PROJECT REPORT ON

“READY MIX CONCRETE”
A Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING AFFILIATED TO MSBTE

Submitted By

Rajiv S. Bhosale Rahul A. Bhondve Sachin R. Bhosale

Shrikant R. Ambike Ajinkya P. Amble Rajendra B. Bodke
Under the guidance of Prof. Mrs.S.D.Manukar

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
PIMPRI CHINCHWAD POLYTECHNIC AKURDI, PUNE 2009-2010

PIMPRI CHINCHWAD EDUCATION TRUST’S PIMPRI CHINCHWAD POLYTECHNIC

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
PRADHIKARAN, AKURDI, PUNE-411044

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that The end term Project entitled “READY MIX CONCRETE” Has been completed successfully by-

Rajiv S. Bhosale Rahul A. Bhondve Sachin R. Bhosale

Shrikant R. Ambike Ajinkya P. Amble Rajendra B. Bodke

Maharashtra state Board of Technical Education for Academic Year 2009-2010 Project Guide HOD Principal

Prof.Mrs S.D.Manukar External Examiner

Prof.P.P.Jadhav

Prof.Mrs.V.S.Byakod

SUBMISSION

We are the student of the third year diploma in civil Engineering humbly submit this project on a practical fulfillment of board of Maharashtra State Technical Education, from July 2009 to March 2010 Under the guidance Prof. Mrs.S.D.MANUKAR. I with my friend have done this project with our own Skill and continuous guidance of our guide. And that with my friends have not copied the report on It’s my applicable part from any other literature contravention to the Academic ethics.

Roll no Name

Sign

04 01
02 03 05 06

Rajiv S. Bhosale Shrikant R. Ambike
Ajinkya P. Amble Rahul A. Bhondve Sachin R. Bhosale Rajendra B.Bodke

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We are happy to acknowledgement that after completing this project

We fill sense of achievement, as it is project of fruitful application in civil

Engineering industry.

We express our deep sense of gratitude towards Prof. Mrs.

V.S.Byakod, principal of this institute for her valuable guidance and

Encouragement.

We feel highly grateful to our guide Prof. Mrs Manukar S.D

Department of Civil Engineering for her comprehensive and valuable

Suggestions while performing our project work.

We are also thankful to Prof. Mr.P.P. Jadhav (HOD),

Prof Mr.Lagad Chiman (M.Tech Structure) Prof.Mr.

B.D.Gidde, Prof. Mrs. S.N Patil, Prof. Mrs.Ramteke, Prof. Mrs.

Pote, and Prof. Patil Dattajirao (M.Tech Digital Electronics) & Expert InfoTech

Computers (Ghorpadi) & our friends for their

Positive attitude and encouragement towards our project.

Project Means
P _ PLANING BEFORE CASSYING OUT THE WORK.

R _RAW MATERIAL REQUIRD FOR THE WORK. O_ J_ E_ C_ T_
ORGANISATION OF THE WORK.

JOINT EFFORTS PUT TOGETHER IN WORK.

ESTIMATION OF MATERIAL REQUIRD IN WORKS.

COSTING OF THE WORK.

TECHNIQUES USED IN PERFORMING WORK.

INDEX
Chapter No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Introduction History Scope of Ready Mix Concrete Material Required for R. M. C Equipment Required in R. M. C. Mixing Process Case Study Quality of Ready Mix Concrete Merits and Demerits of R. M. C. Conclusion Project Report References 1 6 8 10 13 24 31 47 58 61 63 66 Name of the Topic Page No.

Ready mix concrete

CHAPTER NO.1 INTRODUCTION

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Ready mix concrete

Few things are more aggravating to produce on a worksite than concrete. Bags of cement, sand, aggregate (gravel) and possibly other additives must be delivered to the construction area. A supply of clean water is also necessary, along with a rented concrete mixing hopper. Even after all the dusty and heavy ingredients have been loaded into the hopper, one small error in the wet/dry ratio can render an entire batch of concrete unusable. One common solution to this messy and time-consuming problem is “READY MIX CONCRETE” Ready-mix concrete (RMC) is a ready-to-use material, with predetermined mixture of cement, sand, aggregates and water. RMC is a type of concrete manufactured in a factory according to a set recipe or as per specifications of the customer, at a centrally located batching plant. It is delivered to a worksite, often in truck mixers capable of mixing the ingredients of the concrete en route or just before delivery of the batch. This results in a precise mixture, allowing specialty concrete mixtures to be developed and implemented on construction sites. The second option available is to mix the concrete at the batching plant and deliver the mixed concrete to the site in an agitator truck, which keeps the mixed concrete in correct form. In the case of the centrally mixed type, the drum carrying the concrete revolves slowly so as to prevent the mixed concrete from "segregation" and prevent its stiffening due to initial set. However, in the case of the truck-mixed concrete, the batched materials (sand, gravel and cement) are carried and water is added just at the time of mixing. In this case the cement remains in contact with the wet or moist material and this phase cannot exceed the permissible period, which is normally 90 minutes. The use of the RMC is facilitated through a truck-mounted 'boom placer' that can pump the product for ready use at multi-storied construction sites. A boom placer can pump the concrete up 80 meters.
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Ready mix concrete RMC is preferred to on-site concrete mixing because of the precision of the mixture and reduced worksite confusion. It facilitates speedy construction through programmed delivery at site and mechanized operation with consequent economy. It also decreases labour, site supervising cost and project time, resulting

