MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.

SINHA
B-7. JAWAHAR NAGAR.Main Road ,Kota. Ph-0744-2422383 .Mo-93149-05055
1
Moles Concept,
What is a Mole?
Since atoms and molecules are so tiny, it is convenient to talk about a large number of them at a time.
The chemical counting unit is known as the mole. A mole is defined as the amount of substance that
contains as many elementary entities (atoms, molecules, or other particles) as there are atoms in exactly
12 g of the
6
12
C isotope. It has been found experimentally that
1 mole of particles = 6. 022 x 10
23
particlesThis value is known as Avogadro’s number. Just like 1
dozen of anything always contains 12 items, 1 mole of anything always contains 6.022 x 10
23
items.

Atomic Mass and Molar Mass
Isotopic masses cannot be obtained by summing the masses of the elementary particles (neutrons,
protons, and electrons) from which the isotope is formed. This process would give masses slightly too
large, since mass is lost when the neutrons and protons come together to form the nucleus.

Atomic masses (also called atomic weights) are thus assigned relative to the mass of a particular carbon
isotope,
6
12
C, which is assigned the mass of 12 amu exactly. Likewise 1 mole of
6
12
C has a mass of
exactly 12 g. Atomic masses and molar masses of other isotopes are calculated based on their mass
relative to that of Carbon-12.

Masses of “average” atoms are found by summing isotopic masses, weighting each isotopic mass by its
abundance . Thus one “average” C atom has a mass of 12.01 amu, and the mass of 1 mole of “average”
carbon atoms has a mass of 12.01 g. These average masses are what are given on the periodic chart.

Molecular Masses and Compound Masses
Molecular masses are found by summing atomic masses . They are often called molecular weights. Thus
the mass of 1 mole of water, H
2
O, would be 2 x (molar mass of H) plus 1x (molar mass of O) or [(2 x
1.008 g) + (1 x 16.00 g)] = 18.02 g.
Ionic compounds such as NaCl do not contain molecules. Their formulas give the relative numbers of
each kind of atom in the sample. What we mean by the molar mass (or the molecular weight) of an ionic
compound is really the formula weight. The formula weight is the sum of the atomic masses in the
formula.

Percent Composition of Compounds
The percent composition by mass is the percent by mass of each element in a compound. If there are n
moles of an element per mole of compound, the percent by mass of the element is calculated using the
equation,
% Composition of Element =
n × molar mass of element
molar mass of compound
|
\

|
.
|
× 100%
The sum of the % compositions of all elements in a compound is 100%.
Exercises
1. The atomic mass scale gives masses in atomic mass units (amu) relative to the mass of carbon-12.
(a) What is the mass of one
12
C atom in atomic mass units (amu)?
(b) What is the mass of an average C atom in atomic mass units (amu)?
(c) What is the mass of an average Cl atom in amu?
(d) What is the mass of an average Br atom in amu?
2. The molar mass scale gives masses in grams (g) relative to the mass of
12
C.
(a) What is the mass in grams of 1 mole (mol) of
12
C?
(b) What is the mass in grams of 1 mole (mol) of carbon?
(c) What is the mass in grams of 1 mole (mol) of Cl?
(d) What is the mass in grams of 1 mole (mol) of Na?
3. How many
12
C atoms are present in a mole of
12
C ?
4. Cinnamic alcohol is used mainly in perfumery, particularly in soaps and cosmetics. Its molecular
formula is C
9
H
10
O.
(a) Calculate the percent composition by mass of C, H, and O in cinnamic alcohol.
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(b) How many molecules of cinnamic alcohol are contained in a sample of mass 0.469 g?
Answers:
1. (a) 12 amu exactly; (b) 12.01 amu; (c) 35.45 amu; (d) 79.90 amu.
2. (a) 12 g exactly; (b) 12.01 g; (c) 35.45 g; (d) 22.99 g.
3. 6.022 x 10
23
atoms of
12
C.
4. (a) 80.56% C; 7.51% H; 11.93% O; (b) 2.11 x 10
21
molecules of C
9
H
10
O.

Empirical and Molecular Formulas
The empirical formula of a compound gives the simplest whole number ratio of different
types of atoms in the compound. All salt formulas are empirical formulas. On the other hand, the
molecular formula of a compound may or may not be the same as its empirical formula. For example,
the molecular formula of butane is C
4
H
10
while its empirical formula is C
2
H
5
. The molecular formula
gives the true number of each kind of atom in a molecule.
¬ Empirical formulas may be easily determined from experimental data.
¬ Usually you must first determine how many grams of each type of atom are in the compound. If
percent composition data is given, assume that you have 100.0 g of the compound; then the number of
grams of each element is equal to the percentage for that element.
¬ The next task is convert the grams of each element to moles of the element. Be sure to keep at least
three significant figures in your answers.
¬ The final step is to write the molar amounts of each element as subscripts in the formula. Then
divide all molar subscripts by the smallest value in the set. At this point, the subscripts may all be very
close to whole numbers; if so, you are finished. If one (or more) of the subscripts is not close to a
whole number, multiply all molar subscripts by the simple factor which makes all subscripts whole
numbers.
¬ Once the empirical formula is determined, the molecular formula is easily found if the molar mass
(molecular weight) of the molecule is also known. You first calculate the molar mass of the empirical
formula. Then you divide the molar mass of the molecule by the molar mass of the empirical formula.
The division should give a simple whole number. That number is the factor by which all subscripts in
the empirical formula must be multiplied to obtain the molecular formula.

Exercises
1. The molecular formula of the antifreeze ethylene glycol is C
2
H
6
O
2
. What is the empirical formula?
2. A well-known reagent in analytical chemistry, dimethylglyoxime, has the empirical formula C
2
H
4
NO.
If its molar mass is 116.1 g/mol, what is the molecular formula of the compound?
3. Nitrogen and oxygen form an extensive series of oxides with the general formula N
x
O
y
. One of them
is a blue solid that comes apart, reversibly, in the gas phase. It contains 36.84% N. What is the empirical
formula of this oxide?
4. A sample of indium chloride weighing 0.5000 g is found to contain 0.2404 g of chlorine What is the
empirical formula of the indium compound?
Answers:
1. CH
3
O
2. Molar mass of empirical formula is 58.06 g/mol. Thus molecular formula is C
4
H
8
N
2
O
2
.
3. The ratios are N
1.00
O
1.50
. Since 1.50 is not close to a whole number, we multiply both subscripts by
2. The empirical formula is thus N
2
O
3
. (The name is dinitrogen trioxide.)
4. InCl
3
.
Chemical Stoichiometry Problems
Calculating the yield of a chemical reaction is a process at the heart of chemistry. While there are many
ways a problem can be phrased, in all cases the stoichiometric coefficients in the balanced reaction are
used to determine the mole ratios between reactants and products. Thus the first step is usually
MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
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calculating the moles of each species available. If an amount is given in grams, the molar mass is used
as a conversion factor to change grams to moles.

Limiting Reagent Problems
In some problems, amounts of more than one species are given. In that case your first task is to
determine which species is the limiting reagent. Just as you can make only 1 bicycle from 2 wheels and
4 handlebars (with 3 handlebars left over), and only 2 bicycles from 8 wheels and 2 handlebars (with 4
wheels left over), in chemical reactions some species are limiting while others may be present in excess.
In the case of a bicycle, we need
2 wheels
1 handlebar
|
\
|
.
. We obtain analogous information about the relative
amounts of species that react from the stoichiometric coefficients in a balanced chemical equation. For
example, in Exercise (2) below the equation CO(g) + 2 H
2
(g) ÷ CH
3
OH (l)
tells us we need
2 mol H
2
1 mol CO
|
\
|
.
. If we have more than 2 moles of H
2
for each mole of CO, CO will be the
limiting reagent and the excess H
2
will not react. Conversely, if we have more than 1 mole of CO for
every 2 moles of H
2
, H
2
will be the limiting reagent and the excess CO(g) will be left over. In each case,
the yield of CH
3
OH is determined by the moles of limiting reagent available.

Calculating the Theoretical Yield
The theoretical (maximum possible) yield is based on the amount of limiting reagent available. The yield
is calculated in steps:
•Calculate moles of all reactants available. If amounts are given in grams, convert grams to moles using
the molar mass of each reactant as your conversion factor:
1 mole reactant
# g reactant
|
\

|
.
.
•NOTE: Skip this step if you have already identified the limiting reagent. To determine which reagent is
limiting, use the mole ratio obtained from the balanced equation for the reaction to find the moles of
reactant B needed to react with the available moles of reactant A. If the moles of B available are less
than the moles of B needed, reactant B is the limiting reagent and reactant A is in excess. Conversely, if
the moles of B available are more than the moles of B needed, A is the limiting reagent and B is in
excess.
•Calculate the moles of product based on the moles of limiting reagent available; use the stoichiometric
ratio of
# moles product
# moles limiting reagent
|
\

|
.
as the conversion factor.
•If you are asked for the yield in grams, convert the yield in moles to a yield in grams using the molar
mass as your conversion factor:
# g product
1 mole product
|
\

|
.

Percent Yield
Most reactions do not go to completion, and so the actual yield is less than the percent yield.
The percent yield is calculated as
Percent yield =
actual yield
theoretical yield
|
\

|
.
× 100%
Exercises:
1. Ammonia is produced by the reaction
3 H
2
(g) + N
2
(g) ÷ 2 NH
3
(g)
(a) If N
2
(g) is present in excess and 55.6 g of H
2
(g) reacts, what is the theoretical yield of NH
3
(g)?
(b) What is the percent yield if the actual yield of the reaction is 159 g of NH
3
(g)?
Answers: 1(a) 313 g NH
3
(g); (b) 50.8% yield.
2. Methyl alcohol (wood alcohol), CH
3
OH, is produced via the reaction
CO(g) + 2 H
2
(g) ÷ CH
3
OH (l)
Answers: 2(a) CO is the limiting reagent; (b) 8.52 g CH
3
OH; (c) 0.13 g H
2
; (d) 88.3%
MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
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4
Limiting Reagent Problems
Limiting reagent problems are simple to recognize as the initial amounts of more than
one species will be given. For instance, for the reaction:
2H
2
(g) + O
2
(g) 2H
2
O
If the amounts of both H
2
and O
2
are given, then this is a limiting reagent problem;
otherwise, this is not a limiting reagent problem. There are 6 steps to a limiting reagent
problem:
1. Convert the amounts of all species to moles
2. Divide the number of moles of each reactant species by its stoichiometric
coefficient. The smallest number corresponds to the limiting reagent.
3. Determine the moles of all other species that react or form by multiplying the
smallest number from step 2 by each species' stoichiometric coefficient.
4. Add/Subtract the moles determined in step 3 to/from the initial moles.
5. Convert moles to amounts
6. Check to make sure that total initial mass = total final mass

Problem-1..In the reaction Mg
3
N
2
+ 6H
2
O 3Mg(OH)
2
+ 2NH
3
, if the initial amount of
Mg
3
N
2
is 58.1g and the initial amount of H
2
O is 20.4g, what are the final masses of
each specie?
1. Convert the amounts of all species to moles
MM(Mg
3
N
2
) = 100.93 g Mg
3
N
2
/ mol Mg
3
N
2

mass(Mg
3
N
2
) = 58.1 g Mg
3
N
2
x (1 mol Mg
3
N
2
/ 100.93 g Mg
3
N
2
) = 0.576 mol Mg
3
N
2

MM(H
2
O) = 18.02 g H
2
O / mol H
2
O
mass(H
2
O) =20.4 g H
2
O x (1 mol H
2
O / 18.02 g H
2
O) = 1.13 mol H
2
O
Compound Mg
3
N
2
H
2
O Mg(OH)
2
NH
3

MM 100.93 18.02 58.32 17.03
Initial Mass 58.1 g 20.4 g 0.0 g 0.0 g
Initial Moles
0.576 mol
Mg
3
N
2

1.13 mol H
2
O
0.0 mol
Mg(OH)
2

0.0 mol NH
3

1. Divide the number of moles of each reactant species by its stoichiometric
coefficient. The smallest amount is the limiting reagent.
Step 2 Division
0.576 mol / 1
= 0.576 mol
1.13 mol / 6 = 0.189 mol…
SMALLEST NUMBER SO LIMITING REAGENT
1. Determine the amount of all other species that react or form by multiplying the
smallest number from step 2 by each species stoichiometric coefficient.
Step 2 Division
0.576 mol / 1
= 0.576 mol
1.13 mol / 6 = 0.189 mol…
SMALLEST NUMBER SO LIMITING REAGENT
Step 3 Amounts
1 x 0.189 mol
= 0.189 mol
Mg
3
N
2

6 x 0.189 mol
= 1.13 mol
H
2
O
3 x 0.189 mol
= 0.566 mol
Mg(OH)
2

2 x 0.189 mol =
0.377 mol NH
3

1. Add/Subtract the amounts determined in step 3 to/from the initial amounts.
Final Moles
0.576 mol -
0.189 mol =
0.387 mol
Mg
3
N
2

1.13 mol -
1.13 mol =
0.0 mol H
2
O
0.0 mol +
0.566 mol =
0.566 mol
Mg(OH)
2

0.0 mol + 0.377
mol = 0.377 mol
NH
3

1. Convert moles to amounts
MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
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Final Mass
0.387 mol x
100.93 g/mol
= 39.1 g
Mg
3
N
2

0.0 g
0.566 mol x
58.32 g/mol =
33.0 g
Mg(OH)
2

0.377 mol x
17.03 g/mol =
6.42 g NH
3

1. Check to make sure that total initial mass = total final mass
2. + 20.4 = 78.5; 39.1 + 33.0 + 6.42 = 78.5…Mass is conserved!

Problem 2.-In the reaction Au
2
S
3
+ 3H
2
3H
2
S + 2Au, if the initial amount of Au
2
S
3
is
500.20 g and the initial amount of H
2
is 5.67g, what are the final masses of each
specie?
1. Convert the amounts of all species to moles
MM(Au
2
S
3
) =490.15 g Au
2
S
3
/ mol Au
2
S
3

mass(Au
2
S
3
) =500.20 g Au
2
S
3
x (1 mol Au
2
S
3
/ 490.15 g Au
2
S
3
) = 0.1.0204 mol Au
2
S
3

MM(H
2
) = 2.02 g H
2
/ mol H
2

mass(H
2
) =5.67 g H
2
x (1 mol H
2
/ 2.02 g H
2
) = 2.8125 mol H
2

Compound Au
2
S
3
H
2
H
2
S Au
MM 490.15 2.02 34.09 196.97
Initial Mass 500.20 g 5.67 g 0.0 g 0.0 g
Initial Moles
1.0204 mol
Au
2
S
3

2.8125 mol H
2
0.0 mol H
2
S 0.0 mol Au
1. Divide the number of moles of each reactant species by its stoichiometric
coefficient. The smallest amount is the limiting reagent.
Step 2 Division
1.0204 mol /
1 = 1.0204
mol
2.8125 mol / 3 = 0.9375 mol…
SMALLEST NUMBER SO LIMITING REAGENT
1. Determine the amount of all other species that react or form by multiplying the
smallest number from step 2 by each species stoichiometric coefficient.
Step 3 Amounts
1 x 0.9375
mol = 0.9375
mol Au
2
S
3

3 x 0.9375
mol = 2.8125
mol H
2

3 x 0.9375
mol = 2.8125
mol H
2
S
2 x 0.9375 mol =
1.875 mol Au
1. Add/Subtract the amounts determined in step 3 to/from the initial amounts.
Final Moles
1.0204 mol -
0.9375 mol =
0.08288 mol
Au
2
S
3

2.8125 mol -
2.8125 mol =
0.0 mol H
2

0.0 mol +
2.8125 mol =
2.8125 mol
H
2
S
0.0 mol + 1.875
mol = 1.875 mol
Au
1. Convert moles to amounts
Final Mass
0.08288 mol
x 490.15
g/mol = 40.6
g Au
2
S
3

0.0 g
2.8125 mol x
34.09 g/mol =
95.9 g H
2
S
1.875 mol x
196.97 g/mol =
369.4 g Au
1. Check to make sure that total initial mass = total final mass
500.20 + 5.67 = 505.87; 40.6 + 95.9 + 369.4 = 505.9…Mass is conserved!

