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STUDY UNIT 10

LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS


COACHING
10.1 INTRODUCTION
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educator is responsible for planning and conducting lessons and activities in a safe environment.
Physical educators need to be aware of safety factors and know about legal liability.
educator's legal responsibility concerns the issue of negligence.

10.2 LEGAL LIABILITY


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educators are responsible for their learners' well-being


educator acts in loco parentis - expected to act like a diligent and sensible parent
educator must act in reasonable & responsible manner, respect welfare and safety of learner

10.3 ELEMENTS OF NEGLIGENCE


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Negligence failure to act as a reasonably careful


Negligence may occur as result of failure to act when there is a duty to act. I
May occur by acting, but in an improper manner.
Four areas are relevant to the issue of negligence:
(1) any action inappropriate to the line of duty
(2) breach of duty
(3) any action or event causing injury
(4) proximate cause

10.4 WHERE NEGLIGENCE MAY OCCUR


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the instructional programme


supervision
facilities and equipment
emergency care
transportation

10.5 COMMON SOURCES OF NEGLIGENCE


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Physical educators may be found guilty of negligence when they fail to provide proper supervision by:
. neglecting to assist injured learners
. permitting learners to play unsafe games
. not giving adequate instruction
. taking unreasonable risks
. not organising field trips properly

10.6 CONSENT TO THE RISK OF HARM


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make it any physical activity involves a certain amount of risk.


does not excuse the educator's responsibility to ensure the safety of participants.
Persons who understand the danger involved and voluntarily engage in it, willingly expose themselves to predictable risks
within the rules of the game.

10.7 LIABILITY INSURANCE


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Local school districts, educator associations, or even individual educators normally take out policies to insure themselves
against liability.

Few practical hints for the physical educator


Physical education is a compulsory school subject
No learner should be excused from physical education unless for medical reasons.
contact the parents requesting more information - medical certificates can be requested
Learners should wear the correct attire
wear the correct clothes
Not allowed to take part in physical activities wearing potentially dangerous accessories
Provide a safe environment
facilities and equipment are always kept safe
Apparatus and equipment be secure, and checked and repaired
no class should be left unattended
Plan activities properly
unplanned lesson could lead to impaired learning and injury

Evaluate learners for injury and incapacity


learner with an injury or incapacity should not be expected to participate in any potentially harmful activity.
Recognise the individual differences in learners.
Do not mismatch learners
matched according to sex, size, height and weight
Know first aid
Basic knowledge of emergency procedures is critically important.
Educators should know STOP (Stop, Talk, Observe, Prevent further injury).
Closely supervise activities
ensure the instruction environment is as safe as possible
Warn learners about the inherent risks of certain activities
Learners only accept risks of participating if they know, understand and appreciate.
Provide safe and proper equipment
ensure existing codes and standards for equipment are met and that all equipment is in good order.
Develop clear, written rules for physical education and general conduct
develop clear physical education safety policy and rules.
Keep adequate records
Records are u see full aids to planning and are essential for reference in all cases of injury

STUDY UNIT 11
CODES OF BEHAVIOUR
11.2 EDUCATORS' CODE OF BEHAVIOUR
Guidelines on a code of behaviour for physical educators:
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Encourage learners to develop basic skills in a variety of sports


Concentrate on the overall development of the learner
Create opportunities to teach appropriate basic skills as well as sports behaviour.
Ensure that skill learning and appropriate sports behaviour over highly structured competitions
Encourage learners to concentrate on enjoying physical activity
Prepare learners for interhouse and interschool competitions by first providing instruction in the basic sport skills.
Make learners aware of the physical fitness values of physical education and sport and their lifelong recreational value.
Make a personal commitment to keep informed of sound teaching principles and the principles of physical growth and
development.
Help learners to understand the fundamental differences between junior games, theirschool competitions and professional sport.
Help learners understand the responsibility and significance of their freedom to choose between fair and unfair play.
Teach learners to adopt a healthy lifestyle.

STUDY UNIT 12

POLICIES FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION

12.1 INTRODUCTION
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healthy learning atmosphere can be created by good management, appropriate teaching style, effective classroom control and
constructive learner behaviour

12.2 TEACHING STRATEGIES

12.2.1 INDIVIDUALISED AND PERSONALISED LEARNING


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Knowledge of differences among learners' abilities, maturation and interests result in a more individualised and personalised
approach

12.2.2 STYLES OF TEACHING


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Educator decide how to guide and control learning experiences


styles and methods guide you to help learners develop to their full potential:
direct teaching style
command method
task method
combined teaching style

indirect teaching
guided discovery
free exploration method

12.2.3 TECHNIQUES OF GOOD TEACHING


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demonstrate effective teaching technique


first focus: subject area
second: to hold the learner's interest
Third: your competence to cope with each learner's level of ability.
Then: your ability to develop a warm and positive learning environment
Finally: design a series of class structures and routines to keep learners committed
All these techniques
Guidelines to help you perform your teaching task more effectively: include ways
of getting and holding learners' attention, dividing learners into groups, arranging
equipment, how to start the class and change activities.
need to monitor learners' behaviour; reinforcing and endorsing good behaviour promotes a healthy atmosphere in class

12.3 DESIGNING INTRAMURAL PROGRAMMES


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school needs a policy on intramural activities


educator be involved in planning and coordinating the intramural programme.
guidelines to plan a school policy on intramural activities.

12.3.1 GUIDELINES
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All learners be allowed to participate in the intramural programme.


Boys and girls in the primary and secondary school phase should have equal access to the programme's facilities and
activities.
learners should take responsibility to plan, organise and run their own activities
competitions should promote continuous participation Noncompetitive activities should also be included
Award systems should emphasise group effort and participation. Mass participation should be rewarded.

