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Homage to a Father: Family Tradition and Revolution(s) in Palace Walk Fadwa Mahmoud Hassan Gad1 Western readings of Palace Walk, the first volume of Mahfouz’s Cairo Trilogy, tend to interpret the novel mainly along the lines of typical opposition between patriarchy/occupation and feminism/revolution forces. Even though this analogy might be convincing to a western mind, it is based on cultural assumptions which are inconsistent with textual and contextual evidence. Taking into consideration the contextual background of the Nasser era against which the work was conceived, the paper proposes an alternative reading that observes the correspondence between family and national loyalties, an inherent feature of the Egyptian middle class society which Palace Walk depicts. The Egyptian middle class was responsible for the two most important revolutions in the history of the nation: The 1919 revolution led by Sa'd Zaghloul, and the 1952 revolution led by Gamal Abdel Nasser. In this novel, the paper argues, Mahfouz compares the leaders of these two incidents of national struggle, with the purpose of proposing a fictional rendering of the contradiction between the personality of Nasser as the leader and the quality of his political system. In one character, Al Sayyid Ahmed Abdel Jawad, Mahfouz embodies most of the potential vulnerability of that contradiction. The ambivalence and complex sentiments held towards the father figure, who is simultaneously feared and idolized, best reflects the duality of the people's reaction towards Nasser as a ruler. The paper concludes that while the character of the father in Palace Walk echoes the contradictory quality of Nasser’s regime, it represents Egypt’s revolution of 1919 as a model to which Mahfouz aspired and wished Nasser to emulate. [Article copies available for a fee from The Transformative Studies Institute.
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KEYWORDS: Mahfouz, Palace Walk, Family, Revolution, Egypt, Nasser, Postcolonial Criticism.
Fadwa Mahmoud Gad, Ph.D., received her Masters degree in adolescent adventure fiction, University College for Women, Ein Shams University, 1996. In 2003 she earned her Ph.D. degree in Comparative Literature at Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt. From 2003 to present Dr. Gad held the position of assistant professor of English and Comparative Literature in the College of Humanities &Social Sciences, United Arab Emirates University. Dr. Gad has participated in several regional and international conferences in The USA, Canada, and the Netherlands, Oman, and Egypt. She has published papers and reviews on feminist literature as well as postcolonial and cultural studies. Dr. Gad is also a poet and an essayist with significant online publications. Address correspondence to: Fadwa Mahmoud Gad, United Arab Emirates University, Department of English Literature, College of Humanities &Social Sciences, Al Maqam, P.O. Box 1777, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates 03; tel: 00971503302324; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. 1937-0229 ©2010 Transformative Studies Institute 24
marrying a conservative middle class wife. middle-class experience. with its wooden lattice work balconies. his birth place. Al-Shatty reiterated the same conclusion. Gender and postcolonial readings of the novel have interpreted this correspondence mainly in terms of an opposition between patriarchy/occupation and feminist/revolutionary forces. Mahfouz's father was a minor civil servant. Al. a thriving. Egypt rids itself of British hegemony”(Jomier 1966:5). gas-lit lamp and old cisterns as having a "permanent charm" and an indelible impression on his consciousness.Theory in Action Palace Walk is the first volume of the Cairo Trilogy (1956-57). explaining that events taking place outside Al-Sayyid's household move in a “parallel line” with the changes occurring within the family: “The children's restlessness and annoyance with the father's authority shakes the 25 . Kearns’ approach is a typical gender-centered evaluation of the narrative. serves as a microcosm of the ancient Fatimate capital. regarded as Naguib Mahfouz’s most famous fictional work . with a strong affinity to the petit bourgeois life style and ethics against which Mahfouz was brought up.While critics find that the work reflects the “history of the Egyptian society” in general (Ramadan 31). as the children rid themselves of father's authority. Almost twenty years later. Mahfouz's infatuation with Cairo blends with his preoccupation with the events befalling the city. None of Mahfouz's fictional work is set in the country. sensual. the household of Al-Sayyid Ahmed Abdel Jawad. It is only in that urban setting that Mahfouz felt most at home. As early as 1960. the café. Mahfouz describes his family's house in Al – Hussein.Ghitany. Jomier establishes “a correspondence between the family's and Egypt's political evolution. and maintaining a strong attachment to Cairo. The Trilogy is a specifically urban. [which] he " visited … only once as a child …and though I [Mahfouz] enjoyed the visit I insisted to return to Cairo after only one week. and his mother a traditional house wife. Cairo merchant. The son followed in his father's footsteps. and the alley are the major inspirational sources of his literary work. from which he seldom departed. one of Mahfouz’s disciples and a novelist himself. believes that Mahfouz's Affection and attachment to old Cairo is unmatched… His workplace. choosing the career of a civil servant. threaten[ing] the private stability of the patriarchal household” (Kearns 492). He views this as based on the “scandals produced by the sexual obsessions of father and sons. In Palace Walk. I was so determined that they brought me back" (Al-Ghitany 483). middle -aged.
