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CHAPTER 6 APPLICATIONS OF DEFINITE INTEGRALS

6.1 VOLUMES BY SLICING AND ROTATION ABOUT AN AXIS


1. (a) A 1(radius)# and radius 1  x# A(x) 1 a1  x# b
(b) A width height, width height 21  x# A(x) 4 a1  x# b
(diagonal)#
;
#

(c) A (side)# and diagonal 2(side) A


(d) A

3
4

diagonal 21  x# A(x) 2 a1  x# b

(side)# and side 21  x# A(x) 3 a1  x# b

2. (a) A 1(radius)# and radius x A(x) 1x


(b) A width height, width height 2x A(x) 4x
(diagonal)#
;
#

(c) A (side)# and diagonal 2(side) A


(d) A

3
4

(side)# and side 2x A(x) 3x

(diagonal)#
#

3. A(x)

diagonal 2x A(x) 2x

x   x #
#

2x (see Exercise 1c); a 0, b 4;

V 'a A(x) dx '0 2x dx cx# d ! 16


b

1(diameter)#
4

4. A(x)

1 c a2  x # b  x # d
4

1c2 a1  x# bd
4

1 a1  2x#  x% b ; a 1, b 1;

V 'a A(x) dx 'c1 1 a1  2x#  x% b dx 1 x  23 x$ 


b

"
x&
5 "

21 1 

2
3

 5"

161
15

5. A(x) (edge)# 1  x#  1  x# 21  x# 4 a1  x# b ; a 1, b 1;


V 'a A(x) dx 'c1 4a1  x# b dx 4 x 
b

(diagonal)#
#

6. A(x)

21  x#

V 'a A(x) dx 2'c1 a1  x# b dx 2 x 


1

"
#

7. (a) STEP 1) A(x)

"
x$
3 "

(side) (side) sin 13

STEP 2) a 0, b 1

8 1  "3

16
3

1  x#  1  x#

"
x$
3 "

"
#

2 a1  x# b (see Exercise 1c); a 1, b 1;


4 1  "3

8
3

2sin x 2sin x sin 13 3 sin x

STEP 3) V 'a A(x) dx 3 '0 sin x dx 3 cos x 3(1  1) 23


1

(b) STEP 1) A(x) (side) 2sin x 2sin x 4 sin x


STEP 2) a 0, b 1

STEP 3) V 'a A(x) dx '0 4 sin x dx c4 cos xd 1! 8


1

8. (a) STEP 1) A(x) 1(diameter)


14 (sec x  tan x)#
4
sin x
14 sec# x  asec# x  1b  2 cos
#x
STEP 2) a  13 , b

1
3

13

STEP 3) V 'a A(x) dx 'c13


b

1
4

1
4

2 sec# x  1 

asec# x  tan# x  2 sec x tan xb

2 sin x
cos# x

dx

1
4

2 tan x  x  2  cos" x 1$
1$

362

Chapter 6 Applications of Definite Integrals

1
4

23 

1
3

 2  ""  23 
#

1
3

 2  ""
#

(b) STEP 1) A(x) (edge)# (sec x  tan x)# 2 sec# x  1  2


STEP 2) a  13 , b

1
3

13

STEP 3) V 'a A(x) dx 'c13 2 sec# x  1 


b

1
4

9. A(y)

(diameter)#

1
4

5y#  0

c 0, d 2; V 'c A(y) dy '0


d

&

541 y5
!

