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SIMULATION BY USING

STELLA SOFTWARE : PREYPREDATOR SAMPLE


MODEL
SBI 3013
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN
BIOLOGY

BY : ATIA ATILAH & DAYANG AZWA


NADIA

INTRODUCTION

SIMULATION ?

ABSTRACTIONS OF REALITY
SIMULATION IS INTERRELATED WITH MODELLING AND BOTH ARE
USED FOR DEVELOPING LEVEL OF UNDERSTANDING WHEN PEOPLE
USE IT
TO LEARN ABOUT THE SYSTEM WE MUST FIRST BUILD A MODEL OF
SOME SORT AND THEN OPERATE THE MODEL.
MOSTLY USED BY PEOPLE IN MANY AREAS OR FIELD WORKS IS THE
COMPUTER SIMULATION. COMPUTER SIMULATION IS THE
DISCIPLINE OF DESIGNING A MODEL OF AN ACTUAL OR THEORETICAL
PHYSICAL SYSTEM, EXECUTING THE MODEL THE MODEL ON A DIGITAL
COMPUTER, AND ANALYZING THE EXECUTION OUTPUT.
VERY SUITABLE TO BE USED IN TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS IN
SCHOOLS
WITHIN THE OVERALL TASK OF SIMULATION, THERE ARE THREE
PRIMARY SUB-FIELDS WHICH ARE MODEL DESIGN, MODEL EXECUTION
AND MODEL ANALYSIS

MODELLING ( COMPUTER
MODELLING)
MODELLING : PROCESS OF REPRESENTING A REAL-WORLD
OBJECT OR PHENOMENON AS A SET OF MATHEMATICAL
EQUATIONS
TO DESCRIBE THE PROCESS OF REPRESENTING 3DIMENSIONAL OBJECTS IN A COMPUTER
COMPUTER MODELLING - PROCESS OF CREATING AN
ABSTRACT MODEL TO STIMULATE THE BEHAVIOUR AND
RESPONSE OF WIDE RANGE OF SYSTEM AND PROTOTYPE
COMPUTER MODELLING SOFTWARE REQUIRES SIGNIFICANT
MEMORY, PROCESSOR, AND CAPACITY.

STELLA SOFTWARE (SYSTEMS THINKING FOR


EDUCATION AND RESEARCH; FROM ISEE SYSTEMS)
A MODELLING SOFTWARE PACKAGE THAT DIAGRAMS, CHARTS, AND USES
ANIMATION HELP VISUAL LEARNERS DISCOVER RELATIONSHIPS
BETWEEN VARIABLES AND HELPS SIMPLIFY MODEL BUILDING.
MODELS CAN BE CREATED BY CONNECTING SEVERAL DIFFERENT ICONS
TOGETHER IN DIFFERENT WAYS INTO A MODEL FRAMEWORK SO THAT THE
STRUCTURE OF THE MODEL IS VERY TRANSPARENT.
USERS CAN DOWNLOAD A FREE TRIAL THAT HAS SIGNIFICANT FEATURES.
CAN BE USED BY STUDENTS TO BUILD THEIR OWN MODELS OR TO USE AND
EXPLORE PHYSICAL SYSTEMS WITH THE PRE-MADE MODEL SAMPLES
FROM ISEE SYSTEM, STELLA IS USED TO STIMULATE A SYSTEM OVER TIME
ALSO ENABLE STUDENTS TO CREATIVELY CHANGE SYSTEM AND TEACH
STUDENTS TO LOOK FOR RELATIONSHIPS
THIS SOFTWARE CLEARLY COMMUNICATE SYSTEM INPUT AND OUTPUT AND
DEMONSTRATE THE OUTCOMES.

OBJECTIVE (OF USING SIMULATION)


TO MAKE PREDICTION AT THE END OF THE MODELLING
EXPERIMENT AFTER RUNNING THE SIMULATION BY USING
THAT STELLA SOFTWARE
TO GAIN A WORKING KNOWLEDGE OF, AND AN INSIGHT INTO
THE PROCESSES OF GLOBAL CHANGE.
THE OBJECTIVE FOR THIS SAMPLE MODEL WE USED, CAN BE
SAID AS IF THE STUDENTS CAN PREDICT THE FUTURE
OUTCOMES OF THE MODELLING SUCH AS PREY-PREDATOR
SAMPLE OF SIMULATION, WE CAN MAKE ASSUMPTIONS THAT
EVERY PREY-PREDATOR RELATIONSHIP WILL HAVE THE SAME
RESULTS OR OUTCOMES TOO.

SAMPLE MODEL : PREY-PREDATOR


MODEL (LYNX AND HARE)

LYNX IS A WILD CAT WITH YELLOWISH-BROWN FUR


(SOMETIMES SPOTTED), A SHORT TAIL, AND TUFTED
EARS, FOUND CHIEFLY IN THE NORTHERN LATITUDES
OF NORTH AMERICA AND EURASIA.
~WHILE HARE IS A FAST-RUNNING, LONG-EARED
MAMMAL THAT RESEMBLES A LARGE RABBIT, HAVING
LONG HIND LEGS AND OCCURRING TYPICALLY IN
GRASSLAND OR OPEN WOODLAND.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LYNX AND HARE SHOWS
HOW INTERACTIONS BETWEEN A PREDATOR AND ITS
PREY CAN INFLUENCE POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THE
TWO SPECIES

FIGURE 1 SHOWS THE GRAPH PATTERN


WHEN THERE IS NO NUMBER OF LYNX
AND HARE AT AN AREA.
LYNX POPULATIONS RISE AND FALL
WITH FLUCTUATIONS IN POPULATIONS
OF HARES. THUS, WHEN HARES ARE
ABUNDANT, LYNX POPULATIONS EXPAND.