12.3.2 PARTICIPATION SCHEDULES


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time scheduled depends on the school population and facilities available

12.3.3 SUPERVISION OF PROGRAMME


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Support, encouragement and effective supervision will assure a successful intramural programme
educator take the leading role to coordinate
Learners should be encouraged to take responsibility for their own activities
Educators role be more advisory, so that learners can organise their own activities.
Vital: educators get involved in intramural programme: to get to know learners better, which will strengthen the educatorlearner relationship

12.3.4 WAYS TO GROUP LEARNERS


Learners need equal opportunities for participation
Teams are chosen according to the level of skill needed for the intramural activity.

12.3.5 ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANISATION


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organisational system chosen depends mainly on the size of the school


The interhouse system provides the opportunity for mass participation
One method: divide learners into different houses or teams according to their surnames.

12.3.6 TYPES OF TOURNAMENTS


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depend on the activity, space and time available, and number of competitors.
Single or double elimination and round-robin tournaments: for a variety of team and individual sports
Ladder tournaments: individual activities.
Organisers: assess strengths and weaknesses of each type of tournament, considering time, space, and number of
competitors.

STUDY UNIT 13
INCORPORATING PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN THE EDUCATION
PROGRAMME
13.1 INTRODUCTION
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Physical education: a unique contribution to total development of the learner.


Learn: self-control and cooperative behaviour

13.2 INTEGRATION
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learn academic concepts better through the motor activity medium


Integration be applied all the school subjects
educator should modify activities in each lesson unit to reinforce academic skills and concepts

Mathematical principles and concepts: included in a game as part of the physical education lesson. Games can help teach the
particular concept or skill.

Language: requires a learner to listen, speak, read and write.

Social studies: help learners understand and appreciate the similarities and differences among social groups, recognises and
explores the diversity of people's games, dances and customs.

Health and safety: how to measure heartbeat and breathing rate in health programmes.

Art and music: express ideas and feelings about themselves and their environment.

Science: develop understanding of numerous scientific concepts and principles: gravity, force and levers to understand our
natural and technological environment.

13.3 ADAPTING PHYSICAL EDUCATION ACTIVITIES TO


THE CLASSROOM
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To combine physical education with other subjects, a few minor adjustments and some basic rules and safety procedures
need to be in place.
Aim to maximise participation, ensure safety and minimise noise.
Activity must involve everyone
Divide the class into as many groups as possible
Modify games to increase individual and class participation.
Safety is very important
Keep away from sharp edges and desk tops.
Keep running activity to the minimum
Modify verbal commands and use hand clapping instead of loud commands or starting whistles

13.4 CONCLUSION
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integration should work both ways.


Decisions about integrating physical activities in the classroom should depend on the mood and receptiveness of the class

STUDY UNIT 14
EVALUATION AS PART OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
14.1 INTRODUCTION
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observation to assess the strengths and weaknesses of their daily lessons.


to make appropriate changes in teaching strategies as well as to evaluate the learner's progress.
physical education evaluation means more than testing learners and assigning grades and marks.

14.2 EVALUATION PROCESSES


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Summative evaluation: test at the end of six weeks or at the end of a series of units.
Formative evaluation: more frequently, maybe daily or weekly.
Do more formative evaluation - more representative picture of performance, performance is never constant; it varies over time.
Measure the quality of movement and outcome.
Tests may be used to evaluate a criterion or norm.

14.3 EVALUATION OF LEARNERS


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Primary school learners need to be evaluated on their physical growth


Calculated according: height, weight and fatness - taken at least two to three times a year.
Physical fitness and motor performance tests are considerably more reliable at this stage.
Use more summative evaluation: running speed, throwing distance, cardiovascular fitness, muscular endurance, and specific
sports skills produce reasonable evaluations of how learners have changed from the beginning to the end of the lesson unit.
Movement quality also be evaluated.
Use rating scales and checklists
Can evaluate the quality of movement by means of formative evaluation.

14.3.1 CHECK LIST AND RATING SCALES


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To evaluate the form of movement skills


Check lists are marked to indicate the presence or absence of certain characteristics
Rating scales show the degree to which the characteristics are present.
The point scale of 13 or 15 is used.

14.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION TESTING


14.4.1 GROWTH
. Height and weight
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tested at least twice a year


Body length is used to assess appropriate weight. Excessive deviation should be discussed with learner and parents

. Fatness
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Measure skin folds to determine whether the learner is too fat or thin.
Reasonably accurate measurement of body fatness
be concerned about obese learners - Consult parents to step up exercise to reduce body fat.
Dieting is not recommended for young learners

14.4.2 HEALTH-RELATED PHYSICAL FITNESS


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Highly recommend testing primary school children for physical fitness


Aim: get a representative sample of the learner's performance
Test the following areas:
. cardiovascular endurance
. body fatness
. strength and muscular endurance
- . flexibility

14.4.3 MOVEMENT SKILLS


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Specific tests to evaluate movement skills are less common, because the skills to be taught and evaluated vary according to
locale and focus (Facilities, equipment, community interest, educators' expertise, sports, movements and games differ from
school to school)
Primary school phase: concentrate on the evaluation of fundamental skills.
Locomotion skills that need to be tested are for example: walking, jumping, hopping, skipping, running, leaping, galloping,
performance in games and rhythmic activities by means of observations on checklist and rating scales. You will test these
skills more in the lower grades
In the upper grades (Grade 6 to 7) you can start evaluating sport skills.

14.4.4 KNOWLEDGE
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construct cognitive knowledge tests to test movement and fitness concepts at their level of reading ability.
use pictures to test learners' knowledge before they can read

14.4.5 AFFECTIVE MEASURES


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useful for educators to judge how well learners are participating and working, how they feel about the physical education
programme,

how they feel about their bodies in movement, and about physical fitness
Areas of self-concept, social behaviour, personality, perceptions, acceptance, sportsmanship and leadership can be
measured.

