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ISBN 5-222-01867-9

ssx 85.15

© H3~aTeJIbCTBO «!l>eHHKc», O¢OpMJreHl1e, 2001 © H. 5IpoweBcKaH, nepeson, 200 1

Copyright © 1970 by Burne Hogarth

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IDUPMDM3CCbl ~MrgpLI

3Haqerme rreg,cneKTI1Bhl 3aKJIlO'IaeTC51 B oT06paJKeHnn ofisewa, a HI' B 06pHCOBKe l1JIOCKHX <p0pM. Ham 110AXO,u:, TaTOIM 06Pa30M, nonpasyssesaer 60JThllle, qeM ncero JUlUJh H3HeceHHe KOHTypa. IIoCKo.IIbKY <popMa, ztanaaa 'ronsao BO aneuranx ee OqepTaHillIx, HMeeT scero zrsa napaaerpa H He UMeeT 06'beMa. OHa He MO:lKeT l1epezrars pa3BH'HIe ¢>OPMhI B npOCTPaHCTBe; HO xorna cpopMbI Terra BH,UJITCJI B rpex npocrpaacraenasrx H3MepeHHHX, B pesyrrsrare pO)K.ll;aeTCJI TpeXMepH3)T ¢opMOMacca. HUH TInaCTHQeCKa5I aHaTOMH5I Terra.

CYThlO KOHuel1U1l1H cpopMOMacc .5IBJI.5IeTCJI TO, qTO 'reno - orrpcnerrennas Macca, rpexaepasrii 06'beM, cyIQeCTBYlOilIHH B rrpocrpancrse H rny6I1He. OTCIO,!l;a cnezryer; '-rro ¢lIrypa rrpeACTaBJI5feT C060H: CnO)l(Hbrn KOl\ffiJIeKC q:,opMOMacc, lIMelOll1,.I1X He3aBlIcHMYlO ,n:pyr OT rrpyra cjJOPMY, il B3aHMOCBJli3aHHhlX. Hanra nepsas sanaqa - nccneztoaart, CBOMCTBa <POPM Ka)l(.ll;OH H3 3TlfX <popMOMacc, 06P3.3YIOJ:lJlllX <popll'lOMaccy HJIJ1 UJ:mCl'BKY lena B l(enOM. I13YQa}J ':laeT:H - rPopMOMaCCbI - qenOBe':leCxoro Terra, Mbt nOCTapaeMCH B3fTI5IHyrb na HlIX c HOBOH TO':lKH 3peHiUI, a 1'aK)Ke c Pa3JU-rQHbIX ymca 3peHH.I1, OTIHcsraas lIX cnOBHO B LlBH)KyU(elic)J. KHHorreHTe.

OJO~MOMaCCbl rO~DBbl: Illap H np'H3M3

P33JIWlHble nosoporsr rOJIOBbI BbUIBJIHKlT Pa3JIHQHhJC rocnOJJ;cTBYIOIIJ;He <POPMbI. qepemIOll map, HanplIMep, 06bJ'tfHO CqwraeTcH qyrb JIll He paBHhIM rro paauepy npasrae nHua. 31'0 ocofieaao O'leBHLlHO B BI1L(ax crrepeAll, B diac. Ho ecna CMOTpeTb aa -repenaoji iuap csepxy, OB BH.ll;HTCJI rcpasno 60JIbU1HM o6beMoM, 4eM JIHUeBU:li rrpH3Ma.

7

KOT,!:(a MbI CMOTPHM na ronosy CBepxy, sepermoir CBO,IT n:OMHHlIpyeT uan Y3KOH, ; CTHHYTOll l'IfaCCOH JlM.J.{a, asrcrvnaronrea If3-TIO,IT HaBI1CaJOW,l1X Ha.n6pOBHblX nyr.

TID Mepe roro l<ar<: yrOJI apearrs CTaHOBlITCH HHlKe, llHUeBH}lI Macca I1Meer TeHnemnno YSeJIHQllBan,Ca, a sepensaa - YMeHhIllae-rC.lr.

ECllH zce nOCMOTpeTb crrpasa aaneso H cBepxy, TO qepeIlHaa Macca BHOBb. CTaHeT rocnO,J:(CTBYI<lmeH.

BCJlH CM01'pen. CRH3Y, np113MR JIliu;a BblrmmIIT 60JIee 3Ha'4:HMOn no OTHODleFuno K xepenaoa qaCTU. Heprsr nurra npuofiperaror ROBhrn acnexr: rJU{,Ug: Ha nauo cnnsy asepx, Mbl BiI1AlfM HI1)KHUe nonepxaocra nOJJ:6op0,UKa, ry6, uoca, yureii U 6poBeH, H 3TJ.J <j>OPMbI npeeanapyror B 60KOBOM H CPPOHTaJIbHOM IUI<lHax.

Ilpa BHUe C3a)l;ll, xeperraas xopoosa II JlI11W 06HupY)KHBaIOT CBOH cavsre xaparcrepasre pa3J1HQHSI: npnsaa nnua, ymoBaTIDI H :lKeCTK3>I, KIDKeTC» MaJIeHbKOt!. no cpaaaeaate C 60JIhllJoiI, xynoJloo6pa:mol1 =epennoa II-IaCCOH.

9

ilOLlHHMaJDIUHHCll: nsepx CBO,n ,D;lIarpparMbI, BJ1,n Cm13y.

60QOHOK rPUAKOH KAeTKM

OOQT<OBI1L1Hall: rpynnas KJ!eTKa rrpnHa,lllTe)KI1T K xnaccy JIllIIeo6pa3HhTx {POPM (JJ:HTlO, map, crpepa), 3TO CaMall: 60lThll!aJI ornensaax crpyxrypa 'rena, Bo cj_)pOHTaJIbHOM IIJ1aHe ee fI3BI1JIHCTal'l IIosepXHOCTh OKaJ-IQI1BaerCJI csepxy II CHI13Y ,nnyMl'l nonsoaoocpasasraa rtepexonaua.

Ilanannp urea nsipacraer; CJ10BHO TOJlCThlR KOPOTKHH CyK, H3 TpeyrOJJhHHKa rpy;n;1-1.

CnYCKaIOIllaHC.H H8 BepXBJQlO qaCTh rpYL!.H xmoxana, BMil csepxy (cneea).

Korna ¢urypa CI1J1bHO HaKJ10HeHa snepezt, - rny60KllH <pPOHTaJIbHbJK BilL!. -ll'YL!.H35I KJreTKa ;zyr006paJHO B3LlblMaeTCH crrepenn naaaa TaK, -rro KaK 6hT OXBaThIBaer KOJIr,l~OM roJIOBy.

11

3TOT Tope - BH.Il; cnepemr H caasy asepx - nOKa.'3I.IBaeT, naCKOJIbKO 60nbllle Macca rpY.ll;li no cpasnemno C npaneraioruaMH qaCDl.Mll TeJIa, a raioxe ronOBOR II TIJIeqaMH (cnpaea),

12

IIPH mo60M BII.l1;e CIlH3y asepx 60':lKOBMlIHall rpynnas Macca ,n:OMllHHpyer H8:U BCeMH .llPYTHMH rpOPMaMll; CJIOBHO H3BHJIHCThIH neH3aJK, e .!J:YTa rpY:UHOH: KJ1eTKJI cnpsrsaer nreto (cneea],

Bepx cmnrsr, rrosasaaasra CHI13Y BBepX, HaCTOJIbKO 06mHpeH, QTO 3aCJIOlUleT c060" 60JIbmyIO sacrs ronossr H CKPbT:aaer TO MeCTO, r,l:le mellHbrll CTOJI6 npH~ MhlKaer K rpY):IH.

)1,eJIbTOBJI,r{Ju.re MhHIllIbl - qaCTIJ PYK, HO 113- sa 'roro, 'iTO OHH COe,[lHH5IlOT PYKH C 60QKOBH,[IHOH MaCCOM rpYLl,HOll KJIeTKH, OHM CTaHOB5ITC:H QaCTbIO 6JIOK3, 1I3MeH£eMoro flJIe'JeBhlM nO:HCOM.

Korna IlJIelfeBOH nORC paCCMaTpHBaCTCH KaK e,n:HHa'H ¢JoPMa, HYJKHO C03HaBaTb TY nepeveny, KOTOPaR npOHCXO,UHT B aepxneii sacrn rpy.n:HoH MaCCbl: C onyutennoti PYKON (A) nneso CJII1BaerC5I c rpym.ro (B ::nOH II03HU;HH BepXRIDI 'IaCTb l)'JJOBMIUa npnofiperaer BITOnHe onpeaeJIeHHbIH lHI,lJ, npH3Mhl); a C PYKOH, HanpaBJIeHHOH asepx (B), II.II:eQO nO}:lHRMaeTCH OT rpy.n:H, ofiaapyxcanas ee 60"1- KOBHWIYlO CPOPMY.

Oco6o cnenyer csasars 0 PRCOB3HHU J:KeHCKOH rpyaa; 06HLfHO rpyna MOJ]O}:lOH B3POCJIOH )J{eHl . .QHHbI HMeIOr BlUl: nepeseprryrux 'lam, HaxOWUlI.HXC5I B HIDKHHxyrnax rpynHOll ImeTKl1.

Apxa }:II-m¢JparMbl BbITJI5fAHT rcax 60JIhmOR 'J')'HHeJIh, o6pasoBaHHhlH J(OCThMH B OCHOBaHHll nepezmea LI3CTH rpynaori xnerxa .. 113 3'l'OH pacurenrmu, cnOBBO BbITeK3JI IrS 6yTbIllKH, ofipaayerca 6plOIllHM Macca H onycxaercs BHm TpeM51 BOJIHHCTbTMH CKnanKaMH, HJIH 51pycaMl1. Cnenyer OTMeTHTb, "ITO HH)"«WI.H 'l3eTT:. jIn-mOTa (rperaii RpYC), 6epymas aa-rano OT nymea H ynapaioma..HOI B CBO,ll. JI06Ka, He TOJlbKO cavaa 60nbIIla1r 113 rpex, HO IIpU6JIH3HTCJIbHO 'tOro )Ke passsepa, 'ITO u Q>pOHTaJIbHaJ'[ Macca rOJIOBI,I H306palKeHHOM snecs Q>MryPbI (cneea).

15

II:ro6bl pacnonozcrrs npaBllJTI,HO rpy.uh, aeotixoznoro, rrpeaczie scero, HaWl'lI . nosanato COCI<a ira rpYI(Hoi1: MhlIllue. HCIIOJlb3Y5I JV!.)')KCKY!O q:mrypy (Pa,UH 5ICHOCTU), Ha~IJH-IaeM OT meMHOR BDa,uHHbI, me coe,mUUUOTC.H IUHO£lIfll;hI (A). Or ::ITOll TOQKJ.1 nposoztax H3l':rr6 non; ymoM B 45° K BepTHJ{aJIbHOR ueHTPaJIhHOll JJ!HHIDI TeJIa, KOTOPbIH cnezryer K 604:KOBHl(HOH cpopMe rpYLlHOH KJIeTKll H YXO.ll;HT HaPY)KY H BiRH3, nonepex rpY)l,H. ,il;HCK COCKa (B) pacnonaraercs aa :nOll JIHH.Iffi KaK pas csepxy ymy6J1eHHOrO yrnosoro spaa rpY.n;H.OH Mf,IIlII"{hI.

16

ECJ111 MbI IlpOBe)),CM nse J1HHffiI non yrJ10M B 45° KHapY)KH OT uearpansHOH JIHHlIH TCJ1a enpaeo If B]JeBO nonepex rpY.ll.H, TO CMO)KeM rrpaBlfJlbHO pa._'lMeCTHTh COCKEI na OCHOBam1U rpyna (eBepxy).

3aMenTe, '-.ITO soma -raureofipaaHhle rpyna HaKJIa)JJ,JBalOTCfl na (",0- CKU H .lIJICK11 lIX BhICTyIIaOOT srrepea aa nosepxrrccrs rpyaasrx XOJIMOB, TO o6e rpynn ssmaparor 113 rpyaaoro mrI1i6a non 061I1,lfM yrITOM IB 90,0 (cnpaea).

I

Korzta rrOKa3bIBaKlTCJl 06e rpyzur, OCO- 6emw B TpH QeTBepTI1, TO HY)!{HO rroMHWn:" 1:JTO HX anxorna HeJl1,3~ YBH)],eTb O,[lHHaKOBO C rrpm.lOH CPPOHT8JlbHOi.J. no- 3H~HH. O)],Ha rpyns 6Y.lleT BM,ll;Ha cnepena C COCKOM, paCrrOJIOlKeHHhIM nocpenane, a BTOp~ - C60KY, C BhICTynalOIUHM ua HeM rrporpnnea COCKa.

18

rAA,[l5f na nOJIHblIT BI1)J, TeJIa cnepena, 3aMeTbTe arrrepecHoe npOTI1BOpeLIHe: HH O)J,Ha rpyzrs He BI1JJ:HTC5I q,POHT8JlbHO, 06e B 3TOM cJJY'Iae CMOTP~T HapYJKY, B CTOPOHhl OT rrp5IMOH JIHHHH.

06pa·nne BHHMaHTre na rr03IHl,HIO COCKOBbIX )J,I1CKOB; npoaepsre, 06pa3YlOT JIM OHM yrorr 900 C llleMHOH anazmHOH, ,{T06hI pacnonoaorrr, MX rrpaSHJIbHO.

npH3M3 T333

H:uJKmur qacTb T}'JIOBHIlJ,U (n1.30BaH Macca) HMeeT B ocHonHOM ¢OPMY nprr3Mbl B ornaxae OT aepxaeit ero -racTH - 60IfKOBl1UHOH rpY!1HOH KJIeTrGL nOCJIe Ipy;l:(HOH iKJIeTlill Ta30BaJI rrpH3Ma HBJIHeTC2. B'fOPOH no BeJIWfl1He MaCCOH rena. Ilpasrsrxas K rpYUHOM KJleTKe, C nOMOl.UblO KOHyCOBH,llHbIX MbTDJlJ" naxonauiaxC$I B 06JIaCTfi. ranan, rrpIL3M3 rasa HMeer fionee umposoe ocaonanne H cYJKaeTC.5i xsepxy

CXeMaTHQeCKOe H306paJKeHHe JJ:ByX Macc TYJIOBHl.ua: npH3Ma Ta1a H 60'IOHO( rpynnoii KJIeTKH.

19

B 06bPIHOM 'nJUIMOM nOJ1o)KeHInI o6e MaCChI rynoamna KaK 6b1 ypas aoaeuranaxrr ,n:pyr zrpyra: 60QOHOK rpYLlHOH KJleTKI1 OTKJI0HeH In a,ll 11., nnenn TO)Ke OTKI1HYTbl Ha3a,lJ;, q,aCM )Ke rpynn Bh!,lI,aeTC}I snepen,

~hK"Ch Hl1}KH.lfJl -racrs Ta30BoH npH3Mhl HaKJ10HCHa nnepCJ1, nonfiproun.e CKPblTO 113 miLlY, a JlTOLlH.Uhl B3L1hTMaLOTC~ BBtPX.

20

Ecna cxotpere rra HIDKHfOl-O sacrs TOpca C3a,n;H, TO ras no eROCH 4lopMe na- 110MIDlaer 6a6o'lJ(Y. Illupoxne (gluteus medius), MruIble xromrsnsre MbIIIIl.lbI, Il.bTcrynarolIv-re non Ta30 BbJMJi KOCTJlMH, 05pa3y1OT aepxnne KPhIJJI.Jl. (A, AI) • a TOJlCTble 60JIhllllle Hr:o,ITWIHble MbfillU;bl (gluteus maximus) - 6mnKo pacoonmKeHHhle npyr K )~pyry IIO,l.J,KPblJ1KM (B.Bl).

3.D,ecb, B BH)".Ie csana H cooKY, TIpM31>ra-6a6o'lKa nerKO Y3HaBaeM3 B Ta30BhlX M3ccax. KPhIJIJ:,.sI 3aXO,l.J,HT OtJ,F!O sa spyroe H yXOPJiT B nepCneKTI1BY cnepena Ha38.,l.1 (CM. emp. cneea).

