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Valerie Brooks

English 101 (Dr. Wynne)


Due- Nov 6, 2015
Annotated Bibliography
Antibiotic Resistance: 80,000 Might Die In Future Outbreak. bbc.com. British Broadcasting
Corporation, April 6, 2015. Web. November 3, 2015. <http://www.bbc.com/news/uk32193606>.
This article claims that if there was an antibiotic-resistant blood infection outbreak up to
80,000 people could possibly die from it. This statement and others from health officials
in the UK have made them worry more about antibiotics. Also doctors are questioning
other doctors who maybe prescribing too many. This article is way too general and
extreme. There is a huge antibiotic resistant bacteria outbreak, however its not too
extreme yet. If doctors and researchers do not fully understand and try to attack the
problem, then 80,000 people might die from an outbreak. However, as of right now the
situation is pretty controlled. The worry is how controlled, or uncontrollable, it will be in
the future. Although very extreme, the article does prove a point and addresses the
dangers about overusing antibiotics in the future. I will use this in my paper in order to
talk about the future of antibiotics and the dangers ahead.
Bartlett, M.D., Gilbert, M.D., Spellber, M.D. The Future of Antibiotics and Resistance.
nejm.org. The New England Journal of Medicine, January 24, 2013. Wed. November 3,
2015. <http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1215093>.
This journal article starts with a quote from the World Economic Forum claiming that
arguable the greatest riskto the human health comes in the form of antibiotic-resistant
bacteria. The article also has a table that had 5 different categories of different
interventions in order to address the antibiotic resistant crisis. For example, preventing

infection and resistance, refilling antibiotic pipeline by aligning economic and regulatory
approaches, preserving available antibiotics, slowing resistance, and other ideas. Most of
these interventions are already being put in effect with trials and research. This article
proves that doctors, researchers, and pharmacists are trying to stop this crisis and that
there are techniques being researched and studied. This answers my question on what
health professionals are doing today, and can be used in multiple different places in my
paper.
Consumer Reports: Overuse of pain relievers can be hazardous. The Washington Post, July 18,
2011. Web. Novermber 3, 2015. <https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/consumerreports-overuse-of-pain-relievers-can-bhazardous/2011/05/18/gIQAiO2JMI_story.html>.
A study in 2005 stated that one in four people who used over-the-counter pain
medicaation daily took more than the recommended dosage. Although they are over the
counter and not as strong as prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs can have serious
side effects such as kidney problems, stomach ulcers, or bleeding. This article was more
towards an average person, compared to a doctor or someone within the health
profession. It gives examples of side effects and tips regarding using NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). This article is good for my paper because the writer
wrote in a way that anyone could understand and it can used to inform the general public.
DeArment, Alaric. Drug Store News August 23, 2010: 62,64,77. Electronic.
This magazine article was mainly graphs and data about antibiotics within the country.
The data concluded that Amoxicillin was the most common used antibiotic, the South had
the most prescriptions by region, and California had the most prescriptions by state. The
article also concluded that we do have an antibiotic usage problem, but instead of making

antibiotics more exclusive pharmacies are doing to opposite. Many pharmacies have
programs where patients can get antibiotics for free or for little charge. This article is
good for my paper because it proves that the medical field is doing little to nothing about
this problem. It also has a lot of statistics and data, which is great when
proving/disproving any type of argument.
Most Antibiotics are Needlessly Prescribed. CNN.com. CNN. October 24, 2015. Internet.
Jim ONeil, the chairman of the Review on Antimicrobial Resistance discussed the issues
surrounding antibiotic usage within the UK and America. He claims that the US
probably misuses antibiotics more than any other country, saying that in one general area
they prescribed more than 50% more than what was actually needed. He then talked
about how we do not have a lot of new drugs, and even with new drugs there would be a
cycle and eventually those new drugs would become old. This interview will be used in
my article in order to get an experts opinion on this issue, and also because ONeil had
some ideas on how to slow down this issue.
Rosenblatt-Farrell, Noah. "The Landscape of Antibiotic Resistance." Environmental
Health Perspectives. U.S National Library of Medicine, June 2009. Web. 29
Oct. 2015.
In the article the writer gives a timeline of antibiotic usage. He starts with an excerpt
from the Alexander Fleming, who discovered penicillin, from 1945 stating that misusing
antibiotics will cause resistant bacteria. Obviously, Fleming was correct and within the
last 10 years there has been a wide scale introduction to antibiotic resistant bacteria. The
writer then goes on the talk about the structure of antibiotics and bacteria. Some bacteria
are just stronger than others but many manipulate the antibiotics and eventually grow to

become stronger. The writer concludes by claiming that researchers believe by lowering
the amount of antibiotics used, over time the amount of resistance bacteria will decrease
as well. This article will be used in my paper in order to give the reader background
information and history on my topic, and ideas on fixing this problem in the future. to
fixing this problem.

Witt, Debra. "Pros & Cons of Antibiotics . MedShadow. MedShadow Foundation,


28 May 2015. Web. 03 Nov. 2015. <http://medshadow.org/features/pros-cons-ofantibiotics/>.
This Article states that although there are multiple pros to using antibiotics there are also
cons that people are not taking in consideration. For example, antibiotics also kill good
bacteria and also have the potential of setting off harmful adverse reactions. They should
not be used causally, however nowadays in hospitals antibiotics are used as a first line of
defense. Studies by the CDC showed that up to 50% of all antibiotic prescriptions writer
each year in the US are not needed or not prescribed appropriately. Also, 2 million
people are infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria, superbugs, and 23,000 of them will
die as a result. This article shows me the negative side effects to the over usage of
antibiotics, and what our future will look like if researchers do not find a solution.