14.5 INTERPRETING THE RESULTS


14.5.1 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY
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Validity refers: extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to and what you intend it to test
Reliability means the test consistently elicits the same answer.
selecting standardised tests or designing your own: verify both reliability and validity
Test always be done in the same way: your rating of performance should be done in a consistent, regular way

14.5.2 EVALUATING OUTCOMES


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Selecting the most appropriate tests and determining what constitutes meeting the outcomes
key factor: make outcomes challenging but attainable encourages participation, feelings of satisfaction and accomplishment.
Reasons why outcomes are often not reached:
outcomes chosen were too difficult.
activities selected were inappropriate.
educator's instructions were unsuccessful.
- learner did not try hard enough.

14.5.3 GRADING
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Learners need feedback on their efforts


Parents want to know how their children are progressing and how they can support the system. Educators want to and need
to evaluate their programmes and teaching methods.
Grading can be communicated by means of letters and reports.
graded on how they have learnt from what they have been taught.

14.6 CONCLUSION
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Scope of evaluation involve more than grading.


Involves outcomes and programmes, and educators', parents' and administrators' input.

STUDY UNIT 15
THE PHILOSOPHY OF COACHING AND THE ROLE OF THE COACH
15.1 INTRODUCTION
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Your philosophy determines every action and every decision you make

15.2 HOW WELL DO I KNOW MYSELF?


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most important aspect of coaching: How would you handle a situation?


Many characteristics describe successful coaches

15.3 WHAT DO I WANT TO ACHIEVE AS A COACH?


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successful coach places the development of the athlete first - produce better performances and greater consistency.
overemphasis on winning is left out.
philosophy of putting athletes first, and winning second, is very easy to understand but difficult

15.4 WHY DO I COACH OR WHY DO I WANT TO COACH?


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Reasons why coaches like, or would like, to coach:


contribute to the overall growth of people.
put something back into sport.
to be known as a winning coach.
have a good time when I am coaching.
like to help others.
like the sense of control I get from coaching.
doing something worthwhile.
to be known as ``one of the best'' coaches.
enjoy the recognition I receive.

15.5 WHAT OUTCOMES DO PEOPLE EXPECT FROM SPORT?


Why do children take part in sport?
Reasons:
o to have fun
o to feel good
o to learn new skills
o to gain a feeling of direction
o for the feeling of belonging to a group
o to achieve success
o to become a winner
o to be regarded as a champion
o to get recognition from peers

What do parents require from sport?


Parents think of the following:
o safety
o fun
o a child-minding service
o family involvement
o success
o groundwork for future sporting success

15.6 THE ROLES OF THE COACH


perform the following ROLES as:
o teacher ... passing on information, skills and ideas
o trainer ... improving athlete's fitness
o motivator ... instilling a positive, resolute approach
o disciplinarian ... firm but fair, determining a reward system and punishment
o organiser ... of practices, officials and parents
o public relations officer
o planner
o fundraiser
o advisor and counsellor
o friend ... supporting and nurturing
o scientist ... analysing, testing and evaluating
o student ... watching, asking questions, listening, learning

15.7 THE VARIOUS COACHING STYLES


15.7.1 AUTHORITARIAN
Characteristics of an authoritarian approach:
o win centred, winning judged by coach
o task orientated
o strict, disciplined

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good team spirit when winning, dissension when losing


coach makes all decisions
little or no communication development
little or no trust in athletes
sometimes motivates
training structures inflexible

15.7.2 COOPERATIVE
Characteristics of a cooperative approach:
o . athlete centred
o . social and task objectives
o . winning judged by athlete and coach
o . decisions are guided by coach, but shared
o . communication style telling, asking and listening
o . communication development high
o . trusts athletes
o . motivates all
o . training structure is flexible

15.7.3 CASUAL
Characteristics of a casual approach:
o . no emphasis on any philosophy
o . no specific coaching objective in mind
o . decisions made by athletes
o . communication style listening
o . no communication development at all
o . meaning of winning not defined
o . no trust shown in athletes
o . no motivation
o . no training structure at all
Authoritarian and Casual styles are extreme and are unlikely to be successful methods
Cooperative style: offers athlete opportunity to develop physically, psychologically and socially, provides guidance and structure.

15.8 THE RESPECTED COACH


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instil the highest desirable ideals and character traits into their athletes
dress appropriately
be responsible for maintaining discipline
be self-confident, assertive, consistent, friendly, fair and competent
deal with initial treatment of minor injuries
be organised
justify if necessary why things are being done, or be ``big enough'' to ask for suggestions when not sure

15.9 THE COACH'S SKILLS


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basic skills that you should possess to be able to function effectively as a coach.
you should be able to do the following
demonstrate
observe (basic changes to the programme and to needs of the individual athlete. observation provides opportunity to
improve and refine skills)
organize (based on knowledge and planning)
show understanding
analyse (to observing and evaluating performances)
improve performance (improve the performance of his or her athletes)
communicate (ability to improve performance depends on ability to communicate; verbally, listening and using
appropriate nonverbal communication)

15.10 SETTING GOALS FOR YOUR SPORT PROGRAMME


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setting of goals or aims forms an important part of any sport programme.


Fundamental aims of children's sport:
.provide opportunities for involvement in physical activity in a way that promotes immediate and long-term benefits
. Contribute to the total development of the child
. enhance physical growth and development
. enhance physical fitness
. help children attain desirable social skills
. enhance creative abilities
. help form positive self-confident attitudes in the child
goals: be measurable, observable, challenging, achievable and believable
help athletes set short-term and long-term goals
Some characteristics of goals set in a sport training programme are the following:

. Measurable

. Observable

. Challenging

. Achievable and believable

. Short-term and long-term

15.11 WORKING WITH OTHERS


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most important areas to develop in coaching philosophy: ability to communicate and work with other people.
build relationships: administrators, officials, referees and umpires, opponents, opposing coaches, parents, coaching
colleagues, athletes' families and athletes
form a meaningful relationship with all

15.11.1 ADMINISTRATORS
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A coach must be a representative of a school or club's administration.