O'ieprai:Hur6a6o'll(1l ocotieano o-resanusr, eCJ1H 110cMOTpeTb C3a.n;H ua 'rasonyto Macey spenoii )!{e',llJ,fHlbJ. 06pm!t1e IlHHMaHHe aa OTHOCI1TeJlhHO 60JJhllIYH) CTpYKTYPY 6cJ.lep, {{aJ( no IUHp:HHe, TaT< H no o6'beMY, !3 cpal5!-JUlIlH C I-\l;:pXilc1i '10CTbIO rp'YJJ.HOH M3CCbl. Y3KaJI rpyrrsas KJIeTK3 B coe,UHHeHl1H C IIHiPORi1M nnOM zteneer Y3H;maeMbIM )K~HCKlk rynosmue Ii JIBJI5!eTC.sI xapatcrepaoii "lePTOn, O'1TIJf'!atOmei1 era OT MY)I(CKoro.

\ 'i

\

\

/{ ,

\ . . ,«

.. ! ."_ \

t'
J
r
I
\
, ./ IIO'IKOBI1,llHaJI q;opMa CJIIITbfX H e)1;JIHOe uenoe Mace T)'JIOBIIllJ,U xapaxrepasyercx OT'leTJIIIBOH Y30CTbIO TaJIIIII. rn6KOH u:eHTpaJIbHOH OCblO MeJK)];Y BepXHeH llaCTbIO TOpca (60QOHOJ{ rpy,uHOH rmeTKII) II HIDKHeH (ni30BM TIpH- 3Ma). Tarras, noztooao OCI1, MO)Ker 113rIl6aTbC5I IlpH llBI1- )KeHHll B pa3HhIX HanpaBJIeHHHX ((Jsepx)' cneaa) .

Korna nae MaCChI TyJIOB!I1rn;a coezmnema soenano, B pe- 3YJIbTaTe otipasyerca CJIO)J(HbtH Tope, KOTOPhlH rrpnofiperaer ynpouremryro 4JOPMY MaCCllSHOH nOQI(11 (66epxy cnpaea).

.B :nOH cepan Ha6pocI<OH nOKa3aHO, KaK nerxo 6a6oIJ!I<a MOiKeT 6hlTh HCrr0J1b30a3Ha B Ka<reCTBe opaenrnpa ]}1 BCTIOMOrarensnoro cpezrcrsa nna pHCOBaHHH Ta.30BOH qaCTH TYJIOBHIlW B BH.n:e C3MM (cneea),

23

Crunoofipa3RbfH $OPMbl PUK H uor

MaCCbI PYK n nor B OCfIOBHOM CXOiKH no CBoeH rpopMe PI nponopnanv. Ynpotnenno PYKa Ii nora Ilpe.n,CTaBJUUOT COGOH coeztaaeaaue cycrason ABa 3JIeMeHTa, KaJK,U,bIH H3 KOTOphIX I1MeeT MO..QnrpnUHpOBaHHyro !(OHyCOBH)l;H)'lO H.ill1 UlIIllfH)lpIPleCKYI{) cpOpMY,

B

3aMen.Te, 4TO RaJ( PYKa, TaK H Bora 110BOpa'lHBaIOTOI, lIJIH Bpam:aIOTCH, B OJIe[IC (A) HJtJ1 6ep;pe (A I); o6e HMelOT CrH6aI{llUeeCHI1JIH apainaroureecs coennaeaae (cycraa) B cepenane ~~JIeMeHTa - nOKTe (B) HJIH zonene (B 1); If oGe HMt::IOT aa KOHue spauiaroutaiica ITO KPyry sneveur -1n!CTb HJ1J1 crony, IIpHKpeWJeHI-IbIH K cysrenrrosry OCHosaHHKl 3aIDICTh5! (C) YlJIH nOJl,bDKKn (Cl ),

B :;rrOH }I{eHCKOH qmrype pYKaM IT HOraM rIpHU3H OTKpOBeHHO UlillHH.D.PWIeCI<flH BM, H OJill COe}l,HlIeHhI C TaROR)[(e ynpomennoi; rpY1lHOH "KJIeTKOM H H130- aoii npasaoii. !1306palKeHHhre B TaROM CXe1>IaTIPieCKOM BH.I(e, CPOPMbl IIpMo6- peTaTOT xapaxrep TBep,nOM, aeraynreaCJl KOHCTPYKUI1M. Hx ueHHOCTb OYJeBM,Uaa, eCJIH MI.l rrpm1eM MX B xasecrse rrourOToBHTeJIbHOH CTa,lUlU B pJiCOBaHRM, KOTOPa>! rr03BOJIlieT BH,IleTh q,opMoT oxpyrnsnaa, rmK eL\:HHOe uenoe, cocroanree H3 pa3HbIX CO'qJ1eReHHhTX cpOpM. HCrrO.IIb30BaHlIe TaKOl"O ynpoutenaoro MeTo;n:a H306pIDKeHIDf Terranyrt, K rrOHHMaHHlO n pacnonoxemno 06 .. eMHbJX Macc CPHrypl,l B rrpa13MJII:.HOM nporropuna.

KaK pyzy, rax H aery na caMOM aepxy YBelffwaer U1HpOKaH KOMJU1KTHBlJ! Macca - ,n:eJIbTOBH)l,HaJ} MhIlDJJ;a (deltoid) na nnese (A) H 5lrO}l,HYJHml Mb[illUa (gluteus) BHH3Y 6e,Upa (A 1). ).:V3.a sepXHHX 3JIeMeHTa pyxa R nora ofinapy)fU1BaIOT ABa ssrranyrsrx, pacnOJIOJKeHHbIX 110 nearpy 061>eMa: .QBymaBYIO (biceps) !If rpexrnaayro (triceps) J\.lbIillJJ;bI PYKM (B); nO)I.KOJIeHJryIO H npassyro (rectus) MblmQbJ HOrM (Bl). HMIKHHe :3IJIeMeHTbI PYKH H aora fIMelOT MeHblillie rrapusre o6beMbI: cfn6aIOlU;YIO (flexor) H paaratiatontyto (extensor) MoIIDUhl npennne-n,a (C) 1] HKPOHOJKHYIO MbIIIIU)! rorrena (C'l ).

25

U3rH6bI pyKM npa BH,Ue C3a,!:(11. JIOKOTh esmepayr Hap)')KY, nO::!TOMY IIlIelJO IIpHnomerro H JlHHHli npaofiperaer 'JeTKO BblpaiKeHHble 6yrpHCTbIe OIJ:epTaHHll (cneea).

Ilpn BceH I1X nOXOiKeCTll, pyxa H nora HMelOT tieccnopso pamsie C'IpyKTYPHI.Ie PI-1'TMbI. B pyxe, HunpMMep, 3TO ![!OCJlenOBaTeJJ1,HO H~e Jlpyr sa npyrOM 6yrphl no scea ,!lJ1HHe 0]' nnesa )]:0 JIOf(TlI Ii o'r nOKTlI K '.3amICTbfO (eM. CTp eJI xa).

26

RIIlO'l' K H3r116aM pyrcn - B rr03HU)Ul nOKDL Onpeziemrre rrOJTO)KeHHe nOKUl, H BbI CMQ)KeTC npocneznrrs JIl1H1UO, H"JlYII[YlO BBepX, K 3a,UIieH qaCTH nO)l\Mh]IllKH~ H!1IKHH}l mmmr MO)l(eT 6b1Tb npocnexceaa OT JlOKDI K OCHOBaHIHO HaP)0KHOH CTOPOl-IbI nanorra. HC33BMCMMO 01" roro, I(aI( pYI<a IJ,HI1)KeTC5I, B caxrsrx npocrux ee nonoareaasx, TaKHX KaK !lBe asrraayrsre PYKH na pHCYHKe csepxy CllpaBa,.[(O CHJlhHblX :meprn.qHbIX crH60B cncaa, HH)KHHe 6yrp&,r nOCTO.HHHO !IpHCYTCTByroT. 31'3 6yrpl1cTocTb HeH3MeHI-IO C031J;acr CTPYKTYPHbIH pHTM PYKH.

<DPOHT-aJIbHbIM BRA cpnrypbT C COfHYTblMIl B pa3HOM paKypce pyr<3MI1., IlOKasasaer COOTI-lOmeHHe nap 113rl160B (Ctt. cmpenxu na puc. cneea).

27

PYKa, BbJ'flIRynH B rJly6mry rrpocrpaacrsa, T3lOKe JJleMOHcTpupyeT 6yrp«CTOCTb nOBepXHOCTll pyxn (ex. crpenror) - ,llOKa3aTe1lbCfaO aCH3MeHiioro CIpyKTypHOI"O pWTM3 (CJ1(!fJU).

3TOT 60K08011 Bil.!1. npasoii HOnI, cornyroit B KOJleHe, noKa'3bIBaer (eM. crpeJIKI1) HpKO BhIp3IKeHHblH crpysrypasrii pHTM >comYTOH HOrM C S-06pa3HbJMH3TU60M ({J(Jepxy).

Hora HMeeT ABa CTPYKTypHbIX pUTMa: O,ll;HH cnepemr II ,npyTOH COOKY, ((aJK)~hln 113 KOTOPbTX, 6eccrropHO, OTJIHxaerca. ~:h01r 60KOBOH 8M IIpaB00. HOnI AeMOHcTpHpyer jJJIHHHYIO S-06pa3HYlO HHHHIO, ofipaayrouryrocs 6JJaronap}! ::lHeprWIHbIM BhlCryi1aM HOJImOH M)'CKyJIaT)'phI (eM. crpenxn). S-06p8.3HaJI JlHBR.!l" 6epcl' nasano BhlCOKO aa nepenaeii qaCTrI 6eApa, p;i3J1::«eTca B 06paTHYlO eropoay OT sonena, a 3aTelVl Ba3a,D. 11 BHJ{3 no HanpaBJIeHI1ID K asmyxnocru ljKPOHOiKHOH MbIlll-Ubl (cneea),

BilL!. JIeBOH Horn, COfR}'TOH B xonene, C60KY nO.I{33hIBaeT, xat<: S-06p33HbIH ~rH6 ssrpascaer )lBIDKeHlie HOfH. Ilpaaas rrpaBaH nora (nonnepacasaioniaa) H306pa)J(eHa B TpH l.fCTBepTH H passepnyra cnerxa B CTOPOHY OT 60KOBOro BH,L\a, HO S-06Pa3HMl JIHHng Bee )Ke ~CHO Bl1;a,Ha H na Hen, ITOTOM)' "lTO CTPYKrypH1rn PUTM nora UMeeT B caoen ocnoae opHeHTaUHfO H3 Bttn C60KY.

TpeX'-IeTBepTHOH paKYPc Hom CH)lJl1l.ll.eil IPHrYP'bl, BM,IlHMOti C3'UU1. S-06pa3HblU H3I'H6 ROI'll (CM. crperrxa) nOKa3E.ISaeT, KaK HeBO 33- Me'lI'eH CTpYKTYPm,ril pnTM Horn. S- 06pa3HaJI JUIHM~ aroro pHTMa XOTH f:I C0311aeT HarrpaBlliIJOIlIYIO nMHlUO ):(JUl 11306paJKeHf:I~ 60lKOBbIX BlInOB aor B Pa3.ITlJ'iHhlX nosax f:I ,UBHJKeHlIHX, cymecrsyer TOqKa, rue MI.I 06HapY:IKHBaeM, 'ITO (jJPOHTaJIhHblll B1HJl HaLIHHaeT 6P,3Th sepx Han: BH)l,OM C60KY. Ilo Mepe roro {(aK)'TOJI speaaa MeHJ!.eTClI C aenpasroro 60- KOBOro na Herrp.lIMOH rrepezuraii, xax 3H3Th, rne )J,OCTHraeTC.sr KpHTJ{-.:J:ecxas TOYKa? Ha 3TOT sonpoc MOJRHO O'l'BeTlITh, R3fIDIHyB na ssrcryrru rapaunoit KOCTl1. IIpasHJIo BH,Ua c6oKY ,UJIH nora TaKOBO: 'rapanaas KOCTh, oKpY)KemIa51 lWHTypaMlJ HH)I<Hen 'IaCTH HorM - :nraBJJl>IH opneurap ,UIDl H300p3JKeHH5f BH,Ua C60KY·

29

30

B ),[,OH ~Hrype napyacaaa rapannas KOCTb (A) HaXOLlH'IC.f.l BHyTpn Kmnypa JJ:eBOM aorn (B); CJJep;OBaTeJIhHO, B anzte C60KY HcrrOJIb3yeTcH TOT ~e S-06pa3HbJH pIITM (eM. C'IpeJIKM).

3JJ;eCh, xorna O)J,Ha aora Bl1.llHa crrepemt, a BTOpaH - c6oI<y, Heo6xo)lUM ,!lBOHHOH nonxozt, .L1Jl.KlyeMbJH rrpaSHTIOM pacnOJIO>KeHHH rapaaaori KOCI'M. Ha HillK1WH (npasoii) aore TapaHHaH KOCH. ITOK33aHa BH)'IPI1 xoirrypa HOBi (A), TO ecrs B Bffp;e C60KY, OTIJ:em S-06pa3Hhlw H3m6 (eM. CTpenIGi) naer .A.H 113 OT 6e.apa K xoneny, a 3aTeM YXO)]UT OT xoneaa K J10}JJ,DKKe, 3a.MeIHO BbITn-rpa51 na HKPOI'IO)KHOi1 MbIlllue, CpaBHI1Te 3'[0 co CKpemeHHOH (neaoii) HOrQH; rne TapaHHhle KOCTI1 XOpOIIIO B.I1,!l.Hbl, BblCtyfla>l sa 04ep-raHiITJ1 J10LlbDKKU (B); cneziosarensno, 3,UeCb UYJKHO opnearupoBaThC}! jra BUn crrepe,!J;l1.

Crpyxrypa HOI11, ecnu csscrpers ira nee cnepena, rrpn- 06pe-raeT CPOPMY BblnIHyrOH 6YKBhI B (CM. ,Ul1'arpaMMy C][eB3t OT pHCYHl(a). ECJIH COOTHeCTH ary ,UHarpaMMy C noroa, TO np.!rMaH sacrr, B-06pa.:nmtf (POpMLJ 6YJl:er BH,Una aa snyrpeaaea IIOBepXHOCTM rrora (A), HJ\·fea reanenlUflO KOmpOJIl1pOBaTh Bee H3rH6bJ, HaI.JTIH3JI or JJ06KOBOH KOCTH no KOJJeHa H J10,ULDKKM, a B 60JJLlI1HflCTBe CJJy<'IaeB 11 C'I)'IlRI1. HapY:IICllbllIIKOHTYP Hom CQCTOI1T M3 ,UBOHHOro Ji3rH6a - M30rHyroH 'mCTI1 B-06pa3HOH. i{lOpMbl. 3TOT ,IlI.BOllHOH M3rH6 BH)lCH na aapyacaoii nOBepXHOCTI1 Honi (ea. crpenxa), ,Il,BHrasrch BRM3 OT 6e.n:pa,Uo KOJJeHa (B) M or xonesa }J,O 'rapamroii KOCTH (C). Marrem.xaa naarpavMa cnena OT pncynxa noxassraaer; KaK B-06pa3Ha.II (POPMa npuMeIDlieTc51 B sonrrernma iBl1,.!:\a aorn cnepena - ynpomeaao; no naxana paticrsr H~LI Hen. IIpaBHJJo: soma rapaansre KOCTH ssrcrynaior aa KOHTYP HOTH, aca uora Mo~er paccsrarpaaarsca KaK BHJJ;HM3JI cnepe~H 11 MO)KC'I H306pa>KaTbCJI B BbmlHYToH B-06pa:moii <popMe.

