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Chapter 5

Diode Rectifiers

Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-1

Diode Rectifier Block Diagram

Uncontrolled utility interface (ac to dc)

Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-2

A Simple Circuit

Resistive load
Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-3

A Simple Circuit (R-L Load)

Current continues to flows for a while even after the input


voltage has gone negative
Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-4

A Simple Circuit (Load has a dc back-emf)

Current begins to flow when the input voltage exceeds the dc back-emf
Current continues to flows for a while even after the input voltage has
gone below the dc back-emf
Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-5

Single-Phase Diode Rectifier Bridge

Large capacitor at the dc output for filtering and energy


storage
Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-6

Diode-Rectifier Bridge Analysis

Two simple (idealized) cases to begin with


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-7

Redrawing Diode-Rectifier Bridge

Two groups, each with two diodes

Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-8

Waveforms with a
purely resistive load
and a purely dc current
at the output

In both cases, the dc-side


voltage waveform is the same

Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-9

Diode-Rectifier Bridge Input Current

Idealized case with a purely dc output current


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


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5-10

Diode-Rectifier Bridge Analysis with ACSide Inductance

Output current is assumed to be purely dc


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-11

Understanding Current Commutation

Assuming inductance in this circuit to be zero


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-12

Understanding Current Commutation (cont.)

Inductance in this circuit is included


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-13

Current Commutation Waveforms

Shows the volt-seconds needed to commutate current


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-14

Current Commutation in Full-Bridge Rectifier

Shows the necessary volt-seconds


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-15

Understanding Current Commutation

Note the current loops for analysis

Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-16

Rectifier with a dcside voltage

Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


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5-17

DC-Side Voltage and Current Relationship

Zero current corresponds to dc voltage equal to the peak of


the input ac voltage
Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


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5-18

Effect of DC-Side Current on


THD, PF and DPF

Very high THD at low current values


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-19

Crest Factor versus the Current Loading

The Crest Factor is very high at low values of current


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-20

Diode-Rectifier with a Capacitor Filter

Power electronics load is represented by an equivalent load


resistance
Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-21

Diode Rectifier Bridge

Equivalent circuit for analysis on one-half cycle basis


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-22

Diode-Bridge Rectifier: Waveforms

Analysis using MATLAB


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-23

Diode-Bridge Rectifier: Waveforms

Analysis using PSpice


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

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Input Line-Current Distortion

Analysis using PSpice


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


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5-25

Line-Voltage Distortion

PCC is the point of common coupling


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


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5-26

Line-Voltage Distortion

Distortion in voltage supplied to other loads


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-27

Voltage Doubler Rectifier

In 115-V position, one capacitor at-a-time is charged from the


input.
Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


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5-28

A Three-Phase, Four-Wire System

A common neutral wire is assumed


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


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Current in A Three-Phase, Four-Wire


System

The current in the neutral wire can be very high


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


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Three-Phase, Full-Bridge Rectifier

Commonly used
Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


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Three-Phase, Full-Bridge Rectifier: Redrawn

Two groups with three diodes each


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


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Three-Phase, Full-Bridge Rectifier Waveforms

Output current is
assumed to be dc

Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


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Three-Phase, Full-Bridge Rectifier: Input


Line-Current

Assuming output current to be purely dc and zero ac-side


inductance
Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


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Three-Phase, Full-Bridge Rectifier

Including the ac-side inductance


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


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3-Phase Rectifier: Current Commutation

output
current is
assumed to be
purely dc

Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-36

Rectifier with a Large Filter Capacitor

Output voltage is assumed to be purely dc


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


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Three-Phase, Full-Bridge Rectifier

THD, PF and DPF as functions of load current


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


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Crest Factor versus the Current Loading

The Crest Factor is very high at low values of current


Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


Rectifiers

5-39

Three-Phase Rectifier Waveforms

PSpice-based analysis
Copyright 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode


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5-40