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#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV



Chapter 12

Social Psychology

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Chapter Outline
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12.1 What Is Social Psychology?


Learning Objectives
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SITUATIONAL AND DISPOSITIONAL INFLUENCES ON BEHAVIOR


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Table 12.1 Characteristics of Individualistic and Collectivistic Cultures

Individualistic Culture

Collectivistic Culture

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MOLDOBPP )KABBA FQ PELRIA ?B KLQBA QE>Q KL DR>OA BSBO @>JB I>QB CLO EFP PEFCQ @>IIBA FK PF@H IBCQ
B>OIV LOABJ>KABABUQO>M>VCLOLSBOQFJBTLOH :FJ?>OAL 

4EB 3Q>KCLOA MOFPLK BUMBOFJBKQ ABJLKPQO>QBA QEB MLTBO LC PL@F>I OLIBP KLOJP >KA P@OFMQP FK >CCB@QFKD
ERJ>K ?BE>SFLO 4EB DR>OAP >KA MOFPLKBOP BK>@QBA QEBFO PL@F>I OLIBP ?V BKD>DFKD FK ?BE>SFLOP >MMOLMOF>QB
QL QEB OLIBP 4EB DR>OAP D>SB LOABOP >KA QEB MOFPLKBOP CLIILTBA LOABOP 3L@F>I KLOJP OBNRFOB DR>OAP QL ?B
>RQELOFQ>OF>K >KA MOFPLKBOP QL ?B PR?JFPPFSB 7EBK MOFPLKBOP OB?BIIBA QEBV SFLI>QBA QEBPB PL@F>I KLOJP
TEF@E IBA QL RMEB>S>I 4EB PMB@FCF@ >@QP BKD>DBA ?V QEB DR>OAP >KA QEB MOFPLKBOP ABOFSBA COLJ P@OFMQP
&LO BU>JMIB DR>OAP ABDO>ABA QEB MOFPLKBOP ?V CLO@FKD QEBJ AL MRPERMP >KA ?V OBJLSFKD >II MOFS>@V
0OFPLKBOP OB?BIIBA ?V QEOLTFKD MFIILTP >KA QO>PEFKD QEBFO @BIIP 3LJB MOFPLKBOP ?B@>JB PL FJJBOPBA FK
QEBFO OLIBP QE>Q QEBV BUEF?FQBA PVJMQLJP LC JBKQ>I ?OB>HALTK ELTBSBO >@@LOAFKD QL :FJ?>OAL KLKB LC
QEBM>OQF@FM>KQPPRCCBOBAILKDQBOJE>OJ !IBU>KABO 

4EB 3Q>KCLOA 0OFPLK %UMBOFJBKQ E>P PLJB M>O>IIBIP TFQE QEB >?RPB LC MOFPLKBOP LC T>O ?V 53 !OJV
QOLLMP >KA #)! MBOPLKKBI >Q QEB !?R 'EO>F? MOFPLK FK  >KA  4EB LCCBKPBP >Q !?R 'EO>F? TBOB
AL@RJBKQBA?VMELQLDO>MEPLCQEB>?RPB PLJBQ>HBK?VQEB>?RPBOPQEBJPBISBP Figure 12.10


Figure 12.10 )O>NFMOFPLKBOPLCT>OTBOB>?RPBA?VQEBFO!JBOF@>K@>MQLOPFK!?R'EO>F?MOFPLK AROFKDQEBPB@LKA


)O>NT>O@OBAFQ5KFQBA3Q>QBP$BM>OQJBKQLC$BCBKPB

LINK TO LEARNING
6FPFQQEFP website (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/Stanford_psych) QLEB>O>K.02
FKQBOSFBTTFQE0EFIFM :FJ?>OAL TEBOBEBAFP@RPPBPQEBM>O>IIBIP?BQTBBKQEB
3Q>KCLOAMOFPLKBUMBOFJBKQ>KAQEB!?R'EO>F?MOFPLKFK)O>N

4EFP@LKQBKQFP>S>FI>?IBCLOCOBB>QKWWSVFQ[RUJFRQWHQWFRO

#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV



12.3 Attitudes and Persuasion


Learning Objectives
"VQEBBKALCQEFPPB@QFLK VLRTFII?B>?IBQL
k $BCFKB>QQFQRAB
k $BP@OF?BELTMBLMIBsP>QQFQRABP>OBFKQBOK>IIV@E>KDBAQEOLRDE@LDKFQFSBAFPPLK>K@B
k %UMI>FKELTMBLMIBsP>QQFQRABP>OBBUQBOK>IIV@E>KDBAQEOLRDEMBOPR>PFLK
k $BP@OF?BQEBMBOFMEBO>I>KA@BKQO>IOLRQBPQLMBOPR>PFLK
3L@F>I MPV@ELILDFPQP E>SB AL@RJBKQBA ELT QEB MLTBO LC QEB PFQR>QFLK @>K FKCIRBK@B LRO ?BE>SFLOP
.LT TB QROK QL ELT QEB MLTBO LC QEB PFQR>QFLK @>K FKCIRBK@B LRO >QQFQRABP >KA ?BIFBCP Attitude FP LRO
BS>IR>QFLK LC > MBOPLK >K FAB> LO >K L?GB@Q 7B E>SB >QQFQRABP CLO J>KV QEFKDP O>KDFKD COLJ MOLAR@QP
QE>Q TB JFDEQ MF@H RM FK QEB PRMBOJ>OHBQ QL MBLMIB >OLRKA QEB TLOIA QL MLIFQF@>I MLIF@FBP 4VMF@>IIV
>QQFQRABP >OB C>SLO>?IB LO RKC>SLO>?IB MLPFQFSB LO KBD>QFSB %>DIV  #E>FHBK 
 !KA QEBV E>SB
QEOBB @LJMLKBKQP >K >CCB@QFSB @LJMLKBKQ CBBIFKDP
> ?BE>SFLO>I @LJMLKBKQ QEB BCCB@Q LC QEB >QQFQRAB LK
?BE>SFLO
>KA>@LDKFQFSB@LJMLKBKQ ?BIFBC>KAHKLTIBADB
 2LPBK?BOD(LSI>KA 

&LO BU>JMIB VLR J>V ELIA > MLPFQFSB >QQFQRAB QLT>OA OB@V@IFKD 4EFP >QQFQRAB PELRIA OBPRIQ FK MLPFQFSB
CBBIFKDP QLT>OA OB@V@IFKD PR@E >P p)Q J>HBP JB CBBI DLLA QL OB@V@IBq LO p) BKGLV HKLTFKD QE>Q ) J>HB
> PJ>II AFCCBOBK@B FK OBAR@FKD QEB >JLRKQ LC T>PQB QE>Q BKAP RM FK I>KACFIIPq
 #BOQ>FKIV QEFP >QQFQRAB
PELRIA ?B OBCIB@QBA FK LRO ?BE>SFLO 9LR >@QR>IIV OB@V@IB >P LCQBK >P VLR @>K &FK>IIV QEFP >QQFQRAB TFII ?B
OBCIB@QBA FK C>SLO>?IB QELRDEQP CLO BU>JMIB p2B@V@IFKD FP DLLA CLO QEB BKSFOLKJBKQq LO p2B@V@IFKD FP QEB
OBPMLKPF?IBQEFKDQLALq

/RO >QQFQRABP >KA ?BIFBCP >OB KLQ LKIV FKCIRBK@BA ?V BUQBOK>I CLO@BP ?RQ >IPL ?V FKQBOK>I FKCIRBK@BP QE>Q TB
@LKQOLI ,FHB LRO ?BE>SFLO LRO >QQFQRABP >KA QELRDEQP >OB KLQ >IT>VP @E>KDBA ?V PFQR>QFLK>I MOBPPROBP
?RQ QEBV @>K ?B @LKP@FLRPIV @E>KDBA ?V LRO LTK COBB TFII )K QEFP PB@QFLK TB AFP@RPP QEB @LKAFQFLKP RKABO
TEF@ETBTLRIAT>KQQL@E>KDBLROLTK>QQFQRABP>KA?BIFBCP

WHAT IS COGNITIVE DISSONANCE?


3L@F>I MPV@ELILDFPQP E>SB AL@RJBKQBA QE>Q CBBIFKD DLLA >?LRQ LROPBISBP >KA J>FKQ>FKFKD MLPFQFSB PBIC
BPQBBJ FP > MLTBOCRI JLQFS>QLO LC ERJ>K ?BE>SFLO 4>SOFP  !OLKPLK 
 )K QEB 5KFQBA 3Q>QBP
JBJ?BOP LC QEB MOBALJFK>KQ @RIQROB QVMF@>IIV QEFKH SBOV EFDEIV LC QEBJPBISBP >KA SFBT QEBJPBISBP
>P DLLA MBLMIB TEL >OB >?LSB >SBO>DB LK J>KV ABPFO>?IB QO>FQP %EOIFKDBO 'FILSF@E  2LPP 

/CQBK LRO ?BE>SFLO >QQFQRABP >KA ?BIFBCP >OB >CCB@QBA TEBK TB BUMBOFBK@B > QEOB>Q QL LRO PBICBPQBBJ
LO MLPFQFSB PBICFJ>DB 0PV@ELILDFPQ ,BLK &BPQFKDBO 
ABCFKBA cognitive dissonance >P MPV@ELILDF@>I
AFP@LJCLOQ >OFPFKD COLJ ELIAFKD QTL LO JLOB FK@LKPFPQBKQ >QQFQRABP ?BE>SFLOP LO @LDKFQFLKP QELRDEQP
?BIFBCP LO LMFKFLKP
 &BPQFKDBOsP QEBLOV LC @LDKFQFSB AFPPLK>K@B PQ>QBP QE>Q TEBK TB BUMBOFBK@B > @LKCIF@Q
FK LRO ?BE>SFLOP >QQFQRABP LO ?BIFBCP QE>Q ORKP @LRKQBO QL LRO MLPFQFSB PBICMBO@BMQFLKP TB BUMBOFBK@B
MPV@ELILDF@>I AFP@LJCLOQ AFPPLK>K@B
 &LO BU>JMIB FC VLR ?BIFBSB PJLHFKD FP ?>A CLO VLRO EB>IQE ?RQ VLR
@LKQFKRBQLPJLHB VLRBUMBOFBK@B@LKCIF@Q?BQTBBKVLRO?BIFBC>KA?BE>SFLO Figure 12.11