Problem-3-In the reaction 2C
3
H
6
+ 2NH
3
+ 3O
2
2C
3
H
3
N + 6H
2
O, if the initial
amounts are C
3
H
6
22.5g, NH
3
20.6 g, and O
2
18.1 g, what are the final amounts of each
specie?
1. Convert the amounts of all species to moles
MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
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Compound C
3
H
6
NH
3
O
2
C
3
H
3
N H
2
O
MM 42.078 17.034 32.000 53.064 196.97
Initial Mass 22.5 g 20.6 g 18.1 g 0.0 g 0.0 g
Initial Moles
0.5347 mol
C
3
H
6

1.2094 mol
NH
3

0.5656 mol
O
2

0.0 mol
C
3
H
3
N
0.0 mol
H
2
O
1. Divide the number of moles of each reactant species by its stoichiometric
coefficient. The smallest amount is the limiting reagent.
Step 2
Division
0.5347 mol /
2 =0.2675
mol
1.2094 mol /
2 = 0.6047
mol
0.5656 mol / 3 = 0.1885 mol…
SMALLEST NUMBER SO LIMITING
REAGENT
1. Determine the amount of all other species that react or form by multiplying the
smallest number from step 2 by each species stoichiometric coefficient.
Step 3
Amounts
2 x 0.1885
mol =
0.3771 mol
C
3
H
6

2 x 0.1885
mol =
0.3771 mol
NH
3

3 x 0.1885
mol =
0.5656 mol
O
2

2 x 0.1885
mol =
0.3771 mol
C
3
H
3
N
6 x 0.1885
mol
=1.1313
mol H
2
O
1. Add/Subtract the amounts determined in step 3 to/from the initial amounts.
Final Moles
0.5347 -
0.3771 =
0.1576 mol
C
3
H
6

1.2094 -
0.3771 =
0.8323 mol
NH
3

0.5656 -
0.5656 = 0.0
mol O
2

0.0 + 0.3771
= 0.3771
mol C
3
H
3
N
0.0 +
1.1313 =
1.1313 mol
H
2
O
Final Mass
1. Convert moles to amounts
Final Mass
0.1576 mol
x (42.078 g
/mol) = 6.6 g
C
3
H
6

0.8323 mol
x (17.034
g/mol) =
14.2 g NH
3

0.0 g O
2

0.3771 x
(53.064
g/mol) =
20.0 g
C
3
H
3
N
1.1313 x
(18.016
g/mol) =
20.4 g H
2
O
1. Check to make sure that total initial mass = total final mass
22.5 + 20.6 + 18.1 = 61.2; 6.6 + 14.2 + 20.0 +20.4 = 61.2g…Mass is conserved!
Now why do steps 2 and 3 give the correct results?

Give a reaction aA +bB cC + dD, we know that a moles of A will react with b moles
of B to give c moles of C and d moles of D. This means, for instance, that Y moles of A
will require Y mol A x (b mol B / a mol A) = Yb/a mol B, since the stoichiometric
coefficients are conversion factors between different species. We define 1 mol of this
reaction as the process of mixing a mol of A with b mol of B to form c mol C and d mol
D. Thus, if we have Y mol of A, we can convert to mol of reaction by Y x (1 mol reaction
/ a mol A) = Y/a. Thus, the divisions in step 2 convert each initial amount into units of
mol reaction and, hence, calculate the amount of the reaction that each reactant can
permit. The smallest of these amounts is then the least amount of reaction that any
initial amount of a reactant will allow. Step 3 is then converting from units of mol
reaction to mol of a species by multiplying by Z mol reaction x (c mol C / 1 mol
reaction), .

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Rules for Working Limiting Reagent Problems
Determine the number of moles of each reactant.

Find the number of moles of desired product that can be produced by each reactant.

The limiting reagent is the one that produces the smallest amount of that product.

The amount of product produced by that limiting reagent is the final answer. Convert to grams if
necessary.
MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
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Problem Solving In Solutions
Concentrations of Solutions
There are a number of ways to express the relative amounts of solute and solvent in a solution.
This page describes calculations for four different units used to express concentration:
- Percent Composition (by mass) Molarity Molality Mole Fraction
Percent Composition (by mass)
We can consider percent by mass (or weight percent, as it is sometimes called) in two ways:
- The parts of solute per 100 parts of solution.
- The fraction of a solute in a solution multiplied by 100.
We need two pieces of information to calculate the percent by mass of a solute in a solution:
- The mass of the solute in the solution.
- The mass of the solution.
Use the following equation to calculate percent by mass:

Molarity
Molarity tells us the number of moles of solute in exactly one liter of a solution. (Note that
molarity is spelled with an "r" and is represented by a capital M.)
We need two pieces of information to calculate the molarity of a solute in a solution:
- The moles of solute present in the solution.
- The volume of solution (in liters) containing the solute.
To calculate molarity we use the equation:

Molality
Molality, m, tells us the number of moles of solute dissolved in exactly one kilogram of solvent.
(Note that molality is spelled with two "l"'s and represented by a lower case m.)
We need two pieces of information to calculate the molality of a solute in a solution:
- The moles of solute present in the solution.
- The mass of solvent (in kilograms) in the solution.
To calculate molality we use the equation:

Mole Fraction
The mole fraction, X, of a component in a solution is the ratio of the number of moles of that
component to the total number of moles of all components in the solution.
To calculate mole fraction, we need to know:
- The number of moles of each component present in the solution.
The mole fraction of A, X
A
, in a solution consisting of A, B, C, ... is calculated using the
equation:
To calculate the mole fraction of B, X
B
, use:





MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
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9
MOLE AND PERCENT WORKSHEET
.
1. C
2
H
2
is the molecular formula for ethylyne ( acetylene). (a) How many atoms are in one molecule? (b)
Which atoms make up acetylene? (c) How many moles of atoms are in one molecule of acetylene? (d)
How many molecules are in 5.3 moles of acetylene? (e) How many atoms are in a mole of acetylene?
2. Calculate the molar mass of a mole of the following materials: (a) Al (b) Ra (c) Co (d) CO (e) CO
2
(f)
HCl (g) Na
2
CO
3
(h) Ca(NO
3
)
2
(i) (NH
4
)
3
(PO4) (j) H2O (k) Epsom salts - Mg(SO
4
)·7H
2
O (m) blue vitriol -
Cu(SO
4
)·5H
2
O ?
3. Calculate the number of moles in: (a) 2.3 # of carbon (b) 0.014 g of Tin (c) a 5 Oz silver bracelet (d) a
pound of table salt (e) a 350 kg cast iron engine block (f) a gal. of water (8.3 #) (g) a ton of sand (SiO2)
(h) 6.2 grams of blue vitriol (i) a pound of Epsom salts ?
4. Calculate the number of atoms in: (a) 100 g of Argon (b) 1.21 kg aluminum foil (c) a 28 # lead brick (d)
the E7 kg of water in an olympic swimming pool (e) 7 kg of hydrogen gas (f) a tonne of calcium nitrate ?
5. What is the percentage composition of oxygen in each of the following materials: (a) CO (b) CO
2
(c)
(NO
3
)
-
(d) isopropyl alcohol C
3
H
8
O (e) calcium nitrate (f) blue vitriol - Cu(SO
4
)·5H
2
O ?
6. What is the percentage composition of phosphate in each of the following materials: (a) phosphoric
acid
7. What is the percentage composition of sulfate in each of the following materials: (a) sulfuric acid (b)
sodium sulfate (c) Epsom salts ( d) aluminum sulfate ?

ANSWERS
1a. 4 b. C & H c. 6.64 E-24 d. 3.1922 E24 e. 2.4092 E24

2a. 27.0 b. 226.0 c. 58.9 d. 28.0 e. 44.0

f. 36.5 g. 106.0 h. 164.1 i. 149.0 j. 18.0

k. 246.4 m. 249.6 3a. 86.9 b. 1.18 E-4 c. 1.31

d. 7.75 e. 6.27 E3 f. 210 g. 1.51 E4 h. 0.0248

i. 1.84 4a. 1.51 E24 b. 2.69 E25 c. 3.69 E25 d. 1.00 E33

e. 4.22E27 f. 3.30 E28 5a. 57.1% b. 72.7% c. 77.4%

d. 26.7% e. 58.5% f. 57.7% 6a. 96.9% b. 0%

c. 63.8% d. 61.2% 7a. 98.0% b. 67.6% c. 39.0%

d. 84.2%














MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
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10
Multiple Choice Question Set 1
1. The density of chlorine relative to air is
(a) 2.44 (b) 3 (c) found experimentally (d) 4
2. A gaseous oxide contains 30.4% of nitrogen, one molecule of which contains one nitrogen atom.
The density of the oxide relative to oxygen is
(a) 0.94 (b) 1.44 (c) 1.50 (d) 3.0
3. The mass of an oxygen atom is half that of a sulphur atom. Can we decide on this basis that the
density of sulphur vapour relative to oxygen is 2?
(a) Yes (b) No
4. Density of air is 0.001293 g/cc. Its vapour density is
(a) 0.001293 (b) 1.293 (c) 14.48 (d) cannot be calculated
5. 5.6 litres of oxygen at NTP is equivalent to
(a) 1 mole (b) ½ mole (c) 1/4 mole (d) 1/8 mole
6. 22.4 litres of water vapour at NTP, when condensed to water, occupies an approximate volume of
(a) 18 litres (b) 1 litre (c) 1 mL (d) 18 mL
7. Which of the following has the highest mass ?
(a) 1g-atom of C (b) 1/2 mole of CH
4
(c) 10 mL of water (d) 3.011 × 10
23
atoms of O
8. 6.022 × 10
22
molecules of N
2
at NTP will occupy a volume of
(a) 22.4 litres (b) 2.24 litres (c) 6.02 litres (d) 6.02 mL
9. How many grams are contained in 1 gram-atom of Na ?
(a) 13 g (b) 23 g (c) 1g (d) 1/23 g
10. The weight of 350 mL of a diatomic gas at 0°C and 2 atm pressure 1 g. The wt. of one atom is
(a)
1
9108 6 022
10
8
. . ×
×
16
N
(b)
32
N
(c) 16N (d) 32N
11. The number of atoms present in 16 g of oxygen is
(a) 6.02 × 10
11.5
(b) 3.01 × 10
23
(c) 3.01 × 10
11.5
(d) 6.02 × 10
23

12. 1 mole of a compound contains 1 mole of C and 2 moles of O. The moleculr wt of the compound is
(a) 3 (b) 12 (c) 32 (d) 44
13. The volume of a gas at 0°C and 700 mm pressure is 760 cc. The number of molecules present in
this volume is
(a) 1.88 × 10
22
(b) 6.022 × 10
23
(c) 18.8 × 10
23
(d) 18.8 × 10
22

14. 1 mole of a diatomic element X
2
contains 34 and 40 moles of electrons and neutrons respectively.
The isotopic formula of the element is
(a)
34
74
X
(b)
17
37
X
(c)
34
40
X
(d)
20
40
X

15. 2 moles of H atoms at NTP occupy a volume of
(a) 11.2 litres (b) 44.8 litres (c) 2 litres (d) 22.4 litres
16. No. of electrons in 1.8 mL of H
2
O(l) is
(a) 6.02 × 10
23
(b) 3.011 × 10
23
(c) 0.6022 × 10
23
(d) 60.22 × 10
23

17. Moleculear weight of a gas, 11.2 litres of which at NTP weighs 14 g. is
(a) 14 (b) 28 (c)
14
112 .
(d) 14 × 11.2
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18. The weight of 1 mole of a gas of density 0.1784 g/L at NTP is
(a) 0.1784g (b) 1 g (c) 4 g (d) cannot be calculated
19. Number of HCl molecules preent in 10 mL of 0.1 N HCl solution is
(a) 6.022 × 10
23
(b) 6.022 × 10
22
(c) 6.022 × 10
21
(d) 6.022 × 10
20

20. Number of atoms in 12 gm of
6
12
C
is
(a) 6 (b) 12 (c) 6.022 × 10
23
(d) 12 × 6.022 × 10
23

21. 5 moles of a gas in a closed vessel was heated from 300 K to 600 K. The pressure of the gas
doubled. The numbe of moles of the gas will be
(a) 5 (b) 2.5 (c) 10 (d) 20
22. Which of the following contains the greatest number of oxygen atoms ?
(a) 1g of O (b) 1g of O
2
(c) 1g of O
3
(d) All have the same no of atoms
23. If the atomic weight of carbon were set at 24 amu, the value of the Avogadro constant would be
(a) 6.022 × 10
23
(b) 12.044 × 10
23
S (c) 1 × 10
23
s (d) none of these
24. 24If 32 g of O
2
contains 6.022 × 10
23
molecules at NTP then 32 g of S, under the same conditions,
will contain,
(a) 6.022 × 10
23
S (b) 3.011 × 10
23
S (c) 12.044 × 10
23
S (d) 1 × 10
23
S
25. How many moles of electrons weigh one kilogram ?
(a) 6.022 × 10
23
(b)
1
9108
10
31
.
×
(c)
6 022
9108
10
54
.
.
×
(d)
1
9108 6 022
10
8
. . ×
×

Answer To Multiple Choice Question Set 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
a b b C c d a b b a
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
d d a B d a b c d c
21 22 23 24 25
a d b A d








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12
Multiple Choice Question Set 2
1. If 16 grams of O
2
react with excess C
2
H
6
, how many grams of CO
2
will be formed? The formula mass
of O
2
= 32 amu and the formula mass of CO
2
= 44 amu. The balanced chemical equation is...