B-06pa3Hb[j;J Bl1,Il, Horn cnepena OTBe"meT 33. Bee l-l3rH6bI 11 ,UBmKeHH5I aoru. B 3Toii cpHIJ'pe Mhl BH,Il,MM. cornyryro B KOJIene nory cnepezm; np5lMa5I rJI1HWl B-06pa3HOH rpopl\ILI COOTl3eTCTBeHl-IO aapyurena. 06paTHTe BHHMaHHe na nsrcryrtazoutae rapauasre KOCT}J: - OHM DHOBI> cnrnanaanpyror 0 TOM, '-lTO HCo6XOJJ.HM TOT xce nO,Il,XO)1;, qTO H B BH)l,C cnepezra, a CJJe,!l,OBaTCJIbHO, B-06pa3HOH COCTaBJUHOLl.l,eH: D OTHOllleHHH acex ¢OPM (cu. cmpeusu),

31

)

A

3neCh oriparare BHHMaHIfC HU B.hIpaJKeHHhlM Bf-ryrpCtJ:HJ1H H3rH6 K W~HTpan;bHOH rUlHlll1 Tena, KOTOP:bTH oco6eHHO OTHOCllTC~ I{ 60JIhIIIe6epUOBf:.IM KOCDlTlL B 3TOM rIpHMepe BHy-rpeHHHH H3rH6 60Jlbille6epUOBbIX Kocren OC06eHI-IO nOA'fepKHyT (nepezuoni cnyaaii), Jl)HI Taro ,{TOGhI npOHJIJItoCTpl1pOB1tn BapHaHT KOHTPOJUI c nOMOIUhlO np:SlMOH J:lJfJ-UlH B-06pa:moll CPOPMYJ1hl npN: H306p3)f(eHHll BHJla nora cnepezm: npsvaa JIHHIDI MO)KeT HMeib nCn<HH 06UlHH 113.116 (KaK H CAeJ1aHO snecr.), itJT06hl ztepacars non: xorrrponea BHYTpeHlfHe q)OPMbl nora,

32

Barna nora C3a):{H, ace 6e3 HCKJIIOcleHHll, cne}:{YJOT npaSHJ1Y BH)l8 aorn crrepena: asrcrynarourae rapaRHhle KOCTH ,!J;HKT)'IOT B-06pa3- Hoe penrenne. 06panrre BHUMaHMe Ha nepenepayryro B-06opa3RYro tt)oPMY Horn, BH).:mMoH C3a,lU1 B'I'pJ! -reraeprn H B f-l,BI1JKCHIfH.

B :;tTOM npnsrepe )]iByx nor; BHAHMblX C3a)1(H, corrryroe neso e KOJleRO nopoacnaer COOTBelI'CTBYlOmee HapYI1Iemre BHYTpeHHen JIHmm B-06pa3HOH CPOPMI,L

Ha ?lTOM aane COf:aYThlX n cxpemenastx IWf xapaxrepnsre ox lf3BHBhI cvemeRbI na JlllHHFO 60JlbllIe6ep1(OBb]X xocrea, QY06bl IIOnqepKHYTI, ax BHYTPeHHHH:

H3rH6. Ilpofineua H306pa*eHH8 corHYThIX H cxpenieansrx aor JIerKO pmpe" maercs C nOMOIUhfO KOHIJlOJTSl B-06pa3HoH <POPMOi1.

DUl)l}I na ary qmrypy, yXO,D;H.mY10 B my6I1i-IY npocrpanCTBa, 3<lMeTbTe, KaK JIefKO cpafiarsrsaer B-06pa3HmI Q:lOpMa, tJT06hl copaearapoaan, Horn B rpy.rrHOM paxypce (eM. crpenxa), TIo.rrOJKeHHe TapaHHl>TX KOCTeH Ji"OBOPHT HaM 0 TOM, LITO Heo6xo.rrUM TOT )J(e nonxozt, 'lTD ({ B BULle cnepena,

33

BOT .upyroM rrpasrep BHLla. cnepeJJ:H cxpeniennsrx, IIJIOTHO czcarux HOr. f!3rl16bT 60JIhme6epUOlwH KOCTM aKueRTl1pOBaH1,I; B-06pa3- HbrM KOHTPOJIh He npI1MeJ.HleTCR, YHTaTeJ]W ,a;aeTC5I B03MO)KHOCTh caMOMY' 113y<IIITh PHCYHOI( H rrpenCTaBHTh.

34

3Ta <pHl'ypa noneurena anccs J],Jl5f Taro, QTo6bI MhT CMomH CYMMHpOBaTb" Coe)l,HHHTT:. ABa npenunyumx o6cYJR:,nem-ffi P33JIH'1HhIX CTPYKTYPHhIX pHTMO~ KOHeQHOCTcH: 06paTHTe BHHMaHUC aa nocneaoaarensaocn, napnux H3TH6orn sepxaeri a HH)KHCW "4aCTeH pyx (csi. crpenxa); npanorrnaraa ssepx ncorsy ran B KOJ1eHe nora It306paIKeHa C S-06p33HhlM iI3nf6oM, KaK IIpl1 Bll,a;e c6OJ~)'. nOTOMY QTO rapaaaas KOCTh HaxOLlHTCH anyrpu xoarypa nora.

"~M3MORHAHble ~DPMbl KHCTM H CTOnbl

Kpairaae KOHeQHOCTl1 - KHCTH 1H CTOllJ - 6eCCnOpHo xapasrepnoir npJi(3MOBH,li(HOH !j;l0pMhr, xoropaa, onnaxo, B onHOM 11 B .upyroM cnysae Mr.reeT eecsxa pasayro CTPYKTYPY. B JIBYX CJIe.uYJOilUIX rrpRMepax rrpH3MOBIlL(Hble CPOPMl>T KIfCT1Jl H CTOm.l COIIPOBO)KlleHI,l .llono - Hl1TeJIi>JIhIMH Ha6poCKaMH, 'ITO- 6w nosasars OC06el:iHOCTI1: KaJK)lOM as HIUX.

PHCYHOK KlICTIl CITpasa rreMOHCTPIiPYeT, KaK nam.uja OT)J,eIDIIOTC:R: II GTaHOB.iITC~ OgeHh axTHBHbIMH, B:bmmIHJIJI 6eC'll1CJIeHHoe MHo)KeCTBO ABIDKeHRll. PIlC)'IlOK CTOIIhI BH1I3y ITOKa3bmaer, KaK IlaJIbUhI COMKHyrDI, IlITOTHO CiKaTbI. bOJIbI!IJOD naneu CTO- 11M, B OTJmqHe OT 60JIhlliOrO

namata KI1CI11, rrplIMhIKaeT K CBQHM MeHbllIliM C06paTMfM; 60llbmo« )l(e nanen KHCTH, C D.pyroll CTOPOHbI, rrpOTIlBOCTOl1T seeM OCT3JIbHblMi rransuan KlICTH. TaI<HM 06pa30M" MO)l(eM OTMeTRTI> npllHLLHnHaJ1bH}'I{) P33HI-luy MeJK,[IY KlICThW 1I CTOIlO«:

KllCTb -_",TO HHC'fpYMeHT, CTOna- orropa.

cDopMOMacca KliCTH - umposas nJIOCKa5I, nortaroofipasuas B csoea ocnoae; OHa YTOJIIuaeTc.a H paClUl1pJleTCJI B TOM qaCTH rr3,[10HI1, KOTOPUJI COe)lRH.aeTC51 C PYKO«, cyzcaercs H [mf{ 6u MeJ]bqaeT B rrarrsrrax.

¢opMOMacca CTom.r - 3TO IIpH3Ma C I11MpOI<HM OCHOBaHHeM, C3a.uR OHa 3aMeTHO BbICOKO. B3,[1bIMaeTC5f B fH1JJI.e TpeyrOJIbHIlKa, ornyna KPyrO ITO ,[IHaTOHaIfH onYCKaerC5I Knepe,[lH.

3S

IIpI131"m CTOi1bI - CJIOlKHilll cpOpMa, COCTOHilUa>! H3 "'pex OCHOiBHhlX ~laCTeH: (1) TOJICTOrO rrsrosaoro 6JIOIW C33- )lM, (2) 60JlhillerO no paauepy ClJllJlHI1COIf)J;HOro OCHOBa~ fnUl: HOCKa nnepena H (3) apouaoro MOCTH[Ca, KOTOPblH Coe)l(l1H5IeT II Y)J;ep)KJ.1.Baer BMeCTe narxy If HOCOK.

36

Cnepeae HoeOK pa3.QeJIJieTC.R rra ,[lEe COCTaBHble xacra: (I) 0110PHrut nnartpopua, npl1MhlKaJomaJI K cnony apm, If (2) nxrs IIJ[OTfW c)I\aThIX nansuea. OaJIbI.J;W OTnIfQ3" 101'Cl1 OT onopnoii llJIaT<popMhl no caoez CPYHKU;II11i: mill AeMcTBYlKlT KUK TJilJl0BOe cpencrso - CjKJIMaIOTClI !l 'I0J1K3KlT.

\

KOH"ITIK 60JIhIlIOro nam.ua.sarnfiaerca asepx, pe3KO [(OM'rpacrapya C }l[arrpmWeHHhIMH" EHM1 I1JIOTHO C)R81'hlMIi MaJIblMH nalll:.uru.m CTOIi.bl (CM. CrpeJIKH).

fJIaBHOe 3HaQeHUe npn OIIHCaHl1H CTOITbr lIMeer rny6o:rrni1: H3nr6 sayrpa, - ee IIO,U:beM B rpopMe BblGOKO l130rHYTOH O11(jJbITOU apxa (A), coe,UmuuoIUHH orropnsre OCHOBaHlUI mnlUI H BOCKa. PaCCMaTpHBM 3TOT rrO,lJ,'beM caasy, co CTOPO= lTh! IJ01l0llIBbI, MhI BH,UHM, 'ITO onopnsre OCH()BaIDIJI crOOM coennneasr erne H LlJiHHHbIM 311JlIfilTIftfeCKMM rpe6HeM (B) HapytKHoH TIOBepXHocTH CTOI1bI. 06paTHTe Bffi1MaHMe aa pa3JlWllUIl\-reJK.UY BuyrpeHI-IIT"M If HapY)l{HhlM COe,nrl1HeHMJIMH CTOIIhI: crrapyxcr - nenpepsraasni nosepxaocrm.ui KOHTaKI, BHYTPH lKe KOHTaKT npepsan OTK}J'hlTOM apKou nom.eva, Bropoe 3aMeqaml!e: 60fiblllOH naneu (ManeHbKl1H Ha6pocoK) o6HapY)KH..Baer XOTh H He6oJIbIIIOH, HO 3aMeTHhIH apOtrnbIH

lIo:zn,eM, COe,lUiHJIlOw.H11rrepe,11,HlOIO rronynreusy 60JlbillOrO rransua C 3a)].Hen rranonooxe aposnoro rrozrsesra seeM CTon!>J B IJ;errOM.

37

Cnepezra npM3Ma CTOTIhJ BblrIDLil.1IT IlIH~ POKOH Ii BhlCOROH 6nOLJHOH CPOPMoii: c KpyThIM YKJJOHOM anepezt B ee sepxaeit sacra. 3TO'1' CKaT sasamaaaerca pe3KHM nO,llbeMOM KOT~Ka 60nbIDoro rransna. Ecnn CMOTpeTb aa Hero HenOCpeUCTBeHHO cnepezm, TO BM,uHO, {(aK KOWlliKTI3.lIlr ua 3aI'1l6aeTCJ1 ssepx OT OCHOBaHilli CTOilbl (cneea).

BHU cnepezm na f![pH3MY cronsr co mynelibKaMl1 MaJIDIX nansuea KOH1'paCTHpyer C 3arHYTbIM ssepx 60JIblllllM nans_L~eM. Oopanrre BHHMaHlle na crpeJIIGI BHYTpeHHeii JlI:11lliH, KOTOpM xoirrpormpyer BHyrpeHHJJe q,OPMbI (eeepxy).

fIUJJhQbI Hom, KaJ{ II na bUM pyrrn, UMeIO'T Manem,I<He COqJIeHeHHMe KOHCTP)'KU,MlI B tPopMe mapMKOB II crepzorefi (MaJlIhIH aaopocox): CTep)KHI1 npenCTaBIDl10T co6o.ii nrnocusr Ka)K,I(OfO nansua, a nrapmca - cycrassr, I13-33 .roro, LITO nam.nsr J~OBOJIhHO MaJIeHbKne Ii nJIOTHO cacarsi, ax 'mCTO 6bIBaeT TPY)J;HO pxcosars, ecnn He npencrannarr, HX B nono6ROM snne. Donee DpHeMJJeMOe peniemre - B cTyneH"IaTQM H306pa:Mel'lliH rransues aora (60JIk moli pncyuox), soma rrarrr.nsi KaK 6b1 B03HHKaJOT H3-ll0,IJ; WHPOKO crrycsaI{)IuerOCJ1 csona aptor 11 3aKaHlJ:HB3lOTC)I rpexcrynea-rarsnr 06pa.30BamreM, HanOMIUIafOUJ;11M KOpoTluln JIeCTHHYHbrn nponer, YIMeeTCH" no ABe rop1:I30HT3JThHbTX cTylTeHbKI1 na Ka)I(D:OM M3JIOM nansne nora C Bep'TIlIG1JlblfbIM nozrseMOM Me)lo::r:y (CHeBa).

38

Illaposas -CTepJKHeBaJr KOHCTPYKI_O'fJ[ KllCTH rtopoxotaercs BHyTpeHHHM crpoetrnea CKerreTa.l1MeHHO crpoeTiMe CKeJIeTa onpeaenaer .raepnyro KOCTIIC-rylO nosepxaocrs ThIJJl,HOH CTOPOHb! nanona 11 nansuea (ssepxy).

Kncrs, KaK H CTOGa, TaIOKe npencraanaer C060H KOHCTP)'KUHlO, COCTO~ll.l.YlO H3 crepacnea H LlIapHKoB, COOTBerCTBYIDII(HX CMellilIOID:UM .u;pyr Jl:pyra IImOCHaM H cyC'T'aBaM.

Ilarrsnu KHCTH 31Ia'll1TeJIbHO nnanaee H rIr6'le, 'leM TIaJIblib] CTOIIbl. OHR ..I1MelOT TeH)J,eHIJ;IfIO 3aCJIOH.SITb co6oii J1aJlOIeJ.b, aaeprnano ,UBHTa5lCb, 'ITO tJeB03MO)KHO B uueprHOM cIKaTOM Cl1CTeMe cronsr,

39

Bll)lilMhle iuaponsre H crepxraeesre 4;lOPMbl KMCTI1 npl1,UaJOT BOJIH006- Pa3HbIM: pRTM BCeM: CHCTeMe nansuea no cansrx ax KOHqUKOB.