#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV

Figure 12.11 #LDKFQFSBAFPPLK>K@BFP>OLRPBA?VFK@LKPFPQBKQ?BIFBCP>KA?BE>SFLOP"BIFBSFKD@FD>OBQQBP>OB?>ACLO


VLROEB>IQE ?RQPJLHFKD@FD>OBQQBP>KVT>V @>K@>RPB@LDKFQFSBAFPPLK>K@B4LOBAR@B@LDKFQFSBAFPPLK>K@B
FKAFSFAR>IP@>K@E>KDBQEBFO?BE>SFLO >PFKNRFQQFKDPJLHFKD LO@E>KDBQEBFO?BIFBC PR@E>PAFP@LRKQFKDQEBBSFABK@B
QE>QPJLHFKDFPE>OJCRI@OBAFQi@FD>OBQQBPjJLAFCF@>QFLKLCTLOH?V#$#$B?LO>#>OQ>DBK>iM>Q@EjJLAFCF@>QFLKLC
2BD">O@7FHFJBAF>#LJJLKPiPJLHFKDjJLAFCF@>QFLKLCTLOH?V4FJ0>OHFKPLK

,>QBO OBPB>O@E AL@RJBKQBA QE>Q LKIV @LKCIF@QFKD @LDKFQFLKP QE>Q QEOB>QBK FKAFSFAR>IPs MLPFQFSB PBICFJ>DB
@>RPB AFPPLK>K@B 'OBBKT>IA  2LKFP 
 !AAFQFLK>I OBPB>O@E CLRKA QE>Q AFPPLK>K@B FP KLQ LKIV
MPV@ELILDF@>IIV RK@LJCLOQ>?IB ?RQ >IPL @>K @>RPB MEVPFLILDF@>I >OLRP>I #OLVIB  #LLMBO 
>KA
>@QFS>QB OBDFLKP LC QEB ?O>FK FJMLOQ>KQ FK BJLQFLKP >KA @LDKFQFSB CRK@QFLKFKD S>K 6BBK +ORD 3@ELLIBO
 #>OQBO 
 7EBK TB BUMBOFBK@B @LDKFQFSB AFPPLK>K@B TB >OB JLQFS>QBA QL AB@OB>PB FQ ?B@>RPB FQ FP
MPV@ELILDF@>IIV MEVPF@>IIV >KA JBKQ>IIV RK@LJCLOQ>?IB 7B @>K OBAR@B @LDKFQFSB AFPPLK>K@B ?V ?OFKDFKD
LRO @LDKFQFLKP >QQFQRABP >KA ?BE>SFLOP FK IFKBoQE>Q FP J>HFKD QEBJ E>OJLKFLRP 4EFP @>K ?B ALKB FK
AFCCBOBKQT>VP PR@E>P
k @E>KDFKDLROAFP@OBM>KQ?BE>SFLO BD PQLMPJLHFKD

k @E>KDFKD LRO @LDKFQFLKP QEOLRDE O>QFLK>IFW>QFLK LO ABKF>I BD QBIIFKD LROPBISBP QE>Q EB>IQE OFPHP

@>K?BOBAR@BA?VPJLHFKDCFIQBOBA@FD>OBQQBP

4EFP@LKQBKQFP>S>FI>?IBCLOCOBB>QKWWSVFQ[RUJFRQWHQWFRO

#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV



k >AAFKD > KBT @LDKFQFLK BD p3JLHFKD PRMMOBPPBP JV >MMBQFQB PL ) ALKsQ ?B@LJB LSBOTBFDEQ

TEF@EFPDLLACLOJVEB>IQEq

! @I>PPF@ BU>JMIB LC @LDKFQFSB AFPPLK>K@B FP *LEK > VB>OLIA TEL BKIFPQP FK QEB JFIFQ>OV $ROFKD ?LLQ
@>JM EB FP >T>HBKBA >Q  >J FP @EOLKF@>IIV PIBBM ABMOFSBA VBIIBA >Q @LSBOBA FK P>KA CIB> ?FQBP
MEVPF@>IIV ?ORFPBA >KA ?>QQBOBA >KA JBKQ>IIV BUE>RPQBA Figure 12.12
 )Q DBQP TLOPB 2B@ORFQP QE>Q J>HB
FQQLTBBHLC?LLQ@>JME>SBQLALELROPLC@LKQFKRLRPQO>FKFKD

Figure 12.12 !MBOPLKTELE>P@ELPBK>AFCCF@RIQM>QEJRPQAB>ITFQE@LDKFQFSBAFPPLK>K@BFK>AAFQFLKQLJ>KV


LQEBOAFP@LJCLOQP@OBAFQ4VIBO*"LIHBK

.LQ PROMOFPFKDIV *LEK FP JFPBO>?IB .L LKB IFHBP QL ?B JFPBO>?IB )K QEFP QVMB LC PFQR>QFLK MBLMIB @>K
@E>KDB QEBFO ?BIFBCP QEBFO >QQFQRABP LO QEBFO ?BE>SFLOP 4EB I>PQ LMQFLK > @E>KDB LC ?BE>SFLOP FP KLQ
>S>FI>?IBQL*LEK(BE>PPFDKBALKQLQEBJFIFQ>OVCLOCLROVB>OP >KAEB@>KKLQIBD>IIVIB>SB
)C *LEK HBBMP QEFKHFKD >?LRQ ELT JFPBO>?IB EB FP FQ FP DLFKD QL ?B > SBOV ILKD CLRO VB>OP (B TFII ?B FK
> @LKPQ>KQ PQ>QB LC @LDKFQFSB AFPPLK>K@B !P >K >IQBOK>QFSB QL QEFP JFPBOV *LEK @>K @E>KDB EFP ?BIFBCP LO
>QQFQRABP (B @>K QBII EFJPBIC p) >J ?B@LJFKD PQOLKDBO EB>IQEFBO >KA PE>OMBO ) >J IB>OKFKD AFP@FMIFKB
>KA ELT QL ABCBKA JVPBIC >KA JV @LRKQOV 7E>Q ) >J ALFKD FP OB>IIV FJMLOQ>KQq )C QEFP FP EFP ?BIFBC EB
TFII OB>IFWB QE>Q EB FP ?B@LJFKD PQOLKDBO QEOLRDE EFP @E>IIBKDBP (B QEBK TFII CBBI ?BQQBO >KA KLQ BUMBOFBK@B
@LDKFQFSBAFPPLK>K@B TEF@EFP>KRK@LJCLOQ>?IBPQ>QB

The Effect of Initiation


4EB JFIFQ>OV BU>JMIB ABJLKPQO>QBP QEB L?PBOS>QFLK QE>Q > AFCCF@RIQ FKFQF>QFLK FKQL > DOLRM FKCIRBK@BP RP QL
IFHB QEB DOLRM more ARB QL QEB GRPQFCF@>QFLK LC BCCLOQ 7B AL KLQ T>KQ QL E>SB T>PQBA QFJB >KA BCCLOQ QL
GLFK > DOLRM QE>Q TB BSBKQR>IIV IB>SB ! @I>PPF@ BUMBOFJBKQ ?V !OLKPLK >KA -FIIP 
ABJLKPQO>QBA
QEFP GRPQFCF@>QFLK LC BCCLOQ BCCB@Q #LIIBDB PQRABKQP SLIRKQBBOBA QL GLFK > @>JMRP DOLRM QE>Q TLRIA JBBQ
OBDRI>OIV QL AFP@RPP QEB MPV@ELILDV LC PBU 0>OQF@FM>KQP TBOB O>KALJIV >PPFDKBA QL LKB LC QEOBB @LKAFQFLKP
KL FKFQF>QFLK >K B>PV FKFQF>QFLK >KA > AFCCF@RIQ FKFQF>QFLK FKQL QEB DOLRM !CQBO M>OQF@FM>QFKD FK QEB CFOPQ
AFP@RPPFLK TEF@E T>P ABIF?BO>QBIV J>AB SBOV ?LOFKD M>OQF@FM>KQP O>QBA ELT JR@E QEBV IFHBA QEB DOLRM
0>OQF@FM>KQP TEL RKABOTBKQ > AFCCF@RIQ FKFQF>QFLK MOL@BPP QL GLFK QEB DOLRM O>QBA QEB DOLRM JLOB C>SLO>?IV
QE>KAFAM>OQF@FM>KQPTFQE>KB>PVFKFQF>QFLKLOKLFKFQF>QFLK Figure 12.13




#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV

Figure 12.13 *RPQFCF@>QFLKLCBCCLOQE>P>AFPQFK@QBCCB@QLK>MBOPLKIFHFKD>DOLRM3QRABKQPFKQEBAFCCF@RIQFKFQF>QFLK


@LKAFQFLKIFHBAQEBDOLRMJLOBQE>KPQRABKQPFKLQEBO@LKAFQFLKPARBQLQEBGRPQFCF@>QFLKLCBCCLOQ

3FJFI>O BCCB@QP @>K ?B PBBK FK > JLOB OB@BKQ PQRAV LC ELT PQRABKQ BCCLOQ >CCB@QP @LROPB BS>IR>QFLKP
(B@HBOQ ,>QFBO 2FKDT>IA"ROQLK >KA $O>WBK 
PROSBVBA  RKABODO>AR>QBP BKOLIIBA FK @LROPBP >Q
> JFATBPQBOK RKFSBOPFQV >?LRQ QEB >JLRKQ LC BCCLOQ QE>Q QEBFO @LROPBP OBNRFOBA LC QEBJ )K >AAFQFLK QEB
PQRABKQP TBOB >IPL >PHBA QL BS>IR>QB S>OFLRP >PMB@QP LC QEB @LROPB 'FSBK TE>Q VLRsSB GRPQ OB>A FQ TFII
@LJB >P KL PROMOFPB QE>Q QELPB @LROPBP QE>Q TBOB >PPL@F>QBA TFQE QEB EFDEBPQ IBSBI LC BCCLOQ TBOB BS>IR>QBA
>P ?BFKD JLOB S>IR>?IB QE>K QELPB QE>Q AFA KLQ &ROQEBOJLOB PQRABKQP FKAF@>QBA QE>Q QEBV IB>OKBA JLOB FK
@LROPBP QE>Q OBNRFOBA JLOB BCCLOQ OBD>OAIBPP LC QEB DO>ABP QE>Q QEBV OB@BFSBA FK QELPB @LROPBP (B@HBOQ BQ
>I 