(a) 22 grams (b)13 grams (c)9 grams (d)7 grams

2. If 64 grams of O
2
react with 45 grams of C
2
H
6
, how many grams of CO
2
will be formed? The formula
mass of O
2
= 32 amu, C
2
H
6
= 30 and the formula mass of CO
2
= 44 amu. The balanced chemical equation
is given in the previous problem.
(a) 132 grams (b)66 grams (c)50 grams (d)44 grams

3. How many milliliters of 2 M NaCl solution are required to make 1 liter of 0.4 M NaCl solution?
(a) 5,000 mL (b)800 mL (c)200 mL (d)0.2 mL

4. If an air bag in a car needs 44.8 L of gas when filled, how many grams of NaN
3
are needed to fill the
bag with nitrogen gas at standard temperature and pressure? Remember that one mole of any gas will
occupy 22.4 L at STP. The balanced chemical reaction is...

(a) 56 grams (b)87 grams (c)130 grams (d)1.3 grams

5. How many grams of NaOH are needed to make 100 milliliters of a 0.2 molar solution of NaOH?
(a) 0.02 grams (b)0.8 grams (c)20 grams (d)800 grams

6. How many grams of NaHCO
3
(baking soda) would you need to neutralize 500 mL of battery acid
(H
2
SO
4
) that has been spilled on your garage floor? Assume that the concentration of the battery acid is
12 molar. The balanced chemical equation is...

(a) 1,008,000 grams (b)1,008 grams (c)504 grams (d)252 grams

7. When 157.0 grams of CaSO
4
are dissolved in enough water to yield a volume of 7.25x10
2
milliliters
of solution. The molarity of this solution will be...
(a) 0.0016 M (b)0.837 M (c)1.15 M (d)1.59 M

8. How many grams of carbon are needed to completely react with 75.2 g of SiO
2
? The balanced
chemical equation is...
(a) 3.76 g (b)15.1 g (c)36.0 g (d)45.1 g

9. How many milliliters of 4.00 M NaOH must be added to 100.0 mL of 0.2000 M H
2
SO
4
solution to
completely neutralize the acid? The balanced chemical equation is...

(a) 0.04 mL (b)5.0 mL (c)10.0 mL (d)500 mL

10. In an acid-base titration, 42.90 mL of 0.825 M H
2
SO
4
was required to neutralize 75.0 mL of NaOH
solution. What is the molarity of the NaOH solution? The balanced chemical equation is given in the
previous problem.
(a) 0.0009 M (b)0.071 M (c)0.472 M (d)0.944 M

11. If you react 1.00 L of ethane at STP with 3.00 L of oxygen at STP, how many grams of carbon
dioxide will be formed? One mole of any gas occupies 22.4 L at STP. The balanced chemical equation
is...
(a) 1.96 g (b)3.37 g (c)3.93 g (d)5.89 g
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13
12. What is the percent yield of water if 0.90 g of water is obtained when 29.0 g of butane is burned in
excess oxygen? The balanced chemical equation is...

(a) 0.02% (b)2% (c)10% (d)36%

13. One of the functions of the catalytic converter in your car is to oxidize carbon monoxide to carbon
dioxide. If 15.0 g of carbon monoxide reacts with 9.0 g of oxygen, how many grams of which compound
remains unreacted? The balanced chemical equation is...

(a) 0.4 g of oxygen remains unreacted (b)0.8 g of carbon monoxide remains unreacted
(c) 7.1 g of carbon monoxide remains unreacted (d) 8.1 g of oxygen remains unreacted
Multiple Choice Question Set 3
1. Consider the unbalanced chemical equation, F
2
+ H
2
O ÷ OF
2
+ HF. When the reaction is balanced
with smallest integer coefficients, the coefficient for H
2
O is
a. 1 b.2 c.3 d.4
2. Consider the unbalanced chemical equation, Al(OH)
3
+ H
2
CO
3
÷ Al
2
(CO
3
)
3
+ H
2
O. When the
reaction is balanced with smallest integer coefficients, the coefficient for H
2
CO
3
is
a. 1 b.2 c.3 d.5
3. Consider the unbalanced chemical equation, CaCO
3
+ H
3
PO
4
÷ Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O. When the
reaction is balanced with smallest integer coefficients, the coefficient for CO
2
is
a. 1 b.3 c.5 d.7
4. Consider the unbalanced chemical equation for the complete combustion of butanoic acid (C
4
H
8
O
2
):
C
4
H
8
O
2
+ O
2
÷ CO
2
+ H
2
O. When the reaction is balanced using smallest integer coefficients, the
coefficient for O
2
is
a. 3 b.4 c.5 d.6
5. Ammonia (NH
3
) reacts with oxygen to produce nitrogen oxide (NO) and water. If this reaction is
described with a balanced chemical equation using smallest integer coefficients, the coefficient for
nitrogen oxide is
a. 1 b.2 c.3 d.4
6. Propene gas (C
3
H
6
) burns completely in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water as the only
products. If this reaction is described with a balanced chemical equation using smallest integer
coefficients, the coefficient for water is
a. 1 b.3 c.6 d.9
7. The complete combustion of liquid toluene (C
7
H
8
) in oxygen yields just carbon dioxide and water.
When this reaction is balanced using smallest integer coefficients, the coefficient for water is
a. 2 b.4 c.8 d.12
8. The complete combustion of liquid propyl alcohol (C
3
H
7
OH) in oxygen yields just carbon dioxide and
water. When this reaction is balanced using smallest integer coefficients, the coefficient for O
2
is
a. 5 b.9 c.10 d.20
9. If the reaction, K
2
O
2
(s) + H
2
O(l) ÷ KOH(aq) + O
2
(g), is balanced using smallest integer coefficients,
and these coefficients are interpreted as moles, what is the total mass of the reactants?
a. 128 g b.146 g c.238 g d.256 g
10. The complete combustion of gaseous ethane (C
2
H
6
) in oxygen yields just carbon dioxide and water.
When this reaction is balanced using smallest integer coefficients, and these coefficients are interpreted
as moles, what is the total mass of the reactants?
a. 62 g b.126 g c.142 g d.284 g
11. Consider the unbalanced reaction for the oxidation of sugar (sucrose) by potassium chlorate,
MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
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KClO
3
(s) + C
12
H
22
O
11
(s) ÷ KCl(s) + CO
2
(g) + H
2
O(g). When this reaction is balanced, the number of
moles of KClO
3
needed to react completely with one mole of C
12
H
22
O
11
is
a. 2 b.4 c.8 d.12
12. When the reaction, MnO
2
(s) + HCl(aq) ÷ MnCl
2
(aq) + Cl
2
(g) + H
2
O(l), is balanced, the number of
moles of Cl
2
produced from 1.00 mol MnO
2
and excess HCl is
a. 1 b.2 c.4 d.8
13. In the balanced chemical reaction, XeF
4
(g) + 2 H
2
O(g) ÷ Xe(g) + 4 HF(g) + O
2
(g), what mass of
water is required to react completely with 10.0 g of XeF
4
?
a. 0.87 g b.1.20 g c.1.74 g d.2.40 g
14. Zinc sulfide (ZnS) reacts with oxygen to form zinc oxide (ZnO) and gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO
2
).
What mass of SO
2
is produced by the complete conversion of 10.0 g of ZnS to ZnO?
a. 3.29 g b.5.00 g c.8.35 g d.10.0 g
15. A crystalline compound of formula Mg(NO
3
)
2
•6H
2
O loses some of its water of hydration when it is
heated, but undergoes no other chemical changes. When a 10.0 g sample is heated in this way, the
residue weighs 7.19 g. What is the formula of the residue?
a. Mg
2
(NO
3
)
2
•11H
2
O b.Mg(NO
3
)
2
•4H
2
O
c. Mg(NO
3
)
2
•3H
2
O d.Mg(NO
3
)
2
•2H
2
O e.Mg(NO
3
)
2
•H
2
O
16. Potassium chlorate (KClO
3
) is a solid that decomposes on heating above 400°C. 7.394 g of KClO
3
is
subjected to prolonged heating above 400°C, after which the residue is found to weigh 4.498 g. A
possible formula for the residue is
a. KCl b.KO c.KO
2
d.KClO e.KClO
2
17. A 3.05-g sample of an alloy of gold (Au) and copper is reacted with excess nitric acid (HNO
3
) to form
4.00 g of copper (II) nitrate (Cu(NO
3
)
2
). Thus the percentage of Au in the alloy, by mass, is
a. 11.9% b.33.6% c.44.4% d.55.6%
18. Assume that the following reaction between phosphorus and chlorine gas goes as far as possible to
give the product, gaseous phosphorus pentachloride.P
4
(s) + 10 Cl
2
(g) ÷ 4 PCl
5
(g)
If 0.231 mol of P
4
is reacted with an excess of Cl
2
, how much PCl
5
will be produced?
a. 0.231 mol b.0.462 mol c.0.693 mol d.0.924 mol
19. Assume that the following reaction between phosphorus and chlorine gas goes as far as possible to
give the product, gaseous phosphorus pentachloride.P
4
(s) + 10 Cl
2
(g) ÷ 4 PCl
5
(g). What volume of PCl
5

will be produced by the reaction of 129 L of chlorine gas with excess P
4
, if all gas volumes are measured
under the same conditions of temperature and pressure.
a. 322 L b.129 L c.51.6 L d.4.00 L
20. Assume that the following reaction between phosphorus and chlorine gas goes as far as possible to
give the product, gaseous phosphorus pentachloride.P
4
(s) + 10 Cl
2
(g) ÷ 4 PCl
5
(g)
if 1.239 g of P
4
is combined with 0.0893 mol of chlorine gas, what is the theoretical yield of PCl
5
?
a.0.0179 mol b.0.0357 mol c.0.0400 mol d.0.0893 mol
21. Consider the production of ammonia gas through the reaction of nitrogen with hydrogen as
described by the balanced equation,N
2
(g) + 3 H
2
(g) ÷ 2 NH
3
(g)
How much N
2
would be required to react completely with 1.50 mol of H
2
?
a. 14.0 g b.28.0 g c.42.0 g d.126 g
22. Consider the production of ammonia gas through the reaction of nitrogen with hydrogen as
described by the balanced equation, N
2
(g) + 3 H
2
(g) ÷ 2 NH
3
(g)
How much NH
3
would be produced by the complete reaction of 8.91 g of H
2
with excess N
2
?
a. 25.1 g b.50.2 g c.75.3 g d.100 g
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23. Consider the production of ammonia gas through the reaction of nitrogen with hydrogen as
described by the balanced equation, N
2
(g) + 3 H
2
(g) ÷ 2 NH
3
(g)
If all gas volumes are measured under the same conditions of pressure and temperature, what volume of
ammonia gas would be produced by the complete reaction of 40.0 L of nitrogen?
a. 20.0 L b.26.7 L c.40.0 L d.80.0 L
24. Consider the reaction between hydrogen sulfide gas (H
2
S) and oxygen to produce sulfur dioxide gas
(SO
2
) and water according to the balanced equation,
2 H
2
S(g) + 3 O
2
(g) ÷ 2 SO
2
(g) + 2 H
2
O(l). All gas volumes are assumed to be measured under the
same fixed conditions of temperature and pressure.
How much H
2
S will be required to react completely with 6.11 g of O
2
?
a. 2.71 g b.4.34 g c.6.51 g d.8.68 g
25. Consider the reaction between hydrogen sulfide gas (H
2
S) and oxygen to produce sulfur dioxide gas
(SO
2
) and water according to the balanced equation,
2 H
2
S(g) + 3 O
2
(g) ÷ 2 SO
2
(g) + 2 H
2
O(l).
All gas volumes are assumed to be measured under the same fixed conditions of temperature and
pressure. What volume of SO
2
can be produced from the complete reaction of 8.9 L of O
2
?
a. 2.00 L b.3.00 L c.8.9 L d.13.4 L
26. Consider the reaction between hydrogen sulfide gas (H
2
S) and oxygen to produce sulfur dioxide gas
(SO
2
) and water according to the balanced equation,
2 H
2
S(g) + 3 O
2
(g) ÷ 2 SO
2
(g) + 2 H
2
O(l). All gas volumes are assumed to be measured under the
same fixed conditions of temperature and pressure.If 2.50 L of H
2
S and 3.00 L of O
2
are allowed to react
completely, how much SO
2
will be produced?
a. 2.00 L b.2.50 L c.2.75 L d.3.00 L
27. Consider the reaction in which carbon disulfide (CS
2
) is burned in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide
and sulfur dioxide (SO
2
) according to the balanced equation,
CS
2
(l) + 3 O
2
(g) ÷ CO
2
(g) + 2 SO
2
(g)
What is the least amount of CS
2
needed to produce 10.00 g of SO
2
?
a. 2.971 g b.5.943 g c.11.89 g d.23.77 g
28. Consider the reaction in which carbon disulfide (CS
2
) is burned in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide
and sulfur dioxide (SO
2
) according to the balanced equation,
CS
2
(l) + 3 O
2
(g) ÷ CO
2
(g) + 2 SO
2
(g)
How much CO
2
will be produced along with 10.00 g of SO
2
?
a. 3.435 g b.6.870 g c.13.74 g d.27.48 g
29. Consider the reaction in which carbon disulfide (CS
2
) is burned in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide
and sulfur dioxide (SO
2
) according to the balanced equation,
CS
2
(l) + 3 O
2
(g) ÷ CO
2
(g) + 2 SO
2
(g)
If 10.00 g of CS
2
reacts as far as possible with 15.00 g of O
2
, how much SO
2
will be produced?
a. 8.414 g b.16.83 g c.20.02 g d.30.03 g
30. In the presence of gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H
2
S) and oxygen, metallic silver is converted to silver
sulfide (Ag
2
S) according to the balanced equation,
4 Ag(s) + 2 H
2
S(g) + O
2
(g) ÷ 2 Ag
2
S(s) + 2 H
2
O(l). If 38.2 g of Ag is allowed to react with 5.60 g of H
2
S
and 3.00 g of O
2
, which reactant will be the limiting reagent?
a. Ag b.H
2
S c.O
2
d.all of these
31. The gaseous elements H
2
and O
2
react explosively to form water (H
2
O). 3.00 L of H
2
is mixed with
2.00 L of O
2
and the mixture is ignited in a strong steel vessel. If the gas volumes are all measured at the
same temperature and pressure, which gas remains unreacted, and what is its volume?
a. O
2
, 0.50 L b.O
2
, 1.00 L c.H
2
, 1.00 L d.H
2
, 2.00 L
32. After a chemical reaction was completed, the product was carefully weighed and the mass recorded.
In order to calculate the percentage yield for the reaction, what additional information is required?
a. the theoretical yield of the product b.the actual yield of the product
c. the molar mass of the product d.all of these
33. A series of four sequential reactions is carried out during the synthesis of an organic compound. The
MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
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16
percentage yields for the individual reactions are listed below.
Reaction Number Percentage Yield
1 50%
2 19%
3 14%
4 16%
The overall yield for the synthesis is
a. 2.1×10
5
% b.16 % c.0.21 % d.0.0021%
34. Consider the production of acetylene gas (C
2
H
2
) by the reaction of calcium carbide (CaC
2
) with
water as described in the balanced equation,CaC
2
(s) + 2 H
2
O(l) ÷ Ca(OH)
2
(s) + C
2
H
2
(g)
This reaction can be assumed to go as far toward completion as possible. Also, all gas volumes refer to
conditions of temperature and pressure where one mole of gas occupies 22.4 L.
What volume of C
2
H
2
will be produced by the complete reaction of 4.00 mol of CaC
2
?
a. 5.60 L b.22.4 L c.44.8 L d.89.6 L
35. Consider the production of acetylene gas (C
2
H
2
) by the reaction of calcium carbide (CaC
2
) with
water as described in the balanced equation, CaC
2
(s) + 2 H
2
O(l) ÷ Ca(OH)
2
(s) + C
2
H
2
(g)
This reaction can be assumed to go as far toward completion as possible. Also, all gas volumes refer to
conditions of temperature and pressure where one mole of gas occupies 22.4 L.
What mass of C
2
H
2
will be produced by the complete reaction of 150.0 g of CaC
2
?
a. 2.34 g b.11.23 g c.30.42 g d.60.93 g
36. Consider the production of acetylene gas (C
2
H
2
) by the reaction of calcium carbide (CaC
2
) with
water as described in the balanced equation,CaC
2
(s) + 2 H
2
O(l) ÷ Ca(OH)
2
(s) + C
2
H
2
(g)
This reaction can be assumed to go as far toward completion as possible. Also, all gas volumes refer to
conditions of temperature and pressure where one mole of gas occupies 22.4 L.
What volume of C
2
H
2
will be produced by the complete reaction of 28.5 g of CaC
2
with 10.00 g of water?
a. 0.445 L b.0.555 L c.6.22 L d.9.97 L
37. Consider the production of acetylene gas (C
2
H
2
) by the reaction of calcium carbide (CaC
2
) with
water as described in the balanced equation,CaC
2
(s) + 2 H
2
O(l) ÷ Ca(OH)
2
(s) + C
2
H
2
(g)
This reaction can be assumed to go as far toward completion as possible. Also, all gas volumes refer to
conditions of temperature and pressure where one mole of gas occupies 22.4 L.
If 18.0 g of CaC
2
reacts to produce 0.200 mol of C
2
H
2
, the percentage yield of the reaction is
a. 36% b.58% c.80% d.90%
38. Consider the production of acetylene gas (C
2
H
2
) by the reaction of calcium carbide (CaC
2
) with
water as described in the balanced equation,CaC
2
(s) + 2 H
2
O(l) ÷ Ca(OH)
2
(s) + C
2
H
2
(g)
This reaction can be assumed to go as far toward completion as possible. Also, all gas volumes refer to
conditions of temperature and pressure where one mole of gas occupies 22.4 L.
If the percentage yield of C
2
H
2
is known to be 80.0%, what volume of C
2
H
2
is expected to be produced
from 64.1 g of CaC
2
?
a. 14.3 L b.17.9 L c.22.4 L d.28.0 L











MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
B-7. JAWAHAR NAGAR.Main Road ,Kota. Ph-0744-2422383 .Mo-93149-05055
17
STP GAS AND MASS STOICHIOMETRY PROBLEMS
1. How many moles of nitrogen gas is needed to react with 44.8 liters of hydrogen gas to produce
ammonia gas?
2. How many liters of ammonia are produced when 89.6 liters of hydrogen are used in the above
reaction?
3. Ten grams of calcium carbonate was produced when carbon dioxide was added to lime water (calcium
hydroxide in solution). What volume of carbon dioxide at STP was needed?
4. When 11.2 liters of hydrogen gas is made by adding zinc to sulfuric acid, what mass of zinc is needed?
5. What volume of ammonia at STP is needed to add to water to produce 11 moles of ammonia water?
6. How many grams of carbonic acid is produced when 55 liters of carbon dioxide is pressed into water?
7. magnesium hydroxide + ammonium sulfate magnesium sulfate + water + ammonia
How much (grams) magnesium hydroxide do you need to use in the above reaction to produce 500 liters
of ammonia?
8. How much strontium bromide is needed to add to chlorine gas to produce 75 liters of bromine?
9. What mass of ammonium chlorate is needed to decompose to give off 200 liters of oxygen?
10. Your car burns mostly octane, C
8
H
18
, as a fuel. How many liters of oxygen is needed to burn a
kilogram of octane?
11. copper + sulfuric acid copper II sulfate + water + sulfur dioxide
How many moles of copper are needed to produce 1000 L of SO
2
?
12. What volume of oxygen is needed to burn a pound of magnesium?
13. How many grams of sodium do you have to put into water to make 30 liters of hydrogen at STP?
14. ammonia gas and hydrogen chloride gas combine to make ammonium chloride. What volume of
ammonia at STP is needed to react with 47.7 liters of hydrogen chloride at STP?
15. How many liters of oxygen are needed to burn 10 liters of acetylene?
ANSWERS TO GAS AND MASS STOICHIOMETRY PROBLEMS
1. 0.667 mol 2. 59.7 L 3. 2.24 L 4. 32.7 g
5. 246 L 6. 152 g 7. 651 g 8. 828 g
9. 604 g 10. 2.46 kL 11. 44.6 mol 12. 210 L
13. 61.6 g 14. 47.7 L 15. 25 L
PROBLEMS ON CONCENTRATION AND DENSITY
1. The lead brick on my desk measures 3 by 5 by 11 cm. Lead has a density of 11.34 g/cc. How many
lead atoms are in that block?
2. The lab technician at the Planter's Peanut packing factory takes a bag of peanuts, puts water into it to
dissolve the salt, and dilutes the solution to one liter. She then takes ten ml of that solution and titrates it
against 0.132 M silver nitrate. One bag sample takes 31.5 ml of silver nitrate to endpoint. What mass of
salt was in the bag?
3. What is the concentration of sugar (C
12
H
22
O
11
) if twenty grams are dissolved in enough water to make
2 liters?
4. Methyl alcohol (CH
3
OH) has a density of 0.793 kg/l. What volume of it is needed to add to water to
make five liters of 0.25 M solution?
5. Magnesium has a density of 1.741 g/cc. What volume of Mg will burn in 20 liters of oxygen at 2.1 atm
and 0°C?
6. Uranium metal can be purified from uranium hexafluoride by adding calcium metal. Calcium metal has
a density of 1.54 g/cc. Uranium has a density of 18.7 g/cc. What mass of uranium do you get for a Kg of
Ca? What volume of uranium do you get for a cubic meter of calcium?
7. What volume of 0.27 M sodium hydroxide is needed to react with 29.5 ml of 0.55 M phosphoric acid?
8. What volume of carbon dioxide is produced at 1 atm and 87 °C when 1.6 liters of methyl alcohol
burns? What volume of liquid water is produced in this reaction?
9. Seven kilograms of mercury II oxide decomposes into mercury and oxygen. Mercury has a density of
13.6 g/cc/ What volume of mercury is produced?
10. Water and calcium oxide produce calcium hydroxide. How many grams of calcium hydroxide are
made if you add 275 liters of water to enough calcium oxide?
11. Gasoline (C
7
H
16
) has a density of 0.685 kg/liter. How many liters of oxygen at 37 °C and 950 mmHg
are needed to burn 15 liters of gasoline?
12. Sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid combine to make table salt and water. 14 mL of 0.1 M
sodium hydroxide is added to an excess of acid. How many moles of table salt are made? How many
grams of salt is that?
13. 50 mL of 0.25 M copper II sulfate evaporates to leave CuSO
4
·5H
2
O. (That is the pentahydrate crystal
MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
B-7. JAWAHAR NAGAR.Main Road ,Kota. Ph-0744-2422383 .Mo-93149-05055
18
of copper II sulfate.) What is the mass of this beautiful blue crystal from the solution?
14. Chlorine gas is bubbled into 100 mL of 0.25 M potassium bromide solution. This produces potassium
chloride and bromine gas. The bromine (which dissolves in water) is taken from the solution and
measured at 27 °C and 825 mmHg. What is the volume of bromine?
15. 95.0 mL of 0.55 M sulfuric acid is put on an excess of zinc. This produces zinc sulfate and hydrogen.
How many grams of zinc sulfate are made?
16. 27.6 mL of a 0.190 M solution of silver nitrate and 15.4 mL of an unknown (but excess) amount of
sodium chloride combine to make a white precipitate silver chloride and some dissolved sodium nitrate.
(a) How many moles of silver chloride are made? (b) How many grams of silver chloride is that? (c) How
many moles of sodium nitrate are made? (d) What is the concentration of sodium nitrate in the final
solution?
17. How many grams of potassium permanganate, KMnO
4
, is needed to make 1.72 liters of 0.29 M
solution?
18. By my calculations, a drop of ethyl alcohol, C
2
H
5
OH , in an olympic-sized swimming pool produces a
1.20 E-10 M solution of alcohol in water. A drop is a twentieth of a mL. How many molecules of ethyl
alcohol are in a drop of the water in the pool?
19. 93.0 mL of 0.150 M magnesium hydroxide is added to 57.0 mL of 0.4 M nitric acid. (Magnesium
nitrate and water are formed. What is the concentration of the magnesium nitrate after the reaction?

ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS ON CONCENTRATION AND DENSITY
1. 5.44 E24 atoms 2. 24.3 g 3. 0.0292 M 4. 0.0504 L
5. 52.3 ml(cc) Mg 6a. 1.98 kg of U 6b. 1.63 E6 mL 7. 180 mL
8a. 1.17 kL CO2 8b. 1.43 L 9. 0.477 L 10. 1.13 E 6 g
11. 23.0 kL 12a. 1.4 E-3 mols 12b. 0.0819 g 13. 3.12 g
14. 284 mL 15. 8.44 g 16a. 5.24E-3 mol 16b. 0.752 g
16c. 5.24E-3 mols 16d. 122 mmolar 17. 78.8 mg 18. 3.61E9 molecules
19. 0.152 M
PROBLEMS USING COMPLETE ROADMAP
1. How many liters of ammonia at 0 °C and 25 atm. are produced when 10 g of hydrogen is combined
with nitrogen?
2. How many milliliters of hydrogen at 0 deg C and 1400 mmHg are made if magnesium reacts with 15
mL of 6 M sulfuric acid?
3. How many atoms are in 25 liters of fluorine gas at 2.85 atm and 450 °C?
4. Liquid butane (C
4
H
10
has a density of 0.60 g/cc. It burns to make carbon dioxide at 120 °C. What
volume of carbon dioxide is produced at one atm when 350 liters of liquid butane burns?
5. Isopropyl alcohol, C
3
H
7
OH , makes a good fuel for cars. What volume of oxygen at 785 mmHg and 23
°C is needed to burn 8.54 E25 molecules of isopropyl alcohol?
6. How many moles of NaCl are in a liter of a 0.15 M NaCl solution? (0.15 M NaCl is physiological saline
when sterilized.)
7. How many grams of NaCl must you put into a 50 liter container to make a physiological saline
solution?
8. Chlorine gas is bubbled into 100 mL of 0.25 M potassium bromide solution. This produces potassium
chloride and bromine gas. The bromine dissolves completely in the water. What is the concentration of
bromine?
9. 95 mL of 0.55 M sulfuric acid is put on an excess of zinc. This produces zinc sulfate and hydrogen.
How many grams of zinc sulfate are made?
10. Methyl alcohol (CH
3
OH) has a density of 0.793 Kg/L. What volume of it is needed to add to water to
make twenty-five liters of 0.15 M solution?
11. Magnesium has a density of 1.741 g/cc. What volume of Mg will burn to produce a kilogram of
magnesium oxide?
12. What volume of water vapor is produced at 716 mmHg and 87°C when 2.6 liters of methyl alcohol
burns?
ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS USING COMPLETE ROADMAP
1. 2.99 L 2. 1.10 E3 mL 3. 1.45 E24 atoms 4. 4.67 E5 L
5. 1.50 E4 L 6. 0.15 moles 7. 439 g 8. 0.125 M
9. 8.44 g 10. 151 mL 11. 0.346 L 12. 1.29 E5 L
MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
B-7. JAWAHAR NAGAR.Main Road ,Kota. Ph-0744-2422383 .Mo-93149-05055
19
Subjective Question Set 1.
1. Calculate the weight of 6.022 × 10
23
molecules of CaCO
3
.
2. Calculate the weight of 12.044 × 10
23
atoms of carbon.
3. What will be the number of oxygen atoms in 1 mole of O
2

4. A piece of Cu weighs 0.635 g. How many atoms of Cu does it contain ?
5. Calculate the number of molecules in 11.2 litres of SO
2
gas at NTP
6. One atom of an element × weighs 6.644 × 10
–23
g.Calculate the number of gram-toms in 40 kg of
it.
7. From 200 mg of CO
2
, 10
21
molecules are removed. How many moles of CO
2
are left?
8. Calculate the volume of 20 g of hydrogen gas at NTP.
9. What volume shall be occupied by 6.022 × 10
23
molecules of any gas at NTP ?
10. Calculate the number of atoms present in 5.6 litres of a (i) monoatomic, and (ii) diatomic gas at
NTP.
11. Calculate the number of sulphate ions in 100 mL of 0.001 M H
2
SO
4
solution
12. How many atoms are there in 100 amu of He ?
13. If a mole were to contain 1 × 10
24
particles, what would be the mass of (i) one mole of oxygen,
and (ii) a single oxygen molecule ?
14. The density of O
2
at NTP is 1.429 g/L. Calculate standard molar volume of the gas.
15. The measured density of He at NTP is 0.1784 g/L. What is the weight of 1 mole of it?
16. A metal M of atomic weight 54.94 has a density of 7.42 g/cc. Calculate the apparent volume
occupied by one atom of the metal.
17. Calculate the number of moles, and the number of atoms of H, S and O in 5 moles of H
2
SO
4

18. Calculate the number of oxygen atoms and its weight in 50 g of CaCO
3
.
19. Calculate the number of atoms of each element present in 122.5 g of KClO
3
.
20. Calculate the total number of electrons present in 1.6 g of CH
4




Ans Subjective Question Set 1.
1 2 3 4 5
100
grams
24 grams 2 ×
6.022 ×
10
23

6.022 × 10
21
3.011 × 10
23

6 7 8 9 10
1000 1000 224
litres

6.022 × 10
23
molecules are contained
in 1 mole, and 1 mole, of any gas at
NTP occupies a volume of 22.4 litres.
3.0 × 10
23

11 12 13 14 15
6.022 ×
10
19

25 atoms 22.39 litres 4g
16 17 18 19 20
1.23 ×
10
–23
cc
H= 10 × 6.022 × 10
23
,
S = 5 × 6.022 × 10
23
,
O = 20 × 6.022 × 10
23

24 g No. of atoms of K = 1 × 6.022 × 10
23
,
Cl = 1 × 6.022 × 10
23
, O = 3 × 6.022 ×
10
23

6.022 × 10
23

molecules.

MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
B-7. JAWAHAR NAGAR.Main Road ,Kota. Ph-0744-2422383 .Mo-93149-05055
20
Subjective Question Set 2.
1 Find the charge of 1 g-ion of N
3–

2 Find the charge of 27 g of Al
3+
ions in coulombs.
3 Equal masses of oxygen , hydrogen and methane are taken in a container in identical conditions.
Find the ratio of the volumes of the gases
4 If the component of air are N
2
, 78%; O
2
, 21%; Ar, 0.9% and CO
2
, 0.1% by volume, what would be
the moleculr weight of air ?
5 The atomic weights of two elements (A and B) are 20 and 40 respectively. If x g of A contains y
atoms, how many atoms are present

6 Oxygen is present in a 1-litre flask at a pressure of 7.6 × 10
–10
mm of Hg at 0°C. Calculate the
number of oxygen molecules ink the flask?

7 The density of mercury is 13.6 g/cc. Calculate approximately the diameter of an atom of mercury,
assuming that each atom is occupying a cube of edge length equal to the diameter of the mercury atom.

8 The density of a particular crystal of LiF is 2.65 g/cc. X-ray analysis shows that Li
+
and F

ions
are arranged in a cubic array at a spacing of 2.01 Å. From these data calculate the apparent Avogadro
constant. [Li = 6.939, F = 18.998] (1Å = 10
–8
cm)

9 To 50 mL of 0.5 M H
2
SO
4
, 75 mL of 0.25 M H
2
SO
4
is added. What is the concentration of the
final solution if its volume is 125 mL?
10 It is found that in 11.2 litres of any gaseous compound of phosphorus at NTP, there is never less
than 15.5 g of P. Also, this volume of the vapour of phosphorus itself at NTP weighs 62 g. What should
be the atomic weight and molecular weight of phosphorus ?
11 A polystyrene, having the formular Br
3
C
6
H
3
(C
3
H
8
)
n
, was prepared by heating styrene with
tribromobenjoyl peroxide in the absence of air. If it was found to contain 10.46% bromide by weight, find
the value of n.
12 It has been estimated that 93% of all atoms in the entire universe are hydrogen and that of the
vast majority of those remaining are helium. Based on only these two elements, estimate the mass
percentage composition of the universe.
13 The molecular weight of haemoglobin is about 65,000 g/mol. Haemoglobin contains 0.35% Fe by
mass. How many iron atoms are there in a haemoglobin molecule? .
14 At room temperature the density of wter is 1.0 g/mL and the density of ethanol is 0.789 g/mL.
What volume of ethanol contains the same number of molecules as are present in 175 mL of water ?

15 A sample of ethane has the same mass as 10.0 million molecules of methane. How many C
2
H
6

molecules does the sample contain ?
16 How many grams of CaWO
4
would contain the same mass of tungsten that is present in 569 g of
FeWO
4
? (W = 184)
17 0.75 mole of solid 'A
4
' and 2 moles of gaseous O
2
are heated in a sealed vessel, completely
using up the reactants and producing only one compound. It is found that when the temperature is
reduced to the initial temperature, the contents of the vessel exhibit a pressure equal to half the original
pressure, What conclusions can be drawn from these data about the product of the reaction ?
Answer Subjective Question Set 2.

1 2 3 4 5
2.894 × 10
5


2.894 × 10
5
coulombs

O
2
: H
2
: CH
4
= 1 : 16 : 2 1 Y

6 7 8 9 10
2.65 × 10
10
2.9 × 10
–8
cm 6.01 × 10
23
0.35 M 0.35 M
11 12 13 14 15
n = 44.9 = 45 23.14% 4.06 moles of Fe V = 566.82 mL 2 n = 5.34

16 17 18 19 20
w = 539.05 g y = 4



MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
B-7. JAWAHAR NAGAR.Main Road ,Kota. Ph-0744-2422383 .Mo-93149-05055
21
Subjective Question Set 3.
1. Find the number of atoms in 48 g of ozone at NTP. Ans. 1.8066 × 10
24

2. What is the ratio of the volumes occupied by 1 mole of O
2
and 1 mole of O
3
in identical
conditions? Ans. 1 : 1
3. Calculate the mass of 5 moles of CaCO
3
in grams ? Ans. 500 (g)
4. The vapour density of a gas is 11.2.Calculate the volume occupied by 11.2 g of the gas at
NTP. Ans. 11.2 litres
5. Calculate the number of oxygen atoms in 0.2 mole of Na
2
CO
3
.10H
2
O. Ans. (1.56 × 10
24
)
6. Calculate the number of moles of CuSO
4
contained in 100 mL of 1 M CuSO
4
solution. Also find the
number of
÷ 2
4
SO ions in it Ans. 0.1 mole, 0.6022 × 10
23

7. Find the total number of nucleous present in 12 g of
12
C atoms. Ans. (12 × 6.022 × 10
23
)
8. Find (i) the total number of neutrons, and (ii) the total mass of neutrons in 7 mg of
14
C. (Assume that
the mass of a neutron = mass of a hydrogen atom) ANS. 24.088 × 10
20
, 0.004 g
9. How many moles are there in 1 metre
3
of any gas at NTP ? (1m
3
= 10
3
litres)Ans. 44.6 moles
10. 3g of a salt of molecular weight 30 is dissolved in 250 g of water. Calculate the molality of the
solution. Ans. (0.4 m)
11. Calculate the volume occupied by 5.25 g of nitrogen at 26°C and 74.2 cm of pressure
Ans. 4.71 litre
12. Find the ratio of the number of molecules contained in 1g of NH
3
and 1 g of N
2
.Ans. 28 : 17
13. How many molecules in 1 kg of H
2
and 1 kg of O
2
the same ? What is the ratio of weights of H
2

and O
2
, the mixture of which contains equal number of molecules of each gas?Ans. (8.06 × 10
18
)
14. Is the number of molecules in 1 kg of H
2
and 1 kg of O
2
the same ? What is the ratio of weights of
H
2
and O
2
, the mixture of which contains equal number of molecules of each gas ? Ans.No, (1 : 16)
15. The measured density at NTP of a gaseous sample of a compound was found to be 1.78g/L.
What is the weight of 1 mole of the gaseous sample ? ANS. 39.9g
16. If the concentration of a solution is 2M calculate the number of millimoles present in 2 litres of the
solution. Ans. 4000
17. How many moles of oxygen are contained in one litre of air if its volume content is 21% at NTP
Ans. 0.0093
18. How many atoms do mercury vapour molecules consist of it the density of mercury vapour
relative to air is 6.92 ? (Hg=200). The average mass of air is 29 g/mole Ans. One
19. Calculate the total number of atoms in 0.5 mole of K
2
Cr
2
O
7
. Ans. 3.31 × 10
24

20. What is the volume of 6g of hydrogen at 1 atm and 0°C ? Ans. 67.2 litres
21. What is the density of oxygen gas at NTP ? Ans. 1.429 g/L
22. Calculate the total number of electrons present in 18 mL of water.Ans. (10 × 6.022 × 10
23
)
23. Calculate the number of electrons, protons and neutrons in 1 mole of
16
O
–2
ions .
Ans. 10 × 6.022 × 10
23
,, 8 × 6.022 × 10
23

24. Find the mass of nitrogen contained in 1 kg of (i) KNO
3
, (ii) NH
4
NO
3
, and (iii) (NH
4
)
2
HPO
4
.
Ans. (i) 138.5g (ii) 350 g and (iii) 212 g
25. Find the mass of each element in 7.84g of FeSO
4
.(NH
4
)
2
SO
4
. 6H
2
O. What will be the volume of
O
2
at NTP in this sample ? Ans. (3.136 litre)
26. The density of solid AgCl is 5.56 g/cc. The solid is made up of cubic array of alternate Ag
+
and
Cl

ions at a spacing of 2.773 Å between centres. From these data calculate the Avogadro constant.
Ans. 6.04 × 10
23

27. Three atoms of magnesium combine with 2 toms of nitrogen. What will be the weight of
magnesium which combines with 1.86 g of nitrogen ? Ans4.86 (g)
28. 600 mL of a mixture of O
3
and O
2
weighs 1 g of NTP. Calculate the volume of ozone in the
mixture. Ans. 200 mL
29. The vapour desnity (hydrogen = 1) of a mixture consisting of NO
2
and N
2
O
4
is 38.3 at 26.3 C.
Calculate the number of moles of NO
2
in 100 g of the mixture. Ans. 0.437 mole
30. A nugget of gold and quartz weighs 100g. Sp.gr. of gold, quartz and the nugget are 19.3, 2.6 and
6.4 respectively. Calculate the weight of gold in the nugget. Ans. 68.6 g
31. The neucleus of an atom of x is supposed to be a sphere with a radius of 5 × 10
–13
cm. Find the
density of the matter in the atomic nucleus if tha tomic weight of x is 19. Ans. 6.02 × 10
13
g/mL
MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
B-7. JAWAHAR NAGAR.Main Road ,Kota. Ph-0744-2422383 .Mo-93149-05055
22
32. Copper forms two oxides. For the same amount of copper, twice as much oxygen was usedj to
form the first oxide than to form the second one. What is the ratio of the valencies of copper in the first
and second oxides ? Ans. 2 : 1
33. 105 mL of pure water (4°C) is saturated with NH
3
gas, producing a solution of density 0.9 g/mL. If
this solution contains 30% of NH
3
by weight, calculate its volume. Ans. 166.67 mL
34. How many iron atoms re present in a stainles steel ball bearing a radius of 0.1 inch (1 inch = 2.54
cm) ? The stainless steel contains 85.6% Fe by weight and has a density of 7.75 g/cc.
Ans. 4.91 × 10
21

35. How many litres of liquid CCl
4
(d = 1.5 g/cc.) msut be measured out to contain 1 × 10
25
CCl
4

molecules Ans. 1.61 L.
36. A sample of potato starch was ground in a ball mill to give a strchlike molecule of lower
molecular weight. The product analysed 0.086% phosphorus. If each molecule is assumed to contain
one atom of phosphorus, what is the molecular weight of the material ? Ans. 3.6 × 10
4
amu
37. The dot at the end of this sentence has a mass of about one microgram. Asuming that the black
stuff iscarbon, calculate the approximate number of atoms of carbon needed to make such a dot. (1
microgram = 1 × 10
–6
g) Ans. 5 × 10
16
atmos
38. To what volume must 50 mL of 3.50 M H
2
SO
4
be diluted in order to make 2M H
2
SO
4
?
Ans. 87.5 mL
39. Sulphur molecules exist under varous conditions as S
8
, S
6
, S
4
, S
2
and S.
(a) Is the mass of one mole of each of these molecules the same
(b) Is the number of molecules in one mole of each of these molecules the same ?
(c) Is the mass of sulphur in one mole of each of these molecules the same.
(d) Is the number of atoms of sulphur in one mole of each of these molecules the same?
Ans. (NO, Yes, NO, NO)
40. Two minerals that contain Cu are CuFeS
2
and Cu
2
S. What mass of Cu
2
S would contain the
same mass of Cu as is contained in 125 lb of CuFeS
2
? Ans. 54.2 lb
41. What is the maximum number of moles of CO
2
that couldbe obtained from the carbon in 4 moles
of Ru
2
(CO
3
)
3
? Ans. 12 mol
42. What mass of NaCl would contain the same total number of ions as 245 g of MgCl
2
?
Ans. 225 g
43. An unknown sample weighing 1.5 g was found to contain only Mn and S. The sample was
completelyreacted with oxygen and it produced 1.22 g of Mn(II) oxide and 1.38 g of SO
3
What is the
simplest formula for this compound ?. Ans. MnS
44. The two sources of Zn, that is, ZnSO
4
and Zn(CH
3
COO)
2
. 2H
2
O, can be purchased at the same
price per kilogram of compound. Which is the most economical source of kZn and by how much?
Ans. (ZnSO
4
), 35.9%
45. How many moles of H
2
O form when 25.0 mL of 0.10 M HNO
3
solution is completely neutralised
by NaOH? Ans. 2.5 × 10
–3

46. Which would be larger: an atomic mass unit based on the current standrard or one based on the
mass of a Be-9 atom set at exactly 9 amu ? Ans. latter
47. The enzyme caronic hydraze catalyses the hydration of CO
2
. This reaction : CO
2
+ H
2
O ÷
H
2
CO
y
is involved in transfer of CO
2
from tissues to the lungs via the bloodstram. KOne enzyme
molecule hydrates 10
6
molecules of CO2 per second. How many kg of CO2 are hydrated in one hour
in one litre by 1 × 10
–6
M enzyme ? Ans. 0.1584 kg
48. An oxybromo compound, KBr
x
O
3
, where x is unknown, is analysed and found to contain 52.92%
Br. What is the value of x ? Ans. 2
49. Radius disintegrates at an average rate of 2.24 × 10
13
o-particles per minute. Each o-particle
takes up two electrons from the air nd becomes a neutral helium atom. After 420 days, helium gas
collected was 0.5 mL, measured at 27°C and 750 mmHg. Calculate the Avogadro constant.
Ans. 6.7 × 10
2










MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
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23
Subjective Question Set 4.