in savings. Proper control and economy in use of raw material results in saving of natural resources. It assures consistent quality through accurate computerized control of aggregates and water as per mix designs. It minimizes cement wastage due to bulk handling and there is no dust problem and therefore, pollution-free. Ready mix concrete is usually ordered in units of cubic yards or meters. It must remain in motion until it is ready to be poured, or the cement may begin to solidify. The ready mix concrete is generally released from the hopper in a relatively steady stream through a trough system. Workers use shovels and hoes to push the concrete into place. Some projects may require more than one production run of ready mix concrete, so more trucks may arrive as needed or additional batches may be produced offsite and delivered. However there are some disadvantages of RMC to, like double handling, which results in additional cost and losses in weight, requirement of godowns for storage of cement and large area at site for storage of raw materials. Aggregates get mixed and impurities creep in because of wind, weather and mishandling at site. Improper mixing at site, as there is ineffective control and intangible cost associated with unorganized preparation at site are other drawbacks of RMC. There are always possibilities of manipulation; manual error and mischief as concreting are done at the mercy of gangs, who manipulate the concrete mixes and water cement ratio. The first ready-mix factory, which was built in the 1930s, remained in a standstill position till 1960s, but continued to grow since then. The leading ready-mix concrete supplier worldwide is the Mexican concrete and cement company CEMEX, and their main competitor is France-based Lafarge. The Ready mix concrete business in India is in its infancy. Where as in developed countries, nearly 70 per cent of cement consumption is in the form of ready mix concrete and 25 per cent in the form of recast, in India, ready mix concrete accounts for less than 5 per cent and as much as 82 per cent of cement consumption is
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Ready mix concrete in the form of site-mixed concrete. While 70% of cement produced in a developed country like Japan is used by Ready Mix concrete business there, here in India, Ready Mix concrete business uses around 2% of total cement production. There are several reasons for this. In early 70s both pricing and distribution of cement was controlled due to shortage of supply. Ready mix concrete technology could not be implemented as investors felt that Ready mix concrete plant will starve due to non-availability of cement. The levy of additional taxes & duties on RMC, entry tax, excise duty also contributed to the slow development of the concept. The growth of RMC is predominantly driven by demand from the metro cities. In cities like Mumbai, the mandatory use of RMC is in construction of

flyovers provided the requisite impetus to growth, according to an ICRA analysis. RMC is particularly useful when the building activity is located in congested sites where little space is available for siting the mixer and for stock piling of aggregates. The use of RMC is also advantageous when only small quantities of concrete are required or when concrete is to be placed only at intervals.

Even as the concept of ready-mix concrete (RMC) is still catching up in the country, cement majors are keenly focusing on entering the new area in a big way. Anticipating huge potential for the product, cement majors, including Associated Cement Companies, Grasim, L&T, India Cements, Priyadarshini Cements, Chettinad Cement and Madras Cements, are foraying into the RMC business and the share of RMC is expected to go up from present levels of around 5 per cent of the total cement production to the global average of 70 per cent, according to industry players. The teething troubles has been overcome by the RMC Industry and at present there are over 37 RMC plants delivering over one lakh cubic meters of mixed concrete every month. RMC plants are working in Delhi area also. Envisaging higher demand, the 16.4-million ton cement major, ACC is planning to beef up its existing RMC infrastructure of 11 units with two new RMC units - one at Noida and the other in Mumbai, during the current year. During the last fiscal, Madras Cements set up two RMC plants near Chennai, with a capacity of approximately 9 lakh cubic meters, while Chettinad Cements installed an RMC facility near Coimbatore. Grasim's RMC

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Ready mix concrete business accounted for a turnover of Rs 116 crore during 2003-04, against a turnover of Rs 59.8 crore during the previous year.

For growth of the industry, government bodies, private builders, architects/engineers, contractors, and individuals required to be made fully aware about the advantages of using ready mix concrete, government bodies/consultants needs to include ready mix concrete as mandatory in their specification for execution, government specifications for CPWD and PWD jobs should include Ready mix concrete as a mandatory item. Apart from this tax breaks are required for the growth of RMC and developers/contractors needs to be discouraged from piling up materials like metal, sand etc. on roads/foot paths.

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Ready mix concrete

CHAPTER NO.2 HISTORY

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Ready mix concrete was first patented in Germany in 1903, its commercial delivery was not possible due to lack of transportation needs. The first commercial delivery was made in Baltimore USA in 1913.The first revolving drum type transit mixer was developed in 1926. In 1931, a RMC plant was set up for the construction of Heathrow airport, London. In the mid 90’s there were about 1100 RMC plants in UK consuming about 45% of cement produced in that country. In Europe in 1997 there were 5850 companies producing a total of 305 million cusecs of RMC. In USA by 1990, around 72% (more than 2/3rd) of cement produced was being used by various RMC plants. In Japan first RMC plant was set up in 1949. By 1992 Japan was the then largest producer of RMC, producing 18196 million tons of concrete. In many other countries of the world including some of the developing countries like Taiwan, Malaysia etc, RMC industry is well developed.

Development in India
In India RMC plant arrived in 1950’s and use was restricted to only major construction projects such as, Bhakra dam was the first projects were RMC was used. Later on RMC was used for other large projects such as construction of long span bridges, industrial complexes etc. The first RMC plant was set up in Pune in 1993.