"BPFABP QEB @I>PPF@ JFIFQ>OV BU>JMIB >KA DOLRM FKFQF>QFLK @>K VLR QEFKH LC LQEBO BU>JMIBP LC @LDKFQFSB
AFPPLK>K@B (BOB FP LKB ->O@L >KA ->OF> IFSB FK &>FOCFBIA #LRKQV #LKKB@QF@RQ TEF@E FP LKB LC QEB
TB>IQEFBPQ >OB>P FK QEB 5KFQBA 3Q>QBP >KA E>P > SBOV EFDE @LPQ LC IFSFKD ->O@L QBIB@LJJRQBP COLJ ELJB
>KA ->OF> ALBP KLQ TLOH LRQPFAB LC QEB ELJB 4EBV OBKQ > SBOV PJ>II ELRPB CLO JLOB QE>K  > JLKQE
->OF> PELMP >Q @LKPFDKJBKQ PQLOBP CLO @ILQEBP >KA B@LKLJFWBP TEBOB PEB @>K 4EBV @LJMI>FK QE>Q QEBV
KBSBO E>SB >KV JLKBV >KA QE>Q QEBV @>KKLQ ?RV >KVQEFKD KBT 7EBK >PHBA TEV QEBV AL KLQ JLSB QL >
IBPP BUMBKPFSB IL@>QFLK PFK@B ->O@L QBIB@LJJRQBP QEBV OBPMLKA QE>Q &>FOCFBIA #LRKQV FP ?B>RQFCRI QEBV
ILSB QEB ?B>@EBP >KA QEBV CBBI @LJCLOQ>?IB QEBOB (LT ALBP QEB QEBLOV LC @LDKFQFSB AFPPLK>K@B >MMIV QL
->O@L>KA->OF>sP@ELF@BP

PERSUASION
)K QEB MOBSFLRP PB@QFLK TB AFP@RPPBA QE>Q QEB JLQFS>QFLK QL OBAR@B @LDKFQFSB AFPPLK>K@B IB>AP RP QL
@E>KDB LRO >QQFQRABP ?BE>SFLOP >KALO @LDKFQFLKP QL J>HB QEBJ @LKPLK>KQ Persuasion FP QEB MOL@BPP LC
@E>KDFKD LRO >QQFQRAB QLT>OA PLJBQEFKD ?>PBA LK PLJB HFKA LC @LJJRKF@>QFLK -R@E LC QEB MBOPR>PFLK
TB BUMBOFBK@B @LJBP COLJ LRQPFAB CLO@BP (LT AL MBLMIB @LKSFK@B LQEBOP QL @E>KDB QEBFO >QQFQRABP ?BIFBCP
>KA ?BE>SFLOP Figure 12.14
 7E>Q @LJJRKF@>QFLKP AL VLR OB@BFSB QE>Q >QQBJMQ QL MBOPR>AB VLR QL
@E>KDBVLRO>QQFQRABP ?BIFBCP >KA?BE>SFLOP

4EFP@LKQBKQFP>S>FI>?IBCLOCOBB>QKWWSVFQ[RUJFRQWHQWFRO

#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV



Figure 12.14 7BBK@LRKQBO>QQBJMQP>QMBOPR>PFLK>QQBJMQPBSBOVTEBOB0BOPR>PFLKFPKLQIFJFQBAQLCLOJ>I


>ASBOQFPFKDTB>OB@LKCOLKQBATFQEFQQEOLRDELRQLROBSBOVA>VTLOIA@OBAFQ2L?BOQ#LRPB ">HBO

! PR?CFBIA LC PL@F>I MPV@ELILDV PQRAFBP MBOPR>PFLK >KA PL@F>I FKCIRBK@B MOLSFAFKD RP TFQE > MIBQELO> LC
FKCLOJ>QFLKLKELTERJ>KP@>K?BMBOPR>ABA?VLQEBOP

Yale Attitude Change Approach


4EB QLMF@ LC MBOPR>PFLK E>P ?BBK LKB LC QEB JLPQ BUQBKPFSBIV OBPB>O@EBA >OB>P FK PL@F>I MPV@ELILDV &FPHB
BQ >I 
 $ROFKD QEB 3B@LKA 7LOIA 7>O #>OI (LSI>KA BUQBKPFSBIV OBPB>O@EBA MBOPR>PFLK CLO QEB 53
!OJV !CQBO QEB T>O (LSI>KA @LKQFKRBA EFP BUMILO>QFLK LC MBOPR>PFLK >Q 9>IB 5KFSBOPFQV /RQ LC QEFP
TLOH @>JB > JLABI @>IIBA QEB 9>IB >QQFQRAB @E>KDB >MMOL>@E TEF@E ABP@OF?BP QEB @LKAFQFLKP RKABO TEF@E
MBLMIB QBKA QL @E>KDB QEBFO >QQFQRABP (LSI>KA ABJLKPQO>QBA QE>Q @BOQ>FK CB>QROBP LC QEB PLRO@B LC >
MBOPR>PFSB JBPP>DB QEB @LKQBKQ LC QEB JBPP>DB >KA QEB @E>O>@QBOFPQF@P LC QEB >RAFBK@B TFII FKCIRBK@B QEB
MBOPR>PFSBKBPPLC>JBPP>DB (LSI>KA *>KFP +BIIBV 

&B>QROBP LC QEB PLRO@B LC QEB MBOPR>PFSB JBPP>DB FK@IRAB QEB @OBAF?FIFQV LC QEB PMB>HBO (LSI>KA  7BFPP

>KA QEB MEVPF@>I >QQO>@QFSBKBPP LC QEB PMB>HBO %>DIV  #E>FHBK  0BQQV 7BDBKBO  &>?OFD>O

 4ERP PMB>HBOP TEL >OB @OBAF?IB LO E>SB BUMBOQFPB LK QEB QLMF@ >KA TEL >OB ABBJBA >P QORPQTLOQEV
>OB JLOB MBOPR>PFSB QE>K IBPP @OBAF?IB PMB>HBOP 3FJFI>OIV JLOB >QQO>@QFSB PMB>HBOP >OB JLOB MBOPR>PFSB
QE>K IBPP >QQO>@QFSB PMB>HBOP 4EB RPB LC C>JLRP >@QLOP >KA >QEIBQBP QL >ASBOQFPB MOLAR@QP LK QBIBSFPFLK
>KA FK MOFKQ OBIFBP LK QEFP MOFK@FMIB 4EB FJJBAF>QB >KA ILKD QBOJ FJM>@Q LC QEB MBOPR>PFLK >IPL ABMBKAP
ELTBSBO LKQEB@OBAF?FIFQVLCQEBJBPPBKDBO +RJH>IB!I?>OO>@eK 

&B>QROBP LC QEB JBPP>DB FQPBIC QE>Q >CCB@Q MBOPR>PFLK FK@IRAB PR?QIBQV QEB NR>IFQV LC ?BFKD FJMLOQ>KQ ?RQ
KLQ L?SFLRP
0BQQV  #>@FLMML  7>IPQBO  &BPQFKDBO 
 PFABAKBPP QE>Q FP E>SFKD JLOB QE>K
LKB PFAB
#OLTIBV  (LVBO  )DLR  "IBPP  ,RJPA>FKB  *>KFP 
 QFJFKD (>RDQSBAQ 
7BDBKBO  -FIIBO  #>JM?BII 
>KA TEBQEBO ?LQE PFABP >OB MOBPBKQBA -BPP>DBP QE>Q >OB JLOB
PR?QIB >OB JLOB MBOPR>PFSB QE>K AFOB@Q JBPP>DBP !ODRJBKQP QE>Q L@@RO CFOPQ PR@E >P FK > AB?>QB >OB JLOB
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-FIIBO#>JM?BII 

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JLOB B>PFIV MBOPR>ABA QE>K MBLMIB TFQE EFDEBO FKQBIIFDBK@B TEBOB>P MBLMIB TFQE JLABO>QB PBICBPQBBJ
>OB JLOB B>PFIV MBOPR>ABA QE>K MBLMIB TFQE EFDEBO LO ILTBO PBICBPQBBJ 2ELABP  7LLA 
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Elaboration Likelihood Model


!K BPMB@F>IIV MLMRI>O JLABI QE>Q ABP@OF?BP QEB AVK>JF@P LC MBOPR>PFLK FP QEB BI>?LO>QFLK IFHBIFELLA
JLABI LC MBOPR>PFLK 0BQQV  #>@FLMML 
 4EB BI>?LO>QFLK IFHBIFELLA JLABI @LKPFABOP QEB S>OF>?IBP
LC QEB >QQFQRAB @E>KDB >MMOL>@EoQE>Q FP CB>QROBP LC QEB PLRO@B LC QEB MBOPR>PFSB JBPP>DB @LKQBKQP LC
QEB JBPP>DB >KA @E>O>@QBOFPQF@P LC QEB >RAFBK@B >OB RPBA QL ABQBOJFKB TEBK >QQFQRAB @E>KDB TFII L@@RO
!@@LOAFKD QL QEB BI>?LO>QFLK IFHBIFELLA JLABI LC MBOPR>PFLK QEBOB >OB QTL J>FK OLRQBP QE>Q MI>V > OLIB FK
ABIFSBOFKD>MBOPR>PFSBJBPP>DB@BKQO>I>KAMBOFMEBO>I Figure 12.15