"
#

10. A(y)

1
4

51
4

51
4

43 

21
3

sin x
cos# x

dx 2 23  13 43 

21
3

y% ;

y% dy

a2&  0b 81

"
#

(leg)(leg)

#
1  y#  1  y#

V 'c A(y) dy 'c1 2a1  y# b dy 2 y 


d

2 sin x
cos# x

1
4

"
y$
3 "

"
#

21  y# 2 a1  y# b ; c 1, d 1;

4 1  "3

8
3

11. (a) It follows from Cavalieri's Principle that the volume of a column is the same as the volume of a right
prism with a square base of side length s and altitude h. Thus, STEP 1) A(x) (side length)# s# ;
STEP 2) a 0, b h; STEP 3) V 'a A(x) dx '0 s# dx s# h
b

(b) From Cavalieri's Principle we conclude that the volume of the column is the same as the volume of the
prism described above, regardless of the number of turns V s# h
12. 1) The solid and the cone have the same altitude of 12.
2) The cross sections of the solid are disks of diameter
x  x# x# . If we place the vertex of the cone at the
origin of the coordinate system and make its axis of
symmetry coincide with the x-axis then the cone's cross
sections will be circular disks of diameter
x
x x
4   4 # (see accompanying figure).
3) The solid and the cone have equal altitudes and identical
parallel cross sections. From Cavalieri's Principle we
conclude that the solid and the cone have the same
volume.
13. R(x) y 1 
1 2 

4
2

14. R(y) x

3y
#

x
#

8
12

#
V '0 1[R(x)]# dx 1'0 1  x# dx 1'0 1  x 
2

x#
4

dx 1 x 

x#
#

21
3

dy 1'
V '0 1[R(y)]# dy 1'0 3y
#
0

15. R(x) tan 14 y ; u

1
4

y du

1
4

9
4

y# dy 1  34 y$ ! 1

3
4

dy 4 du 1 dy; y 0 u 0, y 1 u

#
x$
12 !

8 61
1
4

1%
V '0 1[R(y)]# dy 1'0 tan 14 y dy 4 '0 tan# u du 4 '0 a1  sec# ub du 4[u  tan u]!
1

14

14

Section 6.1 Volumes by Slicing and Rotation About an Axis


4  14  1  0 4  1
1
#

16. R(x) sin x cos x; R(x) 0 a 0 and b


1'0

12

1
#

(sin x cos x)# dx 1 '0

12

u 1 V 1'0

"
8

(sin 2x)#
4

are the limits of integration; V '0

12

dx; u 2x du 2 dx

sin# u du

1
8

 #u

"
4

sin

1
2u !

17. R(x) x# V '0 1[R(x)]# dx 1 '0 ax# b dx


2

1 '0 x% dx 1 x5
2

&

321
5

18. R(x) x$ V '0 1[R(x)]# dx 1'0 ax$ b dx


2

1 '0 x' dx 1 x7
2

#
!

1281
7

19. R(x) 9  x# V 'c3 1[R(x)]# dx 1 'c3 a9  x# b dx


3

$
x$
3 $

1 9x 

21 9(3) 

27
3

2 1 18 361

20. R(x) x  x# V '0 1[R(x)]# dx 1'0 ax  x# b dx


1

1'0 ax#  2x$  x% b dx 1 x3 


1

1 13 

"
#

 5"

1
30

(10  15  6)

21. R(x) cos x V '0

12

1#

1 csin xd !

2x%
4


1
30

"
x&
5 !

1[R(x)]# dx 1'0 cos x dx

1(1  0) 1

12

1
8

 1#

du
8

dx
4

1[R(x)]# dx

; x 0 u 0,

 0  0

1#
16

363

364

Chapter 6 Applications of Definite Integrals


14

14

22. R(x) sec x V 'c14 1[R(x)]# dx 1 '14 sec# x dx


1%

1 ctan xd 1% 1[1  (1)] 21

23. R(x) 2  sec x tan x V


1

'014 1[R(x)]# dx

'014 2  sec x tan x# dx

1 '0 2  22 sec x tan x  sec# x tan# x dx


14

1 '0 2 dx  22 '0 sec x tan x dx 


14

1%

1 [2x]!