HmK}nur nOBepXHOCTb RI1CUl MlII"KIDl" MJlCI1CTaJI, BCH B Ma" neasxax nonyiue-ncax, 06pa3YtOll.UHX 'rpa 60JIbIllHe: (1) Bbl· COKI1H, nOBOJIbHO BHYlllHTeJIbHblM XOJIMllK Y 60JILllIOro nansua, (2) cYlKeHHbTH. 60KOBOH XOllMHK Y MH3llHUa, HaxOWUU;IriiCJI aanpo'ras, If (3) HH3KllH rOpH30I-ITaJILHLIH p5IJJ; nap;OHHbIX nonyureserc BnO]]b naJIbTWB. Cycraau rransuea rarore xopotno 3a:uvnueHbI M.ll:CI1Crf,[M noeposoa. Cnenyer otiparars oco- 60e BHMM31iHe ua TO, 'lTO 'rpexnonyuresnoe YCTPOHCTBO na,UOHll ofipasyer rpeyronsnyio snanany B uetrrpe, eepmana KOTOPO" aanpasneaa ssepx, K Cpe.ILHeH '1aCTM npennnenss (eneea):

40

113yIl:HB J'JI3!BHbJe tuaponsre H CTep)KHeShiC cPOpr-.fbI rtam-ues, cnenycr ooparars BHHMaHHe na 60JlblUOH naneu, l)OJIbllIO)i nanell-1GIJ:OQeBOM naneu KllCTI1-I1MeR, 6e3YCJllOBHO, IIpH- 3MOBHAHYJO ¢OPMY, nO.I(OOeH llllIpOKOH JIOnaTe HJ1H IIIIIaTe- 1]]0. B CaJ',10M Haqane ero - Y3Ka5I ):\JII1HHa5I nrnocaa C KBaJJ;paraoa rOJIOI3KOH cBepxy (A). ITaJIeIJ( cYlKaeTC5I,nOTOM pacillHp.lfeTC5I, Q6pa3y51 T5f)KeJry"10 nonymxy (B), KOTOpa5f 3aoCT' psercs J( KOH'<JJIKy nansna (C), a 3a:reM KPy-fO B3"1\-u.IBaeT OT ee OCHOBaHrm asepx (D). EOJIbUlOE nanen, B ornaxae ornpyrHX nansues, He nezorr B ropmOHTaJIbHOH IIJIOCiKOCTH naAOHHOM: npH3Mbl. OH 3aHl1MaeT rrpOTHBononOlKHY!O,. KaK 6~1 nepeBepHYTYIO n03i11umo, uanpaaneaayto B CTOPOHY 011" 06· w;eH noaepxnocraverstpex JJ:pyrHX DaJILueB. Kposre roro, 6ammon nanen HMeer reaneanmo onYCKaTf,CR ropasno HillRe ypoaas naaoaa (cnpaea),

KOr.!JiaMJ,J parioraev C MaCCaJl.fH TYJlO' BHUJ,a xax 01'AeJTJ"HbThlli :)JIeMeHTaMH, M[.} MOlKeM napacosan, OrpOMHOe MHOJKe· CTBO LlBlllKeElIHH. Ilpeareytuecrno 11306· pmKeHIDI OCHOBHhlX IIJIaHOlB TeJla coeroHY B TOM, lITO OHH n03BomnOT HaM ~CH:O YSH,I(eTI> apaBJIJIbHbIH yron era pasuer:ueHIDI H TO, KaK cnenyer coeznrasrs sropocreneaasre ¢JOPMhl. Ha ::lTHX natipocK3X MaCChl nocrpoeasi yCTOH'1HBO, aa TeM HaKJIOHeHhl B 60JIhllIeH ana MeiHh· well crerrean II nOKa3aHhI cnepena B 1p1f 'IeTBePTII. 3neMeHTM roJIQBhI, pyre H Mor ,n;aHJ>I JIHWl> ,!Vl'iI roro, '-IT06bI MO>:KlIO 6bHlO YXBaTHTb uenOCTHYlO Kapnmy ,llBH)f\eHIDI BeeM qllIrypbl.

Hanaeu C nosropa ynpomenaoro OnHCaHH~ CJIOiKKhlX cpopMOMacc T)'JIOBHlI(a c nnyx ymoB 3peHII~: rrpllMoii rope, BM):I C3a,I1H (cnesa) H CHMmMll TOpe, BMP; Cllepe}J;U (cnpasa). Ha 060HX 3CKH33X 60JIblliOM 60'IOHOK rpy;w (A) H n:pH3Ma T333 (8) coenxneasr lIPyr c ,UJPyrOM cpe,llHHHO-OCeBbINfH M£,llm.\:lMH Ta.JTIIll (C), Heo6:r,:ItIa:HHO rn6· KOM. '1aCThfD 'rena.

2~ nOCnea003TenbHOe H30fipa)l(eHHe ~Mrgpb,l

8 T~eKMepHOM npOCTpaHCTOe

B rnase 1 MI.1 C)leJIaS1M nonsrrxy noxasars rrrasasre 4l0PMhI TeJIa B <popMoMaccax, rrocnrraa llX ornxmrrernH1Ie oco6emwcrn K3K o6bellffibJX npe)J,MeTOR B- npocrpanetae, 3TO 3HaIJ!l1T, 'fro Mhl CTapaJIHCh oxapaerepnaoaarv $apMY KaK "IpeXMepHb!H: o6'heM, a He npOCTO KaK nJIOCKHil canyar.

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IIOHliMatille qmrypbl KaK (pOpMOMaCCb) n03BOJHleT xy,no)KHlfl(}' H306peraTeJ1bHO MaHImymrpoBan, qmrypoH, QaCT1 sa xacrsro, anocs 113MeHemf5I B COOTBeTCTBMH co CBOHM JKenaID1CM, 6e3 KOTIHpOBaHHll HJIH I1CTIOJIb30BaHI-U1 Hllh'UIIJIeBHoro cnpaso-usoro MaTepl1aJIa. ITOU06HO CK)'Jlhnropy, npenseparem.ao rrensmexry H3 rJIHHbI, xyl(mKHHK romBI{TC~ K nocrpoemno H C()CTaBJleHHlO KOl\m03HUmt. OH MmKet I-13MeIDiTh Jl.Bl1JKeHHe 11 nonozseaae OT)leJlbHhIX ¢OpM, HCnpaB.IDITb M MOL\wjmu:npOBaTb <POPMh! no caoesry )KeJIaHRlO. Ho, tfIO ente 60rree B3)l(HO, OH MO)KeT BBOp;HTb B mrx KOpeHHMe aoaurecraa,

tIT06hI cnenars sro, XODl 6b1 B xasecrae 3KcrrepHMeHTa, xyp;OiKHHK)' HYJKHO J13Mem1Th CBOH nonxon J( no-

PJI)J,KY pl1COBaHH.H <poPMhl. OR ,Z(OJI)l(eH OTKa3a"fbCK OT onpeaenennsrx, cneno npaaasraesrstx YCJIOBHOcT,eil: H npe,[lB35IThIX npe,1lCTaBJIeHUH 0 pHCOBaHHJ1 <Pu:rypbl. Harrpmrep, )J,OJDKeH 3a6hITb 0 TOM, 'ITO HMO Hay.HHaTb PHCOB ars ri')Hrypy C ["OJlOBhl - OT eroro HY)KHO OTKa3aTbC$L HaOTpe3. ComaCHO npennaraenosry MHOH MeTOAY, TYJIOBHll.I.e no cpaaaeamo C JJ;pyrHMlf <popMaMli, HMeCT nepBOCTeneHHYlO Ba)f(HOCTb. HCXOM M3 aroro, ,UaBaUTe YCTaHoBHM H:OBblH nOpRl(OK B pHCOBaImU <POPM H yrBep)J,HM nepBoe npaBl1J]O ...

Ope)l(A8 DCern - TgnoBMlIle

OCHOBaHI1e )J,JllI sroro 3a51BJleHli$L CTaHeT JICHO TIOC.JIe roro, RaK Mbl cnenaesr HeCKOJIibKO llCCJle)J,OBaTeJIbCKRX Ha6poCKOB, xorna M!,! orpaficrae» cnerryronme yrBepiK,n,eHH51. Macca TynoBHlUa - uenrpaasnas CJJ;BoeHnaa ,<popMa, I( smopoii npnMhIKalOT Bce OCTaJIbHJ,le <l;>opMbl. Jhofioe .l1.BH)KeHHe B sepxaea nna HllJlmeU xacra TynOBllIua HeMep;rreHHO H3MeHUT nepaoaasansnoe nOJIO)KeHlrle BTopOCTerreHHbIX <POPM - PYK, HOf H ronOBhI - M YCTaHOBHT Me)f(l(Y Hl1MM HOBYlO B33J1MOCB5f3b.

BOT "Y:eTblpe CTPYKTYPHO rrpencraaneamrx 'ropca, nOK33hIB<llOIIIHeJIerKOCTb, C KaKOH <purypa MOJKeT 6bITb H306pa)f(eH3 B II6csrel(OBaTeJIbHOCTH )!J,BHlKeRHM cnesa nanpaao, cnepeaa H33a,n:. Terteps CTaHOBllTC5I OqeBH)J,HO, rroxeay c,UlBoeHHaJI Macca TY.ilIOBl11lIa }[BJIHeTC.H OCHOBHhlM cpel(CTBOM: M3neHllIee UBH)J(emre rpY.D:HOH KJIeTKM Bh13hIBaeT Hell1e,.QJIeHHOe lJ3MeHeHlre nOJJ.OJKeH11JlT pYK I-i renonsr, a nosopor T33a 3aCTaB.lJJIeT nOJIHOCThl:O pasaepnyrsca see zrpyrne QaCTl1 TeJIa.

,rt;!BlDKymHec.sr MaCChl TyJIOBHru;a Heo6>13aTeJlbHO ,n;OJDKHbl 6bJ.TI, IIoBepHyTbJ B O,I(HOM rranpasneHIm. Baezteune cpe,n;MHHOH JIllRHH MO)KeT npOTHsonocraears aepxaxuo H HilllQUOIO <p0PMbl. Kmo-r

K srosry npOTMB.ODOCTaBJlleHIlJO - CIIHpaJIb WIll S-06P33Ha5I JIHTm.sr. Ha"lHHM C rrpocroro RaKJIOHa (KPaHHlHIIPIlIypa CJIeBa), 3Ta CepHJI1'OpCOB nOKa3bISaeT, KaK esenenne S-06pa3HOH JIMHIill ITOMOraer M306pa- 3IlTb spaureaae, MJIM xpysenae, MeJK.ll.Y rrpOTMBOnOJIOIf(HO nanpaanenHI:.IMil MaccaMll TeJIa: GOllOHOK rpY.1lHOH KJIeTKH YCTPeMJIeH B O,nHY CTOPOHY, IIpH3Ma rasa rrp" 3TOM spamaerca B DpOTIIBonOJIQ)ICH)'I{) (6HU3Y).

BamHbIM BcnOMOraTeJIbHhlM cpe,nCTIIOM rrpn pacosaana nna BHeceHIDI M3MeHeHHi1 B aarrpaanenae TYJIOBMllIa >1Bml.eTCK nempamnas namer 1'eJ1a. Ha3TOM J1.BYXerarmora pnCY'"IKe rrepnocreneansre MacChI 'ropca HaxO):{ID'C>1 CJIeBa, a saaepmeaHM qmrypa - crrpana. OCHOBHOH MHrepec rrpe,1l;CTaBIDIeT BBe,n:eHH8 cpezmaHOll: JIHHHJI B o6errx ¢urypax. 06paTHTe BHHMaHRe aa TO, KaK 3Ta Cpe.!UlliHIDI, WlH rreHTPaJIbHaJI, JIHHlliI rrpanaer eUIlHCTBO H aanpaaneane He3aJHICHMbIM .IUllfiKeHIDIM OTuem.HhIX Mace (cnpaea).

44

CepIDI BapiH3HTOB qmryp, noxa- 3hlBaroilllaJi HaxO,uHJl'(l1eC.II B orrpei(SlleHHOM COO'fHOmeHlIllI1 TIPOTHBOITOJIO)KHO nanpaanenaue MaceLl TyJIOBHII(a C ll.CnOJIh30BaHHeM CBJl3YIOlI\eH HX cpe,uHHHOM JIHHIIH. Hom, PYKH H rOJJOBa H306- palKem.r 3.n:eCh ,lJ;JI}J TOrD, tITo6b! DIpo,!{eMoHc1'pHpoBaTh, KaK Tope, B J(aqeCTBe nepsocreneaaoit (POPM1I, onpeaenser pacnOJIO)J{eHHe sropocrenearrsrx 'I<lCTeH.

45

DOlfI - DTOPble no 3Ha~eHMID

Msi 3alTBmIJIH 0 Heo6xOD;HMOCTH

BBe,[(eHlUJ HOB oro IJIOpMKa ,[(TIJI pHCOBaHIU[ <PHrYPhI B TpeXMepHOM rrpoCTpaHC1'Be. B caMOM nanane Mf.,l )'TBep)I(,[(aJIH, "ITO Tope HMeeT nepsocreneaHoe snaaeaae. I1exo,!J;JI H3 Toro, '{TO MaCChI TYJIOBIIma nepsavasr, name rrpaBUJIO npezmonaraer; '-ITO B coOTBeTCTBUH C 3TffM Horn BTOPlIqHbI.

OCHOBaHHeM K TOMY, "ITO HorH (a He pyaa) CJle;lJYfOT sa MaccaMH T)'JIOBIIw;a, JIBJUI.eTC51 TO, '-ITO cpl1Iypa, aesaBHCJlMO OT CBOliX ,ocBUlKeHI1H, eOOTIIOeUTCH rJIaBHhIM 06pa30M c Hl1)KHHM nJIaHOM. OHa npeononesaer 3eMlioe npHTJIJKeWie, BbIpmKa)1BCC, naanernre H aanpaacerrae, err Hy:a<Ha orropa na nora, QTo6bl ,UOKa3aTb aro. Be3 eroii nOMep)KKH rPHrypa He CMOJKCT ytiezraTeJThHO npo,[(eMOHCTpHpOBaTh nartpszceHIIe, YCHJme U UHHaMU3M. :::hOT <paKT TaKJKe Tpe6yeT fionee no,u:'-IepKHYTOTO HCIJOJlb30BaHHJI Ta30BOn rrpH3MbI, <reM

06 3TOM rDBOPUJIOCb parrsnre. Korna ;

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46

B :nOll <jmrype rpy.uHilll xnenca J1Hillb CJJerKa 0603HiaQe· aa, HIDKH5IJI xacrr, 'ryrroaunta (npnsssa 'raaa), aaofiopor OTl£eT.llHBO BblpI1COSaHa BMeCTe C Horru,m no o6eHM ee croponaa,

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47

Pacnonaras Horn no 60K<U.1 npaaaosanaoro 6JIOK3 Ta3a, oripanrre BHHMaHl1e aa fiorrsuryro sucrynaromyro sropocrenemryio ¢OPMY - nonopioun,e B uearpe (na C31.WM nerre 31'0 Macca TOHKOH KHIIIKll), saxnrcsemryro atryrpa Ta30BOro peaepsyapa. <J)mypa cneaa CXeMaTH"IeCJ(J{ nOKa3hJB3eT <0l.IJJ.HIO) )KHBOTa!, B.bmnp3JOllum cfioxy 6e):(pa. Ha UeHTPaJI&HOil <!JHrype B.&Il1YKJIocn. JKHBOTa nepeneceua na HOHI. 3aMeTbTe, 'ITO aora, BXOI{Jf B 6en:pa, HMeJOT TeH.Ile~HIO C)KHMa'fb OCHOBaHJ1e )l(IfBO'fa, R3~3a sroro OlleBM.IlHOrO I{3BJleHlUI )KUBOT nOI{HlliMaeTCH nsune, cDurypa cnpaaa norrrepanaaer BhICOKoe paCnOJIOiKeIDIe )[(HBOTa B I{BIDK)'llleUCH cpHrype: Kor,n;a HOrn JJ;BIDKyTCJl, IIpH3Ma MO)KeT paCIIIHpllIThCH, npncrtocafimrsascr, K MeHJIIOru;eHcH nose, Oxpymsni nsicryn BhICOKO TIO 60],(3M aor - 3TO 60JJhlll0i1 BePTeJl, KOCth, n03EQ· nsromas flaM yaaaers, OTK)'rt:3 nora 6eper cnoe naaano, xorna OHa apanraercs orpamrseano, no ace JKe CBo60,I(HO B Ta306eApeHHOM CYCTaBe.

48

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49

3Ta cepna )J$11IKyruJ.fXCH cpl1ryp rroasonser HaM yanneTb crcnsr c pa3JlI1YJ-l:blX yrJIOB 3peHH51. Ilonafimonairre, KaT< CTpeJIKa cronsi YXO,!l,HT aapY)KY OT JIO,llhDKKlI, -rrofisr npn):(3Tb eM HY)KHOe nOJIO)KeHne (6UU3Y).

AH3Jll13 nnacnmecsoro crpoeHlf5i uorn 6~eT HenOJIHbIM 6e3 paccMOTpeHllil nonoxeaaa cron IT HX B3aHMOCBn311 B xasecrse onopmIX mranjJopM AlUI KOJIOllH HOr: B TIOM pncyaxe Horn cnepemi 06panrre BHlIMamre na TO, KaK OHa no BeeH csoeii nnnne o6pam:eaa snyrps OTBbICOB."Oll Hap)0KHoiinpoeKwm 6e.upa K HIDKHei1 sayrpeaneit npoeR.IJ,Jl}I JJO)I.bDKKH (CM. CTpeJJy no BceR .ronnie Horn). IIOJlO)J(eHHe CI'OIThI nOK83aHO nyr-IKU1pHbIM 3JlJlllTICOM. 3aMerbre, KaK crona nonaercs snepezr, KOI]Ia J10,ll,bDKe':IHOe coezranenae l\-!eHJleT TOIIKY OITOPbI Hom H BhT6paCbmaer onopnoe aarrpaanesne CIOIIhl Hap)?KY (eM. KOparKYIO CTpeJJ:Ky aa crone).

