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Koretz, Daniel.,
Langi, Meredith.,
Yu, Carol.,
Braslow, David.
Freshman GradePoint Average from
High-School Test
Scores: are There
Indications of
Score Inflation?
Harvard Graduate
School of
Education. 2014.
Web. 28 Sep 2015

The article was on a focus of high school GPAs

and readiness for college curriculum. It talks
about how there is a predicted inflation of high
school GPAs and tests are not very accurate
predictors of how students will preform in
college. It also explains how they arent universal
between states and they vary. Some states are
only required to take one mathematic
standardized test while others are required to take
many more. They also vary in difficulty and
content between the different states. They also
expect these standardized test has high rates of
test inflation. Also that these standardized test
only help in the short term run and not as much
on the long term which is the ultimate goal of

OHalloran, Kim.,
Michael E.
Gordon. "A
approach to turning
the tide of grade
inflation." Higher
Education 68.6
(2014): 1005-1023.
Web. 28 Sep 2015

The article explains how compared to other

Asian and European countries, the united states
isnt as prepared for college level courses. That
the issue is because of grade inflation and how it
doesnt accurately reflect the students
knowledge. That the quality of the education
system is getting worse and is a greater demand
for students going to college. He also goes over
that the deteriorating quality of the public
schools education is being reinforced with
standardized testing. That the issue is also trying
to reduce the issue of grade inflation while also
increasing the quality of the education system at
the same time. He also goes over that we must
enact grading reforms to help improve this issue
with the distribution of grades.

This article
expanded my
knowledge on
things I already
knew and helped
me discover some
aspects I never
knew about, like
how the higher
stake a
standardized test,
the higher inflated
it usually is. It
supports my topic
of the quality of
public education
After doing some
more research I
found that the issue
of grade inflation is
apparent, but I want
to do more research
as to why it is. If
the no child left
behind act and
lowered standard of
education is a big
factor since it was
mentioned quite

Eric database

Price, Todd Alan.,

Peterson, Elizabeth
The myth and
reality of no child
left behind, Public
education and high
stakes assessment
University press of
America, 2009.

Hayes, William
No Child Left
Behind: Past,
Present and
Future. Rowman
and Littlefield
education, 2008.

Going through the book, its trying to assess how

the no child left behind law has been working or
not working. It goes over the issue of
standardized testing, from the time it began to be
mandated by the state and federal governments.
It goes over if it actually assesses students
achievements and its actually including the
students that it was designed not to be left
behind. Also that the way graduation rates are
measured, there isnt consistency and schools are
finding ways to work around the numbers to
make it seem like more students are graduating
than there really are. The same goes for the
average of passing standardized test. According
to the book some teachers are feeling ill
mannered towards all the test preparation as it
fails to see the whole child and on his or her
learning. All in the name of standardized testing.
One of the unintended consequences of these
high stake testing is that critical thinking and
problem solving has been sacrificed. One of the
chapters I found that was very interesting was
drop out or push out. It describes that the drop
out rates have been increasing in the past several
years since NCLB, especially high in African
American and Hispanic people. That the way
schools measure their drop out rates are
misleading in some way. In Chicago the drop out
rate for African Americans was 42% and 50% for
Hispanics. Before NCLB Chicago implemented a
high stake testing that was a basic entry test to
enter high school. In hopes that overtime high
school dropout rates would decrease because
only those students who were high achievers
would enter high school(Price & Peterson 51)
But NCLB discouraged schools from doing this.
William Hayes gives us a bit of background
information about how the education system has
been in the America in the previous generations.
Even though education has come a long way,
allowing children of all economic backgrounds
to go to school, it still needs work. Then it
mentions how some of the presidents even before
bush have tried to reform the education system in
some way because of how important it was. The
law was signed and passed right after the 9/11

Going through this

book I saw some
information that
supported my idea.
I went more in
depth on the
chapter about the
percentage of
dropouts and the
percent of students
who drop out is
high in the minority
group. It made me
wonder why the
statistics were so
high in these
groups and look
more into the
article specifically
about this.

This book goes

over in depth more
about the history of
the act and how it
came to be. I saw a
common theme
with teachers being
affected by the
NCLB and their

Abernathy, Scott
No Child Left
Behind and the
Public Schools.
University of
Michigan press,
2007. Print.

Meier, Deborah.,
Kohn, Alfie.,
Hammond, Linda
Darling., Sizer,
Theodore., Wood,
George. Many
children left
behind- How the
no child left behind
act is damaging
our children and
our schools
Beacon press
books, 2004. Print.

Harris, Angel L.

crisis and other foreign affair issues. The passing

of NCLB has affected the way teachers prepare
students in the classroom. Some were not happy
with the idea that school became more centered
around test preparation and not enough on hands
on learning activities.
The author talks about how the NCLB act was
probably one of the biggest education reforms
made and that it tries to close the achievement
gap. Its also an equality of quality of
education. Trying to close the achievement gap
between minority and non minority groups, low
income and upper class, and the quality of the
education. However, the author being a
schoolteacher at first states that it takes at least 3
years to understand how complex the education
system and schooling really is. That the people
who are trying to fix these issues and reforms
dont take into account how complex it really is.
Its not that the concept of the law is a bad one
but its one that still needs a lot of rework and
revising to be better implemented, and at 670
pages its no simple bill. One of the things he
said that really stood out to me was success in
school had a great deal to do with being born
lucky. Into a family that values education and has
the mean to support the pursuit of it.(3)
The book starts off by describing the way
achievement is measured in public schools. That
through the NCLB its methods are not accurate
or consistent. Some of the schools that are failing
and show below standard scores are actually
doing pretty well while still scoring well above
the national average. But they dont meet up with
their government projected average. Another
thing that the NCLB act doesnt change is how
much funding each schools are getting. Even
though the Act is supposed to make all schools
equal in education and funding, one thing it
hasnt even changed is how funding goes.
Schools in richer areas are spending close to 10
times more then ones in poor areas. Contrasting
to their European counterparts where all schools
are funded equally.
This article explains that its a fact that more