” his house as “the house of the nation. which observes a correspondence between family loyalty and national loyalty to the leaders of the two revolutions respectively. military movement later embraced by the people (Tamawii 268).Fadwa Mahmoud Hassan Gad family. and leaders of these two incidents of national struggle. and furthermore an alternative reading be proposed. in spite of his sixty years of age. Mahfouz qualified the impact of the 1919 revolution as primarily affecting Egypt as a nation rather than Egypt as a formal political entity: “Never before had the people of Egypt fully realized their ‘self. just as Fahmy's participation in demonstrations severs all relations with the past” (Al-Shatty 147). Mahfouz has Zaghloul and Nasser arguing over the definition of leadership. Conversely.” People considered Sa'd as “the godfather of the nation. Taking into consideration both the cultural connotations of such values and the contextual background of the Nasser era against which the work was composed. and which moreover provides answers to the following questions : Could the ambivalence and complexity of sentiments held towards a father who is simultaneously feared and idolized. The 1919 revolution was "first and foremost a movement of the Egyptian people. Although this analogy may appear to be valid to a Western mind it is based on cultural assumptions that are incongruent with the values of the Egyptian middle class and which contradict with textual and contextual evidence. chose to “put his life at risk for the sake of the people”(Al Naqqash 209). but 1919 was that historic incident in which people took care of the whole matter…This is a singularity one should recognize” (Interview 185). the 1952 revolution was a planned. In Before the Throne (1990). In fact Mahfouz was not the first to acknowl26 ." a spontaneous public reaction to the arrest and exile of Sa'd and his colleagues. with Zaghloul blaming Nasser for criticizing of Zaghloul's role in the revolution. and the 1952 revolution led by Gamal Abdel Nasser. objectives.” and his appeal for independence a sacrifice of an elderly father who. The relationship between Sa'd and the people had been established mainly in terms of “family. Mahfouz expressed on several occasions the historical importance of comparing the nature.’ Revolutions in our history were always carried out by the elite. criticized and yet adored reflect the duality inherent in the people's reaction to Nasser's rule? Could the character of the father in Palace Walk echo the contradictory nature of that rule? And how far does the 1919 revolution represent a more ideal model to which Mahfouz aspired and wished Nasser to emulate? The Egyptian middle class was responsible for the two most important revolutions in the history of the nation: The 1919 revolution led by Sa'd Zaghloul. it is proposed herein that aspects of this incongruence be highlighted.
psychic history to the wider disjunctions of political existence” and in which “the personal is political and the world [is] in the home” (11). Al-Aqqad. the Arabs. and did that on an overwhelming scale. Family is the source of the Egyptian's social mentality. Nothing but loyalty and attachment to a father figure. like most Egyptians.H. but also recognized serious shortcomings evident in his reign. for very few have served the country as you did. the masses revolted. The 1919 revolution was a ‘family’ moment in which the people. and even the international world. Egyptians would never relinquish a pursuit of revenge of any assailants of members of their household. It is recorded that Mahfouz experienced a five-year writer's block on the outbreak of the 1952 revolution. in his biography of the Egyptian national leader Sa’d Zaghloul explains that “family. in the absence of a clear political. Nasser fascinated the Egyptians. Mahfouz. or ideological system. Three decades later the middle class produced another seminal movement that succeeded in achieving Egypt's independence. by political calculations. It was the 1952 revolution led by Gamal Abdel Nasser and the Free Officers. initiated a movement of history. for the Egyptians. in this most inopportune moment. not the leaders. Heikal that “the Egyptian nation found itself in Nasser as much as the French found themselves in Napoleon” (Heikal 159).Aqqad 29-30). The exile of Sa'd invoked the tradition of retaliation imbedded in the cultural psyche of the nation. could have caused a revolution so spontaneously and on such a large scale. Spivak terms such a power as “a politics of people” which is “an autonomous domain that neither originated from elite politics nor did its existence depend on the latter” (Spivak 2193) and Homi Bhabha qualifies it as an “unhomely” moment which “relates the traumatic ambivalences of a personal. André Malraux commented in a conversation with M. admired Nasser. The events of the 1919 revolution took place under public pressure for one demand: the return of the father of the nation. Yielding to foes of the family becomes in this context a ‘real shame’. economic. and resentment of bearing the disgrace of a father’s detention. 27 . Yet. and he heeds no danger once he conceives animosity directed at his household. It is by far stronger than any political commitment or obligation to authority. He had the impression that “it would take a great deal of consideration and effort to issue a decree about you [Nasser]. The international scene was hardly conducive to a national uprising: the British were emerging victorious from the war while Egypt was undergoing one of its weakest historical moments after forty years of occupation and a fragile political system. and very few have wronged it the way you did” (Mahfouz 1990:199). is the strongest social bond.” (Al.Theory in Action edge such a position.