Mol YA<e OTMeqaJrn nf6KOC'I'b cpe,ll;l1fIHOoceaoro coemmenaa .IIBYx Macc Ty.iIOBIIrna, o6yCJlaruurnalOIUJlX era qpe3Bhfllaii· H)'IO nO,ll,BIDKHoCTh.

50

Kama TeJIO H3Tl16aerm, ITOBOpa'll1!B3erC)! mIll spatnaerca ITO ((jIyry, BaJKHO npanars KOJIOHH3Jl.1 sor HaueJIiliym H y6e!l,l1TeJIbH)ll'O orropy. B qmrype cnpasa - rrpo- 1131l0,!lJlllll1l1 MHo)J:(ecrno ,!J,BIDKeHHi1 ropc - FlOfU, ecmr CMOTpersnanax cnepezm, Oill1PlliOT-

C1 aa nsraepnyriae HapJ0KY C'IO]]1T. (Ofipanrre BHlIMaHHe na TO,

l<:)K ,II.IlliHHble crpenxa YXO;[lWf Ha- 3a,!J; B JIO)IhDKKe, a 3a:reM nepenocar nonoxenne CTOITbI H3py- / lKJ' Or aora.)

51

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B :)T{)H UTOrD:aOH CepHH Ha6poCKOB, KOTOPaJI nOKa.3bIB8- er }:IBll)l(eHIDi H rrOJ]O)I(eHl1H nor 11 TyrroBuru:a, '-urraTemo npeanaraercx npOCTO nOCMO'IpeTh aa KaJK.!lYlO qmrypy. MO)I(eTe J1H BbI C J1erKOCTblO onpezrernrrs, KaI{aJI 113 nor aapacosaaa BH,Il\I1'MOH c6m(y (S-06pa3f1a~ Jll1HH5I), a xaRaJ! - cnepenn (B-06pa'.lHa5I ¢apMa)? )J,eJIaJI 33KJIIOyeHMe, B11 06panUIH BHlIMaHI-re aa TO, KaK pacnonozceaa rapanuas Koel'£' aa K8)T<}:IOM Ii3 3THX BH:)J:OB, - ssrcrynaeT JJH OHa aapyxcy HJU:I HaXOAllTC.!I sayrpn KOH1ypa uorn? rilll,U5I aa sora BHH3Y, 3aMeT11JIH JIM B1>I HanpaSJIeHHOCTb CTOmI napyacy?

B npennaraenoii Har.m IIOCJIe,[(OBaTCm, HOCTH pMCOBaIDUr 4JrrryPbl, Mbl .!IO CHX ITOp o6c)I'K,ll;8mJ ztse C'ra.II:HH ITOpH,J:Ixa ee 11306paJKeHHa: (1) MacChI rynosama H (2) nora. Tenepi> npencranrraeu TpeTHH ~aKTop :;lTQn fJOCJ1e,llPBUTeJIbaccra; npa P"COBamnI PYKHrpersn no 3HaQeHHID. XOT5! ;q,BIDKeHI1H PYK H He BbI3blB3- l{)T3aMeTHhlX H3MCHeHffii srynOBI1111e I1J1H rrOJIO)KeHl1l11 aor; pa.3H006pa3He 3THX ,lJ;BHlKeJillH Tal, B'CnI1KO, '-ITO npyrae liaCTIi TeJIa He H.!I:)'T HH B rcaRoe cpasueaae C HHMH. He- 3aBHCHMO OT Taro, KaK OHM ,iUmraIDTCH - BMeCTC UJIH no OT,[(errhHOCTH, napannensno l1IIH B DpOTH130nOJ10J:KHhIe CTOpOHhl, - Ba)KHO, nenas na- 6POCKI1, saners HX KaK C.rU1- Hoe uenoe, 6JIOK, napy 83a11- MOCB5I3aHHhIX 3JleMeHTOB. Bsnne MbJ rOBOpl1JIH 0 CTPYKT)'PHOM PHTMC napnoro nsra- 6a npennne-n,x. 3TO, aapxzry C cYlKeHtiblMH UHJIHH,IlpH1.leCKHMI1 QJopMaMH, rrepaoe, C sere cnenyer rratJ'HI-{a'Fb ornrcaane pyror. K ::'ITOMY nofiaBUM TaI( naasrsaeuoe KOpOMhTCJIO, COC,lJ;HIDIlOmee pYKll.

COe,lJ;I1HeHHe PYK -qepe3 rpYM He IlBJTl1eTC):{ YCJIOBHOCTbID. P)'KH He HMelOT Ha,UJTe)l{a~eH rrpnB5(3KH K xapxacy CKeJIeTa. DPM CBOOO)J.HOM spam:elUlli nx nOJIOlKeI-IHe B pait-

ORe nnesa o6eCneI1HBaeTCH sa CIJ:eT CBlJ30K 11 TKaHeH. Jlonarxa (scapula), K KOTOPOH npHMbl{meT pyxa, TaK}I(e He sasperrnena, a erne sreasmas rrpI1B.!I3aHHOCTb pyrm K KJllOQI1ue Jl!BJIJICTCH .IlOBOJIbHO HeYCTOHLlHBi>IM coenuaeHueM. Pyxa, TaKHM 06Pa30M, He3aBHCHMbI OT xapxaca csenera, HO KJIIO'lHua npnxpennena K rpyrratre (sternum), 11 J1.0 caMOH Cepe]lHHi>1 rpyna COe]lHHeHI1C sro TBep,llOe H FIe MOJKeT 6hITh cvenieao. E,UI1HCTBeHHoe peansaoe ]lBH)l{eHl1e 3,[(eCb _.:.__ .DJjI1JKeHIIe TBep.110 3aq.H1KCHpOBaHl-lOrO CTepIKHJI. []O)TOMY BhIEO)]" 'lTO KJ1EO<lHua JlBJHleTC51. ecTecTBeHHhTM npO,llOJIJKeI-IHeM PYKll, II YTBepjlCAel-H1eM, 'lTO

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53

BOT npyroa npasrep COellli1BeHWI pys. MeHblllHU P"CYHOK npI1B5.l3a.H K fionee rrpOI\B11HY1'Oll cranarr na 6onhIlroti: ~JJ1- rype, YCI1JlllBaH B3al1MOCBJl3h pyx 'Iepes rpymryio KJIeTKy.

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55

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56

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.HCHO, QTO 3axO,U5IIUHe npyr B npyra <pOPMbl C03)laIOT y.u.aJIeAHC B npocrpaacrae. Ho MbI 'ratose 06- HapY)}(HJIM, 'IT03TOTnprreM, B CI1ll)' caMoll caoez npnporru, .HBlliIeTCJI If npWHiHOH pasotuueaaocrn, pas,l:(eJIeHWI <pOPM HaqaCTH. Tenept, 06CYL\:HM cnocofisr .!I.OCTlf)KeHHJI cmro"IeHHOCTH He,UHHCTBa BHYTpn HaXOMIUHX .!I.pyr na .apyra B my60KoM npocTpaHCT!8e lfJOpM. YTBepJK.IJ:aeM H nOl1.(;lTaeMC.H noxa- 3aTb 3TO, ~TO ciJOPMbl B rrpocrparrCTRe MoryT y,Uep)KHBa1'bCH BMecre rpeus cnOC06aMH: (1) C nOMOIlJ,blO B3aHMOCB.H3yrolllllX JUIHHM, HaHOCHMbIX Y MeCTa coe,UH.HeHHH rpOpM (CYCTaBOB), rne xoaca co- 6HpaeTC}! C[<Jra,l:(KaMH H B03iPacTaer nOBepXHOCTHOe aanpsoseane, rue Macca MbIIIIU }I CyxOJKHJInll onneraer 60m,llIHe CTPYKTYPbI; (2) C rrOMOllIbIO lliHpHiblX 06BO,l:(Hbrx JI11HHH H KORTy]JOB, xoropue .!I.OJI)KHbI KORTPOJIHpOBaTb II ICOHCOJJJ.irm:poaaTb TeH,n:eHUIIT{) [( pa3,I1,eJIeHMro aa qaCTH, H (3) C noaomsro HerrpephlBHorO'qepe,UoBaH~ TOHOB, asrpaxarornerocs B nOJIHOM CJIHJIHIDl ¢OPM 11 3aBepIIIaIOUJ;ero nponecc, HaqaThlM HaHCCeHl1eM B3aH.MOCB.H3yrOI:QllX J1HHHll KOHTYPHOll 06BO,ll;KOH scex sacrea.

B3aHMD~BQ3UHlIl1Me AHHHH

Ilepssni cnocof 061>e,l(JlHeHlUi <pOPM B rrpocrpancrae - C03,lXaHHe HX uerrOCTHOCTl1 nocpencrsou B3aHMOCBHsyrontax JIIIHHH - MO){(HO OTQ('TJIHBO Y1U1ileTb na CYCTaBax, xoropsie CJIYJKa1" rrpOMe)f(YTO"IHbfM 3seHOM 11 COtIJIeH5IJOrr fionee rro,n:BH)KHble qaCTII 'I"eJIa. TaM, rne KOCTH CKeJIeTa asmaparor - KQCTHOIKH nansues, JIO.l###BOT_TEXT###amp;DKKH, KOJIefm, JTOI<T11 H sanscrt,s, - 06pa3yeTC.H aesoropoe o-resannoe noaepxaocrnoe narrpsoseaae. Ha pyxe, narrpaaep, rrpocnezoreaIDTCH KaHaJIlJ, no KOTOPbIM HanpJDKeHHe II HaT.l'!)I(emfe fI,II,eT BBepx II BHfI3 B)lOJIb cnoaorsrx nam.nessrx tP0pM.

B3aHMOCBJI3yroUlllIe JIIIH.HI1, H306pmKeHHible ua 3TOH PYKe (noxasanu CTpeJIKaMH), 1<aK 6b1 CTPYHTCsr BO snanaaax Me)K,lly KOCTRillKal\iIH narrsnes 11 CrrJIeTaIOT O,lXA}' <P0PMY C npyron. Ha Mem,meH HJI1TlOCTpaUHH 3TOll >Ke pyKH BBepxy MbI BlULl1M KOMnJIeKC CJlO:JKHbIX COqrreHeHHbJX rpOpM - nOCrre,lXOBaTeJIbHOCTb npynmon, BeTO'leK, CYLIKOB II CTBOJIOB, nepennerennsrx II Hepa3pbIBHO CJ[HTbIX BOe)ll1HO. C rrOMOUI,blO CTpeJIOK .n;OiKa3blBaeTCH aHaITOfl1l{HOCTb 3TIIX <pOPM rpOpMaMH KHCTIl pYKl1.

66

BOT npyroa rrpmaep JUIHeilHoH 3aBH~ CHMOCTH, HCrrOJlh30BaHHoH ,I(IDI Toro, 'IT06hI cosnarr, 3<P4leKT Hepa3PbIBHOC~ TH. Hanecemrue JlliHJIli (axnerrmposaaI-H,]'e CTpe1lKaMH) H.IJYf OT 1<ORTypa oztROll cPOpMnl K npyrcs, BllJIeTa51Cb sayrps ee, 'ITO npespamaer nne omensasre nansneasre (j)OPMbI B ezraayro CJIQ)J{tryrO, (Cpasaare .u;HarpaMMY transua nsepxy 11 Aopa6OTaHH)'lO soanernnno na pHCYHKe KHCTli pyrm BHl13y).

HHOTAa B Ha'laJIbHOM CTa,1.1;llH pHCOBaHIDl, KOr)W 4JOPMbT l13y~lruoTC51 ITO OT.ueJIbHOCTli ;::t:JUl C03AaHHH nepcrreeraBnI, MQ)KeT B03HHKH)ITb reanemras K 1lX. pacrrazry aa xacra (CM. BepXHlOlO xacrs IUIJIlOCTpaUHH). ECJJH XYL\OJKIll1K 6y.n;eT HeBHl1MaTeJIeH, 310T 3cjlcpeKT OT,I:IeJIlbHbTX «KYCKOB» B0306JIa.uae:r. lh:DKHJ1M Ha- 6pOCOK, MO)l}l<:Pl1UMpOBaHHbTH H 60JIee 3aKOfNeHHbIH, ,1lIaer H3MeHemn,lH BM,[I, sorna n051BillIIOTCH CB5f3YlOIllMe JIllHlIM, xoropsre 06'he)1;JlHlflOT qJOPMhI (CM. CTpeJIKH).

67

KaK IT B KHCTI1 pyxa, cers J1I1HeHHbIX B3aUMOCBH3eH Onrreraer nOBepXHOCTHhre rpOPMbl OCHOBamlH crorrsr, ECJnI rrpO)J;OJDKHTb aanpasrreuae aroro nOTOKa J1HHHH, TO OH 6ecrrpeilllTCTReHHO yi1.neT BblCOKO no uore.

68

Msr, KoUeYHO )J(e, He ucsepnamr Bee THTIWHlJE,Ie J1HHHH coe!J.I1HeHIDI, «amre MO)KHO rroxasars C nOMOlIlbIO CKJ1a.nOR rra RO)Ke (nauo, rues, )KHBOT H T. !J.). Mu paCCMOTpHM ilX fiorree 06c"!["O.l{TeJIbHO C 60Jlee 3Ha'IHTeJIbHbIMI1 H 3a~1eTHblMH MblIllllaMH Yli CYXO)KHJlI1JIMH, xoropsre BblCrynaror npn HanplI)KeHHJ1 11 RaK 6bI cBH3i>ISafOT TIOJ].BHJKHhTe -rneau MOIl\HbIMH H )J;OBOJfbHO !J)H1HHhlMH 1'pOCaMl1. 3nr B3aHMOCBH3YfOR(HC '«TPOCbT» BKJ1lO'laroT rn<pOHO)Knyio MYCKynarypy rW3aJJ;H xoneua, a HH)Ke - ax,UJl[JTOBO cyxoxoorae na narse (CM. crpenxa), Omr HBJUllOTClI seesMa BmKHb(MH ¢a!ITOpaMH rrpn H306pa)((eHHH e,uHHCTBa

rpOPM, •

3)].eCb JUIHHH, noxaasrearcunre B3aHMOCBJI3h KOiKH 11 cyxo:a(HJIHii: (0603HaQeHFlbIe CTpeJ1KaMH), COeJJ;HHIHOT 3JteMeHTbI BeeM HHJI<Heil Qac"H1 rena, MbT BlI)]JIM B3aHMOgeHcTBHe crrnerajounrxcs, CBH3yiomax ll.JlHHH, nonmraaromaxcs asepx OT OCHOB3HHH CTOnb] K roneaa H cnycxarouraxcs OT ropca II MycKynwrYPbJ 6e.Qpa. Oco6oe BHJIMaHlIe CJ1eAYer 06paTHTh sra TO, 'ITO OHM npOTHBononOiKHO aarrpaaneau (CM. crpenxn). 0 HM H,o,yr B 06paTHbIX HanpaSJleHIDIX ITO TOH npasnae, GiTO Mhf BIlAHM 4JOpMbl norn B my6oKOM y,lJ;aITCHIUI, TO ecrs, 0603peBaeM HHlKHlOlO nacn, HOfTl OT CTOnbI K KOneay, TaK zce, KaK H BepXHIOID sacrs sora OT UOLIHU L10 xonena. TaKlfM 06Pa30M, 06a L1BHlKeHM.S1 aanpasnema K TO'TKeBpallleHHJJ COMKHyroro xonena.

3)l;eCb BH,lIHO, KaK caasyiomue JIMAM sora YXOMT B 'reno, nOLlHHMlliICb K OCHOBaHHlO ropca H cnIDI.hL B 1TOM njJM!lilepe TIOK3.3aHbI TpH OCHOBHhIX srana pa3BHTHa ¢OPM Hom il Hll)KHeH 'JaCTM Terra. )J,BIDKeHfle JITlHHH pa-'3BHllaeTCJI: OT (1) CIUlaIl,OK CTOIIbI I< (2) MycKYJJarype Hom H ssmre (3) K 60JIblllI1M MhlllleLfHhIM oObeM3M JI:rOLlI1U, 6c,l1;pa H COHHbl - Te"" neperesarouue« npyr B zrpyra MaccaM, xoropsie COYJ1eIDffOT 60J1blllMe ¢Opr.fbl 'lena B ;ueJIbHyIO ¢rnypy.