Figure 12.15 0BOPR>PFLK@>KQ>HBLKBLCQTLM>QEP >KAQEBARO>?FIFQVLCQEBBKAOBPRIQABMBKAPLKQEBM>QE

4EB central route FP ILDF@ AOFSBK >KA RPBP A>Q> >KA C>@QP QL @LKSFK@B MBLMIB LC >K >ODRJBKQsP TLOQEFKBPP
&LO BU>JMIB > @>O @LJM>KV PBBHFKD QL MBOPR>AB VLR QL MRO@E>PB QEBFO JLABI TFII BJME>PFWB QEB @>OsP
P>CBQV CB>QROBP >KA CRBI B@LKLJV 4EFP FP > AFOB@Q OLRQB QL MBOPR>PFLK QE>Q CL@RPBP LK QEB NR>IFQV LC QEB
FKCLOJ>QFLK )K LOABO CLO QEB @BKQO>I OLRQB LC MBOPR>PFLK QL ?B BCCB@QFSB FK @E>KDFKD >QQFQRABP QELRDEQP >KA
?BE>SFLOP QEB>ODRJBKQJRPQ?BPQOLKD>KA FCPR@@BPPCRI TFIIOBPRIQFKI>PQFKD>QQFQRAB@E>KDB
4EB @BKQO>I OLRQB QL MBOPR>PFLK TLOHP ?BPQ TEBK QEB Q>ODBQ LC MBOPR>PFLK LO QEB >RAFBK@B FP >K>IVQF@>I >KA
TFIIFKD QL BKD>DB FK MOL@BPPFKD LC QEB FKCLOJ>QFLK &OLJ >K >ASBOQFPBOsP MBOPMB@QFSB TE>Q MOLAR@QP TLRIA
?B ?BPQ PLIA RPFKD QEB @BKQO>I OLRQB QL MBOPR>PFLK 7E>Q >RAFBK@B TLRIA JLPQ IFHBIV ?B FKCIRBK@BA QL ?RV
QEB MOLAR@Q /KB BU>JMIB FP ?RVFKD > @LJMRQBO )Q FP IFHBIV CLO BU>JMIB QE>Q PJ>II ?RPFKBPP LTKBOP JFDEQ
?B BPMB@F>IIV FKCIRBK@BA ?V QEB CL@RP LK QEB @LJMRQBOsP NR>IFQV >KA CB>QROBP PR@E >P MOL@BPPFKD PMBBA >KA
JBJLOV@>M>@FQV
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0BQQV  #>@FLMML 
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BU>JMIB E>SFKD > MLMRI>O >QEIBQB >ASBOQFPB >QEIBQF@ PELBP FP > @LJJLK JBQELA RPBA QL BK@LRO>DB VLRKD
>ARIQP QL MRO@E>PB QEB PELBP 4EFP OLRQB QL >QQFQRAB @E>KDB ALBP KLQ OBNRFOB JR@E BCCLOQ LO FKCLOJ>QFLK
MOL@BPPFKD 4EFP JBQELA LC MBOPR>PFLK J>V MOLJLQB MLPFQFSFQV QLT>OA QEB JBPP>DB LO MOLAR@Q ?RQ FQ
QVMF@>IIV OBPRIQP FK IBPP MBOJ>KBKQ >QQFQRAB LO ?BE>SFLO @E>KDB 4EB >RAFBK@B ALBP KLQ KBBA QL ?B >K>IVQF@>I
LO JLQFS>QBA QL MOL@BPP QEB JBPP>DB )K C>@Q > MBOFMEBO>I OLRQB QL MBOPR>PFLK J>V KLQ BSBK ?B KLQF@BA
?V QEB >RAFBK@B CLO BU>JMIB FK QEB PQO>QBDV LC MOLAR@Q MI>@BJBKQ 0OLAR@Q MI>@BJBKQ OBCBOP QL MRQQFKD >
MOLAR@Q TFQE > @IB>O ?O>KA K>JB LO ?O>KA FABKQFQV FK > 46 PELT LO JLSFB QL MOLJLQB QEB MOLAR@Q 'RMQ>
 ,LOA 
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LC GRADBP AOFKHFKD LRQ LC @RMP QE>Q AFPMI>VBA QEB #L@>#LI> ILDL 7E>Q LQEBO MOLAR@QP TLRIA ?B ?BPQ PLIA
RPFKD QEB MBOFMEBO>I OLRQB QL MBOPR>PFLK !KLQEBO BU>JMIB FP @ILQEFKD ! OBQ>FIBO J>V CL@RP LK @BIB?OFQFBP
QE>Q>OBTB>OFKDQEBP>JBPQVIBLC@ILQEFKD

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#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV



Foot-in-the-door Technique
2BPB>O@EBOP E>SB QBPQBA J>KV MBOPR>PFLK PQO>QBDFBP QE>Q >OB BCCB@QFSB FK PBIIFKD MOLAR@QP >KA @E>KDFKD
MBLMIBsP >QQFQRAB FAB>P >KA ?BE>SFLOP /KB BCCB@QFSB PQO>QBDV FP QEB CLLQFKQEBALLO QB@EKFNRB #F>IAFKF
 0IFKBO (>OQ +LEI  3>>OF 
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?FDDBO FQBJ 4EB CLLQFKQEBALLO QB@EKFNRB T>P ABJLKPQO>QBA FK > PQRAV ?V &OBBAJ>K >KA &O>PBO 
FK
TEF@E M>OQF@FM>KQP TEL >DOBBA QL MLPQ PJ>II PFDK FK QEBFO V>OA LO PFDK > MBQFQFLK TBOB JLOB IFHBIV QL >DOBB
QL MRQ > I>ODB PFDK FK QEBFO V>OA QE>K MBLMIB TEL AB@IFKBA QEB CFOPQ OBNRBPQ Figure 12.16
 2BPB>O@E LK QEFP
QB@EKFNRB >IPL FIIRPQO>QBP QEB MOFK@FMIB LC @LKPFPQBK@V #F>IAFKF 
 /RO M>PQ ?BE>SFLO LCQBK AFOB@QP LRO
CRQROB?BE>SFLO >KATBE>SB>ABPFOBQLJ>FKQ>FK@LKPFPQBK@VLK@BTBE>SB>@LJJFQQBAQL>?BE>SFLO

Figure 12.16 7FQEQEBCLLQ FK QEB ALLOQB@EKFNRB >PJ>IIOBNRBPQPR@E>P> TB>OFKD>@>JM>FDK?RQQLK@>KQROK


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PJ>IIBOOBNRBPQFK@OB>PBPQEBIFHBIFELLAQE>QM>OBKQPTFII>@NRFBP@BTFQEQEBI>QBO I>ODBOOBNRBPQ
(LT TLRIA > PQLOB LTKBO RPB QEB CLLQFKQEBALLO QB@EKFNRB QL PBII VLR >K BUMBKPFSB MOLAR@Q &LO
BU>JMIB P>V QE>Q VLR >OB ?RVFKD QEB I>QBPQ JLABI PJ>OQMELKB >KA QEB P>IBPMBOPLK PRDDBPQP VLR MRO@E>PB
QEB ?BPQ A>Q> MI>K 9LR >DOBB QL QEFP 4EB P>IBPMBOPLK QEBK PRDDBPQP > ?FDDBO MRO@E>PBoQEB QEOBBVB>O
BUQBKABA T>OO>KQV !CQBO >DOBBFKD QL QEB PJ>IIBO OBNRBPQ VLR >OB JLOB IFHBIV QL >IPL >DOBB QL QEB I>ODBO
OBNRBPQ 9LR J>V E>SB BK@LRKQBOBA QEFP FC VLR E>SB ?LRDEQ > @>O 7EBK P>IBPMBLMIB OB>IFWB QE>Q > ?RVBO
FKQBKAP QL MRO@E>PB > @BOQ>FK JLABI QEBV JFDEQ QOV QL DBQ QEB @RPQLJBO QL M>V CLO J>KV LO JLPQ >S>FI>?IB
LMQFLKPLKQEB@>O

12.4 Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience


Learning Objectives
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k %UMI>FKQEB!P@EBCCB@Q
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k $BCFKBDOLRMQEFKH PL@F>IC>@FIFQ>QFLK >KAPL@F>IIL>CFKD
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PL@F>I FKCIRBK@B L?BAFBK@B >KA DOLRM MOL@BPPBP ABJLKPQO>QB QEB MLTBO LC QEB PL@F>I PFQR>QFLK QL @E>KDB



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LRO QELRDEQP CBBIFKDP >KA ?BE>SFLOP 7B ?BDFK QEFP PB@QFLK TFQE > AFP@RPPFLK LC > C>JLRP PL@F>I
MPV@ELILDVBUMBOFJBKQQE>QABJLKPQO>QBAELTPRP@BMQF?IBERJ>KP>OBQLLRQPFABPL@F>IMOBPPROBP

CONFORMITY
3LILJLK !P@E @LKAR@QBA PBSBO>I BUMBOFJBKQP FK QEB P QL ABQBOJFKB ELT MBLMIB >OB >CCB@QBA ?V QEB
QELRDEQP >KA ?BE>SFLOP LC LQEBO MBLMIB )K LKB PQRAV > DOLRM LC M>OQF@FM>KQP T>P PELTK > PBOFBP LC MOFKQBA
IFKB PBDJBKQP LC AFCCBOBKQ IBKDQEP > ? >KA @ Figure 12.17
 0>OQF@FM>KQP TBOB QEBK PELTK > CLROQE IFKB
PBDJBKQ U 4EBV TBOB >PHBA QL FABKQFCV TEF@E IFKB PBDJBKQ COLJ QEB CFOPQ DOLRM > ? LO @
JLPQ @ILPBIV
OBPBJ?IBAQEBCLROQEIFKBPBDJBKQFKIBKDQE

Figure 12.17 4EBPBIFKBPBDJBKQPFIIRPQO>QBQEBGRADJBKQQ>PHFK!P@EhP@LKCLOJFQVPQRAV7EF@EIFKBLKQEB


OFDEQf> ? LO@fFPQEBP>JBIBKDQE>PIFKBULKQEBIBCQ

%>@E DOLRM LC M>OQF@FM>KQP E>A LKIV LKB QORB K>fSB PR?GB@Q 4EB OBJ>FKFKD JBJ?BOP LC QEB DOLRM TBOB
@LKCBABO>QBP LC QEB OBPB>O@EBO ! confederate FP > MBOPLK TEL FP >T>OB LC QEB BUMBOFJBKQ >KA TLOHP
CLO QEB OBPB>O@EBO #LKCBABO>QBP >OB RPBA QL J>KFMRI>QB PL@F>I PFQR>QFLKP >P M>OQ LC QEB OBPB>O@E ABPFDK
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FKCIRBK@BPLK@LKCLOJFQV
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#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV



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4EB CFKAFKD QE>Q @LKCLOJFQV FP JLOB IFHBIV QL L@@RO TEBK OBPMLKPBP >OB MR?IF@ QE>K TEBK QEBV >OB MOFS>QB
FP QEB OB>PLK DLSBOKJBKQ BIB@QFLKP OBNRFOB SLQFKD FK PB@OBQ PL TB >OB KLQ @LBO@BA ?V LQEBOP Figure 12.18

4EB !P@E BCCB@Q @>K ?B B>PFIV PBBK FK @EFIAOBK TEBK QEBV E>SB QL MR?IF@IV SLQB CLO PLJBQEFKD &LO BU>JMIB
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LC @LKCLOJFQV #LJMIF>K@B FP DLFKD >ILKD TFQE > OBNRBPQ LO ABJ>KA BSBK FC VLR AL KLQ >DOBB TFQE QEB
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Figure 12.18 6LQFKDCLODLSBOKJBKQLCCF@F>IPFKQEB5KFQBA3Q>QBPFPMOFS>QBQLOBAR@BQEBMOBPPROBLC@LKCLOJFQV


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#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV

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LINK TO LEARNING
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Table 12.2 PRJJ>OFWBPQEBQVMBPLCPL@F>IFKCIRBK@BVLRE>SBIB>OKBA>?LRQFKQEFP@E>MQBO
Table 12.2 Types of Social Influence

Type of Social Influence

Description

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Table 12.2 Types of Social Influence

Type of Social Influence

Description

3L@F>IIL>CFKD

%UBOQFLKLCIBPPBCCLOQ?V>MBOPLKTLOHFKDFK>DOLRM?B@>RPB
FKAFSFAR>IMBOCLOJ>K@B@>KKLQ?BBS>IR>QBAPBM>O>QBIVCOLJQEB
DOLRM QERP@>RPFKDMBOCLOJ>K@BAB@IFKBLKB>PVQ>PHP

12.5 Prejudice and Discrimination


Learning Objectives
"VQEBBKALCQEFPPB@QFLK VLRTFII?B>?IBQL
k $BCFKB>KAAFPQFKDRFPE>JLKDMOBGRAF@B PQBOBLQVMBP >KAAFP@OFJFK>QFLK
k 0OLSFABBU>JMIBPLCMOBGRAF@B PQBOBLQVMBP >KAAFP@OFJFK>QFLK
k %UMI>FKTEVMOBGRAF@B>KAAFP@OFJFK>QFLKBUFPQ
(RJ>K @LKCIF@Q @>K OBPRIQ FK @OFJB T>O >KA J>PP JROABO PR@E >P DBKL@FAB 0OBGRAF@B >KA AFP@OFJFK>QFLK
LCQBK >OB OLLQ @>RPBP LC ERJ>K @LKCIF@Q TEF@E BUMI>FKP ELT PQO>KDBOP @LJB QL E>QB LKB >KLQEBO QL QEB
BUQOBJB LC @>RPFKD LQEBOP E>OJ 0OBGRAF@B >KA AFP@OFJFK>QFLK >CCB@Q BSBOVLKB )K QEFP PB@QFLK TB TFII
BU>JFKB QEB ABCFKFQFLKP LC MOBGRAF@B >KA AFP@OFJFK>QFLK BU>JMIBP LC QEBPB @LK@BMQP >KA @>RPBP LC QEBPB
?F>PBP

Figure 12.22 0OBGRAF@B>KAAFP@OFJFK>QFLKL@@RO>@OLPPQEBDIL?B> !PFDKFK'BOJ>K L@@RMFBA0LI>KA


T>OKPi.L%KQO>K@BCLO0LIBPj? !K!COF@>K !JBOF@>KJ>IBAOFKHPCOLJ>ABPFDK>QBAi@LILOBAjT>QBOCLRKQ>FKFK
/HI>ELJ>FKAROFKDQEBBO>LCO>@F>IPBDOBD>QFLK>P>MO>@QF@BLCAFP@OFJFK>QFLK@ !JBJ?BOLCQEB7BPQ?LOL
">MQFPQ#ERO@E TFABIVFABKQFCFBA>P>E>QBDOLRM BKD>DBPFKAFP@OFJFK>QFLK?>PBALKOBIFDFLK>KAPBUR>ILOFBKQ>QFLK
@OBAFQ?JLAFCF@>QFLKLCTLOH?V5KFQBA3Q>QBP&>OJ3B@ROFQV!AJFKFPQO>QFLK@OBAFQ@JLAFCF@>QFLKLCTLOH?V
i*#7FIJLOBj7FHFJBAF>#LJJLKP

UNDERSTANDING PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION


!P TB AFP@RPPBA FK QEB LMBKFKD PQLOV LC 4O>VSLK ->OQFK ERJ>KP >OB SBOV AFSBOPB >KA >IQELRDE TB PE>OB
J>KV PFJFI>OFQFBP TB >IPL E>SB J>KV AFCCBOBK@BP 4EB PL@F>I DOLRMP TB ?BILKD QL EBIM CLOJ LRO FABKQFQFBP
4>GCBI 
 4EBPB AFCCBOBK@BP J>V ?B AFCCF@RIQ CLO PLJB MBLMIB QL OB@LK@FIB TEF@E J>V IB>A QL MOBGRAF@B
QLT>OA MBLMIB TEL >OB AFCCBOBKQ Prejudice FP > KBD>QFSB >QQFQRAB >KA CBBIFKD QLT>OA >K FKAFSFAR>I ?>PBA
PLIBIV LK LKBsP JBJ?BOPEFM FK > M>OQF@RI>O PL@F>I DOLRM !IIMLOQ  "OLTK 
 0OBGRAF@B FP @LJJLK
>D>FKPQ MBLMIB TEL >OB JBJ?BOP LC >K RKC>JFIF>O @RIQRO>I DOLRM 4ERP @BOQ>FK QVMBP LC BAR@>QFLK @LKQ>@Q
FKQBO>@QFLKP >KA ?RFIAFKD OBI>QFLKPEFMP TFQE JBJ?BOP LC AFCCBOBKQ @RIQRO>I DOLRMP @>K OBAR@B QEB QBKABK@V
QLT>OA MOBGRAF@B )K C>@Q PFJMIV FJ>DFKFKD FKQBO>@QFKD TFQE JBJ?BOP LC AFCCBOBKQ @RIQRO>I DOLRMP JFDEQ
>CCB@Q MOBGRAF@B )KABBA TEBK BUMBOFJBKQ>I M>OQF@FM>KQP TBOB >PHBA QL FJ>DFKB QEBJPBISBP MLPFQFSBIV
FKQBO>@QFKD TFQE PLJBLKB COLJ > AFCCBOBKQ DOLRM QEFP IBA QL >K FK@OB>PBA MLPFQFSB >QQFQRAB QLT>OA QEB LQEBO
DOLRM >KA >K FK@OB>PB FK MLPFQFSB QO>FQP >PPL@F>QBA TFQE QEB LQEBO DOLRM &ROQEBOJLOB FJ>DFKBA PL@F>I



#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV

FKQBO>@QFLK @>K OBAR@B >KUFBQV >PPL@F>QBA TFQE FKQBODOLRM FKQBO>@QFLKP #OFPM  4ROKBO 
 7E>Q >OB
PLJB BU>JMIBP LC PL@F>I DOLRMP QE>Q VLR ?BILKD QL QE>Q @LKQOF?RQB QL VLRO FABKQFQV 3L@F>I DOLRMP @>K
FK@IRAB DBKABO O>@B BQEKF@FQV K>QFLK>IFQV PL@F>I @I>PP OBIFDFLK PBUR>I LOFBKQ>QFLK MOLCBPPFLK >KA J>KV
JLOB !KA >P FP QORB CLO PL@F>I OLIBP VLR @>K PFJRIQ>KBLRPIV ?B > JBJ?BO LC JLOB QE>K LKB PL@F>I DOLRM
!K BU>JMIB LC MOBGRAF@B FP E>SFKD > KBD>QFSB >QQFQRAB QLT>OA MBLMIB TEL >OB KLQ ?LOK FK QEB 5KFQBA 3Q>QBP
!IQELRDE MBLMIB ELIAFKD QEFP MOBGRAF@BA >QQFQRAB AL KLQ HKLT >II MBLMIB TEL TBOB KLQ ?LOK FK QEB 5KFQBA
3Q>QBP QEBVAFPIFHBQEBJARBQLQEBFOPQ>QRP>PCLOBFDKBOP
#>K VLR QEFKH LC > MOBGRAF@BA >QQFQRAB VLR E>SB EBIA QLT>OA > DOLRM LC MBLMIB (LT AFA VLRO MOBGRAF@B
ABSBILM 0OBGRAF@B LCQBK ?BDFKP FK QEB CLOJ LC > stereotypeoQE>Q FP > KBD>QFSB ?BIFBC >?LRQ FKAFSFAR>IP
?>PBA PLIBIV LK QEBFO JBJ?BOPEFM FK > DOLRM OBD>OAIBPP LC QEBFO FKAFSFAR>I @E>O>@QBOFPQF@P 3QBOBLQVMBP
?B@LJB LSBODBKBO>IFWBA >KA >MMIFBA QL >II JBJ?BOP LC > DOLRM &LO BU>JMIB PLJBLKB ELIAFKD MOBGRAF@BA
>QQFQRABP QLT>OA LIABO >ARIQP J>V ?BIFBSB QE>Q LIABO >ARIQP >OB PILT >KA FK@LJMBQBKQ #RAAV .LOQLK 
&FPHB  .BIPLK 
 7B @>KKLQ MLPPF?IV HKLT B>@E FKAFSFAR>I MBOPLK LC >AS>K@BA >DB QL HKLT QE>Q
>II LIABO >ARIQP >OB PILT >KA FK@LJMBQBKQ 4EBOBCLOB QEFP KBD>QFSB ?BIFBC FP LSBODBKBO>IFWBA QL >II JBJ?BOP
LCQEBDOLRM BSBKQELRDEJ>KVLCQEBFKAFSFAR>IDOLRMJBJ?BOPJ>VFKC>@Q?BPMOV>KAFKQBIIFDBKQ
!KLQEBO BU>JMIB LC > TBIIHKLTK PQBOBLQVMB FKSLISBP ?BIFBCP >?LRQ O>@F>I AFCCBOBK@BP >JLKD >QEIBQBP !P
(LADB "ROABK 2L?FKPLK >KA "BKKBQQ 
MLFKQ LRQ "I>@H J>IB >QEIBQBP >OB LCQBK ?BIFBSBA QL ?B JLOB
>QEIBQF@ VBQ IBPP FKQBIIFDBKQ QE>K QEBFO 7EFQB J>IB @LRKQBOM>OQP 4EBPB ?BIFBCP MBOPFPQ ABPMFQB > KRJ?BO LC
EFDE MOLCFIB BU>JMIBP QL QEB @LKQO>OV 3>AIV PR@E ?BIFBCP LCQBK FKCIRBK@B ELT QEBPB >QEIBQBP >OB QOB>QBA
?V LQEBOP >KA ELT QEBV SFBT QEBJPBISBP >KA QEBFO LTK @>M>?FIFQFBP 7EBQEBO LO KLQ VLR >DOBB TFQE >
PQBOBLQVMB PQBOBLQVMBP>OBDBKBO>IIVTBIIHKLTKTFQEFKFK>DFSBK@RIQROB $BSFKB 