FIGURE 2 SHOWS THE PATTERN OF


THE GRAPH ON THE
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LYNX AND
HARE WHEN THE
NUMBER OF LYNX IS 180.
WHEN LYNXS NUMBER INCREASES,
THE NUMBER OF HARE DECLINES,
AS ALL LYNX HUNT FOR HARES.

THE CYCLE IS THE SAME ACTUALLY, WHICH MEANS, AS THE


NUMBER OF LYNX INCREASE FOR SURE THE HARE
NUMBERS WILL DECREASE. WHEN HARES BECOME SCARCE,
LYNX NUMBERS ALSO DECLINE. THEIR LACK OF FAT RESERVES
MAKES THEM LESS ABLE TO LIVE THROUGH STARVATION AND
COLD TEMPERATURES. LYNX BECOMES STARVED AND
DEATH OCCURS, LEAD TO REDUCE NUMBER IN LYNX
POPULATION.
FIGURE 4 SHOWS THE MAXIMUM NUMBER THIS MODEL
ESTIMATED WHICH IS 750 LYNX EXISTS IN AN AREA AND WE
CAN SEE THE FLUCTUATE NUMBER OF HARES THERE. AS
USUAL, THE HARES INCREASE RAPIDLY WHEN THE
POPULATION OF LYNX DECREASES. AS HARES NUMBER
STARTED TO INCREASE, THE LYNX ALSO FOLLOW THE TREND,
THEY INCREASES AS THE FOOD SOURCE HAS DEVELOP
AGAIN. BUT, WHEN THE NUMBER OF LYNX HAS INCREASE AND

ADVANTAGES OF USING STELLA


1. EXPERIMENT WITH PHENOMENA OR EVENT THAT
CAN NOT EXPERIMENTED USING TRADITIONAL WAY
2. TEACHER CAN EXPLAIN A DIFFICULT INTERRELATIONSHIP
3. STUDENT INVOLVEMENT IN THE ACTIVITY
4. THINKING AND MAKE THE PREDICTION ON THE
SITUATION
5. BUILT QUESTION FOR HIGHER ORDER THINKING LEVEL
6. ABLE TO STUDY AND INVESTIGATE THE NATURAL
CONDITION
7. EFFECTIVE WAYS FOR TEACHING OR DEMONSTRATING
CONCEPTS

DISADVANTAGES OF USING
STELLA
1. SIMULATION ERROR
2. EXPENSIVE TO BUILD
3. THE TEST WOULD TAKE TOO MUCH TIME
4. REQUIRE AN INTERNET CONNECTION
5. LACK OF PRACTICAL EXPERIMENT
6. UNABLE TO INTERPRET THE SIMULATION
RESULTS IN CERTAIN EXPERIMENT

STELLA SOFTWARE USE FOR


TEACHING AND LEARNING IN
SCHOOL

EASY TO CONSTRUCT
SIMULATION CAN BE PAUSED, WHEREAS REAL LIFE
CANNOT

(PAUSING ALLOWS MORE TIME FOR STUDENTS TO ASSESS


WHATS GOING ON AND THEY CAN THINK ON WHAT HAPPEN)

CHEAPER TO CREATE THAN THEIR REAL LIFE


COUNTERPARTS
(EG: INSTALLING FLIGHT SIMULATION SOFTWARE IS CHEAPER
THAN BUYING A PRACTICE JET FOR EACH SCHOOL)

STELLA SOFTWARE USE FOR


TEACHING AND LEARNING IN
SCHOOL
STUDENTS INTEREST MORE
TOWARD ELEMENT OF GRAPHIC AND

DYNAMIC
(ATTRACT STUDENTS TO LEARN SOMETHING AND ENCOURAGES
STUDENT TO BE TRIGGER TO LEARN ESPECIALLY IN SCIENCE)
STUDENT CAN TRY A LOT OF EXPERIMENTS IN MANY TIMES OVER
(ADJUSTING THE PARAMETER AND SEE THE PATTERN OF THE
EXPERIMENT)
CONDUCTING THE EXPERIMENTS THAT ARE IMPOSSIBLE TO DO IN
REAL EXPERIMENTS
SCHOOL ARE NOT NECESSARY TO BUY AN EXPENSIVE
EXPERIMENT TOOLS

STELLA
SOFTWARE
MAKES
LEARNING
MORE
INTERESTING AND MEANINGFUL. AN ATTRACTIVE,
DYNAMIC AND CAN RUN EASILY MAKE IT EXITED TO
EXPLORE WITH THIS SIMULATION SOFTWARE. IT IS
ONE OF THE OTHER ALTERNATIVES TO ATTRACT THE
STUDENT TO LEARN IN MANY SUBJECT WHERE
REQUIRED
A
CRITICAL
THINKING
AND
THE
RELATIONSHIP WITH EACH OTHER ESPECIALLY FOR
SCIENCE
SUBJECT.
TEACHING
USING
STELLA
SOFTWARE, FOCUSING ON THE LEARNING OBJECTIVE
AND THE CONTENT ARE MORE EASY FOR THE
TEACHERS AND THE STUDENTS. STUDENTS ALSO USE
THE INQUIRY AND CONSTRUCTIVISM APPROACH AND
AT THE SAME TIME IT FULFILLED THE REQUIREMENT
BY GOVERNMENT THAT BRINGS FORTH GOOD

CONCLUSION

THANK YOU
PREPARED BY:
ATIA ATILAH
DYG AZWA NADIA