69

ECJrn Mhl XOTHM HapHeOB3Th Tope H OTpaaars era JJ;BllifG;:HHe B my6oKoH npoCTpaHCTBeHiiOH: nepcnexrnee, Sa)KHO nOH.lITh, Ka.KHM 06pa30M coe,[(HH>IIOTC5l' ,!J;Be MaCChi TYJIOBHIUa B paKypce KaK EUDJ(Hera, TaJ( 11 aepxnero yrrra 3peHHH. 3,!leCh TOpC, BH,I:(HMbTH B I1BHJKeHHH csa,[(11, .Ka.K 6hI BhI6paCbJBaeTC)l snepen C namero yma apeuas, Hl1JKHJI.lP<ra30BaJf M3Cca ,[(OMHHHPYeT - OHa 6muKe K ma.sy; M3Cca rpy.n;HOH: KJ1eTKH BTOpHqHaOHa pacnonoxeaa nansure OT rnasa. QTo6bI YCIillHTh oro nneaarnerrne, OT aapyJKHorO asicryna 6e'[(pa nponenena JIHHH.lI, xoropaa cnenyer }l'3rH6y 6e):(pa BOBHyTph, a 3aTeM pe3KO CBOpacIl1SaeT BBepx no KpaIO M)'CKynarYPbJ, qTQ l1,!leT B):{OJIb cnnaaoro xpeora (CM. CTPeJlKI1) 11 JIB.JIJ{eTCR maBHblM Cpe,!lCTBOM coenaHe.HJ:Hr ,[(ByX Macc TYJIOBH.!Ua., eCJlH CMOTPeTb na Hero cnnay H C3a)J.,l1.

BOT BapHaHT JIlllieIhIO'(i CB5f3H JJ;BYX Macc TynOBM~a, eCJUf cuorperr, aa Hero CHH3Y H B TpM sernepra cne- 13a" )l{eHcKillI qmrypa nenaer TaKoe mmefiHOe onacaHHe OT·"eHh BbJpUSHTellhHbIM (cneea).

BH.Ll :lKeHcKoro Topca cnesa a C3ap;H, C JIerKllM rrOBOPOTOM B60K. ,L{OMHHUPYlOIII)1H H3rH6 6e.npa HJl:eT OT xpaiinero xonrypa CJIeBa H yxomrr rnyboxo B nO)lHHMaIOUJ,YIOC5f asepx CITHJIHyro l\,fYCKYJIaTypy" IIpaBbrH 60K, XOTlI H He crons OQeBH.ll;I-I1>IH, BKJIHmmaerCH B tree OT zransaero 6e.llpa" B :nOH HJIJUocrpaUMH He ncrrons- 3y:tOTC5I erpemca, qT06b1 rroxasars npouecc B33J1MOCB1I.3U, HO KJIIO'leBhle q)OPMbl npopHCOBaHblL\OCTaTOTUIO Bblpa3H'teJIbHO, "!T06bI )];a1'h 06" :JTOM scaoe npeacraaJIeHHe" CpaBHHTe cooTBeTcTBYIOI[(l'lIe Hp;yIIl,ue ssepx mnmH B BepXHeH'IaCTH Topca, CJIeBa U crrpana, cnepenn H C3a.IlH, H ooparrrre BHHMaHHe aa TO, K3K ):(OCTHraerca e,rmHCTBO ctJOPM (eeepxy).

3Ta qmrypa anmocrpapyer lltmefu:ryIO B33llMOCEJI3b .ll.BYX Macc 'fYJI0BHII~a npn BHL\e CHH3Y n is 'IpH xeraepra crrpaaa. Cpasmrre c npe)lbI.!JYUleH nmuocrpanaea, )];eMOHCTpRpyrorn:eH3TOT)Ke nplleM c nesoro 60Ka (cneea BRU3y).

71

ECJIH MbI nOCMOTplfM aa 'I)'JIOB11IUe csepxy 11 csazra, TO, rrpezcne scero, 06paTliM BH11MaHHe na HaXO,U5!Iu,yJOC5f ropaszto nsune H ,UOMHHHPYI{)m:Yl{) rpYJlHYlO KJJeTKY; ra- 30BaJi Macca 3aHMMaeT BTQPOCTerreHHoe, noaxaaeaaoe nOJIO)!{eHHe. B 3TOM cnysae B3aHMOCB:li3b nayx Macc T)'JIOBHlQa pa3BlIBaeTC}[ no 60KaM rena, nOA PYK<iMHno JIHHHH I1mpOKHX (latissimus) MhlillU (A), xoropsie C)[(UM<iJ{)TC5I BOBHYTPb H K3a,D,H, K nsrcryny 6eJlpa (B) B6JlH3H CII11HHOro xpetira; OTCIOAa H3rH6 IIOBopaqHBaeT aapyzcy (C), oxaarsraas raaosyro «6a6o'IKY» (D).

72

3,n:ecI. CBSf3YlOwall JIl1 Hl151 , npOXOA51IIIa5I ITO llIHpOKHM MI.TllUaIvl, noxasaaa C nes oro 60Ka, CHH3Y H C3a,UH. BaJI(HO pasnaaars MeTo,Ubl naxnecra B Maccax T)'JIOBHlIJ;a npn BlI,Ue csepxy 11 cm13Y. CIIoco6, rrpHMeHeHHbIH anecs, - 3TO IIOCJIej:\oBan:JIbHOCTb 3axo,UJUIJ;HX ITOBepX ,IJPyr ,u;pyra H3BHBOB 'rena (ecrnr cwcrpers CHJI3Y ssepx), HO cacaTue rrpOHCXOJlWr ocooenno sasrerno aa II03BOHOl[HOH MycKyJJarype, YXOMm,ei1 BhlCOKO B CITHHy. B 3TOM IIpHMepe OHO npOHCXO[{HT B 06paTHOM HanpaBJIeHHM, BHH3, B CTOPOHY OCHOBamm II03BOHOQHOro cTOJJ6a.

3D;eCb HCrrOJII,30BaHBe JIHHI1If llIlJ:pOKHX MbfUl'q rrpOI1J1- JIlOCTpHposaHO aa )l(eHCKOH tPHrype. CpaBHHTe )J{eHCKI1.e Ta30BbIe If3rH6bI C ropasno r v teHbIllHMH rra M)0I(CKOH ~mype.

Bnzr MY)J{CKoro Topca C3a.uH If caepxy, AKlleHTHpOBilllHM mnnrn IllllPOKIfX MblIIIU snecs BbIpa3H:TeJThHO nonsepxaeaer npeBOCXOUC'fBO rpY,LIHOll KJIeTJ(H aan OTCrynaronreri Brny6b np113Mo:i1 Ta3a. COBeTyeM crynerrry 06panITb BHHMaHHe ua Ba)KHYIO BH3YaJIhHYIO .ueraJlb: XOT5I aaaroaasecsne ~OPMbI npa BHAe csepxy COOTBe'l"CTB)'FOT ~OPMaM rrpn rrpenureCTBYfOrn:eM eMY BII..qe CHI1!3y, H3- fH6hl rena Hero 4>OPMbl aocrrpnHHM8!IOTC5I KaK YXOLl5Ill{He OLlDH non ,llpyrOH: H3BHBhl (eM. C'I'peJIKH), OTpa)KaJ] 'FOT <paKl~ QTO OHO paccuarpaaaerca csepxy

Ilpn H306p~eHI1H rena cnepenn (naepxy CJIeBa) TOIKe HCnOnI:,3YlOTC5I CneWHlJIbHI,le npneMbJ B3am,IOCB5I3lf B 3aBI1CIIMOCTIl 01' BbI6paHHoro npocrpaa-

73

74

CTBeHHoro yrna 3peHHH - caepxy HJIll cmrsy, Ecna MbI B03bMeM Bllll cBepxy (KaK B npeIl1I.n;ymeM npaMepe, HO reneps npe,n,CTaBJ1eHHOH. cnepezm), TO saM0THM, 'ITO rpynuaa xrrerxa I<aK 6h1 CMblKaeTCJl H3 TeJ1e napoti 33XO)]JlmHX omra rton ilPYJrYKl nyr: O,UHO narrpasnemre OT naeunrero R3fJ16a rpyznroii xnerKH (A) H)]0T BOBHJ'TPh eKJ1MOK nocepennue :lI<HBOra (B), '-ITOfib13RfCM COe,IlHHHThC.a c 60J1brrrnM BMcryrrov )I(HBOTa aa ypOBHe 'rasa (C); ,!lpyroe - npo)J,OJ1)l(aeT I-IapYlKHblll KOHTYP rpy.n;Holl KJleTKH BHH3, K nIlllliH 6e.n.peHHoH MblllillbI (X), KOTOP3.H CBOliM H3BHBOM rrpacoenaaaerca K nsrcrynaromeay non- 6PKlIllhIO (C), a orryna orrYCK3e-rCH BHYTPb, C)!{HManCb Y JI06Ka CD).

Bsepxy cnpasa enre O)1,HH npHMep .L\BYX nyr <pPOHTaJTbHOHr B3aHMOCBSl3H, BH)J,HMbIX c erne 60- nee BhlCOJ(OH n03HUI1H. 06paTHTe BHHMaHlle aa CI<JIaJU<11 rrocepennae )KUBOTa (A), HapYlKHhrH 06- XBaT 6e.upa (B) If Macey rrO,Il6plOUJb5I (C).

CJIeBa - unmocrpanax coezranemor Mace 1)'JIOBHm;a npa BMlJe crrepezm aa JKeHCKYlO <plITYPY. B 3TOM npavepe nonpooyare onpenernrn, B3aHMOCBJl3yIOll..\He (~ar<TOPbI 6e3 CTpeJTOK.

Pe3KO H3KJIOHHBllIMC5I BOBHYTPhq.Hrypa B ,!J;BH1.KeHHI1, BM)lJIMM cnepeznr. 3rreMeHT B33HMOCBJI3H 3,liJ,eCh npOJIBIDlercs B cepaa OTPhIBHCThlX, 33XOLvrIIl,iI1X .llPyr 113 ,u;pyra cjJOpM, )J;aJIl>llIe Mbl BM.tUiM, KaK nora, CMf.lIGNCf. H3 5IrO)J,H"'fHOM KOH'I)'pe, npeBp3lI..laJOTC5I B OTLleJIhasre KOMllOHeHT&I, coaepnreaao 060- COOJIeHHbJe OT czcaroro c rp'YLlHoH IUH~TKOH nOLl6pfOlllMI.

... }4 "'-_

ECID1 nepenecra 1'1'011 3peHlliI na 60JIee HH3KyiO rr03HIJ,MiO cnepezm, TO TIOp~OK Jll1HeilHoil B3al1MOCB.lI3H Macc T)'JIOBHIUa MeIDleTC.II na rrpOTlIBOnOJlQ}Klu,m:: HarmHM C Ta30BOM Macchl, JIHHlIJI LlBIDKeTC5I ssepx rro xparo rrepe)UICR KOCOR MbTIIJJ.I;bI ramra ( externus oblique), I·laxO.WIIUI1XC5I nocepemme TeJla; 33TeM COeID1IDlTeJlh~ HaH JIHHIDI rrOBOpa'IHBaeT K ueHTPY )J(HBom (rectus abdominis) M nOLlHl1l\:IaeTCJli BhlCOKO B apIC)' rpy,wIOH KJleTKH ()lHa(pparMa), cue sasepmaer .nyr006pa3HhIH nOBOpOT cnesa aanpaao (eM. CTpeJI[{(f.).

76

BH,I:!; )J(eHCKOH qmrypbl cnepenn H CHH3y. J1HHlIJI B3aIIMOCB5I3H 1)'JIOBHuta LlBlI)J(eTCR OT BHeIIIHero KOH1)'pa HorH c yrorOHOM BOBJf)'Tpb B)J,GJl]' H3nI60B 6e.n.pa, 3aTeM peaxo YXO.Ll,.i1T asepx, aasepiuaa rrO)J,beM B csone pefiepaoii apKH .

Bor IIpI1Mep CTIIUiHWr Mace TyJIOBUlll.a rrpa :BliIne CH1l3Y aa nonyneacanryio )KeHCKYIO <purypy. Has 11 sepx 'ropca COe,D;I1HeHbI C nouounao paasrsrrux CB.ll3Y10DJ.llX JlJ1HHn. B 3TOR <p3rype H B CJIe~lOIII.en nonpofiyare cooraecrn ¢OPMbI: caasana TO, RaJ( sepxuaa qaC'!'b )KHBOTa YXO,!ll1T B peoepayro apxy, a 3aTeM - IIOCJIe,!lOBaTenb.HblH PM H3BHBOE ,q)OPM, nnymax lffJIy6b rrorrepex scero ropca,

MY)KCKaa <pllrypa B '[lBHJKeHlcIH, BH.D;HMM cnpasa C IIOBOPOTOM B T})H. 'leTBepTYI. anmocrpapyromaa TO )Ke 00- enanenne Macc ryJIOBHIll:a C HI1)lmero paxypca, qTO 11 na rrpenunymes, pHcYHKe BBepX}' CJIeBa.

77

B aroii cjmrype, BIf,1{HMOH C 60JIee HH3KOro paxypca, qeM ,IJ;Be npensrnymae, tienpo CMbiKaeTOj C tenore sa BHYTpeuneii naxosoit srramme )I\HBOTa (A); caapyaoi 6e.n;pa ofipasyerca 06TeKaIOll(J,dt BbIC-ryrr BOKPyr MaJIOH HrO,[l.11'IHOll (gluteus medius) Mbl1Ill:lbI (B) If 3.QeCb )Ke, B cepe)J;HHe Terra, B TanHH, Ha:'1iHmeTCJ:r B3aHMOCB513b (C) cepnell KopOTImX H3BlliBOB, nO,D:HHMa:I01I(ll.xClf BbICOKO B pe- 6epm.m CBO)l (enpaea).

3,1{eCb B3aHMOCBJl3b naxosca iii 6e,1l,peHHOH nyr (npounJIIOCTpHpOBaHHaJI B rrpezuuryiuesr npmrepe na X{eHCKOH !}>urype) noxaaana Ha MY)KCKOii qmrype (eeepxy).

Ha3TOM pacyaxe cpenneit 1:faCTH Horn BHYIPeHHAA noprHJl)f{HaR MblIlll1a (sartorius) rro,n:06HeM )KeJIo6a (A) nanaer BHH3, yxons Bmy6b H BHORh rrpO.lIBJIIDICb JJIJIHIITH- 1:feCKHM BbICTYIIOM, CTaHOBJIlll;UMCJl KOHl)'pOM BOKPyr KOJIeHa (B); HIf)Ke KOfrryp KOJIeHa snenpaerca B KaHM 6oJlhme6epuoBoH KOCTH (tibia), (C) If crrycxaercs (10 HeMY BHIi3 B,UOJIh rOJ1eIm, rne HeO)KH,n:aHHO BHOBh B03HHKaeT B xoarype (D) JIO,UbDKKH (areca}.

78

3Ta CllOJKHlliI llUHHJl B3aMMOCiBH3H - caxas )VIHHHaH rra rene, H CTY.l{eHTY PCKOMCH,L(yeTcH 3arrOMHHTb ee. OIm, CllOBHO zryra JIY1(a, COe,L(HHHer Me1K)lY co6oii BepXHIOlO H HHJKHIOIO ~aCTH nora, (fAH nenpepunao OT nnyrpenneii BbIcrneH TOclKH rraxa no xonena, OT xoneaa K JIo,ru,DKKe, a OT aee - B1m3 no Bcell nnnae CTOITbI (cneea).

BH,L( CHM3Y nap}'1 BiblTJlH)'ThTX II cspentennsrx HOT. IIoCMO':tpHTC, MQ)KeTe JIH Bt.] rrpOBeCTH B3aIrMOCB5f3yronryio JIHHHlO aa ::lTOH: cPHrype, HCnOJlb3YH B Ka:qeCTBC OPllCH'lIUPOB rrpe)l,IIIeCTBYIOIIJ)!e rrpaxepsr (6JlUJy).