'014 (tan x)# sec# x dx

14

1%

 22 [sec x]!

 tan3 x

1%

1 1#  0  22 2  1  "3 a1$  0b 1 1#  22 
24. R(x) 2  2 sin x 2(1  sin x) V '0 1[R(x)]# dx
12

1 '0 4(1  sin x)# dx 41 '0 a1  sin# x  2 sin xb dx


12

12

41'0 1  "# (1  cos 2x)  2 sin x dx


12

41'0 3# 
12

cos 2x
2

 2 sin x

1#
41  3# x  sin42x  2 cos x !
41  341  0  0  (0  0  2) 1(31  8)

25. R(y) 5 y# V 'c1 1[R(y)]# dy 1 'c1 5y% dy


1

"

1 cy& d " 1[1  (1)] 21

26. R(y) y$# V '0 1[R(y)]# dy 1'0 y$ dy


2

1 y4 41
!

27. R(y) 2 sin 2y V '0 1[R(y)]# dy


12

1'0 2 sin 2y dy 1 c cos 2yd !


12

1[1  (1)] 21

1#

11
3

Section 6.1 Volumes by Slicing and Rotation About an Axis


28. R(y) cos

1y
4

V 'c2 1[R(y)]# dy
0

1 'c2 cos 14y dy 4 sin


0

29. R(y)

2
y 1

1y !
4 #

4[0  (1)] 4

V '0 1[R(y)]# dy 41 '0


3

"
(y 1)#

dy

 "

41 y"
1 41  4  (1) 31
!

30. R(y)

2y
y # 1

V '0 1[R(y)]# dy 1'0 2y ay#  1b


1

#

dy;

cu y  1 du 2y dy; y 0 u 1, y 1 u 2d
V 1'1 u# du 1  "u " 1  #"  (1)
2

1
#

31. For the sketch given, a  1# , b 1# ; R(x) 1, r(x) cos x; V 'a 1 a[R(x)]#  [r(x)]# b dx
b

12

12

'c12 1(1  cos x) dx 21'0 (1  cos x) dx 21[x  sin x]!

1#

21 1#  1 1#  21

32. For the sketch given, c 0, d 14 ; R(y) 1, r(y) tan y; V 'c 1 a[R(y)]#  [r(y)]# b dy
d

1'0 a1  tan# yb dy 1 '0 a2  sec# yb dy 1[2y  tan y]!


14

14

33. r(x) x and R(x) 1 V


'0 1 a1  x# b dx 1 x 
1

1%

'01 1 a[R(x)]#  [r(x)]# b dx

"
x$
3 !

1 1  "3  0

21
3

34. r(x) 2x and R(x) 2 V '0 1 a[R(x)]#  [r(x)]# b dx


1

1'0 (4  4x) dx 41x 


1

"
x#
# !

41 1  "# 21

1 1#  1

1#
#

1

365

366

Chapter 6 Applications of Definite Integrals

35. r(x) x#  1 and R(x) x  3

V 'c1 1 a[R(x)]#  [r(x)]# b dx


2

1'c1 (x  3)#  ax#  1b dx


2

1 'c1 cax#  6x  9b  ax%  2x#  1bd dx


2

1 'c1 ax%  x#  6x  8b dx
2

&

1  x5 

x$
3

1  32
5 

8
3

6x#
#

 8x

24
#

 16  5" 

"

"
3

6
#

530533
 8 1  33
5  3  28  3  8 1

36. r(x) 2  x and R(x) 4  x#

V 'c1 1 a[R(x)]#  [r(x)]# b dx


2

1'c1 a4  x# b  (2  x)# dx
2

1 'c1 ca16  8x#  x% b  a4  4x  x# bd dx


2

1'c1 a12  4x  9x#  x% b dx


2

1 12x  2x#  3x$ 


1 24  8  24 

#
x&
5 "

32
5

 12  2  3  "5 1 15 

37. r(x) sec x and R(x) 2


14

V 'c14 1 a[R(x)]#  [r(x)]# b dx


14

1 'c14 a2  sec# xb dx 1[2x  tan x]1%


1%

1  1#  1   1#  1 1(1  2)