3LJBQFJBP MBLMIB TFII >@Q LK QEBFO MOBGRAF@BA >QQFQRABP QLT>OA > DOLRM LC MBLMIB >KA QEFP ?BE>SFLO FP
HKLTK >P AFP@OFJFK>QFLK Discrimination FP KBD>QFSB >@QFLK QLT>OA >K FKAFSFAR>I >P > OBPRIQ LC LKBsP
JBJ?BOPEFM FK > M>OQF@RI>O DOLRM !IIMLOQ  $LSFAFL  '>BOQKBO 
 !P > OBPRIQ LC ELIAFKD
KBD>QFSB ?BIFBCP PQBOBLQVMBP
>KA KBD>QFSB >QQFQRABP MOBGRAF@B
>?LRQ > M>OQF@RI>O DOLRM MBLMIB LCQBK
QOB>Q QEB Q>ODBQ LC MOBGRAF@B MLLOIV PR@E >P BU@IRAFKD LIABO >ARIQP COLJ QEBFO @FO@IB LC COFBKAP Table 12.3
PRJJ>OFWBP QEB @E>O>@QBOFPQF@P LC PQBOBLQVMBP MOBGRAF@B >KA AFP@OFJFK>QFLK (>SB VLR BSBO ?BBK QEB Q>ODBQ
LCAFP@OFJFK>QFLK)CPL ELTAFAQEFPKBD>QFSBQOB>QJBKQJ>HBVLRCBBI
Table 12.3 Connecting Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

Item

Function

Connection

Example

3QBOBLQVMB

#LDKFQFSBQELRDEQP>?LRQ
MBLMIB

/SBODBKBO>IFWBA?BIFBCP
>?LRQMBLMIBJ>VIB>A
QLMOBGRAF@B

p9>KHBBPC>KP>OB
>OOLD>KQ>KA
L?KLUFLRPq

0OBGRAF@B

!CCB@QFSBCBBIFKDP>?LRQ
MBLMIB ?LQEMLPFQFSB>KA
KBD>QFSB

&BBIFKDPJ>VFKCIRBK@B
QOB>QJBKQLCLQEBOP
IB>AFKDQL
AFP@OFJFK>QFLK

p)E>QB9>KHBBP
C>KPQEBVJ>HB
JB>KDOVq

$FP@OFJFK>QFLK

"BE>SFLOMLPFQFSBLO
KBD>QFSBQOB>QJBKQLC
LQEBOP

(LIAFKDPQBOBLQVMBP
>KAE>O?LOFKD
MOBGRAF@BJ>VIB>AQL
BU@IRAFKD >SLFAFKD
>KA?F>PBAQOB>QJBKQLC
DOLRMJBJ?BOP

p)TLRIAKBSBO
EFOBKLO?B@LJB
COFBKAPTFQE>
MBOPLKFC)HKBT
EBLOPEBTBOB>
9>KHBBPC>Kq

4EFP@LKQBKQFP>S>FI>?IBCLOCOBB>QKWWSVFQ[RUJFRQWHQWFRO

#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV



3L C>O TBsSB AFP@RPPBA PQBOBLQVMBP MOBGRAF@B >KA AFP@OFJFK>QFLK >P KBD>QFSB QELRDEQP CBBIFKDP >KA
?BE>SFLOP ?B@>RPB QEBPB >OB QVMF@>IIV QEB JLPQ MOL?IBJ>QF@ (LTBSBO FQ FP FJMLOQ>KQ QL >IPL MLFKQ LRQ
QE>Q MBLMIB @>K ELIA MLPFQFSB QELRDEQP CBBIFKDP >KA ?BE>SFLOP QLT>OA FKAFSFAR>IP ?>PBA LK DOLRM
JBJ?BOPEFM CLO BU>JMIB QEBV TLRIA PELT MOBCBOBKQF>I QOB>QJBKQ CLO MBLMIB TEL >OB IFHB
QEBJPBISBPoQE>QFP TELPE>OBQEBP>JBDBKABO O>@B LOC>SLOFQBPMLOQPQB>J

LINK TO LEARNING
4EFP video (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/racismexp) ABJLKPQO>QBPQEB@LK@BMQPLC
MOBGRAF@B PQBOBLQVMBP >KAAFP@OFJFK>QFLK)KQEBSFABL >PL@F>IBUMBOFJBKQFP
@LKAR@QBAFK>M>OHTEBOBQEOBBMBLMIBQOVQLPQB>I>?FHBLRQFKQEBLMBK4EBO>@B
>KADBKABOLCQEBQEFBCFPS>OFBA>7EFQBJ>IBQBBK>DBO >"I>@HJ>IBQBBK>DBO >KA
>7EFQBCBJ>IB$LBP>KVLKBQOVQLPQLMQEBJ4EBQOB>QJBKQLCQEBQBBK>DBOPFKQEB
SFABLABJLKPQO>QBPQEB@LK@BMQLCO>@FPJ

TYPES OF PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION


7EBK TB JBBQ PQO>KDBOP TB >RQLJ>QF@>IIV MOL@BPP QEOBB MFB@BP LC FKCLOJ>QFLK >?LRQ QEBJ QEBFO O>@B
DBKABO >KA >DB )QL  5OI>KA 
 7EV >OB QEBPB >PMB@QP LC >K RKC>JFIF>O MBOPLK PL FJMLOQ>KQ 7EV
ALKsQ TB FKPQB>A KLQF@B TEBQEBO QEBFO BVBP >OB COFBKAIV TEBQEBO QEBV >OB PJFIFKD QEBFO EBFDEQ QEB QVMB
LC @ILQEBP QEBV >OB TB>OFKD !IQELRDE QEBPB PB@LKA>OV @E>O>@QBOFPQF@P >OB FJMLOQ>KQ FK CLOJFKD > CFOPQ
FJMOBPPFLK LC > PQO>KDBO QEB PL@F>I @>QBDLOFBP LC O>@B DBKABO >KA >DB MOLSFAB > TB>IQE LC FKCLOJ>QFLK
>?LRQ >K FKAFSFAR>I 4EFP FKCLOJ>QFLK ELTBSBO LCQBK FP ?>PBA LK PQBOBLQVMBP 7B J>V E>SB AFCCBOBKQ
BUMB@Q>QFLKP LC PQO>KDBOP ABMBKAFKD LK QEBFO O>@B DBKABO >KA >DB 7E>Q PQBOBLQVMBP >KA MOBGRAF@BP AL
VLRELIA>?LRQMBLMIBTEL>OBCOLJ>O>@B DBKABO >KA>DBDOLRMAFCCBOBKQCOLJVLROLTK

Racism
Racism FP MOBGRAF@B >KA AFP@OFJFK>QFLK >D>FKPQ >K FKAFSFAR>I ?>PBA PLIBIV LK LKBsP JBJ?BOPEFM FK >
PMB@FCF@ O>@F>I DOLRM PR@E >P QLT>OA !COF@>K !JBOF@>KP !PF>K !JBOF@>KP ,>QFKLP .>QFSB !JBOF@>KP
%ROLMB>K !JBOF@>KP
 7E>Q >OB PLJB PQBOBLQVMBP LC S>OFLRP O>@F>I LO BQEKF@ DOLRMP 2BPB>O@E PRDDBPQP
@RIQRO>I PQBOBLQVMBP CLO !PF>K !JBOF@>KP FK@IRAB @LIA PIV >KA FKQBIIFDBKQ CLO ,>QFKLP @LIA >KA
RKFKQBIIFDBKQ CLO %ROLMB>K !JBOF@>KP @LIA >KA FKQBIIFDBKQ >KA CLO !COF@>K !JBOF@>KP >DDOBPPFSB
>QEIBQF@ >KA JLOB IFHBIV QL ?B I>T ?OB>HBOP $BSFKB  %IIFLQ  &FPHB #RAAV 'IF@H  8R 
3LJJBOP%IIPTLOQE $FULK,FKW 

2>@FPJ BUFPQP CLO J>KV O>@F>I >KA BQEKF@ DOLRMP &LO BU>JMIB "I>@HP >OB PFDKFCF@>KQIV JLOB IFHBIV QL
E>SB QEBFO SBEF@IBP PB>O@EBA AROFKD QO>CCF@ PQLMP QE>K 7EFQBP M>OQF@RI>OIV TEBK "I>@HP >OB AOFSFKD FK
MOBALJFK>QBIV 7EFQB KBFDE?LOELLAP > MEBKLJBKLK LCQBK QBOJBA p$7" q LO pAOFSFKD TEFIB "I>@Hq