and treating them with ruthless harshness when they are well. but he did not have faith in the ability of the middle class to sustain a consistent action if unguided by a firm leader. yet did not guarantee the same rights within the state and did not implement an efficient political system that would allow the citizens greater space of self expression and a larger share in shaping the policy of their country. after the defeat in the Six Day War. The product was Palace Walk. It is true that Nasser forged his legitimacy as a public leader based on his middle class culinary habits. showing a fiery temperament on trivial 28 . Nasser was again President of Egypt by public acclamation in the streets-some say by mob furore” (Vatikiotis 360). Vatikiotis adds that his death. Mahfouz believed that middle class people should be allowed to play as crucial a role in Nasser's era as they did in Zaghluol's. Mahfouz holds an analogy between the contradictions inherent in Nasser and his regime and those found in the character of Al-Sayyid Ahmed Abdel Jawad. “the lasting influence on Nasser's formation derived from the Weltanschauung of the lower ranks of the petite bourgeoisie in the Egypt of the inter-war period. a novel about the 1919 (not the 1952) Revolution. and conservative life style. As Vatikiotis rightly puts it. On the morrow. tyranny and corruption during his era. 1967. demonstrated the public's devotion to their leader till the moment of his death. and actually dreaded being described as a politician. His education and cultural preparation was therefore shallow because it was limited to these formative influences” (357). Even though the people suffered oppression. even if he lacked the depth of vision required of statesmen. with four million mourners participating in his funeral. they stood behind him when he was forced to relinquish the presidency. Nasser resigned the presidency. A similar duality is inherent in Al-Sayyid's character. Commentators on the Nasser era acknowledge that Nasser as a person was morally upright and politically uncorrupt but also agree that he tolerated oppression and overlooked the corruption of those around him. While political interpretations have failed to account for this phenomenon. He is able to combine religious devotion with bacchanal revelry. caressing his children tenderly when they are ill. Vatikiotis writes that “On the evening of 9 June. He defended the nation's right of free will and independence of political decision in the face of imperial powers. Nasser was an energetic and devoted character who engaged heartily in everything he undertook. His assumption was not quite accurate. the culturespecific family ethics have not.Fadwa Mahmoud Hassan Gad a period during which he contemplated the transformations it brought about. culture. thus indicating which model he preferred. Nasser never claimed deep thoughtfulness nor accomplished sophistication.
He was earnest and sincere in everything. merry face his friends encountered or the stern. He did not pray in a mechanical way limited to recitation. and feelings. maintaining it throughout the period of her recovery. Al-Sayyid exhibits the extraordinary quality of keeping barriers between the different roles of his life. The reason behind this discrepancy was that he was never forced to find “justification” for it. resolute one his family knew. The most significant manifestation of that appeal goes back to a talent of addressing the crowd. and prostration. 272). (37) Mahfouz attributes this duality to a lack of deep scrutiny: Al-Sayyid “was not accustomed to busying himself with introspection or self analysis” (41) and he seldom “resort[ed] to thought or reflection” (42). Both demonstrate conservatism. he was exceptionally affectionate. He is loved and admired by the people of his quarter.. He performed it with the same enthusiasm he invested in every aspect of life. One such example is when he keeps his composure when his wife leaves without his permission and breaks her leg. you would have been an exceptionally eloquent attorney. and “like all charismatic types. pouring himself into each. he was off his feet. Al-Sayyid.Theory in Action matters and absolute composure on grave ones. in his turn. Nasser had an undisputable sway over the people. is portrayed as enjoying a similar talent. It is enough for him to be sincere in whatever role he plays: When he prayed. His prayer was based on affection. It is never disputed within the narrative that AlSayyid has always acted with a high sense of responsibility towards his family. standing. He is successful in sustaining “a home amply provided with comforts and blessings. [he] preferred the spoken to the written word” (Vatikiotis. nor was he obliged to account for his actions. with a high sense of responsibility and a natural gift for leadership. not the smiling. basically for his conversational gift that raises him beyond his modest learning: “If you had had the opportunity to study law. When he fell in love. only to ask her to depart from the house once she has recovered. If he befriended someone.” says one of his associates (37).. and a happy. adult life” (4) and with the same efficiency in acting as “legislator of family rules” he allows Ameena to enjoy an unfettered feeling of motherhood as she “let(s) the father or his 29 . his face was humble. Both Nasser and Al-Sayyid showed an instinctive charisma that was all the more impressive for being unpolished by great learning. When he worked. He did not drink without getting drunk. he put his whole heart into it. emotion.