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Ready mix concrete

CHAPTER NO.3 SCOPE OF READY MIX CONCRETE

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Ready mix concrete Long, Long years ago, their where simple houses but in 21st century we can see houses constructed in R.C.C. Therefore concrete got more importance than any other construction material. So the use of concrete is increasing day by day. For construction most of the contractors and builders have to collect the raw materials required for the construction before starting actual works. These materials should be stored at the site properly. This technique can be possible when there will be more empty space at the construction site which is not possible in congested areas. At this time there is one solution to overcome all these problems that is nothing “READY MIX CONCRETE”. By using R.M.C we can save the time and money required for the labours. In following places ready mix concrete can be used:1. Major concerting projects like dams, roads, bridges, tunnels, canals etc. 2. For concreting in congested areas where storage of materials is not possible. 3. Sites where intensity of traffic makes problems. 4. When supervisor and labour staff is less. 5. To reduce the time required for construction etc. 6. Huge industrial and residential projects.

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Ready mix concrete

CHAPTER NO.4 MATERIAL REQUIRED FOR R. M. C

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Admixture: A substance added to the basic concrete mixture to alter one or more
properties of the concrete; ie fibrous materials for reinforcing, water repellent treatments, and coloring compounds.
·

Air-entraining admixtures (mainly used in concrete exposed to freezing and thawing cycles)

·

Water-reducing admixtures, plasticizers (reduce the dosage of water while maintaining the workability)

·

Retarding admixtures (mainly used in hot weather to retard the reaction of hydration)

·

Accelerating admixtures (mainly used in cold weather to accelerate the reaction of hydration)

·

Super plasticizer or high range water-reducer (significantly reduce the dosage of water while maintaining the workability)

·

Miscellaneous admixtures such as corrosion inhibiting, shrinkage reducing, coloring, pumping etc.

Aggregate: Inert particles (i.e. gravel, sand, and stone) added to cement and water
to form concrete.

Cement: Dry powder that reacts chemically with water to bind the particles of
aggregate, forming concrete. Portland cement is typically used in concrete production.

Fly ash: Fly ash is a by-product from coal-fired electricity generating power plants.
The coal used in these power plants is mainly composed of combustible elements such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (nitrogen and sulfur being minor elements), and noncombustible impurities (10 to 40%) usually present in the form of clay, shale, quartz,
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Ready mix concrete feldspar and limestone. As the coal travels through the high-temperature zone in the furnace, the combustible elements of the coal are burnt off, whereas the mineral impurities of the coal fuse and chemically recombine to produce various crystalline phases of the molten ash. The molten ash is entrained in the flue gas and cools rapidly, when leaving the combustion zone (e.g. from 1500°C to 200°C in few seconds), into spherical, glassy particles. Most of these particles fly out with the flue gas stream and are therefore called fly ash. The fly ash is then collected in electrostatic precipitators or bag houses and the fineness of the fly ash can be controlled by how and where the particles are collected.

Cement store

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Ready mix concrete

CHAPTER NO.5 EQUIPMENT REQUIRED IN R. M. C.

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Following are the equipments required in R.M.C 1. Batching plant 2. Transit mixer

BATCHING
Batching plants are classified as 1. Manual 2. Semiautomatic 3. Fully automatic

STORAGE
Storage of the raw materials is done by following methods: -

INLINE BINS
Inert raw materials like fine & coarse aggregates are stored in bins called as “Inline Bins” where the trucks carrying fine & coarse aggregate can dump the material easily.

The aggregates required are fed by the means of aggregate belt conveyer. On the aggregate belt conveyer the aggregates are weighed automatically by means of computer form the computer room presents on the plant.

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Ready mix concrete

Skip Bucket (Weighing belt)

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Ready mix concrete

Belt conveyer (To feed Raw material to the holding hopper

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Ready mix concrete

Inline Bins

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Ready mix concrete

Transit Mixer

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Ready mix concrete

SILOS
Cement & Flyash are stored in airtight container called as “Silos”. The required quantity of cement & flyash is extracted by the silos. There are two cement silos and one silo of flyash.

The capacity of cement silo is

2 x 130 tons = 260 tons

Cement and Flyash are fed to holding hopper with the help of a screw conveyer. A heavy duty cement screw conveyor is fixed in inclined position to convey the cement from Manual Feeding Hopper to Cement Hopper. A suitable drive unit is also provided to drive the screw The screw conveyor body and the screw is manufactured from heavy duty ‘C’ class pipe and the flutes are fabricated from 5mm plate. Running clearances provided between body and flutes for smooth running. The screw is supported on both ends by bearing and at center by hanger bearing having renewable hard bush. These bearing can b adjusted with setting nuts so as to have proper alignment. The screw conveyor is provided with suitable vertical supports. One inlet connection is provided at the bottom en where manual-feeding hopper is connection & one discharge connection at the top from where the cement is discharged to cement weighing hopper. Flexible joint is provided between discharge connection & cement weighing hopper. Two cleaning pockets, one in the middle and another at the bottom side are also provided for emergency removal of cement from the conveyor.

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TECHNICAL FEATURE:-

FOR TRANSIT MIXER

MODEL

CONMIX 4

CONMIX 5

CONMIX 6

NOMINAL CAPACITY

4.0m3

5.0m3

6.0m3

TOTAL GEOMETRIC VOLUME

7.6m3

8.7m3

10.2m3

FILLING RATIO

53%

57%

59%

ENGINE (KIRLOSKAR maker)

RB33

RB44

RB44

POWER REQUIREMENT

38 H.P/1500 R.P.M.

52H.P./1800 R.P.M.