15.11.2 REFEREES/UMPIRES/JUDGES
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should respect umpires' decisions


Mutual respect will lead to greater understanding and less pressure

15.11.3 PARENTS
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Parents play a key role in the whole coaching system


Coaches need to educate parents on how to handle their child's participation in sport.
Ways of getting the parents involved:
. encouraging their help and participation
. explaining your philosophy and plans regarding coaching
. explaining your attitudes
. setting behavioural standards
. encouraging parents to give positive feedback
. not allowing destructive criticism, trying to be polite
. conducting a parents' meeting at regular intervals
. demonstrating basic skills to parents so that they can help their children at home

15.11.4 PLAYERS/ATHLETES
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relationship needs to be one of mutual understanding and respect.


care about the needs of athletes and be aware of their individual needs.

What do athletes expect from you?


(1) Enthusiasm. show a love for the sport and the competitions.
(2) Respect. show respect for each individual.
(3) Coolness. always be cool under pressure and not become angry
(4) Fairness. apply rules fairly and correctly
(5) Maturity. act as an adult role model.
(6) Willingness. be willing to listen, to admit mistakes and to consult with others.
(7) Safety. make sure the training and competing environment is safe and free of any obstructions.
(8) Support. support your athlete and have a genuine caring relationship
(9) Recognition. recognise each athlete's individual skills.
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Coaches develop effective working relationships with all the people they deal with.
Hints:
Encourage help and participation.
Explain your philosophies and plans.
Be respectfully firm when views seem to be opposed.
Set the behavioural standard.
Always encourage positive feedback.
Never allow destructive criticism.

STUDY UNIT 16
TRAINING THEORY
16.1 INTRODUCTION
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Training theory = bringing together the necessary information from specific sports' social and scientific sources

16.2 PHYSICAL CONDITIONING


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physical condition = most important part of training programme.


All benefit from physical conditioning. Skill alone not
Total training divided into two aspects: physical conditioning and skill training.
Physical conditioning is divided into general and specific conditioning.
Physical conditioning to be developed alongside the development of skills.
TOTAL TRAINING
PHYSICAL
CONDITIONING

GENERAL
CONDITIONING

SKILL
TRAINING

SPECIFIC
CONDITIONING

PERFORMANCE
When considering physical conditioning, you need to determine the factors of fitness that
are required for a particular sport. These factors have to be developed through suitable
exercises. You, therefore, need to know the answers to the following:

16.3 FITNESS
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Fitness is described as how well a person is adapted to and capable of living a certain lifestyle.
refer to fitness as the physical capacity to perform a task.

Components of fitness
(Most components of physical fitness are concerned with strength, power, endurance, speed and flexibility)

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Strength: is the ability to apply force against resistance. important component of power and speed.
Power / explosive strength: rate of performing work. results from an optimal combination of strength and speed.
Speed: maximum velocity of muscle contraction in the movement of body segments for accelerating and running.
Endurance: maximum work that muscles can perform in repeated contractions. Endurance, depending on the energy system
used, can be roughly divided into two types:
o General endurance (aerobic), determined by the ability to resist fatigue under conditions where the oxygen intake
and consumptions are kept at a steady rate.
o Specific endurance (anaerobic), determined by the ability to resist fatigue under conditions where lactic acid is
accumulated in the muscles.
Flexibility: range of movement in or around a joint or a series of joints

Success in physical conditioning: depends how effectively basic components of fitness can be fitted into the training programme and
ways to improve each component.
Activities chosen and combined to improve each of the selected components of fitness.
o Strength. weight training; isometric exercises; combined isometric and isotonic exercises; circuit training, exercises against
own body weight; partner exercises
o Power. weight training; circuit training; all sorts of jumping exercises, including bounding and depth jumps; exercises with
some form of an overload; uphill sprints; sandhill sprints; up stairs sprints; et cetera
o General endurance. cross country, road and beach runs over long distances at steady speed; fartlek (athlete must try and
keep oxygen intake at a steady state); slower type of interval running; et cetera
o Specific endurance. faster type of interval running (high speeds and relatively short recoveries); sandhill, up stairs and uphill
runs (in fast interval form); fartlek; repetition runs (high speed); et cetera
o Speed. all forms of fast sprint accelerations; reaction exercises; starts from various positions; downhill sprints; throwing with
lighter implements
o Flexibility. stretching exercises, including ballistic stretching (with care) and static stretching

16.4 TRAINING
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Training: regarded as systematic process with objective of improving an athlete's fitness in a selected activity.
a long-term process - includes progression and recognition of the athlete's needs and capabilities.
Understand the various training principles before you can produce effective long-term programmes. These principles should
be introduced into the training

Principle 1: Readiness
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Coaches should realise that an athlete must be physiologically ready for training.
Need to be physiologically ready to respond fully to training.

Principle 2: Individual responses


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activities should be individually designed for each athlete


teach either athletes: manage own conditioning programmes or grouped according to abilities.
do not respond identically to a method of exercise

Principle 3: Adaption
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body requires a certain amount of time and training to adapt to changes in activity.
Typical adaptions to training include the following:
o . improved respiration, heart function, circulation and blood volume
o . improved muscular endurance, strength and power
o . tougher bones, ligaments, tendons and connective tissues

Principle 4: Overloading
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training load = work or exercise that an athlete performs in a training session.


Loading is the process of applying various training requirements (loads)
Overloading can be achieved by three factors (FIT:))
o . increasing the frequency of training sessions or repetitions of and activity within a training session
o . increasing the intensity of an activity (adding extra weight)
o . increasing the time (duration) of an activity
If you keep the workload the same, the athlete's fitness level will be maintained.
Improving a fitness level therefore, requires the application of overloading.

Principle 5: Progression
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progressively condition an athlete to achieve a better performance.