Al-Sayyid Ahmed abides by this strategy. Its innermost vocation seems to be to keep in the running and to be part of the racket” (Fanon 1578). the absolutely obedient and devoted wife. even if this means being deprived of attending his most favored music concerts. He reflects the mentality of the pre-1919 generation that grew up in the years of national vacuity between Oraby and Sa'd Zaghloul. the general commander of the Egyptian military forces. straighten them out and lay down the law” (32). respectable life and maintaining his status as “agent. In all his social dealings. Still Nasser was keen on maintaining the relationship with his colleague whom he absolutely trusted. Al-Sayyid Ahmed. A pivotal point in this analogy remains. Fahmy is taking part in it. in comparison. Resemblance extends to the type of wife each had. Transgressions that occurred during Nasser's era are a case in point. 30 . Al-Sayyid here fulfills Fanon's definition of the condition of “intellectual laziness” which is a basic feature of “the psychology of the businessman” that is restricted to “activities of the intermediary type. Mahfouz draws an analogy to that particular relationship as he registers the closeness of Al-Sayyid to his friend Ahmed Effit. What Mahfouz did was merely to fuse the system and the leader into one character that would embody the risk envisioned. had been one of the most prominent features of the Nasser era. marriage official and referee. it affirms the assumption that the analogy is not between Nasser and Al-Sayyid but between their ruling systems. to be that of the attitude towards the revolution. He is careful to avoid any clashes with the British occupying troops. Beyond the immediate family circle.Fadwa Mahmoud Hassan Gad shadow. is rather detached and reluctant to accept the revolution when he finds out that his son. Famous for his scandalous personal affairs. Al-Sayyid's son from Zainab. 147).” Would not such traits collapse the foundations of an affinity paradigm altogether? In fact it does not. On the contrary. The intimate friendship between Nasser and Amer. Mahfouz anticipated Fanon's warning that if Third World revolutions were controlled by a mediocre retinue. however. in Al Shatty. a relationship that is unaffected even by the divorce of Yaseen. in the hope of leading a secure. infatuated by her husband and content to remain in his shadow and the deep loyalty each shows to his friends. the countries' independence would eventually fall into the same network of imperial interests they sought to expel. Amer served as a curious counterpart to his conservative friend. which dominated the children from afar. he is diplomatic and in possession of maximum self-control. In many ways Egyptians conceived of Nasser and the Revolution as synonymous. Effit’s daughter. It was a generation that “enjoyed a tranquility based on resignation and had been the epitome of passivity and good intention” (Mahfouz.
as well as the responsibility for the protection of children from any harm. a passive subjugation which finds "no disgrace in yielding to authority" (Al-Aqqad 26). In an episode that echoes the sudden arrest and exile of Sa'd and his colleagues. He was not even young…Were they going to arrest members of the general public after arresting the leaders? (444) Al-Sayyid realizes that the imperial power does not discriminate between leaders and laymen: all are equally humiliated and endangered. that was the dominant impression people had of Nasser. Al-Sayyid understands that his complacency requires serious reconsideration. Al-Sayyid is driven to an unknown destination under the threat of arms in the middle of a dark night: These men were innocent. the father in Palace Walk is the source of security and stability and as such he acquires respect and admiration based on filial adoration and devotion. but towards the national issue itself. is weakened. He realizes that his carefully calculated prudence bears little fruit when he. not only towards his sons and daughters. with the tribe and the large family replacing the authority of the state in the consciousness of the people (Beshara). Al-Aqqad argues 31 . Mahfouz acknowledges that the father's basic credentials stem from the ability to provide the family with peace. Hearing of the burnings of entire villages and of women being raped. Mahfouz recognizes that the family replaces the state as the actual political and social unit. develops towards a more revolutionary stance as the narrative unfolds. In fact Al-Sayyid is the character that undergoes the most significant change of attitudes. Likewise.Theory in Action Al-Sayyid. security. So why had they been captured? What special reason could there be for taking him captive? He was not one of the revolutionaries and was not involved in politics. even if it is the authority of the invader. no matter how grievous. not his son. For the first time people saw a leader who was one of them and who infused their lives with security and trust. The provision for protection eclipses any personal lacking. with the head acting the practical ruler. as a consequence of the long occupation. Similarly. Taking into consideration the Egyptian psychological profile which usually distrusts and avoids direct involvement with formal authorities. Obviously. nevertheless. is exposed to a dangerous confrontation with British occupying troops. The narrative begins at a moment when the state authority. Al-Sayyid's manner of leadership triggers an indiscriminate loyalty inspired by dependence and need for protection. He was innocent. a typical community reaction to such circumstances is to resort to the security of the smaller community units.
the lamp burning brightly or extinguished” (4). which is that his type needs the protection of that father who surpasses him in his discretion and charisma: “[…] his father seemed like a trench at the front lines that the enemy would have to storm across first before reaching him” (414). as when he goes to work or to his evening outings with his friends.Aqqad 29-30). Middle class ethical thought presupposes that chaos is the natural consequence of the disappearance of the father figure. the neighbors next door whose father has been an invalid for years. From the very first lines of the novel. and charismatic father. Yaseen experiences very much the same dependence. Family is the source of the Egyptian's social mentality” (Al. whether awake or asleep. security and sense of protection she overwhelmingly feels in his presence: “Her mind was never completely at rest until her husband returned. for the Egyptians. They would cluster under their mother's wing with love and all embracing affection. Then it did not matter whether the doors were open or locked. is the strongest social bond. His perplexity over the contradiction of being severely chastised for cheating on his wife by a father who does virtually the same thing is eventually overcome by an insight. a hiatus of personal freedom away from the oppressive father's control. Troubles in the family of Mariam.Fadwa Mahmoud Hassan Gad that “family. the family considers it an occasion of relaxation and carefree comfort. The very way they sat leaning back with their legs folded under them showed how free and relaxed they felt” (52). When the father's absence is temporary. was enough to make her feel secure. The father is off to work and there is an opportunity for them “to enjoy being together as a family and to have a pleasant chat. respectable. Indeed. the affluent. Mahfouz distinguishes two aspects of this absence: temporary and permanent. the fate of Yaseen's mother (Al-Sayyid's first wife and present di32 . awaits the return of her husband. the mere fact of his presence in the house. Ameena. the obedient wife. even if stirred by different needs. She has a firmly held conviction that enduring her husband’s debauchery and tyranny is of little consequence when compared with the peace. The traditional afternoon coffee is another occasion for such a relaxed atmosphere. The narrative moves developmentally from the former sense of absence to the latter. it becomes apparent that the family cannot do without its head. Nevertheless this comfort is founded on the assumption that the father is to return. This attitude leads directly to a consideration of the significance of the absence of the father in the novel. Family gatherings that are “extremely taxing”(19) when the father is around. It is by far stronger than any political commitment or obligation to authority. become a time for comfortable chatting during which they are at liberty to “disclose and air secrets”(29) while he is away.
