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An experimental report by Harsh Purwar, 3rd Year Student, Integrated M.S., Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Kolkata.

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17th Feb – 3rd Mar 2010

**To study the phenomena of Hysteresis in Ferromagnetic Substances
**

Harsh Purwar (07MS-76) Amit Nag (07MS-19) VI th Semester, Integrated M.S. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata Experiment No.: 3 Condensed Matter Physics Lab (PH – 324)

**Objectives of the experiment:
**

• • To study the phenomena of Hysteresis in ferromagnetic substances (in our case Nickel) using Hysteresis Loop Tracer (HLT-111). To study − loop characteristics using an oscilloscope and determine the values of coercivity, saturation magnetization & retentivity for the given Ni sample (free ends).

Theory:

When a cylindrical sample is placed coaxially in a periodically varying magnetic field produced by the solenoid, the magnetization in the sample also undergoes a periodic variation. This variation is picked up by a pick-up coil which is placed coaxially with the sample. For the uniform field produced by the solenoid, the effective field acting on the cylindrical sample will be, = − where is the magnetisation, or is the normalised demagnetisation factor including 4 and is the magnetic polarization + = + as magnetic induction. The signal corresponding to the applied field, = ………… 2 = − ………… 1

where defined by,

with = or , can be written as,

where is a constant. Further the flux linked with the pick-up coil of area due to the sample of area will be = − + Here is the magnetic field, in the free from sample area of the pickup coil, will be different from and the difference will be determined by the magnitude of the demagnetizing field. However, when the ratio of the length of the sample rod to the diameter of the pickup coil is more than 10, the difference between and is too small, so we have = − + = + − ⇒ = + ………… 3 The signal induced in the pick-up coil will be proportional to . After integration the signal will, therefore be = = + ………… 4 1|Hysteresis Loop Tracer

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata Solving equations 1 , 2 and 4 for and gives − = − − = −

17th Feb – 3rd Mar 2010 ………… ………… 1 2

In case the sample contains a number of magnetically different constituents, the loop obtained is the he algebraic sum of individual loops of different phases. The separation of these is not easy in a − loop, while in a second derivative of with respect to time time, , the identification can be made very clear. Now the aim is to produce electrical signals corresponding to and as defined above by Equations 1 and 2 so that they can be displayed on the CRO (cathode ray oscilloscope). Moreover, it s should be able to display and as a function of or usual time base of the CRO.

Figure 1: Showing Hysteresis loop tracer (center), solenoid (right) and the pick : pick-up coil (left)

The magnetic field is obtained with a multilayered solenoid driven by the AC mains at 50 Hz and is supplied by a variable transformer arrangement. The instantaneous current producing the field is passed through a resistor in series with the solenoid solenoid. The signal corresponding to the rate of change of flux is obtained from a pickup coil wound on a non nonconducting tube. Necessary arrangements have been made to place the sample coaxially with the pick pick-up winding and in uniform magnetic field. The signals and are added and its output which is proportional to is applied to -input of the CRO. Fractions of these signals corresponding to the demagnetization factor and area ratio are added, amplified demagnetization and the output is fed to the -input of CRO whi gives . input which The selector switch can change the -input of CRO to , , or . The signal is directly taken from the pick-up coil while is obtained through a differentiator. Now the magnetic field at the centre of the solenoid for current flowing through it will be, = = ⇒ = Further, when the sample is placed in a pickup coil of from Equation 3 above we get, = gives = + . So, turns

Substituting

Now as mentioned earlier integrating 2|Hysteresis Loop Tracer

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata =

17th Feb – 3rd Mar 2010

= − where is the gain of the integrator and phase shifter combination. Again as mentioned above out of phase signals and − are added and after suitable amplification , becomes, =− − If we adjust = =− − + − , then = = − − ………… 6 )

Fraction and of and − for the -input. So we get,

respectively, are added together and amplified (let us say by the factor

After substituting that

=

=− ,

+

− and such

is eliminated from the right hand side and by adjusting = , − − − = = ………… 7

we get, Equations 6 and 7 can be written as, =

=

………… 81 ………… 8 2 1 and in terms of electrical signals and

= where,

Equations 8 1 and 8 2 define the physical quantities respectively.

Methodology:

The full experiment can be divided into two parts involving calibration and recording data in the form of images from a cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO). CALIBRATION An empty pickup coil was placed in the field of the solenoid due to which the signal will only be due to the flux linked with the coil area . In this case = 0, = = 1 and = 0 so that = and Equations 6 and 7 yield, = 0, = That is to say that on CRO only a horizontal straight line representing the magnetic field will be observed. This is achieved by adjusting the and DC balance knobs and also the phase. From known values of and the corresponding magnitude of , can be determined as is determined in Observations/Calculations section below. 3|Hysteresis Loop Tracer

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata 17th Feb – 3rd Mar 2010 The dimensions of a given sample define the values of demagnetization factor and the area ratio pertaining to the pick-up coil. The demagnetization factor was obtained from the supplied Appendix/Users manual. These values were adjusted with the value of 10 turn helipots provided for this purpose. The value of the area ratio can be adjusted up to three decimal places whereas that of upto four. The sample is now placed in the pickup coil. The plots of , and against H are obtained using the selector switch and were saved in the form of images as displayed on the CRO screen with the help of a flash drive. Since eddy currents are present in conducting ferromagnetic materials, the resulting − loop has a small loop in the saturation portion due to the difference in phases for the forward paths. The values of loop width, intercept on the – axis and saturation position are determined in terms of volts for different applied fields. Plots of these against magnetic field were then used to extract the value of coercivity, retentivity and saturation magnetic polarization. The first corresponds to the intercept of the width against currents straight line on the Y-axis and it is essentially the measure of the width under no shielding effects. On the other hand, the remaining two parameters are derived from asymptotic extensions of the corresponding plots because these refer to the situation when shielding effects are insignificant. The geometrically obtained values of potentials are, in turn, used to find the corresponding magnetic parameters through equations 8 1 and 8 2 .