2LGBH 2LPBKCBIA $B@HBO 

-BUF@>K !JBOF@>KP >KA LQEBO ,>QFKL DOLRMP >IPL >OB Q>ODBQP LC O>@FPJ COLJ QEB MLIF@B >KA LQEBO JBJ?BOP
LC QEB @LJJRKFQV &LO BU>JMIB TEBK MRO@E>PFKD FQBJP TFQE > MBOPLK>I @EB@H ,>QFKL PELMMBOP >OB JLOB
IFHBIVQE>K7EFQBPELMMBOPQL?B>PHBAQLPELTCLOJ>IFABKQFCF@>QFLK $LSFAFLBQ>I 

)K LKB @>PB LC >IIBDBA E>O>PPJBKQ ?V QEB MLIF@B PBSBO>I %>PQ (>SBK #LKKB@QF@RQ MLIF@B LCCF@BOP TBOB
>OOBPQBA LK CBABO>I @E>ODBP ARB QL OBMLOQBAIV @LKQFKRBA E>O>PPJBKQ >KA ?ORQ>IFW>QFLK LC ,>QFKLP 7EBK QEB
>@@RP>QFLKP @>JB LRQ QEB J>VLO LC %>PQ (>SBK T>P >PHBA p7E>Q >OB VLR ALFKD CLO QEB ,>QFKL @LJJRKFQV
QLA>Vq 4EB ->VLO OBPMLKABA p) JFDEQ E>SB Q>@LP TEBK ) DL ELJB )sJ KLQ NRFQB PROB VBQq p%>PQ (>SBK
->VLO q 
4EFP PQ>QBJBKQ RKABOJFKBP QEB FJMLOQ>KQ FPPRB LC O>@F>I MOLCFIFKD >KA MLIF@B E>O>PPJBKQ



#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV

LC ,>QFKLP TEFIB ?BIFQQIFKD ,>QFKL @RIQROB ?V BJME>PFWFKD >K FKQBOBPQ FK > CLLA MOLAR@Q PQBOBLQVMF@>IIV
>PPL@F>QBATFQE,>QFKLP
2>@FPJ FP MOBS>IBKQ QLT>OA J>KV LQEBO DOLRMP FK QEB 5KFQBA 3Q>QBP FK@IRAFKD .>QFSB !JBOF@>KP !O>?
!JBOF@>KP *BTFPE !JBOF@>KP >KA !PF>K !JBOF@>KP (>SB VLR TFQKBPPBA O>@FPJ QLT>OA >KV LC QEBPB
O>@F>ILOBQEKF@DOLRMP!OBVLR>T>OBLCO>@FPJFKVLRO@LJJRKFQV
/KB OB>PLK JLABOK CLOJP LC O>@FPJ >KA MOBGRAF@B FK DBKBO>I >OB E>OA QL ABQB@Q FP OBI>QBA QL QEB AR>I
>QQFQRABP JLABI 7FIPLK ,FKAPBV  3@ELLIBO 
 (RJ>KP E>SB QTL CLOJP LC >QQFQRABP BUMIF@FQ
>QQFQRABP TEF@E >OB @LKP@FLRP >KA @LKQOLII>?IB >KA FJMIF@FQ >QQFQRABP TEF@E >OB RK@LKP@FLRP >KA
RK@LKQOLII>?IB $BSFKB  /IPLK  &>WFL 
 "B@>RPB ELIAFKD BD>IFQ>OF>K SFBTP FP PL@F>IIV ABPFO>?IB
0I>KQ  $BSFKB 
JLPQ MBLMIB AL KLQ PELT BUQOBJB O>@F>I ?F>P LO LQEBO MOBGRAF@BP LK JB>PROBP LC
QEBFO BUMIF@FQ >QQFQRABP (LTBSBO JB>PROBP LC FJMIF@FQ >QQFQRABP LCQBK PELT BSFABK@B LC JFIA QL PQOLKD
O>@F>I?F>PLOLQEBOMOBGRAF@BP 'OBBKT>IA -@'BB 3@ET>OQW /IPLK&>WFL 


Sexism
Sexism FP MOBGRAF@B >KA AFP@OFJFK>QFLK QLT>OA FKAFSFAR>IP ?>PBA LK QEBFO PBU 4VMF@>IIV PBUFPJ Q>HBP
QEB CLOJ LC JBK ELIAFKD ?F>PBP >D>FKPQ TLJBK ?RQ BFQEBO PBU @>K PELT PBUFPJ QLT>OA QEBFO LTK LO
QEBFO LMMLPFQB PBU ,FHB O>@FPJ PBUFPJ J>V ?B PR?QIB >KA AFCCF@RIQ QL ABQB@Q #LJJLK CLOJP LC PBUFPJ
FK JLABOK PL@FBQV FK@IRAB DBKABO OLIB BUMB@Q>QFLKP PR@E >P BUMB@QFKD TLJBK QL ?B QEB @>OBQ>HBOP LC
QEB ELRPBELIA 3BUFPJ >IPL FK@IRABP MBLMIBsP BUMB@Q>QFLKP CLO ELT JBJ?BOP LC > DBKABO DOLRM PELRIA
?BE>SB &LO BU>JMIB TLJBK >OB BUMB@QBA QL ?B COFBKAIV M>PPFSB >KA KROQROFKD >KA TEBK TLJBK
?BE>SB FK >K RKCOFBKAIV >PPBOQFSB LO KBDIB@QCRI J>KKBO QEBV LCQBK >OB AFPIFHBA CLO SFLI>QFKD QEBFO DBKABO
OLIB 2RAJ>K 
 2BPB>O@E ?V ,>ROFB 2RAJ>K 
CFKAP QE>Q TEBK CBJ>IB GL? >MMIF@>KQP PBIC
MOLJLQB QEBV >OB IFHBIV QL ?B SFBTBA >P @LJMBQBKQ ?RQ QEBV J>V ?B AFPIFHBA >KA >OB IBPP IFHBIV QL ?B
EFOBA ?B@>RPB QEBV SFLI>QBA DBKABO BUMB@Q>QFLKP CLO JLABPQV 3BUFPJ @>K BUFPQ LK > PL@FBQ>I IBSBI PR@E >P
FK EFOFKD BJMILVJBKQ LMMLOQRKFQFBP >KA BAR@>QFLK 7LJBK >OB IBPP IFHBIV QL ?B EFOBA LO MOLJLQBA FK
J>IBALJFK>QBA MOLCBPPFLKP PR@E >P BKDFKBBOFKD >SF>QFLK >KA @LKPQOR@QFLK Figure 12.23
"I>R &BO?BO
 7FKHIBO  #B@F  7FIIF>JP 
 (>SB VLR BSBO BUMBOFBK@BA LO TFQKBPPBA PBUFPJ 4EFKH >?LRQ
VLRO C>JFIV JBJ?BOPs GL?P LO @>OBBOP 7EV AL VLR QEFKH QEBOB >OB AFCCBOBK@BP FK QEB GL?P TLJBK >KA JBK
E>SB PR@E>PJLOBTLJBKKROPBP?RQJLOBJ>IBPRODBLKP "BQW 


Figure 12.23 7LJBKKLTE>SBJ>KVGL?PMOBSFLRPIV@ILPBAQLQEBJ QELRDEQEBVPQFIIC>@B@E>IIBKDBPFKJ>IB


ALJFK>QBAL@@RM>QFLKP@OBAFQ!IBU&IF@HO

Ageism
0BLMIB LCQBK CLOJ GRADJBKQP >KA ELIA BUMB@Q>QFLKP >?LRQ MBLMIB ?>PBA LK QEBFO >DB 4EBPB GRADJBKQP
>KA BUMB@Q>QFLKP @>K IB>A QL ageism LO MOBGRAF@B >KA AFP@OFJFK>QFLK QLT>OA FKAFSFAR>IP ?>PBA PLIBIV LK
QEBFO >DB 4VMF@>IIV >DBFPJ L@@ROP >D>FKPQ LIABO >ARIQP ?RQ >DBFPJ >IPL @>K L@@RO QLT>OA VLRKDBO >ARIQP
4EFKH LC BUMB@Q>QFLKP VLR ELIA CLO LIABO >ARIQP (LT @LRIA PLJBLKBsP BUMB@Q>QFLKP FKCIRBK@B QEB CBBIFKDP
QEBV ELIA QLT>OA FKAFSFAR>IP COLJ LIABO >DB DOLRMP !DBFPJ FP TFABPMOB>A FK 53 @RIQROB .LPBH 

>KA > @LJJLK >DBFPQ >QQFQRAB QLT>OA LIABO >ARIQP FP QE>Q QEBV >OB FK@LJMBQBKQ MEVPF@>IIV TB>H >KA
PILT 'OBBK?BOD 3@EFJBI  ->OQBKP 
>KA PLJB MBLMIB @LKPFABO LIABO >ARIQP IBPP >QQO>@QFSB 3LJB

4EFP@LKQBKQFP>S>FI>?IBCLOCOBB>QKWWSVFQ[RUJFRQWHQWFRO

#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV



@RIQROBP ELTBSBO FK@IRAFKD PLJB !PF>K ,>QFKL >KA !COF@>K !JBOF@>K @RIQROBP ?LQE LRQPFAB >KA TFQEFK
QEB5KFQBA3Q>QBP>CCLOALIABO>ARIQPOBPMB@Q>KAELKLO
!DBFPJ @>K >IPL L@@RO QLT>OA VLRKDBO >ARIQP 7E>Q BUMB@Q>QFLKP AL VLR ELIA QLT>OA VLRKDBO MBLMIB
$LBP PL@FBQV BUMB@Q VLRKDBO >ARIQP QL ?B FJJ>QROB >KA FOOBPMLKPF?IB (LT JFDEQ QEBPB QTL CLOJP LC
>DBFPJ>CCB@Q>VLRKDBO>KALIABO>ARIQTEL>OB>MMIVFKDCLO>P>IBP@IBOHMLPFQFLK