1 What amount of CaO will be produced by 1 g of calcium ? Ans. 1.4 g
2 What weight of oxygen willr eact with 1 g of calcium ? (Ca = 40) Ans. 0.4 g
3 (a) Calculate the volume occpuied by 1 mole of He, H and O atoms at N
(b) What volume of oxygen (NTP) will be required to react with 1 g of Ca?
ans.(a) 11.2 litre (b) 0.28 litre
4 A sample of KClO
3
an decomposition yielded 448 m of oxygen gas at NTP. Calculate
(i) weight of oxygen produced, (ii) weight of KClO
3
originally taken, and (iii) weight of KCl
produced. (K = 39, , Cl = 35.5 and O = 16) ans(i) 0.02 × 32 = 0.64, (ii) 1.634 , (iii) 0.9937 g.
5 27.6 g of K
2
CO
3
was treated by aseries of reagents so as to convert all of its carbon to K
2

Zn
3
[Fe(CN)
6
]
2
. Calculate the weight of the product. Ans. 11.6 g
6 In a gravimetric determination of P, an aqueous solution of dihydrogen phsosphate ion H
2
PO
4

is
treated with a mixture of ammonium and magnesium ions to precipitte magnesium ammonium
phosphate, Mg(NH
4
)PO
4
.6H
2
O. This is heated and decomposed to magnesium pyrophosphate,
Mg
2
P
2
O
7
, which is weighed. A solution of H
2
PO
4

yielded 1.054 g of Mg
2
P
2
O
7
. What weight of
NaH
2
PO
4
was present originally ? (Na = 23, H = 1, P = 31, O = 16, Mg = 24) Ans. 1.14 g.
7 What weight of AgCl will be precipitated when a solution containing 4.77 g of NaCl is added to a
solution of 5.77 g of AgNO
3
? (Na = 23, Cl = 35.5, Ag = 108, N = 14 and O = 16) Ans. 4.87 g
8 What is the number of moles of Fe(OH)
3
(s) that can be produced by allowing 1 mole of Fe
2
S
3
, 2
moles of H
2
O and 3 moles of O
2
to react ? Ans. 1.34
9 Equal weights of phosphorus and oxygen are heated in a closed vessel producing P
2
O
3
and
P
2
O
5
in a 1 : 1 mole ratio. If the limiting component is exhausted , find which component and
also what fraction of it is left over. ans.3.125%
10 In a process for producing acetic acid, oxygen gas is bubbled into acetaldehyde containing
managanese (II) acetate (catalyst) under pressure at 60°C. 2CH
3
CHO + O
2
÷ 2CH
3
COOH
In a laboratory test of this reaction, 20 g of CH
3
CHO and 10 g of O
2
were put into a reaction
vessel.
(a) How many grams of CH
3
COOH can be produced ?
(b) How many grams of the excess reactant remain after the reaction is complete ?
Ans. (a) 27.27 g (b) 2.73 g
11 0.75 mole of solid 'A
4
' and 2 moles of gaseous O
2
are heated in a sealed vessel, completely
using up the reactants and producing onlyj one compound. It is found that when the temperature
is reduced to the initial temperature, the contents of the vessel exhibit a pressure equal to half
the original pressure. What conclusions can be drawn from these data about the product of the
reaction ? Ans. 3A
4
+ 8O
2
÷ 4A
3
O
4

12 Calculate the weight of time (CaO) that can be prepared by heating 200 kg of limestone (CaCO
3
)
which is 95% pure. Ans. 106.4 kg.
13 g-atom of Ca was burnt in excess of oxygen and the oxide was dissolved in water to make up a
one litre solution. Calculate the normality of the alkaline solution. Ans. 2N.
14 10 cc of H
2
O
2
solution when reacted with Ki solution produced 0.5 g of iodine. Calculate the
percentage purity of H
2
O
2
. (I = 127) Ans. 0.669%
15 0.32 mole of LiAlH
4
in ether solution was placed in a flask and 74 g (1mole) of t-butyl alcohol was
added. The product LiAlHC
12
H
27
O
3
weighed 81.28 g. Is the claim that the yield is 'quantitative' a
valid one if Li atoms are conserved ? (Li = 7m, Al = 27, H = 1, C = 12, O = 16) Ans. yield is
100%
16 52.5 millimoles of LiAlH
4
was treated with 15.6 g (210 millimiles) of t-butyl alcohol. A total of
157.5 millimoles of hydrogen was evolved for the reaction.
LiAlH
4
+ 3(CH
3
)
3
COH ÷ H
2
+ Li(CH
3
)
3
O]
3
[CH
3
O]Al
The addition of an excess of another alcohol, methanol, to the above reaction mixture caused
the fourth H atom of the LiAlH
4
to be replaced according to the equation.
Li(CH
3
)
3
O]
3
AlH + CH
3
OH ÷ H
2
+ Li[(CH
3
)
3
O]
3
[CH
3
O] Al
How much H
2
was evolved due to the addition of CH
3
OH ? Ans. 52.5 millimoles of H
2
.
17 Equal weights of Zn metal and iodine are mixed together and the iodine is completely converted
to ZnI
2
. What fraction by weight of the original zinc remains unreacted? (Zn = 65, I = 127)
Ans. 0.74.
18 1.0 g of an alloy of Al and Mg when treated with excess of dil. HCl forms MgCl
2
, AlCl
3
and
hydrogen. Collected over Hg at 0°C, has a volume of 1.20 litres at 0.92 atm pressure. Calculate
the composition of the alloy. (al = 27 and Mg = 24). Ans. 45%
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24
19 A 1g mixture of cuprous oxide and cupric oxide was quantitavely reduced to 0.839 g of metallic
copper. What was the weight of cupric oxide in the original sample ? (Cu = 63.5, O = 16)
Ans. 0.55g
20 A mixture of FeO and Fe
3
O
4
when heated in air to a constant weight, gains 5% jin weight. Find
the composition of the initial mixture. Ans. % of FeO = 20.02% and % of Fe
3
O
4
= 79.88%
21 What weight of CO is required to form Re
2
(CO)
10
from 2.50 g of Re
2
O
7
according to the
unbalanced reaction :
Re
2
O
7
+ CO ÷ Re
2
(CO)
10
+ CO
2
(Re = 186.2, C = 12 and O = 16 Ans. 2.46 g
22 1-g sample of KClO
3
was heated under such conditions that a part of it decomposed according to
the eqaution :
(i) 2KClO
3
= 2KCl + 3O
2
and the remaining underwent change according to the equation
(ii) 4KClO
3
= 3KClO
4
+ KCl If the amount of O
2
evolved was 146.8 mL at NTP, calculate the
percentage by weight of KClO
4
in the residue. Ans. 49.85%
23 A mixture of KBr and NaBr weighing 0.560 g was treated with aqueous Ag
+
and all the bromide
ion was recovered as 0.97g of pure AgBr. What was the fraction by weight of KBr in the sample ?
(K = 39, Br = 80, Ag = 108, Na = 23) Ans. 0.2378 g
24 Igniting MnO
2
in air converts it dquantitatively to Mn
3
O
4
. a sample of pyrolusite is of the following
composition : MnO
2
– 80%, SiO
2
and other consituents –15%, rest being water. Thesample
isignited in air to constant (Mn = 55, O = 16) Ans. 59.37%
25 1.84 g of a mixture of CaCO
3
and MgCO
3
was heated to a constant weight. The constant weight
of the residue was found to be 0.96 g. Calculate the percentage composition of the mixture.
(Ca = 40, Mg =24, C = 12, O =16) Ans. 45.66%
26 A sample of mixture of CaCl
2
and NaCl weighing 4.22 g was treated to precipitate all the Ca as
CaCO
3
, which was then heated and quantitatively converted to 0.959 g of CaO. Calculate the
percentage of CaCl
2
in the mixture. (Ca = 40, O = 16, C = 12 and Cl = 35.5)Ans. 45.04%
27 A 2-g sample containing Na
2
CO
3
and NaHCO
3
loses 0.248 g when heated to 300°C, the
temperature at which NaHCO
3
decomposes to Na
2
CO
3
, CO
2
and H
2
O. What is the percentage of
Na
2
CO
3
in the given mixture? (Na = 23, C = 12, O = 16 and H = 1) Ans.66.4%
28 A solution of lead nitrate prepared by dissolving 2.07 g of pure lead in nitric acid was treated with
HCl, Cl
2
gas and NH
4
Cl. What will be the maximum weight of (NH
4
)
2
PbCl
6
so produced ?
(N = 14, H = 1, Pb = 207, Cl = 35.5) Ans. 50%
29 Three different brands of 'liquid chlorine' are available in the market for use in purifying water of
swimming pools. All are sold at the same rate of Rs. 10 per litre and all are water solutions.
Brand A contains 10% hypochlorite (ClO) (wt./vol.), brand B contains 7% available chlorine (Cl)
and brand C contains 14% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). Which of the three would you buy ?
Ans. 6.67 g
30 In the analysis of a 0.50 g sample of feldspar, a mixture of the chlorides of Na and K is obtained,
which weighs 0.1180g. Subsequent treatement of the mixed chlorides with silver nitrate gives
0.2451 g of AgCl. What is the percentage of sodium oxide and potassium oxide in feldspar ?
Ans. Na
2
O =3.6% , K
2
O = 10.6%
31 4.08 g of a mixture of BaO and an unknown carbonate MCO
3
was heated strongly. Theresidue
weighed 3.64g. This was dissolved in 100 mL of 1.0 N HCl. The excess acid required 16 mL of
2.5N NaOH solution for complete neutralisation. Identify the metal M.
32 A mixture contains NaCl and an unknown chloride MCl.
(i) 1g of this is dissolved in water. Excess of acidified AgNO
3
solution is added to it. 2.567 g of a
white precipitate is formed.
(ii) 1.0 g of the original mixture is heated to 300°C. some vapours come out which are absorbed
in acidified AgNO
3
solution. 1.341 g of a white precipitate is obtained. Find the molecular weight
of the unknown chloride. Ans. 53.5
33 A solid mixture (5g) consisting of lead nitrate and sodium nitrate was heated below 600°C until
the weight jof the residue is constant. If the loss in weight is 28%, find the amount of the lead
nitrate and sodium nitrate in the mixture. Ans. 1.6754 g.
34 In a particular experiment, 272 g of phosphorus, P
4
, reacted with excess of oxygen to form P
4
O
10

in 89.5% yield. In the second step of the reaction, a 97.8% yield of H
3
PO
4
was obtained. What
mass of H
3
PO
4
was obtained. Ans. 752.65 g
35 For the production of equal amounts of hydrogen from the following reactions, which metal, Zn or
Al, is less expensive if Zn costs about half as much as Al on a mass basis and by how much?
Zn + 2HCl ÷ ZnCl
2
+ H
2

2Al + 6HCl ÷ 2AlCl
3
+ 3H
2
Ans. 44.61%
36 20.2 mL of CH
3
COOH reacts with 20.1 mL of C
2
H
5
OH to form CH
3
COOC
2
H
5
(d = 0.902 g/mL) by
the following reaction
MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
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25
CH
3
COOH + C
2
H
5
OH CH
3
COOC
2
H
5
+ H
2
O
(a) Which compound is the limiting reagent ?
(b) If 27.5 mL of pure ethyl acetate is produced, what is the percent yield ? Densities of
CH
3
COOH and C
2
H
5
OH are 1.05 g/mL and 0.789 g/mL respectively.
37 A mixture of pure AgCl and pure AgBr is found to contain 60.94% Ag by mass. What are mass
percentages of Cl and Br in the mixture ? (Ag = 108, Cl = 35.5, Br = 80)
Ans. Cl = 4.85%, Br = 34.19%
38 From the following reaction sequence,
CaC
2
+ H
2
O ÷ CaO + C
2
H
2
C
2
H
2
+ H
2
÷ C
2
H
4

nC
2
H
4
÷ (C
2
H
4
)
n

Calculate the mass of polyetheylene which can be produced from 10 kg of CaC
2
Ans. 4375g
39 From the following series of reactions,Cl
2
+ 2KOH ÷ KCl + KClO + H
2
O
3KClO ÷ 2KCl + KClO
3

4KClO
3
÷ 3KClO
4
+ KCl
Calculate the mass of chlorine needed to produce 100 g of KClO
4
. Ans. 204.5 g

Subjective Question Set 5.
1. Calculate orally
(i) How many moles of CaCO
3
shall be produced from 5 moles of Ca atoms?
(ii) How many moles of BaSO
4
shall be formed from 5 moles of BaCl
2
?
(iii) How many moles of Na
2
O shall be produced from 5 moles of Na atoms ?
Ans. (i) 5 (ii) 5 (iii) 2.5
2. What weight of oxygen will react with 40 g of Ca ? Ans.16 g
3. Calculate, without balancing the following equation, the volume of chlorine at NTP produced
from 50 g of sodium chloride. NaCl + MnO
2
+ H
2
SO
4
÷ NaHSO
4
+ MnSO
4
+ Cl
2
+ H
2
O
Ans. (9.575 litres)
4. Two tonnes of an iron ore containing 94% of Fe
2
O
3
produced iron in pure stte. Calculate the
weight of iron. Ans. 1315 Kg.
5. Calculate the volume of acetylene at NTP produced byj 100 g of CaC
2
with water.
Ans. 35 litres
6. How many litres of destonating gas will be produced at NTP in thedecomposition of 0.1 mole of
water by anelectric current ? Ans. 3.36 litres
7. Find the mass ofj Cu(NO
3
)
2
.3H
2
O produced by dissolving 10 g of copper in nitric acid and then
evaporating the solution. Ans. 38 g
8. 4.90 g of KClO
3
, jon heating shows a weight loss of 0.384 g. What percent of the original KClO
3

was decomposed ? ans. 20%
9. When the mixture of MgCO
3
and CaCO
3
was heated for a long time. Theweight decreased by
50%. Calculate the percentage composition of the mixture. Ans.MgCO
3
:7159%; CaCO
3
: 28.41%
9. How many moles of Zn(FeS
2
)
2
can can be made from 2 g of zn, 3g of Fe and 4 g of S ?
Ans. 0.0269 mole
10. Calculate the weight of V
2
O
5
produced from 2g of VO and 5.75 g of Fe
2
O
3
.
VO + Fe
2
O
3
÷ FeO + V
2
O
5
Ans. (2.18g)
11. Equal weights of mercury and iodine are allowed to react completely to form a mixture of
mercurous and mercuric iodide leaving one of the reactants. Calculate the ratio by weight of
Hg
2
I
2
and HgI
2
formed. Ans. 0.532 : 1
12. 5.5 g of a mixture of FeSO
4
.7H
2
O and Fe2(SO
4
)
3
.9H
2
O requires 5.4 mL of 0.1 N KmnO
4
solution
for complete oxidation. Clculate the number of moles of hydrated ferric sulphate in the mixture.
Ans. (0.0095 mole)
13. Anhydrous sodium sulphate can absorb water vapour and be converted to the decahydrate. By
how many grams fwould the mass of a 1-g sample of the thoroughly dried Na
2
SO
4
increase if
exposed to sufficient water vapour to be converted to the decahydrate ? Ans. (1.27 g)
14. A partially dried clay sample contained 50% of sillica and 7% of water. The original clay
contained 12% of water. Find the percentage of silica in the original sample. Ans. 47.3%
15. 1g of a sample containing NaCl, NaBr and an inert material, with excess of AgNO
3
, produces
0.526 g of precipitate of AgCl and AgBr. By heating his precipitate in a current of chlorine. AgBr
converted to AgCl and the precipitate then weighed 0.426 g. Find the percentage of NaCl and
NaBr in the sample. ans. NaCl : 4.25%, NaBr : 23.2%
16. 3.90 g of a mixture ofk Al and Al
2
O
3
, when reacted with a solution of sodium hydroxide, produced
840 mL of a gas at NTP. Find the composition of the mixture. Ans. (Al : 17.3%)
MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
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26
17. To detemine the content in commercial NaOH, 2g of the latter was dissolved in water and an
excess amount of ank AgNO
3
solution ws added to this solution. The precipitate formed was
washed and dried. Its mass was 0.287 g. Find the mass of NaCl in the initial sample.
Ans. (0.117 g)
18. One litre of an acidified solution of KMnO
4
containing 15.8 g of KMnO
4
is decolourised by
passing sufficient amount of SO
2
. If SO
2
is produced by roasting iof iron pyrites (FeS
2
). What will
be the amount of pyrites required to produce the necessary amount of SO
2
? Ans.(15 g)
19. When a mixture of NaBr and NaCl is repeatedly digested with sulphuric acid, all the halogens
are expelled and Na
2
SO
4
is formed quantitatively. With a particular mixture, it was found that the
weight of Na
2
SO
4
obtained was precisely the same as the weight of NaBr-NaCl mixture taken.
Calculate the ratio of the weights of NaCl and NaBr in the mixture Ans. 1.454 : 1
20. 25.4 g of iodine and 14.2 g of chlorine are made to react completely to yield a mixture jof ICl and
ICl
3
Calculate the number of moles of ICl and ICl
3
formed. Ans. 0.1 mole, 0.1 mole
21. An alloy of aluminium and copper was treated with aqueous HCl. The aluminium dissolved
according to the reaction :
Al + 3H
+
÷ Al
3+
+
3
2
2
H