This belief of hers. with his strong religious and moral effect. expresses his belief in the futility of resistance: “It's impossible 33 . son? Aren’t they peopling like us with sons and mothers?” (479) Yassen is willing to co-exist. like the alteration of night and day. are incidents in which the family becomes vulnerable to moral degeneration. his verdict had become lodged in the depths of her soul…It was as though this ‘no’ were one of the processes of nature. This is true for other characters not directly related to Al-Sayyid's household.Theory in Action vorcee). The members of Al-Sayyid's family are too meek to protest against occupation. The Sheikh of the mosque. Ameena can only think of one person. and the experimental episode of Al-Sayyid's own family when he leaves temporarily on a short trip to Port Said. worked to terminate everything. Aisha. whether conscious or not. In a very significant scene he is unable to determine the winner of his war game. her son: In her eyes. Yaseen's mother is entangled in a pity affair and shameful marriages while Ameena falls down and breaks her shoulder once she mingles with the crowd. The episode of the father rejecting the suitor. effectively illustrates the process of transformation which the members of the household undergo in order to conform to. the nation was not worth the clippings from his fingernail. and terminated it was” (236). and be satisfied with. not to mention Yaseen's intentions. no one would have harmed him in any manner” (364). the demonstrators or the British soldiers. Yet utter subjugation leads to a chronic ennui in reaction to aggression. they find no justification or good prospect for the revolution. seeing that the British “embody all the perfections of the human race” (395) and Kamal tenaciously refuses to stop visiting the camps of British soldiers besieging their quarter. meekly and peacefully. The danger lies in this attitude transforming into a public trait promoting defeatism and apathy. Undisputed obedience is the second outcome of the father's form of leadership.. The expulsion of the English from Egypt seemed easier than persuading her of the necessity of expelling them or inducing her to hate them… She remarks quite simply. his decrees: “When her father had said no. or actual physical danger: Mariam and her mother are morally unscrupulous and are receptive of the shabby flirtation of Al-Sayyid and the English soldiers. nor realize a link between their stability and freedom of their country and their household. “why do you despise them. manipulation. So Zainab exclaims “If he (Sa'd) had lived the way God's children should.
Actually. but the Eng34 . it is Fahmy more than anyone else in the family who perceives clearly that. Yassen. thus denying any resentment of the father on the part of the son. It is significant that this episode takes place just before the father-son confrontation. to shake them up.Fadwa Mahmoud Hassan Gad that the English will leave Egypt. the father and the occupation stand at opposite ends. even with the declaration of truce. “He could rebel against the English and defy their bullets almost every day. Fahmy embodies the concept of positive. and finally the killing of Fahmy himself. Parallel to this pattern Mahfouz refers to another family sentiment of defiance in the face of danger once it is conceived that there is animosity directed against the household. Fahmy’s beloved neighbor. Fahmy saw his father in an alarming situation. Fahmy is able to realize that dependent loyalty would breed an absence of public consciousness and an indifference to the causes of the larger family of the community. or cleaning the furnishings” (360). There certainly would be fighting and we would lose” (327). Fahmy comes fiercely to his father's defense: “for the first time in his life. washing the clothes. He laments the fact that his family is unable to interact with the changes taking place in the country: “Minding only daily affairs (The mother was making bread) God forbid that anything should distract her from preparing the meals.Aqqad 29-30). but he is also the only one who is capable of protecting that father from assault. the flirting of soldiers with Mariam. In the mosque episode where the three of them. While Fahmy has strong family ties with advocates for national struggle. confront the hostility of fanatic nationalists who accused Yaseen of cooperation with the British. indeed between Fahmy and the rest of his family members. Unlike them he feels an imminent threat might befall them if the head of the family is permanently absent: “Who among them cared what was happening nowadays? Who among them was concerned whether Sa’d was in Egypt or in exile and whether the English left or stayed? He felt estranged from these people” (459). Yielding to foes of the family becomes in this context a “real shame” (Al. That is the main point of difference between the perspectives of AlSayyid Ahmed and his son Fahmy. ‘Don’t dare come a step closer’” (417). filial emotion towards his own father and towards Sa'd as a father of Egyptians. he is frustrated by the total passiveness of his own family members who insist on living in the shadow of the events shaking the country: it requires the arbitrary arrest of the father by the British soldiers. Fahmy shouted at the man threateningly. literally and figuratively. and Fahmy. He was so outraged that he was oblivious to the danger engulfing them. the father. He is the only child that dares to enter into dialogue with his father over the revolution.
