# SIX SIGMA A measurement tool evolved and vigorously implemented by Motorola Corporation during 80s.

(1988 - First recipient of Malcolm Baldridge Award) Invented at MOTOROLA, perfected at G.E.

A statistical measurement tells how good products, services and processes really are. - Helps gauge pace - Helps draw comparison with similar or dissimilar products, processes and services.

Six Sigma is: - a business strategy - one of working smarter, not harder

OBJECTIVE Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve and Control every one of the process
DMAIC ±

Six sigma terminology
A Defect- any mistake or noncorformance Defectpassed on to the customer Unit of work- output of a process or an workindividual process step Defects per unit- a measure of output quality unitDefect per unit= No. of defects discovered/No of units produced

Two different processes may have different number of opportunities (the complexity of processes may also vary) Hence defects per million opportunities is defined dpmo= DPU* 1,000,000 opportunities for error eg: 3 mishandled bagagge for 8000 passengers and average baggage per person is 1.6 then dpmo= (3/(8000)(1.6)) 1,000,000 = 234.375 dpmo

Six sigma refers to a quality level at most ± 3.4 dpmo (accounting for 1.5 std dev off target)

Quality level
Off centering 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2.00 3 2700 3577 6440 12288 22832 40111 66803 105601 158700 3.5 465 665 1382 3011 6433 12201 22800 40100 66800 4 63 99 236 6665 1350 3000 6200 12200 22800 4.5 6.8 12.8 32 88.5 233 577 1350 3000 6200 5 .57 1.02 3.4 11 32 88.5 233 577 1300 5.5 .034 .1056 .71 1.02 3.4 10.7 32 88.4 233 6 .002 .0063 .019 .1 .39 1 3.4 11 32

PROBLEM CATEGORIES
1. Conformance problems 2. Unstructured problems (lack of standardization 3. Efficiency problems(cost and productivity) 4. Product design problems(new products- defining productsCTQ) 5. Process design problems(designing new processes or revising existing ones

Project Selection: ³mess management´
Top down /bottom up picking the low hanging fruit

Customer issues ranking based on ranking according to customer importance Project ranking based on correlation to customer issues

Six sigma problem solving
Breakthrough DMAIC methodology Define ± µproject scoping¶ addresses who, what, metrics, cost/revenue calculations, when Measure- Data collection MeasureQuestions- what is to be answered QuestionsWhat type of data needed to answer the question Where to find the data Who can provide How to collect with minimum effort and minimum chances of error

AnalyseAnalyse- Lack of knowledge of process working, how it should work, lack of control of materials and equipment used in a process. Poor instrument calibration and testing, failure to understand capability of a process to meet specifications, inadvertent errors in performing work Improve- Quesitons :adapt?Modify?Magnify?Substitute? ImproveRearrange? Reverse? Combine? Control: maintaining the improvements

Six sigma Black Belt training at GE Elementary statistical tools ( basic statistics, statistical thinking, hypothesis testing, correlation, simple regression) Advanced statistical tools (design of experiments, analysis of various, multiple regresssion) Product design and reliability (qfd, fmea) Measurement (process capability, measurement systems analysis) Process control(control plans, statistical process control) Process improvement(process improvement planning, process mapping, mistake proofing) Implementation and teamwork(organisational effectiveness, team assessment facilitation tools, team development) 

Six sigma and lean production

Lean production ± ³getting more for less´ 5s- Seiri(sort), seiton(set in order) seiso(shine) 5sseiketsu(standardisation) shitsuke(sustain) Visual controls Efficient layout and standardised work Pull production(or kanban) Single minute exchange of dies (SMED) Total Productive Maintenance