but the copper remained a pure metal. A 0.350 g smaple of the alloy gave 415 cc of H
2

measured at 273 K and 1 atm pressure. What is the weight percentage of Al in the alloy ?
Ans. 95.3%
22. 1g of dry green algae absorbs 4.7×10
–3
mole of CO
2
per hour by photosynthesis.If the fixed
carbon atoms were all stored after photosynthesis as starch, (C
6
H
10
O
5
)
n
, how long would it take
for the algae to double their own weight assuming photosynthesis takes at a constant rate ?
Ans. 7.88 hours
23. Crude calcium carbide is made in jan electric furnace by the following reaction :
CaO + 3C ÷ CaC
2
+ CO
The product contains 85% of CaC
2
and 15% of unreacted CaO.
(a) How much CaO is to be added to the furnace charge for each 1000 kg of CaC2 (pure) produced?
(b) How much CaO is to be added to the furnace charge for each 1000 kg of crude product ?
Ans.(a) 1041.5 kg ; (b) 893.7 kg
24. 2.5 g of a mixture of BaO and CaO when treated with an excess of H
2
SO
4
, produced 4.713 g of
the mixed sulphates. Find the percentage of BaO present in the mixture.
Ans.50%
25. A mixture of NaI and NaCl, when heated with H
2
SO
4
, produced the same weight of sodium
sulphate as that of the original mixture. Calculate percentage of NaI in the mixture.
Ans. 28.85%
26. 7.46 g of KCl was heated with excess of MnO
2
and H
2
SO
4.
The gas so produced was then
passed through a solution of KI. Calculate the weight of iodine. Ans. 12.7 g
27. Carnalite is a double chloride of potassium and magnesium containing 38.86% of water. 0.458 g
of it gave 0.71 g of AgCl and 0.666 g of it gave 0.27 g Mg
2
P
2
O
7
. Find the percentage of KCl in
the carnalite. Ans. 26.46%
28. What volume of hydrogen at NTP is needed to reduce 125 g of MoO
3
to the metal ?
Ans. 58.3 litres
29. How much gas (in litres) will be produced at 0°C and 760 mm of pressure when 10 g of oxalic
acid was heated with concentrated sulphuric acid ? ans. 4.97 litres
30. A natural gas sample contains 84% (by volume) of CH
4
, 10% of of C
2
H
6
, 3% of C
3
H
8
and 3% of
N
2
. If a series of catalytic reactions could be used for converting all the carbon atoms of the gas
into butadiene, C
4
H
6
, with 100% efficiency, how much butadiene could be prepared from 100 g of
the natural gas ? Ans. 82 g
31. What weights of P
4
O
6
and P
4
O
10
will be produced by the combustion of 2g of P
4
in 2g of oxygen
leaving no P
4
and O
2
Ans. 1.996 g, 2.004
32. From the following reactions, 2CoF
2
+ F
2
÷ 2CoF
3

(CH
2
)
n
+ 4n CoF
3
÷ (CF
2
)n + 2nHF + 4n CoF
2

calculate how much F
2
will be consumed to produce 1 kg of (CF
2
)
n
. Ans. 1.52 kg
33. A mixture containing KClO
3
, KHCO
3
, K
2
CO
3
and KCl was heated, producing CO
2
, O
2
and H
2
O
gases according to the following equations :
2KClO
3
(s) ÷ 2KCl(s) + 3O
2
2KHCO
3
(s) ÷ K
2
O(s) + H
2
O(g) + 2CO
2
(g)
K
2
CO
3
(s) ÷ K
2
O(s) + CO
2
(g)
The KCl does not react under the conditions of the reaction. If 100.0 g of the mixture produces
1.80 g of H
2
O, 13.20 g of CO2 and 4.0 g of O
2
,what was the composition of the original mixture ?
Ans. (KClO
3
: 10.2 g, KHCO
3
: 20g, K
2
CO
3
: 13.8 g
MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
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27
Chemistry: Molarity and Stoichiometry

1. Calcium hydroxide (“slaked lime”) and sulfuric acid react to produce calcium sulfate and water
according to the following balanced equation:
Ca(OH)
2
(aq) + H
2
SO
4
(aq)  CaSO
4
(s) + 2 H
2
O(l)
a. How many liters of 0.5 M calcium hydroxide do you need in order to have 5.5 moles of calcium
hydroxide?
b. Find the number of moles of sulfuric acid needed to react with 5.5 moles of calcium hydroxide.
c. If the sulfuric acid has a concentration of 0.82 M, how many liters of it are needed to react with 5.5
moles of calcium hydroxide?

2. Calcium carbonate (“limestone”) reacts with hydrochloric acid according to the following balanced
equation:
CaCO
3
(aq) + 2 HCl(aq)  CO
2
(g) + CaCl
2
(aq) + H
2
O(l)
a. What mass of calcium carbonate is needed to make 1.2 liters of a 1.7 M calcium carbonate solution?
b. What volume of 3.0 M hydrochloric acid is needed to completely react with the amount of calcium
carbonate in Part 2a above?
c. Based on Parts 2a and 2b above, how many moles of water would be produced?

3. Ammonium chloride and calcium hydroxide react according to the following balanced equation:
2 NH
4
Cl(aq) + Ca(OH)
2
(aq)  CaCl
2
(aq) + 2 NH
3
(g) + 2 H
2
O(l)
a. What mass of ammonium chloride is needed to make 1.0 liter of a 2.0 M ammonium chloride
solution?
b. What mass of calcium hydroxide is needed to make 2.0 liters of a 2.0 M calcium hydroxide solution?
c. How many grams of calcium chloride will be made when 1.0 liter of a 1.0 M calcium hydroxide solution
react with excess ammonium chloride?

4. Zinc and hydrochloric acid react according to the following balanced equation:
Zn(s) + 2 HCl(aq)  ZnCl
2
(aq) + H
2
(g)
a. What volume of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid will react with 26 grams of zinc?
b. What mass of zinc will react with 2.0 liters of 0.25 M hydrochloric acid?
c. How many liters of hydrogen will you make (at STP) if you react 2.74 L of 0.45 M
hydrochloric acid with excess zinc?

Answers: 1a. 11.0 L of 0.5 M Ca(OH)2(aq) 3a. 107 g NH4Cl
1b. 5.5 mol H2SO4 3b. 296 g Ca(OH)2
1c. 6.71 L of 0.82 M H2SO4(aq) 3c. 111 g CaCl2
2a. 204 g CaCO3 4a. 7.95 L of 0.1 M HCl(aq)
2b. 1.36 L of 3.0 M HCl(aq) 4b. 16.4 g Zn
2c. 2.04 mol H2O 4c. 13.8 L H2 (at STP)
Chemistry: Stoichiometry – Problem Sheet 1
1. Silver and nitric acid react according to the following balanced equation:
3 Ag(s) + 4 HNO
3
(aq)  3 AgNO
3
(aq) + 2 H
2
O(l) + NO(g)
A. How many moles of silver are needed to react with 40 moles of nitric acid?
B. From the amount of nitric acid given in Part A, how many moles of silver nitrate will be produced?
C. From the amount of nitric acid given in Part A, how many moles of water will be produced?
D. From the amount of nitric acid given in Part A, how many moles of nitrogen monoxide will be made?

2. Given the balanced equation: 2 N
2
H
4
(l) + N
2
O
4
(l)  3 N
2
(g) + 4 H
2
O(g)
A. How many moles of dinitrogen tetrahydride are required to produce 57 moles of nitrogen?
B. How many moles of dinitrogen tetroxide

are required to produce 57 moles of nitrogen?
C. How many moles of water

are produced when 57 moles of nitrogen are made?

3. Calculate the mass of aluminum oxide produced when 3.75 moles of aluminum burn in oxygen.

Answers: 1A. 30 mol Ag 1C. 20 mol H2O 2A. 38 mol N2H4 2C. 76 mol H2O
1B. 30 mol AgNO3 1D. 10 mol NO 2B. 19 mol N2O4 3. 191 g Al2O3

4. At a very high temperature, manganese is isolated from its ore, manganomanganic oxide, via the
following balanced equation:
3 Mn
3
O
4
(s) + 8 Al(s)  4 Al
2
O
3
(s) + 9 Mn(s)
A. How many manganese atoms are liberated if 54.8 moles of Mn
3
O
4
react with excess aluminum.
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28
B. How many moles of aluminum oxide are made if 3580 g of manganomanganic oxide are consumed?
C. How many moles of manganomanganic oxide will react with 5.33 x 10
25
atoms of aluminum?
D. If 4.37 moles of aluminum are consumed, how many molecules of aluminum oxide are produced?

5. Camels store the fat tristearin (C
57
H
110
O
6
) in the hump. Besides being a source of energy, the fat is a
source of water for the camel because when the fat is burned, the following reaction occurs:
2 C
57
H
110
O
6
(s) + 163 O
2
(g)  114 CO
2
(g) + 110 H
2
O(l)
A. At STP, what volume of oxygen is required to consume 0.64 moles of tristearin?
B. At STP, what volume of carbon dioxide is produced in Part A?
C. If 22.4 L of oxygen is consumed at STP, how many moles of water are produced?
D. Find the mass of tristearin required to produce 55.56 moles of water (about 1 liter of liquid water).


Answers: 4A. 9.9 x 10
25
atoms Mn 4C. 33.2 mol Mn3O4 5A. 1168 L O2 5C. 0.675 mol
H2O
4B. 20.9 mol Al2O3 4D. 1.3 x 10
24
m’cules Al2O3 5B. 817 L CO2 5D. 899 g C57H110O6
Stoichiometry

1. Ammonia (NH
3
) may be produced by the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen according to the
balanced equation:
N
2
+ 3 H
2
→ 2 NH
3

a. If 23.2 grams of nitrogen react, how many grams of NH
3
are produced?
b. If 23.2 grams of nitrogen react, how much hydrogen also reacts?

2. Nitroglycerin, C
3
H
5
(NO
3
)
3
decomposes forming N
2
, O
2
, CO
2
and H
2
O according to the
balanced reaction:
4 C
3
H
5
(NO
3
)
3
→ 6 N
2
+ O
2
+ 12 CO
2
+ 10 H
2
O
a. How many grams of nitroglycerin are needed to produce 1 kilogram of CO
2
?
b. If 100.0 grams of nitroglycerin are reacted, what volume of liquid water will be found?
(HINT: Density of liquid water is 1.0 g/ml)

3. Sodium and oxygen react in a direct combination reaction to produce sodium oxide.
a. Write a balanced equation for this reaction.
b. If 155 grams of sodium react, how much oxygen (in grams) is needed?
c. If 557 grams of oxygen react with excess sodium, how many grams of sodium oxide will
form?

4. Some copper is produced by reaction of CuSO
4
with zinc metal.
a. Write the balanced equation.
b. In order to recover all the copper, how much zinc should be used if there are 63.5 grams
of copper sulfate in the solution?
c. How much copper can be recovered in part (b)?
d. If the experiment began with 28.7 grams of copper, what is the percentage of the copper
recovered?

5. When sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid, H
2
SO
4
, react together, a neutralization reaction
occurs.
a. Write the balanced equation.
b. If 0.80 moles of sulfuric acid react, how much NaOH is needed?
c. If 0.80 moles of sulfuric acid react, how many grams of each product will form?
6. Balance the following: NO
2
+ H
2
O  HNO
3
+ NO
a. How many moles of NO are produced from 13.8 grams of NO
2
?
b. How many grams of NO are produced form 13.8 grams of NO
2
?
7. When iron is heated in air (oxygen), Fe
2
O
3
is created. If 1.50 grams of Fe are heated, what
will be the weight of Fe
2
O
3
created?
8. You wish to make Ca
4
S
3
. How many grams of S are needed to react with 2.50 g of Ca?
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29
9. Green plants produce glucose, C
6
H
12
O
6
, and molecular oxygen by photosynthesis of carbon
dioxide and water:
6 CO
2
+ 6 H
2
O ÷ C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6 O
2

How many grams of CO
2
are required to produce one mole of glucose?
10. KClO
3
+ 6 KBr + 3 H
2
SO
4
÷ KCl + 3 Br
2
+ 3 H
2
O + 3 K
2
SO
4

a. How many moles of Br2 are produced when 0.80 moles of KBr reacts?
b. How many moles of H
2
SO
4
are needed to react with 3.7 grams of KClO
3
?
c. If 300.0 grams of KClO
3
and 400.0 grams of KBr are mixed with excess H
2
SO
4
, how
much Br
2
can be produced?
11. hat mass of SO
3
is produced when 0.600 grams of SO
2
is combined with 0.400 grams of
O
2
? 2 SO
2
+ O
2
÷ 2 SO
3

12. Hydrogen gas combines with nitrogen dioxide to produce ammonia (NH
3
) and water. What
mass of ammonia results when 25.0 g of hydrogen combines with 185 grams of nitrogen
dioxide?
13. Consider the combination reaction of carbon with oxygen gas to produce carbon dioxide. If
1.0 gram of carbon is mixed with 1.0 gram of oxygen gas…
a. What is the limiting reagent?
b. Calculate the amount of the non-limiting reagent which remains unreacted after reaction
is complete.
MOLE CONCEPT -- EUDIOMERTY
1. A hydrocarbon contains 10.5 g of carbon per g of H. One litre vapours of hydrogen at
127° C and I atm pressure weights 2.8 g. Find molecular formula of hydrocarbon.
2. One litre of CO
2
is passed over hot coke. The volume becomes 1.4 litre. Find the
composition of products, assuming measurements at NTP.
3. 5 mL of a gaseous hydrocarbon was exposed to 30 mL of O
2
. The resultant gas, on
cooling is found to measure 25 mL of which 10 mL are absorbed by NaOH and the
reminder by pyrogallol. Determine molecular formula of hydrocarbon. All measurements
are made at constant pressure and temperature.
4. When a mixture of 10 mole of SO
2
, 15 mole of O
2
was passed over catalyst, 8 mole of
SO3 was formed. How many mole SO
2
and O
2
did not enter into combination?

