes
arises after a long time of working with a group and this is negative because groups are only
successful when people give their own unique input rather than a carbon copied idea of another
individual. In our FLITE skit, we tried to portray the alienation of Trent because of his different ideas. He
wasnt conforming to the groupthink and this made him a more valuable individual. Performing refers to
emergence of solutions. This is the most successful stage and people should try to stay here while in a
group. Progress is assessed and the entire process is running smoothly. Finally, adjourning refers to
closure activities and process evaluation. It deals with the ending point of any group and
disengagement. This comes at the very end and should run smoothly as long as every partner feels
confident and comfortable with his/her contributions. I think its important to understand conflict
because its inevitable. Without conflict, theres no resolution. Without resolution, theres no
learning. While preventable, conflict still happens. Nevertheless, were asked to understand the
root of conflict. I think the root of conflict is often times the differences among people. When we
cant find a common ground or idea, we sometimes believe that peoples differences are
negative. This is a root problem. We become enemies in a sense. Everyone just wants to feel
heard and voiced. This cant always happen in a large group though. Even during the HDF 413
group project, there were conflicting ideas and agendas because were all such powerfulminded individuals. As a group, we have to work on getting past that and overpowering conflict.
Understanding conflict management helps dissolve conflict.


Student will describe personal examples of

having used five problem solving / conflict
management methods (if student has been
trained in mediation, that information goes
Student will describe what it means to
analyze, criticize, synthesize and utilize
information as a leader
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
leadership that is used in crisis
Student will describe examples of
leadership in crisis situations

Outcome Category: Interpersonal and Organizational Concepts & Skills


Student will demonstrate knowledge of
active listening techniques

Target class
HDF 190

Additional Experiences
A Day Of Discovery FLITE Retreat

Descriptive notes regarding learning and practice

At the Day of Discovery, my small group went into the SOLC room and began talking about all of our
perspectives on things like sexual orientation, race and ethnicity, and gender. We all sat in a circle and
gave our points of views accompanied by a few anecdotes, a few laughs, and a few cries. We werent
just listening to each other; we were active listening. In the packets we received at the retreat, theres a
chart entitled Active Listening. This chart is extremely important and it stressed the goal, the process,
and what to say to actively listen. To me, the goal while active listening is to make the speaker feel
heard. This is done by projecting interest and giving feedback. I used this in our breakout session a lot,
and I think that it gave the people around me an energizer to keep sharing their opinions. The process
talks about asking questions that are specific, and reiterating what the person says, to show your


Student will describe examples of using

active listening skills


Student will demonstrate knowledge of

functions of group communication by
Student will describe personal application
of functions of group communication
Student will show knowledge of techniques
regarding giving and accepting of feedback
Student will describe examples of giving
and accepting feedback.



Student will demonstrate knowledge of

facilitation and de-briefing techniques

HDF 190

Learning Contract Interviews

HDF 190

Rushing a Fraternity

HDF 413

S.O.L.C Retreat @ Alton Jones

understanding of them. Moreover, the process stresses the importance of being a genuine listener and
encouraging the person to talk more. The what to say portion of the chart gives actual examples and
this is beneficial. Some things are I see and Can you clarify that? This chart helped my
understanding of active listening techniques.
One of the ten characteristics of Greenleafs Servant Leadership Model is listening. Its a huge
misconception that listening only entails hearing the person. Theres a huge difference between
hearing and listening. Hearing only entails recognizing the sound waves that travel through the air;
listening is the actual understanding of what the person is saying. Active listening is only successful if
the speaker feels heard. Also, the speaker has to feel encouraged to share more and feel understood.
During my Learning Contract, Elana Rivkin and I interviewed many different people with many different
perspectives. Its crucial to have an open mind when talking to people about sensitive and personal
subjects. Moreover, its important to make the interviewee compelled to keep talking. I did this by taking
in everything he/she was saying, and then asking follow-up questions. Another characteristic of the
Servant Leadership Model is empathy. Through active listening, I was able to feel what these people
were feeling and I showed my genuine care for them. I couldnt put myself into their actual shoes, but I
tried to.