38. R(x) sec x and r(x) tan x

V '0 1 a[R(x)]#  [r(x)]# b dx


1

1 '0 asec# x  tan# xb dx 1 '0 1 dx 1[x]!" 1


1

39. r(y) 1 and R(y) 1  y

V '0 1 a[R(y)]#  [r(y)]# b dy


1

1'0 c(1  y)#  1d dy 1 '0 a1  2y  y#  1b dy


1

1 '0 a2y  y# b dy 1 y# 
1

"
y$
3 !

1 1  3"

41
3

33
5

1081
5

1171
5

Section 6.1 Volumes by Slicing and Rotation About an Axis


40. R(y) 1 and r(y) 1  y V '0 1 a[R(y)]#  [r(y)]# b dy
1

1'0 c1  (1  y)# d dy 1'0 c1  a1  2y  y# bd dy


1

1'0 a2y  y# b dy 1 y# 
1

"
y$
3 !

1 1  "3

21
3

41. R(y) 2 and r(y) y


V '0 1 a[R(y)]#  [r(y)]# b dy
4

1'0 (4  y) dy 1 4y 
4

%
y#
2 !

1(16  8) 81

42. R(y) 3 and r(y) 3  y#

V '0

1 '0

1 y3

1 a[R(y)]#  [r(y)]# b dy

c3  a3  y# bd dy 1'0
$
!

y# dy

13

43. R(y) 2 and r(y) 1  y


V '0 1 a[R(y)]#  [r(y)]# b dy
1

1'0 4  1  y dy
1

1 '0 4  1  2y  y dy
1

1 '0 3  2y  y dy
1

1 3y  43 y$# 
1 3 

"
y#
# !

 "# 1 18683

4
3

71
6

44. R(y) 2  y"$ and r(y) 1

V '0 1 a[R(y)]#  [r(y)]# b dy


1

#
1'0 2  y"$  1 dy
1

1'0 4  4y"$  y#$  1 dy


1

1 '0 3  4y"$  y#$ dy


1

1 3y  3y%$ 

"
3y&$
5 !

1 3  3  53

31
5

367

368

Chapter 6 Applications of Definite Integrals

45. (a) r(x) x and R(x) 2


V '0 1 a[R(x)]#  [r(x)]# b dx
4

1'0 (4  x) dx 1 4x 
4

(b) r(y) 0 and R(y) y#

%
x#
# !

1(16  8) 81

V '0 1 a[R(y)]#  [r(y)]# b dy


2

1'0 y% dy 1 y5
2

&

#
!

321
5

#
(c) r(x) 0 and R(x) 2  x V '0 1 a[R(x)]#  [r(x)]# b dx 1'0 2  x dx
4

1'0 4  4x  x dx 1 4x 
4

8x$#
3

%
x#
# !

1 16 

64
3

16
#

81
3

(d) r(y) 4  y# and R(y) 4 V '0 1 a[R(y)]#  [r(y)]# b dy 1 '0 16  a4  y# b dy


2

1 '0 a16  16  8y#  y% b dy 1 '0 a8y#  y% b dy 1 83 y$ 


2

46. (a) r(y) 0 and R(y) 1 

#
y&
5 !

1 64
3 

32
5

2241
15

y
#

V '0 1 a[R(y)]#  [r(y)]# b dy


2

#
1'0 1  y# dy 1'0 1  y 
2

1 y 

y#
#

#
y$
12 !

1 # 

(b) r(y) 1 and R(y) 2 

4
2

8
12

y#
4

dy

21
3

y
#

#
V '0 1 a[R(y)]#  [r(y)]# b dy 1 '0 2  y#  1 dy 1 '0 4  2y 
2

1'0 3  2y 
2

y#
4

dy 1 3y  y# 

47. (a) r(x) 0 and R(x) 1  x#

#
y$
12 !

1 6  4 

8
12

1 2  23

y#
4

 1 dy

81
3

V 'c1 1 a[R(x)]#  [r(x)]# b dx


1

1 'c1 a1  x# b dx 1 'c1 a1  2x#  x% b dx


1

1 x 

2x$
3

"
x&
5 "