56 H.P./2000 R.P.M.

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Ready mix concrete
0-14 R.P.M. DRUM SPEED 0-14 R.P.M. 0-14 R.P.M.

WATER TANK

450 LITERS

450 LITERS

600 LITERS

WATER CONNECTION

25mm

25mm

25mm

WATER METER(OPTIONAL)

20m3/Hr.

20m3/Hr.

20m3/Hr.

LENGTH OF MIXER

5100mm

5700mm

5800mm

WIDTH OF MIXER

2200mm

2200mm

2200mm

HEIGHT OF MIXER

2350mm

2425mm

2500mm

WEIGTH OF MIXER ONLY

3000kgs.

3300kgs.

3500kgs.

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Ready mix concrete
DRUM ANGLE 13 degree 12 degree 12 degree

HYDRAULIC PUMP/MOTOR

70cc/Rev.

70cc/Rev.

70cc/Rev.

(SUNDSTRANI OR

REXROTH)

GEAR BOX (ZF,SUNDSTRAND OR EQUIVALENT)

1:141

1:141

1:141

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Ready mix concrete

CHAPTER NO.6 MIXING PROCESS

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Ready mix concrete

Following in are types of mixing of concrete. 1. Transit Mixed (or "truck-mixed") Concrete 2. Shrink Mixed Concrete 3. Central Mixed Concrete

6.1. TRANSIT MIXED (OR "TRUCK-MIXED") CONCRETE

While ready mixed concrete can be delivered to the point of placement in a variety of ways, the overwhelming majority of it is brought to the construction site in truck-mounted, rotating drum mixers. Truck mixers have a revolving drum with the axis inclined to the horizontal. Inside the shell of the mixer drum are a pair of blades or fins that wrap in a helical (spiral) configuration from the head to the opening of the drum. This configuration enables the concrete to mix when the drum spins in one direction and causes it to discharge when the direction is reversed.

To load, or charge, raw materials from a transit mix plant or centrally mixed concrete into the truck, the drum must be turned very fast in the charging direction. After the concrete is loaded and mixed, it is normally hauled to the job site with the drum turning at a speed of less than 2 rpm.

Since its inception in the mid-1920, the traditional truck-mixer has discharged concrete at the rear of the truck. Front discharge units, however, are rapidly becoming more popular with contractors. The driver of the front discharge truck can drive directly onto the site and can mechanically control the positioning of the discharge chute without the help of contractor personnel.

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Ready mix concrete Currently, because of weight laws, the typical truck mixer is a 7 to 8.5 m3. The drums are designed with a rated maximum capacity of 63% of the gross drum volume as a mixer and 80% of the drum volume as an agitator. Generally, ready mixed concrete producers, load their trucks with a quantity at or near the rated mixer capacity. Fresh concrete is a perishable product that may undergo slump loss depending on temperature, time to the delivery point on the job site, and other factors.

Water should not to be added to the mix unless the slump is less than that which is specified. If water is added, it should be added all at once and the drum of the truck mixer should be turned minimum of 30 revolutions, or about two minutes, at mixing speed. The ASTM C 94, Specification for Ready Mixed Concrete, indicates that the concrete shall be discharged on the job site within 90 minutes and before 300 revolutions after water was added to the cement. The purchaser may waive this requirement, when conditions permit.

In certain situations, air-entraining, water reducing, set-retarding or high-range water reducing admixtures may need to be added to concrete prior to discharge to compensate for loss of air, high temperatures or long delivery times. The ready mixed concrete producer will assist the purchaser in such circumstances.

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Ready mix concrete

6.2. SHRINK MIXED CONCRETE
Concrete that is partially mixed in a plant mixer and then discharged into the drum of the truck mixer for completion of the mixing is called shrink mixed concrete. Central mixing plants that include a stationary, plant-mounted mixer are often actually used to shrink mix, or partially mix the concrete. The amount of mixing that is needed in the truck mixer varies in these applications and should be determined via mixer uniformity tests. Generally, about thirty turns in the truck drum, or about two minutes at mixing speed, is sufficient to completely mix shrink-mixed concrete.

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Ready mix concrete

6.3. CENTRAL MIXED CONCRETE
Central-mixing concrete batch plants include a stationary, plant-mounted mixer that mixes the concrete before it is discharged into a truck mixer. Central-mix plants are sometimes referred to as wet batch or pre-mix plants. The truck mixer is used primarily as an agitating haul unit at a central mix operation. Dump trucks or other non-agitating units are sometimes be used for low slump and mass concrete pours supplied by central mix plants. About 20% of the concrete plants in the US use a central mixer. Principal advantages include:
· · ·

Faster production capability than a transit-mix plant Improved concrete quality control and consistency and Reduced wear on the truck mixer drums.