The entire process of rushing Zeta Beta Tau embodied the benefits of giving and receiving feedback.
When you rush a fraternity, every aspect of your character is judged. All the judging is justified because
the brothers have to ensure that youre a good addition to the organization. There were various
interview nights, fun events, and times to get to know the brothers. Every brother was silently casting
positive and negative judgments based on our actions and reactions to things. Pertaining to feedback,
there were actual times when the brothers asked my rush class and me what wed improve about the
fraternity or what we could offer. This gave me a chance to offer them some of my thoughts and ideas.
When everything finished and I didnt make it into ZBT, it was a decision that was more or less life
changing. I ask myself how my second semester of freshman year would be different if I had gotten in.
However, Ive realized that Im genuinely happier now. Ive become more involved on campus with my
added time and energy. While the brothers gave me feedback that I wasnt happy to hear, I made the
most of the decision. I learned to learn from, and accept this feedback.
Our S.O.L.C. retreat in Alton Jones was a great experience for many reasons. For starters, it made us
all more comfortable with each other and this influenced our ability to lead together. Also, we learned
many valuable techniques for both facilitating and debriefing. I think a valuable aspect of this retreat,
and SOLC in general, is watching and participating in my peers activities. I was able to see people like
Caitie Runyon run activities and watch how her charisma enticed everyone in the room to listen and
participate. This is invaluable. I enjoy learning from example. I also specifically remember being broken
into small groups and switching stations to learn about debrief techniques on the second day of the
retreat. A few that stood out to me were Captain, Crew, and Cargo, and the feelings cards. The
feelings cards really stood out to me because I genuinely feel that people cant always vocalize how
theyre feeling in the right way. It helps when theres cards designated for every emotion imaginable.
The cards are a great way to make members more expressive and comfortable talking to one another.
Captain, Crew, and Cargo stood out to me because I think its multifaceted. While its important
knowing what kind of role you put into an activity, I see another positive aspect. I feel that some
members will actually comment on others choices and possibly rank them higher. This builds team
morale and shows that no good action or effort goes unnoticed.