Ha nOM plIC)'FIKe npasoii sora, BH.D;HMOil C rrpOTJIBOITOJIOJKHOH CTOPOHhI CHlI3Y, aayrpeaaaa JlIlliIDI snnaa H,llYlllen TIO nceii .LlJIHHe sora OT fiezrpa .D;O cryrma, Ha neaoa, COn-ryTOH uore, ,BHYTpeHHJfJIi JUIHIDI anecs paspsisaercs aa nsa orpesxa (O,IlHH O'1pe30K LIM BepXHeH 'I<lCTH Hom, LlPyrOH - .1l(JUr Hli1KHei1) C KOJ]eHOM nocepenaae, Ha HapYJKHOH CBIDYK>Ill,eit nl1HlIH neaoji, BbmpJlMJIeHI-IOH aora ofiparnre BHHMaHlfe na TO, KaK 3aJ.1HIDl J1HHHfJ 6e.lil:pa BhUqJy'umaeTCJ1 aasaa H KHapYJKH aa HKPOHO)I(HOH Mb~e (cneea 611UJy).

79

KOCTHhlfJ sucryn H8 xoneae B 4>OpMC rpeyronsmnca, BH,UHMhm CH1f3Y 11 cneaa, 06paTHTe BHIlMaHHe aa npePbillHCTOCTb J11fHeHHOH axirenryarraa CYXo)KHJ1IDl na sanHeii TIOBepXHOCTH 6e)l:pa, xorna OHO CMbIKaeTCj{ C J(OHTYPOM HKpLl.

Koneno - rrras HaH B3aI1MOCBH3YlOrn:a,ll rpopMa Me)!()];y aepxneii a HHJKHeH 'IaCTbJ:O HOrli. Ha,n,KOJIeHlH1K (patella) upaxpennaercx K 06CUM qaCTJiM C lIOMOIllbl:O MOill,HbIX CYXO)f(HJ1HH. Koneanuii CYCTaB XOPOIlIO Bf1AeH 6JIaro,[laps 3aMeTHbTM 606HHOo6pa3l:lbIM BI,IcryrraM KOCTH, Ha3bIHaemlM MblIl(eJIROM. Ilpn BH,[Ie CH1Ji3Y xoneao n HH)KHHa gaCTb Horn C03AaJO'r OT'1eTJIllBoe ene-rarneane 6JIOKa, HJII1 KOMllJIeRCa, xocreii npaxoyronsrroa csepxy cjJOpMbl, no C)£(flMalOIl(Hilc.ll Bfm3 ,[10 TPcyrOJ1bHI1Ka, yrurpatouieroes BO BHYTpeHHIOfO JillHHlO fiorrr.nreoepuoson KOCTH (cnee«).

To )Ke «oneno, ecnn nOCMOTpeTb na Hero C 6om.weH 1Ib1COTol, n03BOmIeT !laM ysanere CYXOiKflDl1e ronena C npHMf:.lKaIOm;eii K HeMY KorreHHOH t.t.arneqrCOll, nO)1.HMMaIOru:eMCj{ nsepx, "IJro6w coemnnrn, C CyXO)Kill]JH~M aepxHeM '!aCTfI Horn 11 nepenuen MblllIUei1 J1.II)KKI1 KOH1)1>, l1.llYlllllH K 6e,[lpy.

81

KOJIeHO, TeaK CBR3ylOll!,WO UeHTP MC)f(AY BepXHCn Ii HHJKBell "IaCTgMll nora, coeaaaaer B ce6e KOCHl', CYXQ)KHJJHlT H M)'cr<yn:azypy. Ha .D;aHHoH nnrnocrpanrxr, Inl.ll.HTe JJH Bhl, rne oro nponcxomrr?

3,lleCb MbI BMLlHM KOJJeHO H3 .uBoHHoro .pah"ypca. CpaBHI1Te 06a KOJIeHa ;rr nonoxenne HOr. Ilpaaas Bora noxassraaer Jl,BflJKeHHe asepx (eM. crpenxa), 'ITO 3aCTaSJUfe'l' KOJIeHO BMeCTe C HH}£{Hell -tacrsro nora asrcrymrrs nnepen. JIeBalT nora noxassisaer )J;BHJKeHMe IH-IH3 (CM. crpenxa), 'ITO 3aC"IaBJUleT BepXIDOIO nacn, nora BMeCTe C KoneHOM noztarscx enepen, B K31K,UOM 113 3TI1X cnysaea YXO)J(5illl,Hll B nepcnekrasy )JTeMeHT KaI( 6hl OT,IJ,aJmeTC.Sl. II03TOMY, 'lTo6bT coezmHBTb cjJOPMhI nora B OARO uenoe, coseryio cnezryronryro npotteztypy; B rrpasoa sore - ,.!l.BMlKeHfle asepx - uarrpaBMTf, nee CSJf3YlOll.\Re JIHRllM ssepx, '"lTo6bI rrpnnenars YAITllIDI.fOIl.I\MHCJ! )JIeMeHT K KOJIeHY cnepxy; B neROH Hare - ,D,BHJKeHHe BHH3 - rranpamrrs nee CBfI3YIOll!,I1e JIMHHH BI:!.H3, LITo6bT npnuernrrt, :,lJ1eMeHT J( KOJJeHY CHH3Y.

82

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BI1,D, OTse,I(eHHOH B6oJ( pysn C3a,D,H rarose noreassraaer TpH JIHUeHRblX CBH3H C neJIbTOBH,ll,HOH MbIIIlueH (A, B, C), rrpoanmecrpaposaaasre na npMMepe cnesa. MI.I Bff,nHM, TmE: lIeJIbTOBHJl,HruI Mbnm:l;a CMblKaerCH HIDKe C TjJex.rrraaoii MbIllIT{eti (D); o6pa3yJO.LI.J;HHClT )f(eJIo6 narrpasnxer cyxoaourne B,nOJIb nOKDl (E), rne OHO coe,I(HHJ.IeTC.II C apellnJIeqr,eM (11a cmp. cnpaea).

fJIaBHOM ¢OPMOi1, COe.ll.MI-UnOrn:en PYI(Y C- TOPC-OM, >II3JI5IeTC5I nnexeaaa IInH n:enbTOBHIlHaJI MbIIlIua. 3TO Ill11POK3!SI TOnCTa51 MbIllIeLflirur Macca, KOTOpa$[ pacnonaraerca BbICOKO H& PYRC H MOJKeT 6blTb cpasneua no CBOen cjJopMe H <PYHKUHH C 601lhllIOH ill'O.uWIHOH MaCCOH 6e,lJ,pa H sepxneii sacra HOri1. ECJUf CMO'I'peTb C3a,lJ,H, COeL(HHeHHe )J,eJlbTOBHJI;f-IOH !vffillUUhI C TOPCOM RMeeT rpa mrneMHbLX O'I~ pesxa: (A) sepxnaii KOHTYP nerrsroBH,lJ,HOH MblI.IlI.l,bl nOromM3eTC5I K nepxneii JIHl1l1H TeJI3 (trapezius) rpaneUJJeBH.1umi1 Mbmme, a orryna - K 3a}IHeH JIHHl1M mea, yxonsruea B roJIOBY; (B) cpe,UHIDI l:(aC-TE, .Jl:BHJKeTell ropH30HIaJTbHO rrorrepex, '-IT06bl COe,lJ;HHl1TbC51 C I(paeM norrarxn (scapula) H (C) rpermi OTpe30K 06- XO,lJ;wr HIDKHlOro '{aCTE. KOHTYPa zterrsTOBH):{HOH MbIIIJUhI H nOLlHHMaeTC)i TIO.u ymoM K3aAi1, Q1'06bl BrureCTI1Cb B MycKYJIarypy JIOnaTKH.

H3MeHHB pasypc rrpemurynnrx npmrepos FIa ITpOnmOnOlTO>JCHhIH, nOJryl.uiM rakyio B3al1MOCB'-l3h: (A) BepXIDlJI JillJiJ1J[ - nne-to, rpaneuaenazuran MhIllIU'a, urex; (B) cpernraa JIlIHIDI - ,[(eJIbTOBHllHruI MhlIIIUa, Kpati: JIOilaTIUI:

H (C) 3a)l;HIDI JIHHH5.I- I-Iaxo)J,5.I~Hiic5Ino)J, JI:CJIbTOBHJl,HOa MbIIlIl(eti: KOMIIJIeKC JlIOrraTO"IHbTX MYCKYJIOll. Ofipartrre BHHMallliC, KaK3aAHSISI IDlH}f5f ,LlCJlhTOBfl,lJ,HOH Ml>IUlUhl (C) CrryCKat,"TC5J fIlHI3 B cepeaaae pyxa OT TPeXTJIaBOii MhlilllJ,f.) I( JIOKTI:O H HIDKe (0), BKJIIOqM npezmnense. Canoe saacaoe 3)J;CCh -ljlYHKI(i15I JIOKTII, 3TOro BihICOKOro KOCTHoro ssrcryna, soxpyr KOTOPOro HH>Irnne M" BCPXHMC MYCKYJIhHbIe MaCChI nepennerarorca H B38!HMO)leficcrayIOT, B ero poml rrocpeztmrsa MC)J(.!l)' nepxueii H HlDKHeJ:i qaCnrMH pyKH.

84

Jlorcresoii BhlCT)'Il (olecranon), ecmr nocecrpers na Hero rrplIMO H C3a,LlR, )lCBO )leMOBC1pHpyeT CBOro JJ:Bo.l1HYlO ifJym<1IHiO B coxnerremm eepxnea H fflDKHell '-taCTeH PYlOI. B :)TOR crrerxa nOJ1.H flTOM py xe yxonaruee B nepcnetcrany npezrnnes be npunaaneao If OTO,[(BHHYTO aasazt C rrOMOnisro TOHa. IIpHno.n;H}lThIH nOKOTh c nojroursro mnmM asrpaanrensao BIlIfChIBaeTC.H B npeJI:rrneqbe.

3.u:eCb M1)1 BI1.u:llM, KaK CB1r3YlOmyIO, tJlOpMY C .!l,BofuIoro pasypca; npasaa B:bITIDIyTaII pyr<a nOBTOp5leT fl rronxepxnaaer ,llOMilHrrpYIOm:ylO KOeTh nnerra (humerus) II noxreaoii BhIC1}'II, CH):(fllll;I1M KaK 6l.J aepxov H BbI6pomeHHbIM rnyooxo B rrpeztIIJIe%e; B neEOH pyRe, cornyron IT yxonxineii B npOCTpaHCTBo, KOInypl.l .!l,OMilHilPYWUl,HX CPOpM rrepeCTaIOT 6hITI, )J{eCTKHMH, COe.!l,ilWI5I MYCKYJIbHhle MaCChI rrpennneass cepaeti B3a.liMonpOHHKUJOLUIIX H3- rH6oB, e03):1alOIUHX 1(j:HpeKT HaXJICera B nepcrrexraae,

3To BHYTpeHIlIIn Bli):l YAaIDlTDUlCHC5I B nepcnexrnsy HII>KHeH sacra pYKI1 . .D.OMH HlipyIOIUIIe ::lJICMeHTbI, coeIlHHeHHble BMeCTe, - BepXHJHI '1aCTb pYKH H JIOKOn. - nanpaanslOT Te'1eHHe JIHHe:HHOH B3aI1MoeB~- 3H BHll::!, B cpemuoio ysxyro 'laCTb JIOKTeBOR KOCTI1 H rnytioxo B 3aIDlcrse. Taiose orsrersre B3aHMOCB5I3b nnesa C TCJJOM (eM. CTpemO-I).

85

Korna pyxa )lBIDKeTca B 06paTHOM uanpaaneaan, J10KOTb B1.J6paCblBaeTCJI BblCOKO anepx, ,lJ,OMI1HHPYIOllIHM )DCMCHT Teneph - I1bICTaJ3JlCI-lliOe npezmnesr,e, BH,UllMOC BMCere c rrorcrev CHI13y. BepXH5I5I qaCTl, PYI01 UOllTH <!TO He BH,l(Ha. JT HHCHHa5I B3aHMOCB5I36 HIlC'r OT npennnensn H J10KnJ asepx, K MYCKYJlaM aepxneli lIaCTH pyKH r:repC,!.1oi1 nJ10THbIX C)IG:lThIX H3BMBOB.' 06paTHTe BHHM3Hl1C aa TO, KaK 3TH H3BffB.bl npo,uOJDKaIOTC5I B KOM IlJICKC CHnUaHlibIX C HHMH oonec «pyrmsrx,

86

Coruyrax pyxa, BH)lHM3sr Cf1CPCill1, yBO)lHT sepxmoro H HIflKHlDlO qaCTH B npOC1.VaHCTBo B pa3HhIX nanpanneu 11- 5IX: npenrmem,e B BepTHKaJIbHOM, BCPXBJ:OlO 4aCH - B ropH30HTaJIhHOM. B3,n:YTH5l cornyroji pYKI1, HHTepecHble C3MI1 no eerie, HMeTOT TCB)J.eHl.(lflO past.eznraars, pasnemlTb pyKY rta rrOCJle,n:OBaTeJIbHOCTb qaCTen. ITonOMY, IIT06hl c03,uan,e)J.I1HCTBO H nenpepsmnocn, (j:JepM, ueofiXO,D,HMa 3HalIHTenhHa5I rrpH6aBI(a Jll1HeMHbIX BbI6poCOBKOHTYPOB, H!J:)1lUHX sa IlpCL(eJIaMI1 aenocpencrnemrsix MYCKYJIMlbIX R3JCYTtlH; OIIJIeTaIO~Hx HX siryrpu 11 eHapy'lKH, CBB"3hJBa~ .!1 06be;n:HR.lI5J[ xacra B OIUfO uenoe, ITocMOTpl1Te, MOlKeTe JIM BbT npocneznrrs JIl1HeHHYIO B3aHMOCBJI3h (nOJIh3Y5ICb CTpeJIKaMI1 B KaLfeCTBe KJIfO'-fa), a TaK)J(e 06paTHTe BHI1MaHl1e na TO, KaK .lTHHeHHble cpezrCTBa npsoreueasi .nIDI roro, q']!o6hT COeilHHl1Tb rOpH30Hrans Hble If BepTl1KaJIhHbIe :JJJeMeHThJ.

3'ra ¢Hrypa nnJllOCTpHPYeT, KaK PYKa rrpmesucaer R TeJlY, eCJlH CMOJ'PeTb na nee cnepenH:. Corrryrue <pOpMhl o6eHX iPYK C03nalOT saverayio rexzte U.Hl:O K orzreneruno IlpH asrnane CHlI3y. IIpaB~Ui[ pyxa, flbITJIHYTaJr urrepen H npHnOD,H5lTa$[, KaK 6bl orpsmaerca OT ueJTJ,ToBHD,HOH M1.mrUi>J. 3,n:ecb .rpeoyerc» C03HaTeJTbHoe YBJI3bIBaHHe ee 1111- HH5IMti. C rpynaoa xnerxoii (A), RaK 11 nosepxnocruoe npOD,OJDKeHHeCBJl311 neJIbToBI1)J,Hoi1 MbIllII(b[ 11 KJllO'1HUbI (B) C TYJTOBTI;ll.I,eM. 3']['0 OTHOCllTCH TaTOKe !1 K nO)l;IUIToi1 ssepx nesoii pyRe, rne BepXlUlH 'laCTb pYKI1 H no.r~MhIrneIfH"bm nepexojt - OT 6Huenca (C) no IlOnMmmm (D) - lWIDKHhl 6hlTh BI1J1eTem.I B rpyaayro Maccy KaK BH)'Tpeaue, TaK H sueruae (CM. CTpeJIKH) . .ll:eJ1bToBH)JHRll MhIllIua, ecnu CMOTPeTb ua nee CHH3Y, roace yxomrr B rpym.. 110 BceR )JJHlHe 06eHX pyx B3,u:YTlIll MYCKYJIOB xaic B HH)I{HeR TaK H B sepxneii <IaCTHX, arrneraiorcs H COen;ITH5HQTCH c cocep;HHMll npanerarouiaaa K HUM qJOpMaMlL

3Ta BbTTJll:iYTaJI PYKa JD,CMOHCTpHpye-r rrepennerenae nnI-IHH, aaymax OT KMCTll II IIaJIbo:eB, OT BHeIllfIHX K BHYTpeHHHM xonrypan, C03naBaH enl1HCTBO IT TIJ1ilBHOCTh. 06paTHTe BHHMaHl1e rra JfiHteHHYlO npHBR3KY npanoro nnesa K rpyznr H Hmlmeii 'laCTlI 'rena.