I liked the
statement he put
about how one of
the big factors for
being successful in
school is being
lucky and born into
a family that values
education. I might
try to do more
research on the
cultures that affects
dropout rates and

Ive always
wondered why the
graduation rates
were higher in the
statistics then they
seemed. Now I
know that they
work around the
numbers and find
loopholes. I also
found it interesting
but not surprising
that not all schools
are funded equally.
Some schools
seemed to have
more resources
than others.
I inquired deeper

Kids don't want

to fail:
culture and Black
students' academic
Cambridge, Mass.:
Harvard University
Press, 2011. Web.
11 Oct 2015.

Whites and Asians graduate than African

Americans and Hispanics. Not just by a little but
a significant amount. Now the question is why.
Culture has a bigger influence on education then
it seems. There is an achievement gap between
the two groups which has been attempted to be
fixed by NCLB. But its more than just trying to
change test scores. The author mentions that any
attempt at acquiring knowledge is a form of
acting white. Also president Obama said in
the 2004 Democratic National Convention Go
into any inner city neighborhood, and folks will
tell you that government alone cant teach our
kids to learn; they know that parents have to
teach, that children cant achieve unless we raise
their expectations and turn off the television sets
and eradicate the slander that says a black youth
with a book is acting white I found this being a
very powerful statement that I wouldnt have
found on my own. Apparently there is a bad
dogma in their community about education and
those that attempt to get one are looked down

into my topic and

gotten more
specific with
graduation rates.
Specifically, in
certain cultures.
The African
community to be
more specific. I
found this a very
useful book as it
tries to explain why
that culture seems
like it doesnt value
education and is
always setting itself
up for failure.

Orfield, G., Losen,

D., Wald, J., &
Swanson, C.
Losing Our
Future: How
MinorityYouth are
Being Left Behind
by the Graduation
Rate Crisis,
Cambridge, MA:
The Civil Rights
Project at Harvard
Urban Institute,
Advocates for
Children of New
York, and The
Civil Society
Institute, 2004.
Web. 11 Oct 2015

Similarly, like the article above it starts by

addressing the issue that graduation rates are
very low for African Americans. In our current
economy, not having at least a high school
diploma would be a detriment financially. You
wouldnt be able to get a decent paying job
where you can support a family. Its an ongoing
cycle where the parents of these children were
also high school drop outs. They follow in their
path, continuing the route of failure. It includes
that the rate of students getting GEDs vs High
school Diplomas has increased. That students
who also get a GED are less likely to get a job
then high school diploma counterparts and less
likely to continue to post secondary education. It
also mentions the achievement gap that exist
which is similar to my other sources.

This article also

continues to talk
about the accuracy
of reported
graduation rates.
There is a
connection with
this and the other
articles. I also like
how it includes
how the NCLB act
hasnt been that
effective in fixing
this issue. Its
another similarity
that was in the
other articles.

Stephanie. "HighSchool Graduation
Rate Inches Up."
The Wall Street
Journal, 2013.
Web. 27 Nov 2015.

Howard, Tyrone.
Why Race and
Culture Matter in
Schools: Closing
the Achievement
Gap in Americas
Classrooms. NY:
Teachers College
Press, 2010. Print.

In comparison to other international countries the

United States is falling behind in education. The
United States which used to rank top in terms of
education and graduation rates now only ranks
22nd out of 27 developed countries. The impacts
of a high school drop out are negative to the
individual and the economy. The graduation rate
in 1975 was 74.9% and has stayed around the 70
percentile until 2001. Now the trend is starting to
slowly rise which theorist think is due to more
reforms. They contribute it to a plan to try to
keep low performing ninth graders on track by
helping them make up courses theyve failed and
started establishing small high schools in places
like New York. A teacher who is part of these
smaller high school programs says that it creates
creates "a little sense of home and safety" for
students. "They know everyone is invested in
them graduating and going to college, which
motivates them." The graduation rate at that
school is about 75% compared to the surrounding
areas average of 61%.

It seems that the

graduation rates are
low when
compared to other
countries, but if
you just look at the
United States and
our past weve been
improving as a
nation. I find it
interesting that
some people are
giving credit to
some of these small
community based
schools to help
struggling students
graduate. I
personally agree
with this
philosophy of
connecting with the
students and
making them feel
like they have a
The government often blames poor teaching and I also agree with
inadequate school resources as the reason for the the fact that the
big achievement gap and low performance. There government isnt
is an apparent separation in test scores between
considering the
White Americans and African Americans. There
external factors that
is also a gap in suspension, retention, expulsion,
account to poor
and dropout rates between the two. Its hard to
ignore the achievement gap when its this large.
The author, Tyrone, also describes how poverty
Poverty and culture
and the areas demographics play a large role
are a big reason for
when it comes to learning. Also the simple
poor school
recognition of the different races and cultures
performance in my
within schools are a factor. With the population
opinion and that its
of minorities growing and most teachers being a very complex.
white, middle-class, native English speaking
women, (40) they have to be considerate of race
and culture in their teaching practices. The rest of
the book goes over the complexities of this
concept and being more aware of this can help

with the closing of this achievement gap.