Progression based on established principle, from the easy to the difficult.
Factors to considered when you want to determine the rate and size of progression:
o . physical maturity
o . response to training
o . stage of development
o . desire to develop

Principle 6: Specificity
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training activities and the implementation of progressive overloading be specific to a particular sport.
Is important to include a variety of specific activities - ensure interest is maintained

Principle 7: Variation
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variety help to maintain an athlete's interest in a training


You can look at the following:
o Changing training venue.
o Changing the mode of activity
o Alternating between competitive and noncompetitive training regimes.
o Work versus rest.
o Hard versus easy.
Neglecting variation will lead to boredom, staleness, and poor performance.

Principle 8: Warming up and cooling down


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Warming up is a vital part of the training programme.


Reasons for warming up are to
o . increase body temperature
o . increase respiration and heart rate
o . guard against muscle, tendon and ligament strains
Include: stretching exercises, calisthenics and sport-specific activities of gradually increasing intensity.
good warm-up improves flexibility as well as preparing the mind, heart, muscles and joints for subsequent activity.
Cooling down as important as warming up.
If vigorous activity is halted, causes: pooling of the blood, sluggish circulation and slow removal of waste products, contribute
to cramping, soreness and more serious problems, such as fainting.
Stretching and light activity after an exercise continues the pumping action of muscles and veins.

Principle 9: Long-term training


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gradual progress, growth and development, skill acquisition, learning strategies and a fuller understanding of the sport.

Principle 10: Reversibility


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Development trends in fitness are reversible - stops training in a particular physical capacity, the acquired fitness levels will
diminish accordingly.
Athletes should participate in another sport during the off season.
Some popular fallacies or misconceptions about training:
o . No pain, no gain.
o . You must break down muscle to improve.
o . Go for the burn.
o . Lactic acid causes muscle soreness.
o . Muscle turns to fat (or vice versa).

16.5 DEVELOPING PHYSICAL CAPABILITIES


Coaches should be knowledgeable about the development of certain physical capabilities.
Let us consider these capabilities more closely.

ENDURANCE TRAINING
The purpose of endurance training is to improve the ability of an athlete to use oxygen in
the energy production process
examples of endurance training.
. Continuous. activity covering relatively long distances or times using gross body movements.
. Fartlek. involves continuous training, interspersed with efforts of varying intensity and duration.
. Interval. refinement of fartlek training in that the speed and recovery efforts are consistent.
. Repetition: similar to interval training, but tends to have longer work intervals.

THE ROLE OF RUNNING


STRENGTH TRAINING
WEIGHT TRAINING
CIRCUIT TRAINING
FLEXIBILITY

Read page: 124 -126

Types of stretching
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Ballistic. be avoided or treated with extreme caution. involves forcing a joint to adopt a greater joint angle. Bouncing is a
common type of ballistic stretching
. Static. adopting a position on near maximum stretch and holding that position for 20 to 30 seconds.Should be repeated three
times. All the relevant joints must be stretched.
. PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation). PNF stretching involves voluntarily
adopting a position of maximum stretch and then submaximally contracting the stretched muscle. should be repeated three
times.

Guidelines for stretching


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five to ten minute warm-up involving slow, restrained and continuous total body movement
never bounce into the stretching position. Slow and controlled stretching is essential.
Stretch each major muscle groups
Training sessions must be preceded by 10 to 15 minutes of stretching.
Stretching should be maintained throughout the season.
The training session must end off with stretching

Summary
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o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Conditioning is designed to develop physical capacities that will enhance the overall
performance of athletes.
caters for individual differences.
There has to be a gradual adaption to the training load.
You have to plan for the optimal stages of development.
As much variety as possible must be included in the training programme.
Endurance training provides the foundation upon which most of the components of fitness are developed.
Strength training involves working against resistance which includes a variety of choices.
No training programme should be allowed to start or end without the inclusion of flexibility exercises.
By doing this, injuries are prevented.
Speed and agility also benefits from regular flexibility.

16.6 PLANNING THE TRAINING SESSION


o
o
o
o
o
o
o

important responsibility: planning of the athlete's training programme.


necessary as young athletes are often unable to work towards objectives if too distant.
We use the term ``periodisation'' in coaching to describe the division of a training programme into a number of periods.
Each period has a specific training objective.
Achieving optimum performance at the right place and time is called ``peaking''.
Planning season backwards - decide what, where and when major competitions will take place, start of the training year
should be decided.
Training plans should be simple and flexible as the plan may be modified according to the athlete's progress and
improvements.

16.6.1 PERIODISATION
There are three main periods to any training programme
. preparation
. competition
. transition

Preparation period (preseason)


o
o
o
o
o

This is the first and longest period of any training programme.


During this period the athlete will move gradually from very general to specific training.
Main aim is to prepare the athlete for the competition period.
aim of this period: develop all-round general fitness, gradually increasing the volume of training, volume of training gradually
increased
Beginning of the preparation period is the best time to introduce new techniques or modify existing skills. Training should now
be increased in both volume and intensity.

Competition period
o
o
o

volume of training is gradually reduced and the intensity is increased.


Heavier weights can be lifted but not as often. Speed training should be faster with longer recovery times. Training should be
mostly related to the characteristics of competition.
The athlete's fitness should be at its highest in the last part of the competition period.

Transition period (off season)


o
o

Thought of as an ``active rest''.


Main aim: allow opportunity to recover mentally and physically from training loads
be encouraged to try other activities to provide change

16.6.2 PLANNING THE SESSION AND THE TRAINING WEEK


o
o
o

Training progresses in cycles of activity and the smallest of these is known as the microcycle.
microcycle usually considered to be a duration of 7 days.
amount of training sessions in a microcycle depend on: age, experience, fitness, capacity for work and where the microcycle
fits into the three periods of the training programme.