Student will demonstrate proficiency of

facilitation and de-briefing techniques

HDF 413

Colleges Against Cancer Retreat


Student will demonstrate knowledge of

framing and breaking the frame

HDF 413

Bolman & Deal

Feinberg & Terrent


Student will demonstrate proficiency of

I co-facilitated the Colleges Against Cancer retreat. During this retreat, I learned how to lead an activity,
and how to coordinate a Mission Statement. I learned that making personal connections goes a long
way. Its important to keep a serious atmosphere, but its not necessarily a bad thing to have fun and
make jokes. Everyone performs better when he or she is comfortable and having fun. I think these
things are essential to think about when being a facilitator. I also ascertained that my leading group
consisted of hard working, motivated, and fun people. We all worked well together and I think we all
brought something uniquely dynamic to the table. I want to continue facilitating retreats.
On October 4, 2015, I shadowed my first retreat. I was responsible for a debrief activity that followed
Kellys Electric Grid. I considered debriefing without a prop, but I didnt think I was necessarily ready. I
really enjoyed the feelings cards when we used them on one of the first days of the SOLC class and
when we learned about them on the SOLC retreat, so I wanted to implement them here. My rationale
was that some people dont always know how to articulate what theyre feeling. I thought theres no
better way than to have pictures in front of them with different emotions. Theres not always a time
allotted strictly for speaking about yourself. I think its important. Also, emotions demand to be felt.
Once Kelly completed Electric Grid, I asked them how they were feeling before the activity, and after. I
was extremely grateful that the group was receptive during this activity. In fact, most of them said it was
their favorite on the evaluation sheets. Some things I learned from my first debrief is that its okay to not
have a carefully concocted plan going in. Its important to be prepared, but there should be room for
improvisation. The entire preparation for the retreat, I felt like I had to have every single thing planned
out and I was scared of the idea of not knowing everything that would happen. However, I just took
things as they came during the retreat and it was an awesome experience. Genuine conversation is a
tool that I will use in the future because people are receptive to that. Some good questions are What
did you learn from this? How did it make you feel? and What did you do well during this activity? I
gained important insight into the benefits of debriefing and Im excited to debrief in the future.
Bolman and Deal write about frames and breaking frames. A frame can be understood as a mental
model made under specific circumstances. This frame is similar to a schema, which is constantly
updated and evolved with every interaction and experience we undergo. For instance, until we see a
cow for the first time, our schema for four legged animals may only include cats and dogs. Its important
to keep learning and updating how we see the world around us. Though, experience is only the best
teacher if you learn from it. Bolman and Deal identify four frames from which people view their world:
structural, human resources, political, and symbolic. Each frame consists of concepts, metaphors, and
values. The structural frame is very goal-oriented, dealing with formal relationships and specialized
roles. Responsibilities and roles are stressed. The Human Resources frame views members on a team
as extended family members. This can be very productive because it makes people feel comfortable
with each other. Members should feel good with whatever they are doing. The Political frame thinks of
organizations as arenas, contests, or jungles. It ascertains that people are constantly competing for
power and exponential growth in the ladder of success. There is much conflict in this frame because it
views human nature as inherently competitive. Finally, the Symbolic frame thinks of organizations as
theatres or carnivals. It deals a lot with symbolism and culture. It deteriorates when symbols lose their
meaning. Its important to understand frames that are happening in everyday life, and possibly reframe
them to fit better. Feinberg and Terent speak about self destructive intelligence syndrome. This deals
with doing more of what we know when we dont know what to do. Very intelligent people always revert
back to what they know has worked in the past because they think they cant possibly be wrong. Its not
smart to act on pride alone. This can be related to facilitating. Its always important to try new things
and never get stuck on one mode of doing things. Reframing the way we see certain objectives or
ways of getting things done is productive. Overall, reframing involes thinking about situations in more
than one way. Steve Jobs had a creative breakthrough after being fired from Apple. He created NeXt
and Pixar. These were revolutionary. His failures taught him how to align an organization with its
mission and taught him about people, relationships, and teamwork. Reframing and rethinking is
essential when being a facilitator or leader in general.



framing and breaking the frame

Student will show knowledge of organizing
meetings / setting agendas / and leading

Student will describe personal examples of

organizing meetings / setting agendas /
leading meetings
Student will show knowledge of
Parliamentary Procedure
Student will show knowledge of techniques
for working with difficult people
Student will describe personal examples of
using techniques to work effectively with
difficult people

