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DNA and Gene

Expression

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Double helix
Carries genetic information
Located in the nucleus
The monomer is a
nucleotide

A phosphate
A ribose sugar
A nitrogenous base

What are the bases in DNA

A adenine
T thymine
C cytosine
G guanine
Base pair rules

Where is DNA located in the


Cell?

Where are the genes located?

Genes are located


on the
chromosomes.
Every species has a
different number of
chromosomes.
There are two types
of chromosomes:
autosomes and sex
chromosomes

Genes

are located on the chromosomes


which are found in the nucleus of a cell.
When a cell is undergoing cell
reproduction, the chromosomes are
visible. Chromosomes appear when the
chromatin condenses and become
visible.
Most of the time (90%) the genetic
material in the form of chromatin.
A genome is the complete genetic
information contained in an individual.
(gene + chromosome)

What is gene expression?


Gene expression is
the activation of a
gene that results in
a protein.

Gene expression takes place


differently in prokaryotes and
eukaryotes.
What is a
prokaryotes? Eukaryotes?

Prokaryotes
No membrane
bound organelles
(nucleus)
More primitive
organisms
Only one circular
chromosome
Bacteria are the
only organisms that
are prokaryotes.

Eukaryotes
Membrane bound
organelles ( specialize in
function nucleus,
mitochondria,
chloroplast)
Chromosomes are in
pairs and not circular
All organisms that are
not bacteria: protist,
fungi, plants and animals

In Eukaryotes, following mitosis or meiosis,


DNA recoils but certain regions remain
relaxed for transcription. The areas of
relaxed DNA are called euchromatin.
Transcription is the
Reading of the DNA and
Changing the code to
mRNA.
Translation is changing
The mRNA into a trait by
Using tRNA to interpret the
mRNA.

DNA in eukaryotes has regions of coding


and noncoding DNA. The regions of DNA
that code for proteins or traits are called
EXONS, while the regions that do not code
for proteins are called INTRONS.

cytoplasm
cytoplasm

In prokayotes, transcription and


translation occur in the cytoplasm.
In eukaryotes, transcription occurs
inside the nucleus in a two step
sequence of events.

Pre-mRNA includes both introns and


exons for the gene.
mRNA is only the coding portion (exons).

Translation occurs in the cytoplasm at


the ribosomes.
Reminder: The are three (3) types of RNA
Messenager (mRNA)
Transfer (tRNA)
Ribsomal (rRNA)

Translation

RNA
Single stranded
Does not contain
thymine but has uracil
instead.

tRNA carries 3 base


pair code for specific
amino acid.
Amino acids compose
polypeptid chains.
One or more
polypeptide chains
compose a protein
proteins provide the
blueprints for our
characteristics and
functions.

In Prokaryotes there are three (3)


regulatory elements that control
gene expression.
1. Structural genes genes that code for
a specific polypeptide (protein).
2. Promoter DNA segment that
recognizes RNA polymerase.
3. Operator element that serves as a
binding site for an inhibitor protein that
blocks transcription.

Enhancer Control

Eukaryote genes on
a DNA strand also
have noncoding
control sequences
that facilitate
transcription.
These are called
enhancers.
Transcription factors
are additional
proteins that bind to
RNA polymerase and
enhancers to help
with transcription.

Cell Differentiation
Cell

differentiation is the
development of cells into cells with
specialized functions.
Examples: muscle cells, liver cell, red
blood cells

As

organisms grow and develop,


organs and tissues develop to
produce a characteristic form. The
process is call morphogenesis.

Homeotic Genes

Homeotic genes are


regulatory genes that
determine where certain
anatomical structures, such
as appendages, will develop
in an organism during
morphogenesis.
These seem to be the
master genes of
development

Normal

Mutant with legs


growing out of head

Homeobox

In Drosophila (fruit
flies) the specific DNA
sequence within a
homeotic gene that
regulates patterns of
development is the
homeobox.
The same or very
similar homeobox
sequences have been
found in many other
eukaryotic organisms

Cancer
Leading

cause of death in the United

States
A genetic disease caused by a
mutation in the genes that control
cell division

Tumor abnormal proliferation of


cells that results from uncontrolled,
abnormal cell division
Benign a tumor that remains within a
mass
Malignant tumor- uncontrolled dividing
cells that invade and destroy healthy
tissue elsewhere in the body
Metastasis spread of cancer cells
beyond their original site

Kinds of Cancer

Carcinomas grow in skin and tissues


that line the organs of the body
Example: lung and breast

Sarcomas grow in bone and muscle


tissue
Lymphomas solid tumors that grow
in tissues that form blood cells

Example: leukemia

1.
2.
3.

In normal cells, that frequency of


cell division is governed by
several factors:
Adequate nutrition
Attachment to other cells,
membranes or fibers
Division stops if cell become
crowded (usually after 20 50)
divisions
Cancer cell continue dividing and
ignore the normal messages to
stop dividing.

What Causes Cancer?

Mutations

that alter the genes


coding for growth factors.

May occur spontaneously


Result from exposure to an carcinogen
( any substance that increases the risk
of cancer.)
Usually

there is more than one


mutation.
There are two types of genes that
control cell division
Proto-oncogens
Tumor suppressing genes (p53 gene)