There are several types of plant mixers, including:
· · · · ·

Tilt drum mixer Horizontal shaft paddle mixer Dual shaft paddle mixer Pan mixer Slurry mixer

The tilting drum mixer is the most common American central mixing unit. Many central-mix drums can accommodate up to 12 yd3 and can mix in excess of 200 yd3 per hour. They are fast and efficient, but can be maintenance-intensive since they include several moving parts that are subjected to a heavy load. Horizontal shaft mixers have a stationary shell and rotating central shaft with blades or paddles. They have either one or two mixing shafts that impart significantly higher horsepower in mixing than the typical drum mixer. The intensity of the mixing
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Ready mix concrete action is somewhat greater than that of the tilt drum mixer. This high energy is reported to produce higher strength concrete via to thoroughly blending the ingredients and more uniformly coating the aggregate particles with cement paste. Because of the horsepower required to mix and the short mixing cycle required to complete mixing, many of these mixers are 4 or 5 yd3 units and two batches may be needed to load a standard truck or agitator. Pan mixers are generally lower capacity mixers at about 4 to 5 yd3 and are used at precast concrete plants. Slurry Mixing

The slurry mixer is a relative newcomer to concrete mixing technology. It can be added onto a dry-batch plant and works by mixing cement and water that is then loaded as slurry into a truck mixer along with the aggregates. It is reported to benefit from high-energy mixing. Another advantage is that the slurry mixer reduces the amount of cement dust that escapes into the air.

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CHAPTER NO.7 CASE STUDY

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All the ingredients used for preparation of the concrete, are thoroughly tested for their quality and physical properties in a well equipped laboratory attached to the plant for conformity to relevant Indian Standard Codes. The moisture probe determines the water content in the sand and aggregates. This accordingly helps in fixing the proportion of water to be added for the preparation of the mix. The sand being used is passed through the mechanized sieving system, before feeding for mixing. Trial mixes are carried out and tested to ensure that each and every batch of concrete coming out of the plant meets the parameters of client’s requirements The sand being used is passed through the mechanized sieving system, before feeding for mixing.

TESTS ON FINE AGGREGATES

1. Sieve Analysis 2. Specific Gravity 3. Bulk Density (Loose / Rodded) 4. Silt Test by Volume / Weight 5. Water Absorption 6. Sulphite / Chloride / Alkali Reactivity 7. Organic Impurities

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TEST ON COARSE AGGREGATES

1. Sieve Analysis 2. Specific Gravity 3. Aggregate Impact Value 4. Bulk Density (Loose / Rodded) 5. Water Absorption 6. Flakiness Index 7. Elongation Index 8. Alkali Reactivity 9. Abrasion Test 10. Crushing Test

TEST ON WATER 1. pH Value 2. Chloride 3. Sulphite 4. Nitrite

TEST ON FRESH CONCRETE 1. Workability 2. Temperature

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TEST ON HARDENED CONCRETE 1. Compressive Strength 2. Flexure Strength

TEST ON ADMIXTURES 1. Air entrained 2. Specific gravity

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Ready mix concrete pH Test Introduction The pH test measures the H+ ion concentration in liquids and substances. All measured liquids or substances are given a pH value on a scale that ranges from 0 to 14. Water (H20) contains both H+ (hydrogen) ions and OH- (hydroxyl) ions, Pure deionized water contains equal numbers of H+ and OH- ions, and has a pH of 7. This makes it neutral, neither acidic nor basic. If a water sample has more H+ than OH- ions, it is considered acidic and has a pH less than 7. If the sample contains more OH- ions than H- ions, it is considered basic with a pH greater than 7. It is important to understand that for every one unit change on the pH scale, there is in fact an approximately ten-fold change in how acidic or basic the sample is. This can be understood when considering the average pH of rainfall over much of the northeastern United States. This is 4.3, or roughly ten times more acidic than normal rainfall of 5.05.6. Lakes of pH 4 (acidic) are roughly 100 times more acidic than lakes of pH 6. In the U.S., the pH of natural water is usually between 6.5 and 8.5, although wide variations can occur. Increased amounts of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO-2), primarily from automobile and coal-fired power plant emissions, are converted to nitric acid and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere. These acids combine with moisture in

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Ready mix concrete the atmosphere and fall to earth as acid rain or acid snow. It is because of acid rain that thousands of lakes in eastern Canada, northeastern United States, Sweden, and Finland have become acidic. In many areas of the United States, the type of rocks and minerals present determine the acidity of the local water. If limestone is present, the alkaline (basic) limestone neutralizes the effect the acids might have on lakes and streams. However, usually the areas which are most hit by acid rain and snow are downwind of urban/industrial areas and do not have any limestone to reduce the acidity of the water. Changes in the pH value of water have an important effect on the organisms living within it. Most organisms have adapted to life in water of a specific pH and may die if it changes even slightly. This has happened to brook trout in some streams in the Northeast. In lakes with a pH below 5, and in streams that receive a massive acid dose as the acidic snow melts in the spring there can be serious consequences. Immature stages of aquatic insects and young fish are extremely sensitive to pH values below 5. At extremely high or low pH values (e.g., 9.6 or 4.5) the water becomes unsuitable for most organisms. 14 pH Test Furthermore, acidic waters can also cause heavy metals, such as copper and aluminum, to be released into the water. Again the consequences this has on fish life can be serious as heavy metals can accumulate on the gills of fish or cause deformities in young fish, reducing their chance of survival.
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Ready mix concrete

pH life 3.0 – 3.5 Some plants

Effect on aquatic

Unlikely that fish can survive for more than a few hours.

And nvertebrates can be found. 5.0 – 6.5 Bottom-dwelling decomposing bacteria begin to die off.