HDF 413

Note Taker in Macroeconomics

Hillel Retreat

I have a great understanding of all of these concepts based off my observations and an academic
experience. I can apply these observations into my own leading style and use them in the future. I was
a shadow on the Hillel retreat and Kelly was the Lead. I think she did a phenomenal job of organizing
the meeting beforehand. I was very nervous going into this because it was my first actual retreat and I
didnt know what to expect. However, Kelly calmed my nerves and always acted as a place of solace
for any of us if we needed it. I felt comfortable asking her questions, talking to her about Hillel, getting
suggestions, and much more. She was time efficient with the meeting because we all met up with more
than enough time to plan the retreat, recognize our positions, visualize what we had to do, and become
comfortable with our roles. We didnt leave the meeting until everyone had a firm understanding, and
this understanding and comfortableness undoubtedly carried into the retreat. Also, I helped her work on
the agenda. Its an interesting process because it deals with time management. She knew from
experience how long some of the activities would take, and this is a valuable skill to have. I learned a
valuable lesson- allot for more time than you first assume. Depending on the group, sometimes theyre
high-functioning enough to spark long conversations after the activities that would otherwise not be
accounted for. Going back to leading meetings, I learned that its important to allocate enough time for
preparation. One constructive criticism Id have for my second retreat, Colleges Against Cancer, is that
we didnt have enough time before the retreat to truly become acquainted with our jobs. We still did
well, but I wish I had longer preparation. It felt kind of haphazard. All in all, Ive found some valuable
information from the current leader in Kelly, and Id like to do this on my own when I lead a retreat. For
my own experience, Im a note taker in my Macroeconomics class. This job entails attending class,
copying down the notes, and then uploading them so that Disability Services can forward them to the
student who is unable to take them. This job requires the condensing of information and then the ability
to convey this information in a succinct way. These requirements are tools that lead to proper meetings.
The ability to communicate effectively is key. Leading a meeting requires the perfect amount of
explanation so that the others will be able to chew it and swallow it down without feeling overwhelmed.
Thats where condensing comes into the equation. This greatly helps with trying to appeal to a group of
people in an organized meeting and sharing all my thoughts and opinions.

Working with my small FLITE group

HDF 413 Group Project

My FLITE group consisted of a small group of seven young leaders. We all have very different ideas
and very different backgrounds. We have a member from the opposite side of the United States
[California], so its easily imagined how different our perspectives are on certain things. In the
beginning of the formation of our small group, I had no idea the magnitude these people would have on
me. Theyre not difficult to work with per se, but our personalities are definitely difficult to work with
sometimes. For instance, we learned that five of our seven members have WOO (Winning Others
Over.) Ironically, this was an obstacle. Were all extremely social and love getting off topic. We would
spend nights trying to accomplish homework, but instead telling jokes and laughing at each others
stories. All of our group members were very excited about our idea, and it was often hard to focus and
develop the smaller aspects of our program when we were distracted by the entirety of it. We were able
to focus better once we were more familiar with the concepts and could then narrow our focal point
down to one concept of the program at a time. This is undoubtedly a difficult thing to overcome.
However, we saw Hannah Ritchies Achiever top strength shine through. She would remind us that we
all have to stay focused and power through. I realized that all of our unique characteristics brought us
together and helped us stay creative and have fun. The people in my group were all very difficult, but
this difficulty made our love for each other worthwhile.

HDF 190
HDF 190
HDF 413


Student will show knowledge of the stages

of group development (Tuckman, Bennis or

HDF 413

Tuckman Model
HDF 413 Class Project


Student will describe personal examples of

group development in use (Tuckman,
Bennis or others).