10 3
21 1515

21 1 

2
3

 15

161
15

(b) r(x) 1 and R(x) 2  x# V 'c1 1 a[R(x)]#  [r(x)]# b dx 1 'c1 a2  x# b  1 dx


1

1 'c1 a4  4x#  x%  1b dx 1'c1 a3  4x#  x% b dx 1 3x  43 x$ 


1

21
15

(45  20  3)

561
15

"
x&
5 "

21 3 

4
3

 15

2
3

 15

(c) r(x) 1  x# and R(x) 2 V 'c1 1 a[R(x)]#  [r(x)]# b dx 1 'c1 4  a1  x# b dx


1

1 'c1 a4  1  2x#  x% b dx 1'c1 a3  2x#  x% b dx 1 3x  23 x$ 


1

21
15

(45  10  3)

641
15

"
x&
5 "

21 3 

Section 6.1 Volumes by Slicing and Rotation About an Axis

369

48. (a) r(x) 0 and R(x)  hb x  h

V '0 1 a[R(x)]#  [r(x)]# b dx


b

#
1 '0  hb x  h dx
b

1'0 hb# x# 
b

x
1h# 3b
# 

x#
b

2h#
b

x  h# dx
b

 x 1h# b3  b  b
!

1 h# b
3

#
(b) r(y) 0 and R(y) b 1  yh V '0 1 a[R(y)]#  [r(y)]# b dy 1b# '0 1  yh dy
h

1b# '0 1 
h

2y
h

y#
h#

dy 1b# y 

y#
h

y$
3h# !

1 b# h
3

1b# h  h  3h

49. R(y) b  a#  y# and r(y) b  a#  y#


V 'ca 1 a[R(y)]#  [r(y)]# b dy
a

1 'ca b  a#  y#  b  a#  y# dy
#

1 'ca 4ba#  y# dy 4b1'ca a#  y# dy


a

1a#
#

4b1 area of semicircle of radius a 4b1

2a# b1#

50. (a) A cross section has radius r #y and area 1r# #1y. The volume is '0 #1ydy 1 cy# d ! #&1.
&

(b) Vahb ' Aahbdh, so

dV
dh

Aahb. Therefore

For h %, the area is #1a%b )1, so

dh
dt

dV
dt

"
)1

dV
dh

Aahb

dh
dt

$
)1

$ units
sec

hca

51. (a) R(y) a#  y# V 1'ca aa#  y# b dy 1 a# y 


1 a# h  "3 ah$  3h# a  3ha#  a$ b 
dV
$
dt 0.2 m /sec
dV
#
dh 101h  1h

(b) Given

and a 5 m, find

dV
dt

dV
dh

dh
dt

a$
3

1 a# h 

so

dh
dt

"
A ah b

dV
dt .

units$
sec .
hca

y$
3 ca

h$
3

dh
dt ,

&

1 a# h  a$ 

 h# a  ha#

(h  a)$
3

 a$ 

a$
3

1h# (3a  h)
3

From part (a), V(h) 1h (153  h) 51h#  13h


dh
0.2
"
"
1h(10  h) dh
dt dt h4 41(10  4) (201)(6) 1#01 m/sec.
dh
dt h4 .