Planning the microcycle


o training ratio must vary during the microcycle.
o The training ratio refers to the ratio of training loads to recovery.
Planning the training session
o consists of basic building blocks of coaching.
o Skills are learned, conditioning and fitness are achieved and confidence is developed
To decide what units of work are suitable for a particular session you should follow four stages of planning:
The four stages of planning
1. Set overall goals and objectives
2. Set specific goals and objectives
3. build in principle of effective practice sessions
4. design the training session
5.
Progression of training sessionI
Easy
to
difficult
Slow
to
fast
Known
to
unknown
General
to
specific
Start
to
finish

16.7 PRINCIPLES FOR STRUCTURING PRACTICE


You should structure a training session as follows:
o Big movements before small movements.
o Simple to complex tasks.
o Parts to wholes.
o Continuous practice or broken practice.
o Practice and competition conditions.
If you look back at this study unit you will find there are the following numerous implications for coaches:
o Coaches must refrain from specialising too early.
o Practice sessions must be within the child's limitations.
o Encourage a wide range of movement experiences.
o Seasons are sometimes too short and provide little time for preparation.
o Use the amount of time effectively.
o Large groups impede the implementation of differentiation.
o Insufficient sports equipment hampers coaching.
o Inadequate sports facilities cause problems, negativeness and discontinuation of sport.
o Winning at all costs leads to children dropping out of sport at an early age.
o Coaching the incorrect technique causes injuries and allows for little progress.
o Coaches must teach simply. Use the KIS principle KEEP IT SIMPLE.
Use the following guiding principles:
o Explain clearly and simply
o Demonstrate and suggest how children may do this.
o Give enough time for practice.
o Be patient and correct errors
o Teach the big, simple movements first.
o Do not give children too much to think about.
o Develop basic movement patterns should be developed before special skills.
o Do not expect too much too soon.
o Help children to evaluate their own performances.
o Practices for younger athletes should be short.
o Allow children to use the learned skill in a competition situation as soon as they can.
o Always use simple, easily understandable language.
o Be positive when giving feedback.
o Break down the skills into sections.
o Make skill practice challenging.

16.8 ORGANISING A TRAINING SESSION


o
o
o
o

Managing groups for effective training sessions


Time is a valuable resource for the sports coach.
Efficient use of the available time is an essential element of any practice or skill development lesson.
By spending a little time developing group management skills, ensures that children are actively participating throughout each
session.

STUDY UNIT 17
TEACHING SKILLS
17.1 INTRODUCTION
o
o

most essential task is teaching children skills.


Skills taught at the level at which children operate.

17.2 DETERMINATION OF CHILDREN'S MOVEMENT


o
o
o
o
o

spend great deal of time teaching basic skills and to become more skilful.
basic skills are required for running, jumping, throwing and balancing.
degree skills learn, depends on maturation and experience
essential that skills are taught to suit the level of the child.
Skills should be presented in a way that gives the greatest chance of success.

17.3 CHILDREN'S BASIC MOVEMENTS


Study the chart of gross motor development of the child from 2 to 6 years of age on pages 21 to 23 in Sportstart: developing your kids'
skills at home (Singh 1993).

o
o
o
o
o

Different movement patterns learnt from birth


go through different stages as basic movements is learned - at diff times
Coaches = key role in creating opportunities for accelerating progress.
Late developers: allowed to fully learn basic movements before going on to complex
movements.

The foundation period - up to seven years of age


o offer broad range of nonspecific physical activity
o emphasize on coordination, skills, movement pattern
o Specialisation in one sport should not be allowed
The participation period - 7 to 11 years of age
o children should experience modified versions of adult games.
o Activities designed to develop specific skills.
o Coaches: offering children wide a range of physical and sporting experience as possible.
The performance period - 11 to 14 years of age
o exposed to activities that have not been modified.
The development of excellence - 14 to 16 years of age
o Children able to participate and specialise in a particular sport
Specialisation - 16 years of age and older
o physically and mentally more mature and capable of withstanding the pressures of specialisation.
o The physical education teacher should develop the learning of movement patterns for all pupils, and not just the
gifted.

17.4 HOW TO HELP CHILDREN LEARN


o
o
o

learning of skills is invisible process - results seen in improved performances


Learning involves: nervous system, the brain and the memory.
brain's memory of a particular technique is called a ``motor programme''.

Stages of learning
The beginning stage (the thinking stage working out what to do).
o

Children need to know what it is they are trying to achieve.


Talk briefly about the skill to be learnt.
Demonstrate and explain the skill.
Use appropriate teaching method allows the beginner to perform the skill well enough to begin to practise it.
beginning stage is completed once the child can perform a ``rough'' or ``coarse'' form of skill

The intermediate stage (trying out ways of doing it)

o
o
o

develops by regular practice,


Practice alone is not enough, need to be motivated
show them how to correct their faults.

The advanced stage of learning


o
o
o

maintain a high level of performance under a variety of competition-like environments


develop confidence and have a good understanding of their skill.
need to be motivated to practise the skill as improvements are small

17.5 METHODS OF TEACHING SIMPLE SKILLS


o
o
o

skill may seem easy for you but hard for learners to master, you should regard it as complex. Skills are often
complicated by fear and nervousness.
.
There are two approaches to teaching simple skills:
imitation method (best way; watch and try; confirm if correctly done; practice)
demonstration/explanation/practice/correction method
This method follows the following four steps:

Allow further practice and correct in more details, if needed.


Provide information while practice continues. If you must, stop practice and
conform correct actions is if necessary make suggestions to correct errors.

4
3

Allow time for practice. Observe carefully, looking for correct actions and
common errors.

Demonstration with a brief explanation.

17.6 METHODS OF TEACHING COMPLEX SKILLS


The following are the two most common methods used to teach complex skills

Shaping a complex skill


o

Shaping a complex skill means making the whole action simpler:


- Briefly demonstrate and explain
- Use a simplified version of the whole skill
- Allow practice of the simplified skill.
- Gradually change the tasks so that the whole skill
- Encourage other, simpler ways if problems are experience

Chaining a complex skill


o
o

break a skill up into simpler parts.


Athletes must chain the skill together.

1.