HDF 413

FLITE small group

Similarly to FLITE, HDF 413 offers the experience of working with like-minded but different
people. I can confidently say that Ive never worked with such a well-rounded group of
individuals. We all have so much to offer and I think it actually inhibits us sometimes. We all
have such potential in separate ways. Were composed of varying majors, minors, lifestyles,
academic achievements, etc. Weve been working on the group proposal project for a little while
now. Its rather difficult to accomplish much because we all have such conflicting ideas
sometimes. We could all probably come up with a good proposal on our own, but we realized
quick that its not about that. We have to put all of our ideas into a common goal and then
present that. We created a Facebook to communicate outside of class and this proved to be
effected. In class, we used things like a talking stick to control the flow of ideas, and some of
my classmates would interject and tell everyone to come back to the discussion instead of
getting off topic. Ive reminded people that we need to sit quietly and wait for our turns to
speak. Talking over everyone wont get anything done. Tempers were definitely flaring after a
while, but I think thats natural. Impatience can be a tragic flaw. At the end of the day, weve
been banding together and creating an awesome project. Weve all thus created techniques of
working with difficult people.
Dr. Bruce Tuckman published his model that consists of Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and
Adjourning in the 1970s. The model does a great job of condensing the entire process of leading into
concrete steps. Understanding the model opens the door for greater chemistry and success in a group
environment. More specifically, its refined my own personal views on how a group can accomplish
goals. Stage 1 is forming. The stage relies heavily on the leader of the group. Theres much ambiguity
among team members, but that will soon be distinguished. The leader holds much responsibility, as he
or she is in charge of making the groups mission, purpose, and objectives clear. Stage 2 is storming. I
like to correlate storming with brainstorming, which is putting all ideas on the table. Its important to
encourage a free discussion that doesnt dissuade members from sharing their opinions. There are no
stupid ideas. Moreover, compromises are imperative to enable progress. Also, there are important
emergences of positions among the group. A huge problem could be power struggles. I think its
important to remember that the team should come first before any egos. By stage 3, norming, there
should be no real ambiguity. Everyones roles should be explicit and accepted. An important aspect of
the third step is the formation of smaller groups. I can relate this to my HDF 413 class project. We
formed smaller groups to increase productivity. I took part in the Marketing team and we were easily
able to delegate roles and make things happen quickly. The fourth stage is performing. At this point, the
leader has distinguished him or her and there should be no need for as big of a role as before. The
team should be able to stand on its own and use its shared mission in a productive and efficient way. I
think the idea of team is stressed because things finally start to come together in this stage. I like to
think of it as the ending of completing a puzzle, because it all starts to make sense and come together,
and youre left with a beautiful picture you worked so hard for. Finally, adjourning deals with the breakup of the group after it is [ideally] successfully completely. I like to associate this stage with debriefing.
Its a closing and offers a chance to reflect on everything thats happened and take everything and use
it to propel forward. Learning from the experiences is crucial for growth. The Tuckman Model changed
my view on being in a group and working toward a common goal. Its nice to have a list of precise
actions that are explicit in nature to reference and utilize moving forward.
Tuckmans Model was extremely relevant in my small group during Flite. My group consisted of six
people of varying backgrounds and personalities. It was semi-difficult at first to find common ground
and work as a team, but we accomplished that rather quickly. I can relate heavily to all of Tuckmans
steps. Forming correlates with my group leader Jessi Feiner. We relied heavily on our leader Jessi in
the beginning stages of our groups because we needed guidance. We undoubtedly had ambiguity and
were discontent with that. Jessi did a great job of helping us find our mission and lead us in the right
direction. The second stage of storming came in handy during every project we had to do. I remember
we would sit around a table and share all of our opinions and then pick out of them. We never
discarded any ideas until we found the right one. Everyone offered valuable input. By the third step, we

all knew what kind of people we were working with and this helped clear obscurity. There were no real
power struggles among people because we were such competent people who loved working together.
By the fourth stage of performing, our ideas came into fruition and we worked on various projects
together. It was apparent in our chemistry that we had come together as a group. Jessi already
established herself as the leader and we didnt lean on her as much to accomplish tasks. We had
increased productivity and even introduced some smaller groups to work on minor, more finite tasks.
Our team stood on its own and we were all confident in our abilities. Finally, adjourning came when
Flite was ending and Jessi assured each of us of our capabilities and that wed stay in touch. She saw
the potential in all of us and helped us reach it. She made sure to shine light on this whenever she had
the opportunity. Ive been taking this opportunity in Flite into my thoughts during SOLC whenever I can.
For instance, I now understand the role of a group leader during facilitation. Its important for the leader
to lead, but not necessarily be authoritative. Instead, a good leader helps members see potential in
themselves without explicitly doing so. People have to find good within themselves. This changed my
perspective greatly. Also, the adjourning step directly ties into debriefing during a retreat. Its a closing
and offers a chance to reflect on everything thats happened and take everything and use it to propel
forward. Learning from the experiences is crucial for growth. Hopefully when the task is completed
successfully, its purpose fulfilled, everyone can move on to new things, feeling good about what's been
achieved. The Tuckman Model is highly relatable and useful.