as a father figure in possession of firmness and nobility. a new home.Theory in Action lish were a frightening and hated enemy. Paula Gunn Allen remarks that western assumptions about the traditions of other cultures often “dislocate the significance of the tale and alter its ideational context…leav[ing] certain elements confusing. The students are acting in their duty as sons.” he explains. 35 . a new people” (326). stand firm: “Has the grand old man learned that his sacrifice has not been in vain?” (374). while his father was his father. annoying or unclear” (Allen 2124). They simply attempt to impose Western cultural codes upon a totally different context. in the father's absence. a new nation. “The Orient. Fahmy believes that the absence of such a figure is “a great event (that) would rock all the Egyptians” (361) who should look for “a new world. To put it in family terms. In one of the first demonstration scenes in Palace Walk this relationship is evident and explicit: They greeted him with a single chant: “Down with the Protectorate. he acted as the guardian of the nation's honor and preserver of its existence. to form judgments and make choices that may be contrary to situational cues.” He was gruff with them…advising them to return to their lessons and leave politics to their fathers. Sa'd. Fahmy never doubts that his father’s opposition to his participation in the demonstrations is motivated by fatherly sentiments as well as a heritage of a long record of middle class prudence and reluctance to get involved in politics. resolves Fahmy's ambivalence towards his real father. Students see in Sa'd an incarnation of what social sciences term “transformative morality: the ability to accept the consequences of one's decisions. A frightening and beloved man”( 424). As Fahmy recalls the details of the demonstrations he wishes that they behave as “dutiful sons” who. Edward Said refers to a similar issue as he discusses the Western perception of the orient. particularly those of authority figures”(Metzger x). At that point one of them protested: “Our fathers have been imprisoned. Egyptians authorized Sa'd as representative of its demands for independence. That is why Fahmy is resolute to reconcile with his father and seek his forgiveness as soon as he learns of the news of the return of Sa’d from exile. The analogy is clearly drawn here between the father's status in the Egyptian family and the mentality behind the 1919 revolution. We won't study law in a land where law is trampled underfoot” (358). This scene of final reconciliation underscores that interpretations of this novel which equate the father’s authority with that of the occupation are groundless.
Ragaah." The Man and the Summit: Research Papers and Studies. and the crowds. 36 . While both modes of leadership illustrate the vital role played by the father in the struggle against British occupation. from the ambivalence of Nasser’s rule to the consistency of Zaghloul's form of leadership. Rather than equating the father-family relationship in the novel with the Egyptian-British conflict. The remarks of Allen and Said strike a note fit to qualify certain Western literary interpretations of the father figure in Mahfouz's Palace Walk. These interpretations are based on value assumptions that favor the individual over the group. Mahfouz anticipated that one day Nasser might reach a similar conclusion. Nasser. Fadel Al Aswad.Fadwa Mahmoud Hassan Gad “was orientalized not only because it was discovered to be oriental…but because it submitted to being made oriental” (Said 1994). الرجل والقمة: بحوث دراسات Ed. 1975. Cairo: General Egyptian Book Authority. Zaghloul and Nasser. That hardship culminated in the father's realization of the need for the sons' reciprocal family sense of duty and protection. The crowd had to give up reluctance and prudence and fight for the return of the father of the nation. and the Egyptians experienced the humiliation of national orphanage and a serious threat to their security and order. سعد زغلول: سيرة وتحيةCairo: Dar Al Shourouk . They are therefore unable to appreciate the complex repertoire of values associated with such a figure. but it was a support limited to a dependent position of backing his decisions and blessing his steps. Mahfouz equates such a relationship to the attitudes the people held towards the leaders of the 1919 and 1952 revolutions respectively. WORKS CITED Al-Aqqad. Zaghloul. "Cairo Between Reality and Imagination in Naguib Mahfouz's Trilogy. and he did. Naguib Mahfouz: Pages of his Memoirs and Reading of his Oeuvre and Biography. like Al-Sayyid. 1998. Mahfouz explores the complex synthesis of idolizing and subjugation as the major reactions to a father whose presence and absence serve as the primary motivation for national uprisings in Cairo. Palace Walk is Mahfouz's objective correlative to the relationship between Egyptian revolutionary leaders. Al-Ghitany. both as microcosm and macrocosm. enjoyed the overwhelming support of the people. Al -Naqqash. and regard personal freedom as taking precedence to communal obligations. The people relied heavily on Nasser as their sole source of security and order. نجيب محفوظ : صفحات من مذكراته وقراءة في اعماله وسيرة حياتهCairo: Al Ahram. Gamal. Abbas Mahmoud. 1989. was exiled. they exhibited different perceptions of the role of the people. The narrative develops through a gradual transformation. Sa'd Zaghloul: A Biography and a Greeting. on the other hand.