4. Use effective communication skills


3. Provide feedback during practice
2. Plan how the athletes will practice the skill
Plan explanation and demonstration

17.7 PLANNING A SKILL UNIT


Skill unit forms part of training session where new skill introduced or a previously learnt skill practised and developed.
Four steps in planning a skill unit for the introduction of a new skill:

Plan a explanation and demonstration


o
o
o
o
o

Decide is skill simple or complex.


choose an appropriate teaching method
Use an aid (chart, picture, videotape) only if it is necessary for the demonstration.
give demonstrations wherever possible
Explanations and demonstrations work together to develop an understanding

Plan how the athletes will practise the skill


o
o
o

begin to practise as soon as possible after a demonstration.


not be afraid to make mistakes, misstakes are a necessary part of the learning process.
Skill practices should not extend beyond 20 minutes without a break.

Provide feedback during practice


o
o
o
o

provide feedback so
Athletes learn to get the feeling of the correct technique
Emphasising the feeling of the correct technique is important
Feedback help realise that they are able to perform the skill.

Use effective communication skills


o
o
o

Need to give effective verbal feedback.


It is essential for the athlete's motivation, learning and self-image.
key aspects of effective feedback:
- . specific to general
- . constructive not destructive
- . sooner not later
- . checked for clarity not left misunderstood
- . directed at behaviour which is changeable
- . correcting one fault at a time

STUDY UNIT 18
SPORT PSYCHOLOGY
18.1 INTRODUCTION
o

Coaches play a key role: helping develop how child think, their mental skills as well as their physical skills.

18.2 MENTAL PREPARATION AND SKILLS


o
o
o
o
o
o

Mental preparation: design and practice of structured thinking approaches.


Athletes can waste considerable amount of mental and physical energy worrying
about things beyond their control.
should base their mental preparation on things they can control and spend time in training these skills.
key to mental preparation: identify what can and cannot be controlled - work on things that can be controlled.
athlete must have the correct frame of mind -

Arousal and performance


What happens to an athlete's performance as his or her level of psychological arousal level increases?
o Heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, tension levels, and so on, increase,
o performance increases to an optimal point and thereafter decreases at an alarming rate.
o worried athlete, who worries about the result - become a victim of the ``inverted U''
HINTS

o
o
o
o
o

No last minute strategy changes or tactical changes


Do not stress the outcomes of the results.
Help athletes to regain their concentration when distracted.
Teach athletes to control their level of arousal and their concentration.
Teach athletes to look forward to competitions - chance to test their skills

18.3 PERSONALITY
o
o

no one ideal athletic personality


Smart athletes have to know how to control their tendency to react inappropriately at times during competitions - approach a
competition confident

18.4 MOTIVATION
o
o
o
o
o

cannot control motivation levels of athletes


can only assist athletes to continue to work towards desirable goals
Focusing on effort levels and what can personally be achieved - more motivating
Motivation means how much an individual wants to achieve a goal.
You need to know what goals an individual has. Some reason for being involved in sport:
. to have fun
. to become fit
. to master new skills
. to experience excitement
. to make friends

o
o

External pressure from coaches and parents is unlikely to increase motivation in long term
Self-motivation and fulfilment are what keep the athlete interested in the sport.

Psychological factors that can you control include the following:


-

how the athlete is coping with school, home or career


the athlete's friends, fellow club members
attitude and approach to training
ability to recover from the effects of training
coping with minor and chronic injuries
mood fluctuations, particularly around competition times
competition preparation routines
pre-event distractibility and nervousness
the ability to visualise performance skills
planned approach to each segment of the event
self-talk at the competition venue
strategic thinking during an event
post-event emotions

18.5 GOAL SETTING


o
o
o

Athletes need clearly defined goals know their aim


Goals need to be set out for each training session
Goal setting improves motivation and helps build self-confidence in the athlete.

The main features of good goal setting


o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Structured into long-term, short-term and intermediate.


Seen as the stepping stones of success.
Accepted by the athlete.
Varied difficulty, with some challenging but still realistic goals.
Be measurable
Determine what an athlete has to do.
Reviewed regularly

Long-term goals
o
o
o
o

set at start of season


Firstly: list competitions
decide what you want to have achieved by the time of each competition
should be reviewed regularly

Short-term goals
developed and used as stepping stones to achieve longterm goals
be achievable and assessable to ensure athletes remain motivated.
Short-term goals can relate to the following:
Performance segments
Specific skills
Fitness. Conditioning, flexibility
Concentration.
Emotional control
Social goals
Performance strategies

18.6 EMOTIONAL CONTROL


o
o
o

Learning to control anxiety is an important task of the coach


Anxiety always present - one symptom of anxiety is worry
two ways in which you can help to prepare the mental skills of emotional control:
(1) setting effective goals to increase self-confidence
(2) using appropriate relaxation techniques

18.7 DEALING WITH WINNING AND LOSING


The motivated talk often leads to ``over arousal'' resulting in ``anxiety'' and a subsequent deterioration in performance.
``Winning'' and ``losing'' can be replaced by the terms ``success'' or ``failure''
Athletes should be seen as successful in competitions if they:
o try to do their best throughout the event
o show respect to officials in charge of the event
o have respect for their opponents
o play within the laws or rules of the competition
o get enjoyment from participation
Athletes should be seen as unsuccessful if they
o do not give their best throughout the event
o show disrespect to officials in charge of the event
o show disrespect to opponents
o try to cheat or perform outside the laws

HINTS
o
o
o
o
o
o

Remember winning is not necessarily success.