87

B tuee Tp f1 60JIbLLH!X KOM nJIeKCa <pOpl###BOT_TEXT###quot; JICrlCTBY tOT B xatleCTBC 110CpC~Hl!KOB M (.':)KLl)' lOJIOBOi1 11 TeJ]OM: (I) rpyiUImlO-K11lOqf11lHO-COC[~eBH.n;Ha)l MbllUl_.(a (CJlCKa M cnpasa), KOTOpa}! coemnraer 60KOBYID 4aeTh rOJIOBhl C cepe~Imoli rpynu; (2) rpaneuaesamrui; KOMrlJleKC (no o6elIM CTopOHaM, CJ1CRa H cupasa), KOTOPbIM coezrmrscr 3a,[.(IllOIO =acrs ropca C OCHOBaHHCM -repena, H (3) lueHllhl1l pacrpyf (crrepcnn), "n'~ coeruuiaer veruocrr, c uerrrpansHon (!leHHon enamnroii, B TaKOM onYU.l,eHIlOM sane Macca ronosu 3aKpblBaeT KaKOe-JIH60 CBH)leTeJILC'i"80 npnvuxamul. semocra, IIO BI1.n;HO, KaK ueurpam.uue $OPMbI urea rny6oKO B.n;aB.JICHbl B nOJIOCTb rpyaa, y.n;CP)KlIB3}lCb V -06- Pa3HOR cllOpMon KJTIOIID usr, 3.n;ecb lliei1HUlI Bna)~H H3 - KOHeLJIIblH nynsr rPPOlITa.1bHOro BUlla urea.

B 3TOM 3aJOIID<U1TCJlhHOM npHMepe HI1)KHMe 'taCTY! PYK nosra CKPbIB3JOT sepXHHC. {.jTO ynepaorsaer PYKM B none 3peH!1)I, rak Tro B3JzyTW! nensroanzmux MhlUJU, IlO.ll,HI1MaKlIIl,l1XC.HH nepCXOWW1HX B Tope CJ]CB3 H cnpasa (cneea).

UpH TaKOM llOJlmKeW1H roJIOBbI H well, BbIT5IH)'TOH ssepx, H306pa3J1Tb ee CB.H3b C wci1 HOll 13naJ(llHOH J(OB011bHO rpyuHO, OTKpblTa51 1l0J(KOB3 HUlKHei1 semocra oopasyer 113- 1"116bJ aospyr mei1J.WfO pacrpyfia, a 0']" cepenuasr rpYJ(H paCXO,'lflTC5I JIRe BeTRl1 11 IlOliHllMafQTC5I BbICOKO B OCHOaauae -repcna n03aAH ynrcii. B ')TOM npnaepe, KaK H B npeasrny l.ueM, 3amUUI =acts Tpex rnaaoti nJIeqeBOH Mbl LUUbI COXpaH.HeT }lCHbIC npHMbIe O'lepTaHHH.

89

C3a,Il;Ii B3aHMOCB5f3b urea C rOJlOBOH nerxo nOB.5fTHa. 3,aech Mbl BI1- JJ:I1M, KaK TpaneUl1eBflLl.tlbIe rrrre-ressre I13Tn6bl, nzryurae crresa H cnpaaa, cMhIKaIOTC5f Jl ITOll.HHMaIOT~ca cronnooopasso B 3a)l,HIOIO· nacrr, OCHOBaHJ1Jl -iepena, rne HaLIHHaeT q:,OPMHPOB3ThC5f neperraori map. Ooparare BHllMaHlle na TO, [<aJ( RHellIHllH Kornyp nnesa CTaHOBI1TC5I anyrpemrav xourypo 10CHOBamur ronosu. Xo ra JIHHH5I xpefira He scerna BKJIIDQaeTC5f II ncnonsayerCJI, ee npHCYTCTBHe rronpasyraesaeTC5Ill rrpanaer OrreHOK.)J.OCTOBepHOCtl1 B3aHMOCB5l311 rOJIOBhl C ureea (eeepxy).

Ecrrn nOCI\WTpeTb sonpyr; TO OKa3hIB3eTC5I, 'ITO 60KOBbTe BRn!>! Well OTPmKaIOT npOHmOrrOJIOl:KHbIe CTOPOHbI TeJIa Jl roJIOBbI, He TOITbKO crrpaea H cnesa, HO TaIOKe cnepena H C3a,lIH. I1pocTa51 nnrrrocrpauas K CKa3aHl·loMY - 31'01' nporpnm, ronosu: rrepe,IIH5H1: ureanas JIHHJHl TmQU"HaeT'C5l or nO,lI60ponIW H onYCKaeTC5l K lllellHOH Brra,IIHHe, C85I3blBa5I ace nucrynaioutae anepezt CPOPM&I TOJIOBbJ, urea H rena soenano; 3a;:(H>UJ ureiiaaa JIHHll5I nanpannena B npOTI1BOIIOJ10JKHYlO ei1 cTopmry, CB5I3I.1BalI nee H3XOWlmHeCll c3anH cj:lOpMbT ronoau, men 11 'rena,

90

3'l'a rpmypa C 110BOPOTOM r0J10BbI B 'rpa cieTBepTH OYQeTJlI1BO HJIJIlOCTpl1pyeT pa3HHUy Me)K,C{Y 3a)U!eHwcifIIOH rnnuieii II rrepenxeii rneihwH JIHHHei-\: 3aWUIJI iueiinas J1HHRll nsuue IT OTJIOCHTe,1hHO xopose, ORa npOCTHpaeTCSl H cnerxa B3,[1hlMaeTCJI K HapYJl<HOH JIllHHll ropca, nepeznors nrenaaa JII'IHI1JI HHiKe II ,lJ,JlHHHee, 3TO 6e3ycnOBl'lO BHyTpeHHJI5I JIHHH5I, ona norpY)!(UeTC51 B nreiinyro Bna,[lJUIY H nponcnacaerca BHH3 flO ueHTpy .rena.

91

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CepHJI rrpHMepOB nnmocrpnpyer coenaserme .L1ByX JIllHIIH mea (nepezureii If saaaeii): 3a,u;wUI meHHaJI JIIfHHJI npHHI1MaeT ropaaotrrarrsnoe aanpaanerrae nonepex rrnex (eM. crpenxn); nepeAHJIH meiinas JlHHfHI nanaer sepraKaJlbHO OT nOA60pO)lKU K ropny; a orryna no BceH )JJfIfl1C 'ropca. Taxoe CPPOHTaJIbHOe norpyxeaae urea HMeer Ba)KHoe 3HalJeHHe B 11306pmr<em-m )lBH)KymeiIcJ:r qmrYPbI B IJ,enOM, HO 06 3TOM MhI noroacpror n03)Ke.

O~epTaHHA HKDHIgp

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rreHHOMY rrpHeM)' - TBep,Il;OMY KOH1YPY, saaepurarontevy OT.ueJIK)' tj)OpM. T10Clle 'roro KaT( tj)HTypa C03,1l;aHa C rrOMOIIIJ:>IO TaKHX cpezicra, KaI< HaXJ1eCT, sxnannaamre 11 zrpyrue, OHaMOIKeT 6bITh noseneaa no COCTOID1J.l5l e)J,11HOrO uenoro C IIOMOII{bfO 3cjJeileKT.l1BHoro KOOP.I)"HHHpYIOrn;ero xonrypa.

B 3TOM K3paHAallIHoM pHcYI-IKe cpaeanre npanyto II lleBYJO nOJIOBJ,lHbl qlHrYPbl. C JIeBOH CTOPOHbI m33 OTl\IeLJaeT IIOCJTc):(OBaWJ1bHOCTh 410PM, HeKoTOpyIO uesasepIIJeHHOCTb 11. npepunacrocrs. 3TO ).:IOBOJIbHQ nnrepecao, FIO BbITJ[jf).:lI1T, K3I< rrpocTo COBOKYIlHOCTb qaCTCH, a He enmroe uenoe, CIIpaB3 - KOHIYP npopncosau cam-nee H TBep:JKe, '-ITO BJl3Y3JIbHO npazraer cjJ0PM3M uepaspsrsnoers H C03).:1aeT ::J41cjJeKT nerrOCTI-JOCTI1, e,ll;I1HCTBa.

93

B 3TOM rrpl1Mepe HCnOJIb30BaHvHf KOH1ypa B lKeHCKOH qmrype «pyrmue pasno- 06p33Able ¢OpMbT TCJ1a TaIOKe noeenensr AO enanoro QCJIOrO c nOMOll.\bIO ofit.e)J!lfHlHOlll.Cro ax «oarypa,

94

Korna .u;mnKYlll.aJJ:C.IT ¢I1fypa M306- pazcerra B sarre cjJOPM, Hal1paBJ1eHI1blX B rrporaeononoxorsre CTOPOHbI, a xpyrnrsre, HaX01T5fll.{HC .u;pyr Ira .u;pyra :)J1CMeHTbI, BlI3YaJIhHO rrpemITCTBYI:OT C03,u:aHJ1I0, lfX nepasPbIBHOCTlf, TO KJUOll K oroopaacemno qmrypbT - B 06Ro,lIKe ee ycTOll'-llfBbIM, nenpepsrenuu KOHl)'pOM. Ooparare BHHMaHlfe, KaT{ nerKO nI33 cnezryer 33 06be.u;lfH5HOtUlfM "IT}' cjH1r),PY KOHTypOM.

B :rioH qmrype, KaT( H B npensrztyuie« rrpuerepe, qeTKO 0603Ha1.IeI{l-lble BHCWHJfe KOHTYPbl npnofiperaror Ll;OMHHI1- pytonryro po ns rorna KaK BHyTpeHHl1e cPOPMLJ 'rena erue 60JIee pU3Mb1ThI.

BOT npyroit npl1Mep nonxoaa K l(QHTPOJO{) C IlOMOIU,bIO KOHTypa. B :HOM cnysae eaaavocuenrreaae sacreit 3aBACHT OT TOHaJIbHOH pa3MbITQCTJiI MeHbillHX (POPM fI nonasneans .KpaCH, qTO rr03BOJHl.eT 6oJ'fee RCBO BH,n:eTb ocHOBI'IO« KOHTYP cpmYPbl.

95

3Ta !jJHrypa - Cne,UY.!OIIl;a51 CTa)]JI.II no cpaBHeHM.!O C rrpeznnenCTBYlOllI.HMH. 3,UeCb TOB. McnOR- 30BaH JImI roro, qTo5hl y,Uep){(llaars 60JThUlHe ¢OPMhl TeJIa, 11 CO- 3,UaeT anesarneaae nanaiourero H3i qmrypy CBeTa. CneTOBa5r ,YIOPO){(xa HanpaIlJI5IeT B3rJI5ILI_ BLI_OJIb uenTPalIbHblx !jJ0PM, rorna KaK lKfrpnas orpaseraiontas JIllHM5I KOHl),pa aoxpyr qm:ryphl npnztaer ell uenOCTHoCTh.

DhlBaIOT cnysan, xorna CllJ1bHOe yaenaseaae TOHa na <popMax qm:rypbI rrpOH3BO,UIIT 60JIl,llllIll 3cpcpeKT, qeM KORryP .uJI5I ):IOCTM){(eHIDl. ee enmrcrsa. B ::lTOll <pn:rype xorrryp rrpHCYTCTByeT, ao HMeer sropocrenennoe saaselome; .uOMMHHpyer TOHaJIhHa51 xapaxrepacraxa cPOPM, n pesyrrsrare '1ero OHn rrpeapamarorca S Maccy, KOTOpa51 CTaHOBHTC5I 3aTeM OpMeIITl1pOnaHHhlM aa cser M306pa)l{eHHeM. Korna cPl1rypa ocnemeaa, TOH, COQeTaHl1e CBera Ii TeHM, a TaIOKe Macca 6epyT sepx nan milHHeR B 1(OHrpone sa cPopMaMH (cneea).

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11 SHonb - B 60nee CllO)l{HOfi qmrype - Pa3Mhrtble TOHa H BH3yaJlhHbIU nOTOK CBeTa I1CKYCRO no,U,[(ep)KI1BaKlT KOHTYP rella. Ilonpooyrrre YBM):(eTh 3TO B3aHMo,UeuCTBl1e 6e3 nOMOIUII crpenox.

97

Korna 3Ha'lHTeJlbHOe yaerurnerrae TOHa aa cplfrype npHBO)J;HT K 60nee saaerirovy cuenJ1emHO cjlOpM, 'IeM YIIpOllJ,eHHJ,JH '1eTlmH KOHTYP, cj)OpMa nepexonrrr B HOBYIO crazuno csoero pa3Bl1TIiJ:1, Ilpeofinanaromee ncrrorrtsoaanae TOHa, COcH~TaBHe CEeTa il TeHH, a He KOH1),P, II03BOJUllOT OTo6pa3HTh qmrypy ME rrenocrnyro Macey. Xapaxrep tjJHrypbI 06YCJJOBneH arMoccjlepOM, CBeTOM, 'rexcrypoji, ee IIJJOTROCTbTO II BeCOM. Ecnn KOPOTRO, TQ npotineua 3aKJlJO'laeTC5I B IIJJaCnNHOCTil H CB5J3H cpHrypbl C oxpyacaromea cpenoii, C03)J;aHHll 3<p<peKTa ee cjlH3TP.reclmro, OC5J3aeMOro npncyrcrana. 3TH CB0.H:CTBa HY)JCHO "IYBCTBOBaTh KaK ~faccy, HX TpaKTOBKa 3aBHCHT OT l1CnOJIb30BaHH5J TOHa, COCleTUHl15.I CBeTa n TeRM.

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B :nOH cpilrype KOHTYP HCTIOJIh30BaH KaK lXOnOJIHHTeJIbHU5J xapaxrepncraxa. JIeBa5I CTopOHa <pHryPhJ 06Be)J;eHa KOHTYPOM C HeKOTOpOH axnearyauneii, IIO.lJ.pep)KHBaeMOii nerxo TOHH3HPOBaHHblMH 30H3MM, 'lTo6h1 rroxasan, OCBellJ,eHROCTb H 06"beM cjlOpM. JIlmeHHt,TH tjJaKTOp, o,!(HaKO, ,n:OMHHHpyeT. C rrpaaoii CTOpOHhl 6oJil,lIIee HCrrOJIb30BaHHe rona YMeHbllIuer omynreaae JIilHHH, B pe- 3YJIbTaTe <1:JOplvfhl KaK 6h1 CI'o·lbTKaJOTC5J H C03,n:alOT 3tjJ¢eKT MaCChI.

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DPH TpaKTOBKe 3THX nsyx ,ll,B}DKym;HXC5I (pl1ryp, BH)lHMbJX csepxy, JIHHI1.51 HCnOJlb30BaH3i ,ll,mf Taro, ,{To6hl o-reprwn, (j:JOPMbl, HO TOBa, cryurascs csepxy BHIf3, Bhl3blBaJOT ouiyureaae 60JIbU.lei1 OCBellleHHOCT'If 6JIIf)Kai1UJl.fX CPOP!l1 If MeHbIIlen: - cj:JOPM, Y)laJIeHHbTX OT IfCTO,{HIfKa caera, rr03BOIDrJr YBH)leTb o6e cj:JllrYPbJ B TOHaJIbHOll rrporpeccnn KaK Maccy. Hx TOHaJIbH8Jr rpanauas C03)laer 3cPcPCKT YXOJJ.5IlllllX B npocrpancrno HCpa3phIBHbIX <1JOpM. Ilponepsre pe- 3YJ1bTaT c06cTBeHHbIMl1 ~J1a3M1H; rrocvorpirre, KaK npocro aanr sarrrsn xacaeTCH cpllryp, KaK JTCrKO Bbl BOcrrpHHHMaeTe nO,ll,beM !:l nanenae B rrpocrpaaerne, nponsarascs csepxy BHH3 DO rrOCTeneHHO cryruaionnescs TOHaM.

99