Trans. 1966. _____. 1990. Naguib Mahfouz's Trilogy. Paula Gunn. Ed. Before the Crown. Ed. 2001. أمام العرشCairo: Misr Bookshop. "Orientalism. 1965. Ramadan.Vincent Leitch. Azmy. On Youth and Freedom. S. London: St. New York: Norton. Kearns. Palace Walk (1956). Jaque. _____. Heikal. New York: Routledge. "Gaza and the Arab Regimes. Mohamed Hassanein. "Naguib Mahfouz as a National and Political Historian" qt." The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. Nazmy Luka. 1994. Abdel Aazeem. For Egypt.Theory in Action AL. Symbol and Symbolism in Naguib Mahfouz's Work. The Sacred Hoop. Trans. 1978. 1994. الرمز والرمزية في أدب نجيب محفوظKuwait: Modern Publishers. Jomier. Al Jazeera. "History"[Can the Subaltern Speak?]: A Critique of Postcolonial Reason. Allen. Cairo: Miser Publishers." The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. Constance Farrington.Vincent Leitch. Location of Culture. عن الشباب والحريةCairo: Al Dar Al Maserya Al-Lebnania. Martin's Press. "Kochinnenuko in Academe: Three approaches to interpret a Keres Indian Tale". Ed. Gayatri C. ثورة 32 يوليو، 2591 ، بين ثورات العالمCairo: Dar Al Fekr al Araby. Beshara. 1990. New York: Norton. _____. Frantz. 1991: 491-99. Egypt's Worries and the Crisis of the New Intellectuals. Kenny. Pannayiotis J. 44. Oct 1930: 1468.Shatty. not for Nasser. Nasser and his Generation. 2001. February 2009. 1987. Trans. Homi. Naguib. 1976. Edward. Abdellah. Tamawii." TV Panel . Said. Boston: Beacon Press. بين القصرينTrans. ھموم مصر وأزمة المفكرين الجددEd. 2001:1575. A. "The Wretched of the Earth. The 23rd Revolution 1952 amongst the World Revolutions.A. New York: Norton. Constance Farrington." New Magazine 1. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press. Fanon. George. ال لعبد الناصرCairo: Al Ahram Center for Translation and Publication. Cairo: Al Jeel Center for New Social Studies. Bhabha." The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. "Dying and Generated Convictions. 1992. 37 . Vatikiotis.Vincent Leitch. Spivak. Ibraheem's "Social Mobility in Naguib Mahfouz's Vision". William Maynard Hutchins and Olive E. "Fiction: In History and Out" The Hudson Review. Constance Farrington. لمصر. K. 2001: 2193. Soliman Mohamed. in M. Trans. Mahfouz.
Meyer Crossing the Genre Divide: Women and Ethics in the Detective Novels of Dorothy L.Volume 3 Number 1 January 2010 Theory In Action GUEST EDITOR: JAY CORWIN IN THIS ISSUE 1 7 24 38 Introduction. Sayers Suzie Remilien Close Encounters of the Third (Space) Kind: La guaracha del Macho Camacho and the City as Site of Unavoidable Contact Chris T. Marotta Eliade’s Romanian Past: Religion and Politics Mihaela Gligor American Jeremiads: The Winter of Our Discontent and Into The Woods Michael J. Schulenburg Book Reviews 51 75 96 107 125+ Journal of the Transformative Studies Institute . New Essays for a New Century Jay Corwin Shusaku Endo: from the Silence of the East to the Silence of God Rodica Grigore Homage to a Father: Family Tradition and Revolution(s) in Palace Walk Fadwa Mahmoud Hassan Gad Liberation through the Acceptance of Nature and Technology in Octavia Butler’s Parable of the Sower Melanie A.
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SUNY-Canton Assistant Editors Corey Dolgon. Worchester State College Deric Shannon. Sociatecture Eva-Maria Swidler. II Jesus Lopez Pelaez Jose Palafox Michael Parenti Eri Park Emma Pérez Clayton Pierce Andrew Robinson Deric Shannon Jeffrey Shantz Stephen Sheehi Kyung Ja (Sindy) Shin Stevphen Shukaitis Eva-Maria Swidler Caroline Tauxe Bill Templer Sviatoslav Voloshin Richard J White Ali Shehzad Zaidi . CUNY-Bronx Editor Ali Shehzad Zaidi. Villanova University Founding Editor John Asimakopoulos. CUNY-Bronx Editorial Collective William Armaline Stanley Aronowitz John Asimakopoulos Liat Ben-Moshe Steve Best Marc Bousquet Eric Buck Graham Cassano Vanny Chang Ward Churchill Jay Corwin Abraham DeLeon Corey Dolgon Luis Fernandez Ben Frymer Victoria Fontan Uri Gordon Carol Gigliotti Richard Van Heertum Dave Hill Joy James Patrrice Jones Paul Jonker Caroline Kaltefleiter Lisa Kemmerer Ruth Kinna Elsa Karen Márquez-Aponte Mechthild Nagel Anthony Nocella.Editor-in-Chief John Asimakopoulos. University of Connecticut Book Review Editors Eric Buck.