Plankton begin To disappear. No freshwater shrimp. 6.5 – 8.5 survive. 8.5 – 10.5 Bottom-dwelling decomposing bacteria begin to die off. Largest variety of animals. Fish, shrimp, plankton, bacteria

Plankton begins To disappear. No freshwater shrimp. 10.5 – 11.5 plants And invertebrates can be found. Unlikely that fish can survive for more than a few hours. Some

Invertebrates can be found. Equipment • MultiLogPRO • pH sensor • 250mL beaker or cup • Wash bottle with distilled water MultiLogPRO Setup Sensors Input 1: pH Rate:
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Ready mix concrete Every second Recording time: 20 samples (20s) pH Test 15 Experimental Procedure Sampling procedure The water sample for the pH test should be collected away from the river bank and below the surface. If possible, use an extension rod sampler. The sample must be measured immediately because changes in temperature can affect the pH value. If pH must be measured later, the sample should be placed on ice and measured as soon as possible. Testing Procedure 1. Turn on MultiLogPRO 2. Connect the pH electrode to the pH adaptor, then plug the pH sensor into input 1 (I/O-1) of MultiLogPRO 3. Set MultiLogPRO up according to the setup specified above 4. Remove the pH electrode from the storage bottle. Rinse the tip of the electrode with stream water 5. Place the pH electrode in to a beaker with sample water 6. Push Enter on MultiLogPRO’s keypad to begin recording 7. When logging ends record the pH level in your data sheet

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WORKABILITY

Slump test is used to determine the workability of fresh concrete. Slump test as per IS: 1199 – 1959 is followed. The apparatus used for doing slump test are Slump cone and tamping rod.

Procedure to determine workability of fresh concrete by slump test.
I) the internal surface of the mould is thoroughly cleaned and applied with a light coat of oil. ii) The mould is placed on a smooth, horizontal, rigid and nonabsorbent surface. iii) The mould is then filled in four layers with freshly mixed concrete, each approximately to one-fourth of the height of the mould. iv) Each layer is tamped 25 times by the rounded end of the tamping rod (strokes are distributed evenly over the cross section). v) After the top layer is rodded, the concrete is struck off the level with a trowel. vi) The mould is removed from the concrete immediately by raising it slowly in the vertical direction. vii) The difference in level between the height of the mould and that of the highest point of the subsided concrete is measured. viii) This difference in height in mm is the slump of the concrete.

Reporting

of

Results

The slump measured should be recorded in mm of subsidence of the specimen during
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Ready mix concrete the test. Any slump specimen, which collapses or shears off laterally gives incorrect result and if this occurs, the test should be repeated with another sample. If, in the repeat test also, the specimen shears, the slump should be measured and the fact that the specimen sheared, should be recorded. Typical Questions Ques 1. What is the ideal value of slump? Answer 1 In case of a dry sample, slump will be in the range of 25-50 mm that is 1-2 inches. But in case of a wet concrete, the slump may vary from 150-175 mm or say 67 inches. So the value of slump is specifically mentioned along the mix design and thus it should be checked as per your location. Slump depends on many factors like properties of concrete ingredients – aggregates etc. Also temperature has its effect on slump value. So all these parameters should be kept in mind when deciding the ideal slump Ques 2. How does a superplasticizer effect the slump of concrete? Answer 2 Value of Slump can be increased by the addition of chemical admixtures like mid-range or high-range water reducing agents (super-plasticizers) without changing the water/cement ratio. Ques 3. How much time one should take to raise the cone? Answer 3 Once the cone is filled and topped off [excessive concrete from top is cleared] raise the cone within 5-10 seconds.

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CHAPTER NO.8 QUALITY OF READY MIX CONCRETE

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Introduction:
Concrete is composed principally of aggregates, a Portland or blended cement, water, and may contain other cementitious materials and/or chemical admixtures. This paper research in the factors assign ready mix concrete quality through the vision of new version of Qatar national construction standards QCS 2007 and related international standards in both concrete stages, fresh and hardened .

8.1 Uniformity:
Uniformity of fresh concrete is important to assure the quality of fresh concrete, it can be measured by the following tests:

8.1.1Slump test:
The purpose of the slump test is to determine the consistency of the concrete it is a measure of the relative fluidity or mobility of the concrete mixture. Slump does not measure the water content or workability of the concrete, it is true that an increase or decrease in the water content will cause a corresponding increase or decrease in the slump of the concrete provided that all of the other materials and conditions are constant. However, many factors can cause the slump of the concrete to change without any change in the water content such as a change in the aggregate properties or gradation, mix proportions, air content, concrete temperature, cementing properties, super plasticizer type and/or content. QCS 2007

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Ready mix concrete section5 part 6 specify tolerance for different slump values table 1. Table 1 : tolerance for design slump value Specified Slump(mm)* 50 75 100 and above Tolerance(mm) -10/+35 -15/+35 -20/+40 * The slump test shall be carried out in accordance with BS EN 12350-2.

8.1.2 Temperature Test:
Concrete temperature is the one of the most important factors influencing quality, time of set, and strength of the concrete. A concrete with a high initial temperature will probably have higher than normal early strength and lower than normal later strength. By controlling the concrete temperature within acceptable limits, immediate and future problems may be avoided such as slump loss, plastic shrinkage cracks and others. Temperature of fresh concrete test shall be carried out accordance with ASTM C1064, the maximum of fresh concrete at the point of placement shall not be more than (32oC). as in QCS 2007 Section 5 part 15.