5. A mixture of 20 mL of CO, CH
4
and N
2
was burnet in excess of O
2
resulting in reduction
of 13 mL of volume. The residual gas was then treated with KOH solution to show a
contraction of 14 mL in volume. Calculate volume of CO CH
4
and N
2
in mixture, all
measurements are made at constant pressure and temperature.
6. 50Ml of dry ammonia gas was sparked for a long time in an eudiometer tube over
mercury. After sparking, the volume becomes 97 ml. After washing the gas with water
and drying, the volume becomes 94 ml. This was mixed with 60.5 ml of oxygen and the
mixture was burnt. After the completion of the combustion of H
2
, the volume of the residual
gas was 48.75 ml. Determine molecular formula of ammonia.
7. The percentage by volume of C
3
H
8
in a mixture C
3
H
8
, CH
4
and CO is 36.5. Calculate the
volume of CO
2
produced when 100 ml of the mixture is burnt in excess of O
2
.
8. 100 mL of any gas at NTP was heated with Tin. Tin converted into stannous sulphide
and hydrogen was left. The hydrogen when passed over hot CuO, produced 0.081 g of
water. If the vapour density of the gas is 17, find its formula.
9. A gaseous alkane is exploded with oxygen. The volume of O
2
for complete combustion
to CO2 formed is in the ratio of 7 : 4. Deduce molecular formula of alkane.
10. 40 ml ammonia gas taken in an eudiometer tube was subjected to sparks till the volume
did not further change. The volume was found to increase by 40 ml. 40ml of oxygen was
then mixed than the mixture was further exploded. The gases remained were 30 ml.
Deduce formula of ammonia. All measurements are made at constant P and T. Assume
H
2
O in liquid phase.
11. The weight of one lt. sample of ozonised oxygen at NTP was found to be 1.5 g. When
100 ml of this mixture at NTP were treated with terpentine oil, the volume was reduced to
90 ml, Hence calculate the molecular weight of Ozone.
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30
12. 60 ml of a mixture of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide was exploded with excess of
hydrocarbon. If 8 ml of N2 was formed, calculate the volume of each gas in mixture. All
measurements are made at constant P and T. Assume H
2
O in liquid phase.
13. 50 ml of pure and dry oxygen was subjected to a silent electric discharge and on cooling
to the original temperature, the volume of ozonised oxygen was found to be 47 ml. The gas
was then brought into contact with terpentile oil, when after the absorption of ozone, the
remaining gas occupied a volume of 41 ml. Find molecular formula of ozone. All
measurements are made at constant P and T.

14. A sample of gaseous hydrocarbon occupying 1.12 lt. at NTP, when completely burnt in
air produced and 1.8 g H
2
O. Calculate the weight of hydrocarbon taken and the volume of
O2 at NTP required for its combustion.


15. 16 ml of a gaseous aliphatic compound C
n
H
3n
O
m
was mixed with 60 ml O
2
and sparked.
The gas mixture on cooling occupied 44 ml. After treatment with KOH solution, the
volume of gas remaining was 12 ml. Deduce the formula of compound. All measurements are
made at constant pressure and room temperature.

16. A 5.0 g sample of a natural gas consisting of CH
4
, C
2
H
4
was burnt in excess of oxygen
yielding 14.5 g CO
2
and some H
2
O as products. What is weight percentage of CH
4
and
C
2
H
4
in mixture?

17. 4 g C
3
H
8
and 14 g O
2
are allowed to react to the maximum possible extent to form only
CO and H
2
O. Find the weight of CO formed.

18. A mixture of C
2
H
4
and excess of hydrogen has a pressure of 60 cm of Hg. The mixture
on passing over Ni Catalyst gives.
C
2
H
4
(g) +H
2
(g) ÷C
2
H
6
(g)
The pressure of resultant mixture under original conditions of temperature and volume
reduced to 40 cm of Hg. Calculate the fraction occupied by C
2
H
4
in original mixture.
19. A mixture of methane and ethylene in the volume ratio X: Y has a total volume of 30 ml.
On complete combustion it gave 40 ml of CO
2
. If the ratio had been Y: X, instead of X : Y
,what volume of CO
2
would have been obtained.
20. 1 volume of gaseous compound C, H, O on complete combustion in presence of 2.5
volume of O
2
gives 2 volume of steam and 2 volume of CO
2
. What is the formula of compound
if all measurements are made at STP? Also calculate volume of O
2
required to burn
completely 4.4 g of this compound.
21. At the Nangal fertilizer plant in Punjab, hydrogen is produced by the electrolysis of
water. The hydrogen is used for the production of NH
3
and HNO
3
(by oxidation of NH
3
). If
the average production of ammonium nitrate is 5000 kg per day, estimate the daily
consumption of electricity per day.
22. 10 ml of gaseous organic compound C, H and O only was mixed with 100 ml of O
2
and
exploded under identical conditions and then cooled. The volume left after cooling was 90
ml. On treatment with KOH a contraction of 20 ml was observed. If vapour density of compound
is 23 ,derive molecular formula of compound.
23. 100 ml of CH
4
and C
2
H
2
were exploded with excess of O
2
. After explosion and cooling,
the mixture was treated with KOH, where a reduction of 165 ml was observed. Find
composition of mixture in 100 ml.
24. 200 ml of a mixture of CH
4
and C
2
H
2
were exploded with 800 ml. of O
2
. After explosion
and cooling, the volume was found to be 600 ml. After treatment with KOH, the final volume
was found to be 260 ml. Find the composition of mixture if all measurements are made at
NTP. Also calculate mole of CO
2
formed.
25. On passing 25 ml of a gaseous mixture of N
2
and NO over heated Cu, 20 ml of gas
remained. Calculate the percentage of each in mixture.

MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
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31
26. Calculate the volume of CO
2
produced by the combustion of 40 ml of acetone vapours
in presence of excess of oxygen.
27. What volume of air at NTP will be required to oxide 210 ml of SO
2
at NTP to sulphur
trioxide, if the air contains 21 % of O
2
?
28. What volume of air is needed for the composition of 1 meter
3
of a gas having the
following composition in percentage volume; 50% of H
2
, 35% of CH
4
, 8% of CO, 2% of
C
2
H
4
and 5%of non combustible mixture? The air contains 21% of oxygen.
29. A natural gas sample contains 84% (by volume) of CH
4
, 10% of C
2
H
6
, 3% N
2
. If a series
of catalytic reactions could be used for converting all the carbon atoms into butadiene,
C
4
H
6
, with 100% efficiency how much butadiene could be prepared from 100 g of the
natural gas?
30. 16 ml of hydrocarbon gas was exploded with excess of oxygen. On cooling, the volume
of resulting gaseous mixture was reduced by 48 ml. When KOH was added, there was a
further decrease of 48 ml in volume. Find the molecular formula of compound.
31. 60 ml of a mixture of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide was exploded with excess of
hydrogen. If 38 ml of N
2
was formed, calculate the volume of each other gas in the
mixture.

32. 20 ml of gas containing H and S was heated with tin. When the reaction was over, there
was no change in volume. The residual gas was hydrogen. If the molecular weight of the
gas is 34, calculate the molecular formula of gas.

33. A mixture of oxygen and hydrogen is analysed by passing it over hot copper oxide and
through an drying tube. Hydrogen reduces the CuO according to the equation: CuO
+H
2
÷ Cu +H
2
O. Oxygen then oxidises the copper formed: Cu+1/2 O
2
÷CuO. 100 cm
3
of
the mixture measured at 25° C and 750 mm yield 84.5 cm
3
of dry oxygen measured at 25° C
and 750 mm after passing over CuO and drying agent. What is the mole percent of H
2
in
the mixture?

34. 15 ml of a gaseous hydrocarbon required for complete combustion 357 ml of air
containing O
2
, 21 % by volume and the gaseous products occupied 327 ml. If all volumes are
measured at STP find out formula of hydrocarbon.




ANSWERS:
1. Molecular Formula = C
7
H
8
2. CO
2
= 0.6 lt. CO = 0.8 lt. 3. C
2
H
4

4. Mole of SO
2
= 2 5.CO = 10 ML , CH
4
= 4 Ml, N
2
= 6 Ml
Mole of O
2
= 11 6. NH
3

7. CO
2
= 173 ml 8. Thus gas is H
2
S 9. Alkane is C
2
H
6

10. Ammonia = NH
3
11. Molecular wt. of O
3
= 48.2
12. NO= 44 ml, N
2
O = 16 ml 13. Molecular formula is O
3

14. CH
4
= 0.8 g, O
2
= 2.24 lt. 15. n = 2 ,m =1
16. C
2
H
4
= 39.2 % CH
4
= 60.8 % 17. CO = 7.636 g
18. 1/3 19. 50 ml
20. C
2
H
4
O, 5.6 lt. O
2
21. 3.618 X10
10
coulomb
22. C
2
H
6
O 23. CH
4
= 35 ml, C
2
H
2
= 65 ml
24. CH
4
= 30%, C
2
H% = 70 %, CO
2
= 0.015 mole 25. N
2
= 60%, NO = 40%
26. 120 ml 27. 500 ml.
28. 5 Cubic meter. 29. 82 g.
30. C
3
H
8
31. NO = 44 ml, N
2
O = 16 ml
32. H
2
S 33. 10.33% 34. C
3
H
8
er
MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
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1. To the correct number of significant figures, (5.0 x 10
-5
)÷(2.00 x 10
-2
) is
2.50 x 10
4
2.5 x 10
-7
2.5 x 10
-4
2.5 x 10
-3
2.50 x 10
-3
none of these
4. Which of the following measurements are equivalent?
10 micrograms and 0.1
milligrams
10 nL and 1000 pL
40 km and 40000 cm
0.01 mm and 1 x 10
-3
cm
all of these
none of these
6. Which of the following lists of elements contains an alkaline earth metal, a transition metal,
and a halogen, respectively?
Rb, Y, I Ba, Fe, Br Sr, Zr, Xe K, Ni, O none of these all of these
7. A beam of particles is passed between a positively charged and a negatively charged plate.
The beam splits into three parts while passing between the plates. Beam A is slightly deflected
towards the negatively charged plate; Beam B is strongly deflected towards the positively
charged plate, and beam C is undeflected. Which of the following conclusions is correct?
1. Particles in beam A are positively charged.
2. B particles are more massive than A particles.
3. C particles are negatively charged.
1 and 3 2 only 3 only 1 and 2 1 only 2 and 3
9. Bromine has two common isotopes,
79
Br and
81
Br. Which is the following statements is true?
81
Br has two more electrons than
79
Br.
81
Br has two more protons than
79
Br.
81
Br has two more neutrons than
79
Br.

79
Br has 79 neutrons.
79
Br has 35 electrons and 44 protons.
none of these
10. The average atomic mass of Cl is 35.453. About 75% of all Cl atoms are
35
Cl. If there is only
one other common isotope, it is most likely to be
36
Cl
37
Cl
38
Cl
34
Cl
35.453
Cl None of these
11. Which of the following compounds are correctly named?
Cu(HCO
3
)
2
, copper (II) bicarbonate
Ba
3
(PO
4
)
2
, tribarium diphosphate
AgNO
3
, argentum nitrate
SrSO
3
, strontium sulfate
FeCO
3
, iron (III) carbonate
none of these
12. Cadmium (II) selenide can be used to prepare solutions which have almost any color in the
spectrum. If the selenide ion is Se
2-
, the formula for this compound is
CdSe
2
Cd
2
Se CdSe Cd
2
Se
2
Cd-II-Se none of these
13. Which of the following is the formula for hydrosulfuric acid?
HS H
2
S H
2
SO
2
H
2
SO
3
H
2
SO
4
HSO
4

14. The following equation for the combustion of glucose is NOT balanced:
C
6
H
12
O
6
(s) + O
2
(g) = CO
2
(g) + H
2
O(l)
If the equation is balanced with smallest integer coefficients, the coefficient of O
2
(g) is
18 9 6 12 15 none of these
15. Mixing which of the following will produce a precipitation reaction?
none of these
HNO
3
(aq) and Sr(OH)
2
(aq)
NaOH and KBr
Zn and HCl
AgNO
3
and NaClO
4

Na
2
SO
4
(aq) and
Ba(OH)
2
(aq)
MASTERING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY By-- S.K.SINHA
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16. Which of the following species are present in an aqueous acetic acid solution?
H
3
O
+
(aq) HC
2
H
3
O
2
(aq) C
2
H
3
O
2
-
(aq) all of these OH
-
(aq) H
2
O(l)
17. Which of the following is the net ionic equation for the reaction between hydrochloric acid
and potassium hydroxide?
HCl(aq) + KOH(aq) = H
2
O(l) + KCl(aq)
K
+
(aq) + Cl
-
(aq) = KCl(aq)
K
+
(aq) + Cl
-
(aq) = KCl(s)
K
+
(aq) + Cl
-
(aq) + H
+
(aq) + OH
-
(aq) = H
2
O(l) + K
+
(aq) + Cl
-
(aq)
H
3
O
+
(aq) + OH
-
(aq) = 2 H
2
O(l)
HClO
4
(aq) + KOH(aq) = H
2
O(l) + KClO
4
(aq)
18. A well near the beach is suspected to be contaminated with chloride ions from sea water. If
chloride is present, which of the following will produce a cloudy suspension when mixed with
the water?
LiBr NaNO
3
(aq) KC
2
H
3
O
2
(aq) AgNO
3
(aq) acetic acid none of these
19. Ammonium nitrate is used as a nitrogen fertilizer. What is the percentage of nitrogen by
mass in ammonium nitrate? (The atomic weights of N, H, and O are 14.0, 1.0, and 16.0,
respectively.)
43.8% 35.4% 17.5% 42.9% 35.0% none of these
20. A compound of sulfur and oxygen is 40.1% sulfur by mass. What is the empirical formula for
the compound? The atomic weights of S and O are 32.07 and 16.00, respectively.
SO SO
4
SO
2
S
2
O
3
SO
3
none of these
21. The first step in an analysis of water for dissolved oxygen involves the reaction
4 Mn(OH)
2
(aq) + O
2
(aq) + 2 H
2
O(aq) = 4 Mn(OH)
3
(s)
.If treatment of 1.000 L of water from a creek with excess Mn(OH)
2
(aq) produces 0.103 g of
Mn(OH)
3
, how many grams of O
2
(aq) does one liter of the water contain? The molecular
weights of Mn(OH)
2
and Mn(OH)
3
are 88.94 and 105.94, respectively.
(0.103 x 32)/(88.94 x 4)
(0.103 x 105.94 x 32)/4
(0.103 x 4 x 32)/105.94
(0.103 x 16)/(105.94 x 4)
(0.103 x 32)/(105.94 x 4)
(0.103 x 16)/(88.94 x 4)
22. Sucrose (table sugar) has empirical formula CH
2
O and molecular weight 360. The atomic
weights of C, H, and O are 12, 1, and 16, respectively. The molecular formula of sucrose is
C
6
H
12
O
6
C
12
H
24
O
12
C
360
H
720
O
360
CH
2
O C
12
H
12
O
12
none of these
23. Oxygen gas is converted to ozone gas by exposure to intense ultraviolet light:
3 O
2
(g) = 2 O
3
(g)
If an ultraviolet source converts oxygen to ozone with a 4% yield, how many grams of oxygen
are required to produce 1 gram of ozone? The atomic weight of O is 16.
1.5 g
0.04 g
1 g
25 g
0.06 g
none of these

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