2009.GUEST EDITOR JAY CORWIN CONTENTS Vol. Meyer Crossing the Genre Divide: Women and Ethics in the Detective Novels of Dorothy L. New Essays for a New Century Jay Corwin Shusaku Endo: from the Silence of the East to the Silence of God Rodica Grigore Homage to a Father: Family Tradition and Revolution(s) in Palace Walk Fadwa Mahmoud Hassan Gad Liberation through the Acceptance of Nature and Technology in Octavia Butler’s Parable of the Sower Melanie A.95 (paper). Pp. Paradigm Publishers. Schulenburg Book Review: Rebuild America: Solving the Economic Crisis through Civic Works by Scott Myers-Lipton. 160. ISBN 978-1594517228 John Asimakopoulos January 2010 38 51 75 96 107 125 . No. $17. 3. 1 1 7 24 Introduction. Marotta Eliade’s Romanian Past: Religion and Politics Mihaela Gligor American Jeremiads: The Winter of Our Discontent and Into The Woods Michael J. Sayers Suzie Remilien Close Encounters of the Third (Space) Kind: La guaracha del Macho Camacho and the City as Site of Unavoidable Contact Chris T.
Pp. 168. Luis A. 256. Politics of Resistance by Simon Critchley. Fernandez. 2008. 2008. Pp. Pp. Monthly Review Press. South End Press.95 (paper). $44. ISBN 978-1583671610 David Weiss 135 142 146 . Routledge. McChesney. Emerging Dilemmas by Robert W. II. ISBN 978-0415474023 Mark Fulk Book Review: The Revolution Will Not Be Funded: Beyond the NonProfit Industrial Complex by INCITE! Women of Color Against Violence. $19.95 (paper). 2007. Verso. $16. Nocella. Abraham DeLeon.95 (paper). ISBN 978-1844672967 Jason Caro Book Review: The Political Economy of Media: Enduring Issues.128 Book Review: Contemporary Anarchist Studies: An Introductory Anthology of Anarchy in the Academy by Randall Amster. ed. Anthony J. 336. eds. Pp. ISBN 978-0896087668 Noel Hawke Book Review: Infinitely Demanding: Ethics of Commitment. 2009. and Deric Shannon. $18 (paper). 589.
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In addition. think-tanks. Many of TSI’s members have multiple graduate degrees. and values. peer-reviewed journal Theory in Action. grassroots activists.The Transformative Studies Institute (TSI) fosters interdisciplinary research that will bridge multidisciplinary theory with activism in order to encourage community involvement that will attempt to alleviate social problems. scholars. In order to achieve these goals TSI believes we must change how people perceive the world around them in order to foster fundamental and thus meaningful change. the institute may provide a working laboratory for evolutionary socioeconomic forms of organization.g. Fair Trade Direct action to foster meaningful change and social justice. transportation. labor centers. and law will be invited to conduct research and become involved in like-minded various grass roots organizations. public infrastructure. housing. This requires objective information and a process of transformative learning. As such. A minimum living/family wage and job security laws with guaranteed universal quality housing. TSI is managed and operated by a dedicated global team of academic scholaractivists. as well as considering multiple viewpoints. etc. education. Transformative learning inspires action for change by questioning and challenging what is valued.00 USD $35. TSI also provides consulting services. military. advocacy groups and non-proﬁt organizations. activists. we invite literary participation through our independent. beliefs. TSI TRANSFORMATIVE STUDIES INSTITUTE $35. social services. All laws providing full and equal treatment to all individuals and groups regardless of any and all characteristics. universities. through which research associates. As part of the mission. Family planning and a woman’s right to make her own reproductive decisions with the availability of the required services. No corporate governance/involvement in news media and the creation of an independent public foundation with tax funds to ﬁnance free and independent journalism. TSI also welcomes opportunities to work with national and international scholars who serve as research associates and fellows. utilities. It seeks to positively impact participants by empowering them with skills that develop their awareness and initiative and to also help them create meaningful learning in their lives. custom policy papers/projects. governance. Zero corporate involvement in the political process at all levels.00 CAN PRINT ISSN: 1937-0229 ELECTRONIC ISSN: 1937-0237 . and operation of the center. through shared research. Free not for proﬁt universal quality comprehensive health care as a human right. and students may disseminate their research and expand thematic social dialogue. multiple years of secondary and college level teaching experience throughout most disciplines. and its aim is to provide a working model of theory in action. The institute is concerned with issues of social justice and related activism. Free and equal public education at all levels and the elimination of all private educational institutions. Transformative learning goes beyond the mere acquisition of factual knowledge. humanities. scholars. What we do believe in: • • • • • • • • • • • • • The supremacy of community decision making over corporate governance. the institute plans on collaborating with various worker education programs. Further. It involves questioning assumptions. TSI Principles and Policy Positions ‘No one is free unless we are all free’ We do not believe in the privatization of socially important goods and services e. activists. Zero tolerance policies for conﬂicts of interests and political patronage for government positions at all levels. Direct political and economic democracy. Sustainable development and the use of renewable resources for the protection of the environment. and other concerned individuals in ﬁelds such as social sciences. and the concerned public. health care.
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