Student will show knowledge of group

dynamics and group roles
Student will describe personal examples of
group dynamics and group roles
Student will show knowledge of effective
memberships skills in groups
Student will describe personal examples of
membership skills in use
Student will show knowledge of the
Challenge and Support theory by Sanford,
and its relationship to organizations

Student will describe personal examples of

using the theory of Challenge and Support

HDF 413

B.F. Skinner- Operant Conditioning

HDF 413

American Marketing Association

Facilitating Retreats

The Challenge and Support theory by Sanford is prominent in experiences where learning takes place.
It stresses the importance of finding the right balance between challenge and support. Challenge is
beneficial in a learning environment because it enables the learner to express autonomy and figure
things out by him or herself. Its impossible to learn if everything is done for you. An important aspect of
support is empowerment. Positive reinforcement influences the learner to keep trying until the job is
done, and done well. Its important because positive reinforcement leads to enhanced motivation.
Humans react better to positivity. B.F. Skinner proved this when he first theorized about operant
conditioning. However, too much support and the student will never really learn what they need to grow
and develop. Too much challenge, and the student will become frustrated and possibly quit trying. Its
easy to become discouraged when there isnt a right balance. For instance, it wouldnt be smart to try
teaching a 7-year-old quantum physics. Instead, you should teach him or her how to tie shoes. This
goes with another element of the model: readiness. Its important to gauge where the learner is before
giving a task. I can directly relate this to facilitating retreats. Theres much reference to the groups
functionality. If the group is high functioning, the group works well together, participates, and offers
insightful feedback. A low functioning group doesnt work well together, doesnt give much feedback,
and sometimes does not participate. It would be very detrimental to give a low-functioning group an
activity like Tubes, because this activity requires refined communication skills and team chemistry.
The Challenge and Support theory is very similar to a learning curve in my opinion. A learning curve is
the rate of a person's progress in gaining experience or new skills. This rate is influenced by external
factors, such as the factors expressed in the theory like challenge, support, and readiness. Too much
support and the student will never really learn what they need to grow and develop. They wont be able
to function on their own. Too much challenge and frustration will ensue and that will deprive the student
of the motivation to continue. I took part in the American Marketing Association for a semester at URI.
The club worked with aspiring businesspeople, especially in the Marketing program, to expand our

knowledge and give us real world experience. However, a huge problem I had with AMA was its
approach to activities. The club was primarily run by upperclassmen, and I was only a freshman when I
joined. One would think that the upperclassmen would let the younger students participate more and
try to become acclimated. This was wrong. The older students handled many of the activities and this
stinted my ability to grow as a leader. They didnt do the best job explaining tasks to me and I saw this
as more challenging than supporting. My learning was obstructed because I never had a firm
understanding or comfortableness with any activities. This is a concrete example of the pitfalls of too
much of either challenge or support. Moreover, its important to recognize this theory during SOLC
retreats. Its important to gauge peoples intelligence and functionality when choosing activities and
debriefs. Using props in debriefs is perfect for groups that arent articulating as well as other groups.
Also, easier activities are better for low-functioning groups. Thus, the theory of Challenge and Support
by Sanford is apparent in my own experiences and more experiences to come.


Student will show knowledge of the

construction / elements of informative and
persuasive speeches
Student will demonstrate proficiency in
informative and persuasive public speaking
Student will show knowledge of planning
and conducting interviews (as the
Student will describe personal examples of
planning and conducting interviews (as the

Student will show knowledge of preparing

for and effective answers in interviews (as
the interviewee)
Student will describe personal examples of
preparing for and being interviewed