Losing is not necessarily failure.
Over motivation can lead to anxiety.
Set a good example by accepting defeat gracefully and being humble in victory.
Provide competitive situations during the training period.
Provide guidelines for athletes on how to accept victory and defeat in a good spirit.

o STUDY UNIT 19
TEAM MANAGEMENT AND STRESS MANAGEMENT
19.1 INTRODUCTION
o

key to success in coaching: own mental and physical

19.2 PRESEASON MANAGEMENT


o
o

address functions you are responsible for at start of the season = fewer management problems you will experience during the
season
Matters that need attention before start of season include:
review your coaching philosophy
development of your season instruction plan
staff selection and training
player positions
scheduling
facilities
equipment and supplies
fiscal management
risk management
parent orientation programme

19.3 IN-SEASON MANAGEMENT


o

number of ongoing responsibilities - player supervision, maintenance of equipment, putting your preseason plan into
action, transportation, publicity, first-aid provision, etc

19.4 POSTSEASON MANAGEMENT


o

last match is over - still faced with several postseason management responsibilities .(evaluate your programme, take care
of players during the offseason, check what equipment has to be repaired or replaced, complete the necessary records of
performances, arrange an awards function.)

19.5 MANAGING RELATIONSHIPS


o
o
o
o

must be able to work with the people that assist you


need a special relationship with parents - needed to transport their children
Assistant coaches, administrators, officials and medical staff are all relied on during the season
main objective: create positive working relationships with these individuals

19.6 STRESS MANAGEMENT


The following may cause coaches to feel stressed:
o perceive that administration and the community do not appreciate their difficult task.
o concerned that players will not respect them.
o concerned about making mistakes.
o feel tired during the season.
o worry that players are going to mess up.
o find it difficult to calm down after games.
o come in for criticism from parents and supporters.
o schedule during the season makes them feel
o suffer from nervousness before the game.
overloaded.
o often on edge when coaching.
various situations they have to deal with - a few guidelines to help you cope:
o Comment on something good from a bad practice or game.
o Keep emotions under control when coaching.
o Find coaching challenging but never overwhelming.
o Be calm when a player or an official makes a mistake.
o Have confidence that you are doing a really worthwhile job as a coach.
o Remember you cannot control everything.
o learn to adjust to the situation when something change
o Set time aside each day for yourself
o Learn to laugh and not be so serious about your role.
o Join in relaxation sessions with your athletes.

19.7 TIME MANAGEMENT


o
o

Poor time management may also cause you stress. Look at the following:
Effective time managers do the following:
plan every day and every training session
concentrate on achieving goals
be unperturbed by the unexpected which may ``throw'' others off the task
believe in themselves and their abilities
.value organisation

How to manage time


Establish time goals and monitor them regularly.
Develop schedules and criteria to measure progress
Discuss plans with experts
Prepare a recording system
Compile a reminder list of things that have to be done
Keep a notebook - write down ideas as they occur.
Break down projects into more manageable units.
Ensure consistency between personal goals and coaching goals.
Focus on one task at a time.
Set and keep deadlines for yourself and others.
Recognise the importance of delegating work and getting good assistance.

19.8 HEALTH MANAGEMENT


o
o

Need to set an example for your athletes:


following a healthy lifestyle, which consists of
. regular exercise
. a high-performance diet
. maintaining a moderate weight level
. controlling blood pressure
. not smoking
. drinking alcohol in moderation
. managing stress

19.9 CONCLUSION
o

Athletes learn more from the personal example of their coach

STUDY UNIT 20
PARENT, COMMUNITY AND MEDIA INVOLVEMENT
20.1 INTRODUCTION
o

links between the school and the community = more coordinated approach to sport, leads to better opportunities for the
youth

20.2 DEVELOPING BETTER SCHOOL-COMMUNITY LINKAGES


o

Schools play an important role in giving children the basic skills and confidence needed to explore community-based
sporting options

linking the school sport programme to community sport the following benefits are possible:
Children able to occupy positions in community sport clubs.
Children encouraged to become involved in sport for life.
Children become more aware of the community facilities and competitions.
Community clubs, and sport development officers, are aware of school programmes.

Strategies link school sport programmes with the community include the following:
Conduct training sessions with a prominent coach or member of a senior team.
Organise class attendance at a game or senior training session.
Invite local referees to attend a class session.
Have your group participate in a local competition.
Collect and display information on community competitions and facilities.
Arrange publicity for finals and award presentations.
Arrange for your athletes to coach other teams in the community.
Give your athletes opportunities to assist in event and competition management in the community.

Clubs can develop strategies to offer assistance to schools:


Visit schools and talk to children about a particular sport as part of a special ``focus on sport week''. Also talk to older
athletes about careers in sport.
Provide printed resources on a particular sport to assist school coaches.
Appoint a contact person for the school.
Inform the schools of competition dates and the format for the coming season.
Invite coaches, teachers and parents from the school to an afternoon at your club.
Make your club's facilities available after school.
Invite school coaches, personnel and athletes to coaching or refereeing courses organised by your club.
Use children as volunteer officials at the club or association events.
Provide coaches, referees and officials for school competitions.

20.3 A PARENT ORIENTATION PROGRAMME


o
o

o
o

hold a preseason parent orientation programme to avoid the traditional problems that occur
Such a programme is useful for the following reasons:
enables parents to understand the objectives of the programme.
allows the parents to become acquainted with you.
able to inform the parents about the nature of the sport and its potential risks.
can explain why you do not put pressure on children too early.
Parents get to know team rules, regulations and procedures.
can inform parents about what is expected of the athletes and of them.
It enables you to understand the parents' concerns.
able to establish a clear line of communication between yourself and the parents.
possible to obtain help from parents in conducting the season's activities.

The agenda for the parent orientation programme


The agenda should include the following:
. Introduction (10 minutes)
. Coaching philosophy (10 minutes)
. Demonstrations (25 minutes)
. Potential risks (25 minutes)
. Specifics of your programme (15 minutes)
. A question-and-answer session (2045 minutes)

Involving parents
Parents can be both the strongest allies and the worst critics of the coach.

20.4 CONTACTING THE MEDIA


The media can help to promote your sport in the community. Very few schools can do
without publicity. Presentations have to be of a high quality so that the media corporation
will not hesitate to publish them.
(I didnt think this was important page 165 166)
The electronic media
Newspapers
Photographs