8.1.3 Unit weight (Fresh Density) test of fresh concrete:
The density test is a very important tool used to control the quality of freshly mixed concrete. QCS 2007 section 5 part 7. After a concrete mix proportion has been batched, a change in the density of concrete will indicate a change in one or more of the other concrete performance requirements. A lower density may indicate the followings:

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Ready mix concrete • Materials have been changed (lower specific gravity). • Higher air content. • Higher water content. • Change in the proportion of ingredients. • Lower cement content. Conversely, the higher density would indicate the reverse of the above mentioned concrete characteristic. A lower density of fresh concrete from the established concrete mix proportion will generally indicate an over-yield. This means that the required cement content for (1 m3) is diluted to produce a greater volume of concrete. Therefore, lower strength is to be expected as well as a reduction of the other desirable quality of concrete. If the reduction of the density of the concrete was due to an increase in air content, possibly the concrete will be more durable in its resistance to cycles of freezing and thawing, but the strength, abrasion resistance, resistance to chemical attack, shrinkage, and cracking qualities of concrete will be adversely affected.

8.1.4 Air content Test:
Air entrainment is necessary in concrete and not only in cold weather where freezing and thawing effect will take place but it is recommended also for sulfate exposure to reduce cracks in concrete due to volume change and formation of ettringite “calcium sulfoaluminate”.

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Ready mix concrete The microscopic entrained air voids of approx. 100 µm in diameter provide a source of internal pressure relief within the concrete to accommodate the pressures that develop as ice crystals or form the formation of ettringite in the pores and capillaries of the concrete. However, as the air content increase (above 5%) there will be a corresponding reduction in the strength of the concrete. Typically, strength reduction will be on the order of 3 to 5 percent for each one percent of air content above the designed value.

8.2 Workability of fresh concrete:
Workability is the property of fresh mixed concrete that determines the ease with which it can be mixed, placed, consolidated, and finished to homogeneous conditions. QCS 2007 section 5 Part 6 consider slump test as a customary measure of workability. Concrete workability specify according to conditions under which is to be placed – size and shape of member, spacing of reinforcing, or other details interfering with the ready filling of the forms. For example, a stiff mixture with large aggregate that is workable in a large open form would not be place able in a thin wall with complicated reinforcing details. Accordingly, QCS 2007 Section 5 part 6 specifies using plasticizer or water reducing admixture in case of adequate workability is difficult to obtain at the maximum water cement ratio allowed.

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8.3 Setting time of concrete:
The past forms when cement is mixed with water remain plastic for a short period of time not exceeding 3 hours. The setting process is divided into stages, a) initial setting b) final setting depending on the resistance to penetration by a standard probe as in ASTM C403. Before the initial setting time of concrete, it is still possible to disturb the concrete and remix it without injury. Later re-vibration can be beneficial for concrete strength. At the time of final setting, the concrete has become rigid fractures rather than flows as increasing stress is applied. Accordingly, setting time of concrete shall be complying with construction sequence to assign the timing for transportation; placing, consolidation, finishing and curing of concrete.

8.2 Concrete in the Hardened Stage:
The quality of concrete which is in a hardened state and which has developed certain strength could be asses as follow.

8.2.1 Compressive, tensile or flexural strength.
Most the concrete is bought and sold on the basic of strength test results. Therefore, strength test specimens are very important in the concrete construction industry, they must be made according to BSEN 12390 for two reasons: a) the result are reliable

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Ready mix concrete b) The test can be reproduce by some one else with the same concrete, following the same procedure and getting nearly the same results. QCS 2007 Section 5 Part1 details standard procedure for molding and curing concrete cubes and beams, specimens must be molded according to standard procedure and cured under proper temperature and moisture conditions as details in table 2, if this procedures are not followed the strength test results are unreliable. Table2:Standard requirements for handling the standard concrete specimens.

1.Inicial curing (B.S EN 12390-2:2000)
• Cover each mould with a damp cloth and Plastic sheet. • Protect the cube at all time against shock, vibration and dehydration . • Store the specimens inside at normal room, temperature (15C To 25C* ) .

2. Demolding Specimens (B.S EN 12390-2:2000)
• Demould the specimens to be tested (16 to 72 )hrs After the batching time .

3.Final Curing(B.S EN 12390-2:2000)
• Immediately after demoulding the specimens should be cured in water at a temperature(18C to 22C).

4.Transportation of specimens to the lab.(B.S EN 12390-2:2000)
• Avoid loss of moisture and deviations from the required temperature at all stages of transporting • Packing the hardened test specimens in wet Sand or wet clothes, or sealed in plastic bags

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Ready mix concrete * It can be waved to 30C in hot weather. Assessment compressive test results of hardened concrete: Strength test results analysis is one of important factors in the assessment of concrete quality QCS 2007 section 5 part 6 specifies conditions for strength results acceptance as the following conditions. • The strength of cubes (average) shall not be less than required minimum strength. • The mean strength shall be greater than the required characteristic strength by at least the current margin, more details in QCS 2007 section 5 part 6 about the current margin. The strength test results obtained from standard concrete specimens represent the potential strength of the concrete rather than the actual strength in the structure. Variation in standard specimen’s strength results may originate from any of the following sources. • Batch To Batch variation of the proportions and characteristics of the constituent materials in the concrete, the production, delivery, handling process, and climate conditions. • Within test variation of sampling, specimens preparation, curing, and testing procedure.