HDF 190
HDF 413

Learning Contract
Humans of URI

For my social change project, Elana Rivkin and I are currently working to understand why we live in a
heteronormative society, and portray that someones sexuality is just a characteristic of them that isnt
necessarily defining. For this process, were making a video compiled of various interviews. Weve
had to do a lot of research on our project and weve had to make questions that are unique to each
person. Ive learned that its vital to have questions that are personal in their nature depending on the
person. For instance, if someone werent comfortable in their sexuality, I certainly wouldnt ask them a
sexuality question. Weve also had to forewarn all of our participants that our video may go viral.
Consent is a necessity in any case like this. Its been a rewarding process interviewing people. This is
my first time Im on the other side of the interview. Another thing Ive learned is that listening is
necessary to being a good interviewer. It sounds trite, but youre not going to absorb any information if
youre a passive listener. Its important to ask follow-up questions and show the recipient that youre
actually listening.
Humans of URI has given me the unique opportunity to conduct anywhere from 1-2 interviews
every day. We give every interviewee a fair warning that their answers will be condensed into a
small post, sometimes only a few quotes, and theyre always okay with that. This goes along
with consent. Its important to tell the participant every aspect of the interview to leave no room
for ambiguity or discontent. This makes the members feel comfortable and open to questions. I
try to tailor questions uniquely to the person Im interviewing. Its apparent when someone is
passionate about a question; their eyes light up and they sometimes use more colorful diction.
Following that path will lead to satisfaction in the interviewee and the overall interview. I can
definitely relate interviewing to SOLC. During retreats, we reiterate the motto, challenge by
choice. This means that the participants are encouraged to join in the activities, but only if
theyre comfortable. Constantly restating this will make members of retreats more comfortable
and feel at ease. Im glad Ive had this opportunity and I think that its constantly refining my
personal interview skills.

HDF 190

Leadership Institute Peer

Leader/Rushing a fraternity

Interviewing to be a Leadership Institute Peer Leader was an awesome process. I didnt get the job or
even make it to the second round, but I still learned a lot about interviewing in the process. To prepare
for this interview, I made sure I was dressed appropriately; I dressed in business attire. Ive learned

through interview process that presentation is key in almost any scenario. To prepare, I gathered with
some people who were also being interviewed and we rehearsed some of the things that were being
asked of us. I enjoyed that we were given a sample of the interview questions and topics. While
interviewing, its important to be as candid as possible. I acted like my authentic self, and I think it
rewarded me with a great interview. I learned how to pick myself up after not getting the job. A similar
scenario came when I interviewed while rushing a fraternity. For ZBT, we had select nights where wed
go room to room and be interviewed by small groups of brothers. While this was an intimidating event, I
learned how to stay on my toes. I had no idea what they were going to ask me and this helped depict
my genuineness while answering. They could tell if my answers were real or not. Beforehand, I
gathered with my rush class and we tried to calm each other down. Staying composed is crucial in an
interview setting. It was an awesome process being asked so many questions by so many of the
different brothers. Overall, Ive learned a lot from preparing and being interviewed.


Student will show knowledge of effective

collaboration / coalition building
Student will describe personal examples of
working in collaboratives/coalitions
Student will show knowledge of
Intercultural communication considerations
Student will demonstrate proficiency in
intercultural communication
Student will describe ways to maintain
accountability in leadership / member
Student will describe personal examples
related to maintaining accountability as a
Student will describe ways to build
relationships between leaders and
Student will describe personal examples of
building relationships with members as a
Student will describe how credibility applies
to leadership, as well as the characteristics
and skills of a credible leader
Student will describe personal examples of
building, maintaining, and repairing his/her
own credibility as a leader
Student will describe ethical standards in
Student will describe influence applies to
Student will describe principles of effective
mentoring, as well as problems particular
to the mentoring relationship
Student will describe personal examples of
mentoring and being mentored
Student will describe principles of effective
peer leadership, as well as problems
particular to peer leadership


Student will describe personal examples

related to being a peer leader and being
led by peers
Student will describe the four frames of
organizations by Bolman and Deal
Student will describe personal application
of organizational analysis using the four
frames of organizations (Bolman and Deal)