52. Suppose the solid is produced by revolving y 2  x about


the y-axis. Cast a shadow of the solid on a plane parallel to
the xy-plane.
Use an approximation such as the Trapezoid Rule, to
#

estimate 'a 1cRaybd# dy ! 1 #k  y.


b

d^

k"

53. The cross section of a solid right circular cylinder with a cone removed is a disk with radius R from which a disk of radius
h has been removed. Thus its area is A" 1R#  1h# 1 aR#  h# b . The cross section of the hemisphere is a disk of
#

radius R#  h# . Therefore its area is A# 1 R#  h# 1 aR#  h# b . We can see that A" A# . The altitudes of
both solids are R. Applying Cavalieri's Principle we find
Volume of Hemisphere (Volume of Cylinder)  (Volume of Cone) a1R# b R  "3 1 aR# b R

2
3

1 R$ .

370

Chapter 6 Applications of Definite Integrals

54. R(x)

rx
h

V '0 1[R(x)]# dx 1'0


h

h # #
r x

dx

h#

1r#
h#

x3 1hr# h3
!

"
3

1r# h, the volume of

a cone of radius r and height h.


c7

c7

55. R(y) 256  y# V 'c16 1[R(y)]# dy 1'c16 a256  y# b dy 1 256y 


1 (256)(7) 
56. R(x)

1
144

x
1#

7$
3

 (256)(16) 

16$
3

36  x# V ' 1[R(x)]# dx 1'


0
0
6

'
x&
5 !

12x$ 

1
144

12 6$ 

6&
5

16$
3

1 73  256(16  7) 

1 6 $
144

x#
144

12 

a36  x# b dx

36
5

1
144

(
y$
3 "'

10531 cm$ 3308 cm$

'06 a36x#  x% b dx

1 6036
196

144
5

361
5

cm$ . The plumb bob will

weigh about W (8.5) 3651 192 gm, to the nearest gram.


57. (a) R(x) kc  sin xk , so V 1'0 [R(x)]# dx 1'0 (c  sin x)# dx 1'0 ac#  2c sin x  sin# xb dx
1

1'0 c#  2c sin x 

'1

(b)

1cos 2x
dx 1 0 c#  "#  2c sin x  cos#2x dx
#
1
1 c#  "# x  2c cos x  sin42x ! 1 c# 1  1#  2c  0  (0  2c  0) 1 c# 1  1#  4c . Let
2
V(c) 1 c# 1  1#  4c . We find the extreme values of V(c): dV
dc 1(2c1  4) 0 c 1 is a critical
#
#
point, and V 12 1 14  1#  18 1 1#  14 1#  4; Evaluate V at the endpoints: V(0) 1# and
#
#
V(1) 1 3# 1  4 1#  (4  1)1. Now we see that the function's absolute minimum value is 1#  4,
taken on at the critical point c 12 . (See also the accompanying graph.)
#
From the discussion in part (a) we conclude that the function's absolute maximum value is 1# , taken on at

the endpoint c 0.
(c) The graph of the solid's volume as a function of c for
0 c 1 is given at the right. As c moves away from
[! "] the volume of the solid increases without bound.
If we approximate the solid as a set of solid disks, we
can see that the radius of a typical disk increases without
bounds as c moves away from [0 1].
58. (a) R(x) 1 

1 'c4 1 
4

1 x 

x$
24

21 4 

V 'c4 1[R(x)]# dx
4

x#
16

8
3

x#
16

dx 1'c4 1 
4

x&
516# %

 45

21
15

21 4 

x#
8

x%
16#

4$
24

4&
516#

(60  40  12)

641
15

dx

ft$

(b) The helicopter will be able to fly 64151 (7.481)(2) 201 additional miles.
6.2 VOLUME BY CYLINDRICAL SHELLS
1. For the sketch given, a 0, b 2;

shell
shell
V 'a 21 radius
height
dx '0 21x 1 
b

x#
4

dx 21'0 x 

x#
4

dx 21'0 2x 

x$
4

21 3 61
2. For the sketch given, a 0, b 2;

shell
shell
V 'a 21 radius
height
dx '0 21x 2 
b

dx 21 x# 

x$
4

#
x%
16 !

dx 21 x# 

21 4# 

#
x%
16 !

16
16

21(4  1) 61