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8.2.2 Durability of concrete.
It is the ability of concrete to resist weathering action, chemical attack, abrasion, and other conditions of service, recently it is the most common factor used to measure concrete quality especially in the critical and huge structures. Factors affect the durability of concrete:

8.2.1 Permeability:
The ability of concrete to withstand the ingress and diffusion of aggressive agents is governed by its permeability. The cover zone in particular is intended to act as a barrier between the reinforcing steel and the aggressive environment for which its quality is therefore of primary importance in durability considerations. QCS 2007 section 5 part 6 specify two category of concrete according to permeability a)impermeable concrete . b) high impermeable concrete.

8.2.2 Binder Type.
Most widely used cement types are OPC, SRPC, requirements for these different types are specify in QCS 2007 section 5 part 3. Supplementary cementitous material has been used in concrete mixtures since 1970s to enhance the durability and other concrete properties. The most common used in the Gulf area are Micro Silica (M.S) ,Pulverized Fuel Ash (P.F.A), ground granulated blats Furness (G.G.B.S). The optimum

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Ready mix concrete amount to use should be established by testing, to determine a) whether the material is indeed improving the properties. b) To determine the correct dosage rate in order to achieve the desired effect Accordingly, QCS 2007 section 5 part 6 specify limits for dosage.

8.2.3 Binder Content.
High cementitituos material content will be beneficial for concrete durability specially when SCM is used but in case of mass concrete and high ambient temperature prevailing in the Gulf region has caused significant problems with respect to heat of hydration induced cracking in major concrete structures. Therefore QCS 2007 section 5 part 6 specify the maximum limit for cement content in the mixture to be 450 kg/m3 to control the heat of hydration but it is recommended to do further tests in case of mass concrete, see figure (1). Figure (1) : conceptual graph showing durability v. binder content.

8.2.4 Design and Construction
The dominant form of deterioration of concrete structures in the Gulf region is corrosion of reinforcement resulting from inadequate concrete cover, improper consolidation and insufficient curing or a combination. Some studies showed that improper curing can result in a 10 to 15 time’s reduction in the permeability of cover zone. in QCS 2007 section 5 part 10 more details about curing requirements.

8.3 Appearance and geometric requirements.
Quality of concrete appearance is important specially in an exposed surface

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Ready mix concrete concrete should met the appearance requirements. Flatness and Levelness present the geometry of the structure surface which measure the degree to which a surface approximates a plane and the degree to which a line or surface parallels horizontally. The degree of flatness and levelness are depend the structure type and requirements see QCS 2007 section 24 part 9 .

Conclusion:
The quality of a ready mix concrete does not mean the highest strength value as known in the construction field but it is a chain of requirements in both concrete stages, fresh and hardened. To achieve this requirements a comprehensive quality control procedure in the QCS 2007 shall be applied in the concrete batch plant as well as in the construction site to control testing of raw materials, concrete batching, casting, consolidation, curing and others.

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CHAPTER NO.9 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF R. M. C.

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MERITS OF R. M. C Ø Better quality concrete is produced. Ø Elimination of storage space for basic materials at site. Ø Elimination of Procurement / Hiring of plant and machinery. Ø Wastage of basic materials is avoided. Ø Labour associated with production of concrete is eliminated. Ø Time required is greatly reduced. Ø Noise and dust pollution at site is reduced. Ø Organization at site is more streamlined. Ø Durable & Affordable Ø No storage space required either for raw materials or for the mix. Ø Lower labour and supervisory cost. Ø No wastage at site. Ø Environment friendly. Ø Availability of concrete of any grade.

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DEMERITS OF R. M. C.

Ø Need huge initial investment. Ø Not affordable for small projects (small quantity of concrete) Ø Needs effective transportation system from R.M.C to site. Ø Traffic jam or failure of vehicle creates problem if proper dose of retarder is not given. Ø Labours should be ready on site to cast the concrete in position to vibrate it and compact it.

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CHAPTER NO.9 CONCLUSION

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CONCLUSION:

Ready Mix Concrete plant is a modern technique of production of concrete in large quantities away from the actual site of placing. It is very useful in cities where demand of concrete is very high and construction sites are in congested areas where mixing on site is not possible. It is suitable for projects like Dam, Roads, Bridges, commercial complex, Malls and all types of mass construction where time limit plays a vital role and where demand is huge.

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CHAPTER NO.10 PROJECT REPORT

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PROJECT REPORT

Location of project

:

Shirke Pvt.Ltd RMC Batching & Mixing Plant Shahu Nagar, District Pune. Maharashtra. India.

Plant Manager

:

Mr.Aadmuthe

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Plant Area

:

2 Acre

Storage Capacity Ø Ø Ø Ø Cement Sand Aggregate Admixtures : : : : 1000 Kg 500 Kg 500 Kg 500 Kg

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REFERENCES

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Ready mix concrete REFERENCES:Websites:http://www.jklakshmi.com/calculator.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ready-mix_concrete http://www.lntecc.com/concrete/lntreadymix.asp http://www.rdcconcrete.com/ http://content.magicbricks.com/ready-mix-concrete-biz-to-pick-up-this-fiscal-acc http://www.nrmca.org/ http://www.indiabizclub.com/pf/product_Ready+Mix+Concrete.htm http://www.indianconstructionindustry.com/construction_directory/ready_mix_concre te.html http://www.tradeindia.com/manufacturers/indianmanufacturers/ready-mixconcrete.html http://www.constructionupdate.com/products/projectsinfo/2006/nov06-nov12/022023.html http://www.jklakshmi.com/jklakshmi_rmc.html http://www.scribd.com/ http://www.youtube.com/

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