Observations/Calculations:

From the supplied Users manual we know that the diameter of pick-up coil used is 3.21 mm. Also the overall gain of the signals and denoted by and respectively is, = 100, =1 Sample Used: Thin cylindrical rod made of Commercial Nickel Length of the sample: 39 mm Diameter of sample: 1.17 mm Therefore, Area ratio 1 17 × 39 1 17 2 = = = = 0 133 3 21 3 21 × 39 2 Also demagnetization factor as found from the Appendix given in the supplied manual is, = = 0 0029 CALIBRATION: Settings: • No sample in the pick-up coil. • H balance, DC balance and Phase adjusted for horizontal line in the centre. • Demagnetization at zero. • Area Ratio at 0.399. • Root mean square value of applied magnetic field is 209 Gauss.

4|Hysteresis Loop Tracer

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata Observations:

17th Feb – 3rd Mar 2010

Figure 2: Horizontal Line for area ratio

= 0.399 and Demagnetization

= 0.

Observed value of

:

= 7 v lts

Since, the area ratio for the given sample is so small the signal was enhanced by multiplying and by three. The finally obtained value of the intercept (below) is divided by this same factor, 3, to give the correct value of coercivity. Similarly for calculating we set Area ratio to 1 000 and other settings remain as calibrated, the signal obtained is, = 18 v lts Now as mentioned above can be calculated using the relation, 209 = 11 61 18 =

⇒ Therefore,

ms =

=

peak t peak = 4 10

Figure 3: Horizontal Line for area ratio

= 1.000 and Demagnetization (N) = 0.

5|Hysteresis Loop Tracer

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata

17th Feb – 3rd Mar 2010

Table 1: For calculation of Coercivity for the given Ni sample from the loop width of Hysteresis J-H loop. Loop Width (Volt) Obs. No. Magnetic Field (Gauss) 3.41 1 27 4.84 2 58 5.81 3 98 6.81 4 135 7.73 5 177 8.92 6 224 9.54 7 260 10.4 8 308 10.8 9 338

= 0 0189 + 4 4

Figure 4: Loop width of the Hysteresis loop versus Magnetic field.

Table 2: For calculation of saturation magnetization for the given Ni sample from the tip to tip height of the Hysteresis J-H loop. Obs. No. Magnetic Field (Gauss) Tip to Tip Height (V) 1 27 1.64 2 58 2.80 3 98 3.60 4 135 4.12 5 177 4.46 6 224 4.66 7 260 4.86 8 308 4.98 9 338 5.02

6|Hysteresis Loop Tracer

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata

17th Feb – 3rd Mar 2010

Figure 5: Tip to tip height of the Hysteresis loop versus Magnetic field. Table 3: For calculation of Retentivity for the given Ni sample from the positive intercept to negative intercept distance of the Hysteresis J-H loop. Positive Intercept to Obs. No. Magnetic Field (Gauss) Negative Intercept Distance (V) 1 27 0.56 2 58 0.94 3 98 1.12 4 135 1.27 5 177 1.38 6 224 1.49 7 260 1.61 8 308 1.66 9 338 1.72

7|Hysteresis Loop Tracer

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata

17th Feb – 3rd Mar 2010

Figure 6: Separation between positive and negative intecepts of the Hysteresis loop versus Magnetic field.

From the above graphs we have, • Loop Width (From Figure 4)

4 4 =1 1 3⋆ ⋆ Divided by 3 because earlier we have multiplied area ratio and demagnetization by 3. • Tip to tip height (From Figure 5) ℎ = 10 • Intercept (From Figure 6) = 1 80 Now since we have, 1 1 1 = × ℎ= = 07 7 2 2 So, coercivity can be calculated from Equation 8 1 as, 4 10 × 0 7 7 = = = 23 9 0 133 − 0 0029 − ℎ= Similarly, saturation magnetization = 4 ℎ

And since,

Now using Equation 8 2 ,

1 × 2 10 = =2 2 = = 4

−

8|Hysteresis Loop Tracer

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata 4 10 × 1 × 100 × 2 = = 640 27 1 × 0 133 − 0 0029 × 4 Also for retentivity we have, 1 = × 2 = = 4 = 4 1 80 = 09 2 −

17th Feb – 3rd Mar 2010

Again from Equation 8 2

=

4 10 × 1 × 100 × 0 9 = 22 98 1 × 0 133 − 0 0029 × 4

**Some Obtained Loops:
**

Following are some of the observed loops/curves for Nickel sample at magnetic field = 224 Gauss, area ratio = 0.399 and demagnetization = 0.0087.

Figure 7: J-H loop

Figure 8:

versus showing a single magnetic phase in the sample

Figure 9:

versus showing two magnetic phases

9|Hysteresis Loop Tracer

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata

17th Feb – 3rd Mar 2010

Inferences/Conclusions:

• • The obtained value of the coercivity for the given Nickel sample is 23.9 Oe. Also the obtained value of Saturation magnetization and Retentivity is 640.3 Gauss and 226.0 Gauss respectively.

References:

• • Supplied Users Manual for Hysteresis Loop Tracer (Model: HLT-111) Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org)

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