Homophobia
!KLQEBO CLOJ LC MOBGRAF@B FP homophobia MOBGRAF@B >KA AFP@OFJFK>QFLK LC FKAFSFAR>IP ?>PBA PLIBIV LK
QEBFO PBUR>I LOFBKQ>QFLK ,FHB >DBFPJ ELJLMEL?F> FP > TFABPMOB>A MOBGRAF@B FK 53 PL@FBQV QE>Q FP QLIBO>QBA
?V J>KV MBLMIB (BOBH  -@,BJLOB  .LPBH 
 .BD>QFSB CBBIFKDP LCQBK OBPRIQ FK AFP@OFJFK>QFLK
PR@E >P QEB BU@IRPFLK LC IBP?F>K D>V ?FPBUR>I >KA QO>KPDBKABO ,'"4
MBLMIB COLJ PL@F>I DOLRMP >KA QEB
>SLFA>K@B LC ,'"4 KBFDE?LOP >KA @LTLOHBOP 4EFP AFP@OFJFK>QFLK >IPL BUQBKAP QL BJMILVBOP ABIF?BO>QBIV
AB@IFKFKD QL EFOB NR>IFCFBA ,'"4 GL? >MMIF@>KQP (>SB VLR BUMBOFBK@BA LO TFQKBPPBA ELJLMEL?F> )C PL
TE>QPQBOBLQVMBP MOBGRAF@BA>QQFQRABP >KAAFP@OFJFK>QFLKTBOBBSFABKQ

DIG DEEPER
Research into Homophobia
3LJB MBLMIB >OB NRFQB M>PPFLK>QB FK QEBFO E>QOBA CLO KLKEBQBOLPBUR>IP FK LRO PL@FBQV )K PLJB @>PBP MBLMIB
E>SB ?BBK QLOQROBA >KALO JROABOBA PFJMIV ?B@>RPB QEBV TBOB KLQ EBQBOLPBUR>I 4EFP M>PPFLK>QB OBPMLKPB
E>P IBA PLJB OBPB>O@EBOP QL NRBPQFLK TE>Q JLQFSBP JFDEQ BUFPQ CLO ELJLMEL?F@ MBLMIB !A>JP 7OFDEQ  ,LEO
 @LKAR@QBA>PQRAVFKSBPQFD>QFKDQEFPFPPRB>KAQEBFOOBPRIQPTBOBNRFQB>KBVB LMBKBO
)K QEFP BUMBOFJBKQ J>IB @LIIBDB PQRABKQP TBOB DFSBK > P@>IB QE>Q >PPBPPBA ELT ELJLMEL?F@ QEBV TBOB QELPB
TFQE BUQOBJB P@LOBP TBOB OB@ORFQBA QL M>OQF@FM>QB FK QEB BUMBOFJBKQ )K QEB BKA  JBK >DOBBA QL M>OQF@FM>QB
>KA TBOB PMIFQ FKQL  DOLRMP ELJLMEL?F@ JBK >KA KLKELJLMEL?F@ JBK "LQE DOLRMP LC JBK TBOB CFQQBA TFQE
> MBKFIB MIBQEVPJLDO>ME >K FKPQORJBKQ QE>Q JB>PROBP @E>KDBP FK ?ILLA CILT QL QEB MBKFP >KA PBOSBP >P >K
L?GB@QFSBJB>PROBJBKQLCPBUR>I>OLRP>I
!II JBK TBOB PELTK PBDJBKQP LC PBUR>IIV BUMIF@FQ SFABLP /KB LC QEBPB SFABLP FKSLISBA > PBUR>I FKQBO>@QFLK
?BQTBBK > J>K >KA > TLJ>K EBQBOLPBUR>I @IFM  /KB SFABL AFPMI>VBA QTL CBJ>IBP BKD>DBA FK > PBUR>I
FKQBO>@QFLK ELJLPBUR>I CBJ>IB @IFM >KA QEB CFK>I SFABL AFPMI>VBA QTL JBK BKD>DBA FK > PBUR>I FKQBO>@QFLK
ELJLPBUR>I J>IB @IFM  #E>KDBP FK MBKFIB QRJBP@BK@B TBOB OB@LOABA AROFKD >II QEOBB @IFMP >KA > PR?GB@QFSB
JB>PROBJBKQ LC PBUR>I >OLRP>I T>P >IPL L?Q>FKBA 7EFIB ?LQE DOLRMP LC JBK ?B@>JB PBUR>IIV >OLRPBA QL QEB
EBQBOLPBUR>I >KA CBJ>IB ELJLPBUR>I SFABL @IFMP LKIV QELPB JBK TEL TBOB FABKQFCFBA >P ELJLMEL?F@ PELTBA
PBUR>I >OLRP>I QL QEB ELJLPBUR>I J>IB SFABL @IFM 7EFIB >II JBK OBMLOQBA QE>Q QEBFO BOB@QFLKP FKAF@>QBA >OLRP>I
CLO QEB EBQBOLPBUR>I >KA CBJ>IB ELJLPBUR>I @IFMP QEB ELJLMEL?F@ JBK FKAF@>QBA QE>Q QEBV TBOB KLQ PBUR>IIV
>OLRPBA ABPMFQB QEBFO BOB@QFLKP QL QEB J>IB ELJLPBUR>I @IFMP !A>JP BQ >I  PRDDBPQ QE>Q QEBPB CFKAFKDP
J>V FKAF@>QB QE>Q ELJLMEL?F> FP OBI>QBA QL ELJLPBUR>I >OLRP>I QE>Q QEB ELJLMEL?F@ FKAFSFAR>IP BFQEBO ABKV LO
>OBRK>T>OB

WHY DO PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION EXIST?


0OBGRAF@B >KA AFP@OFJFK>QFLK MBOPFPQ FK PL@FBQV ARB QL PL@F>I IB>OKFKD >KA @LKCLOJFQV QL PL@F>I KLOJP
#EFIAOBK IB>OK MOBGRAF@BA >QQFQRABP >KA ?BIFBCP COLJ PL@FBQV QEBFO M>OBKQP QB>@EBOP COFBKAP QEB JBAF>
>KA LQEBO PLRO@BP LC PL@F>IFW>QFLK PR@E >P &>@B?LLH /s+BBCCB  #I>OHB0B>OPLK 
 )C @BOQ>FK QVMBP
LC MOBGRAF@B >KA AFP@OFJFK>QFLK >OB >@@BMQ>?IB FK > PL@FBQV QEBOB J>V ?B KLOJ>QFSB MOBPPROBP QL @LKCLOJ
>KA PE>OB QELPB MOBGRAF@BA ?BIFBCP >QQFQRABP >KA ?BE>SFLOP &LO BU>JMIB MR?IF@ >KA MOFS>QB P@ELLIP >OB
PQFII PLJBTE>Q PBDOBD>QBA ?V PL@F>I @I>PP (FPQLOF@>IIV LKIV @EFIAOBK COLJ TB>IQEV C>JFIFBP @LRIA >CCLOA QL
>QQBKA MOFS>QB P@ELLIP TEBOB>P @EFIAOBK COLJ JFAAIB >KA ILTFK@LJB C>JFIFBP QVMF@>IIV >QQBKABA MR?IF@
P@ELLIP )C > @EFIA COLJ > ILTFK@LJB C>JFIV OB@BFSBA > JBOFQ P@ELI>OPEFM QL >QQBKA > MOFS>QB P@ELLI ELT



#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV

JFDEQ QEB @EFIA ?B QOB>QBA ?V @I>PPJ>QBP #>K VLR OB@>II > QFJB TEBK VLR EBIA MOBGRAF@BA >QQFQRABP LO
?BIFBCPLO>@QBAFK>AFP@OFJFK>QLOVJ>KKBO?B@>RPBVLRODOLRMLCCOFBKAPBUMB@QBAVLRQL

STEREOTYPES AND SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY


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! self-fulfilling prophecy FP >K BUMB@Q>QFLK EBIA ?V > MBOPLK QE>Q >IQBOP EFP LO EBO ?BE>SFLO FK > T>V
QE>Q QBKAP QL J>HB FQ QORB 7EBK TB ELIA PQBOBLQVMBP >?LRQ > MBOPLK TB QBKA QL QOB>Q QEB MBOPLK
>@@LOAFKD QL LRO BUMB@Q>QFLKP 4EFP QOB>QJBKQ @>K FKCIRBK@B QEB MBOPLK QL >@Q >@@LOAFKD QL LRO PQBOBLQVMF@
BUMB@Q>QFLKP QERP @LKCFOJFKD LRO PQBOBLQVMF@ ?BIFBCP 2BPB>O@E ?V 2LPBKQE>I >KA *>@L?PLK 
CLRKA
QE>Q AFP>AS>KQ>DBA PQRABKQP TELPB QB>@EBOP BUMB@QBA QEBJ QL MBOCLOJ TBII E>A EFDEBO DO>ABP QE>K
AFP>AS>KQ>DBAPQRABKQPTELPBQB>@EBOPBUMB@QBAQEBJQLALMLLOIV
#LKPFABO QEFP BU>JMIB LC @>RPB >KA BCCB@Q FK > PBICCRICFIIFKD MOLMEB@V )C >K BJMILVBO BUMB@QP >K LMBKIV
D>V J>IB GL? >MMIF@>KQ QL ?B FK@LJMBQBKQ QEB MLQBKQF>I BJMILVBO JFDEQ QOB>Q QEB >MMIF@>KQ KBD>QFSBIV
AROFKD QEB FKQBOSFBT ?V BKD>DFKD FK IBPP @LKSBOP>QFLK J>HFKD IFQQIB BVB @LKQ>@Q >KA DBKBO>IIV ?BE>SFKD
@LIAIV QLT>OA QEB >MMIF@>KQ (B?I &LPQBO ->KKFU  $LSFAFL 
 )K QROK QEB GL? >MMIF@>KQ TFII MBO@BFSB
QE>Q QEB MLQBKQF>I BJMILVBO AFPIFHBP EFJ >KA EB TFII OBPMLKA ?V DFSFKD PELOQBO OBPMLKPBP QL FKQBOSFBT
NRBPQFLKP J>HFKD IBPP BVB @LKQ>@Q >KA DBKBO>IIV AFPBKD>DFKD COLJ QEB FKQBOSFBT !CQBO QEB FKQBOSFBT
QEB BJMILVBO TFII OBCIB@Q LK QEB >MMIF@>KQsP ?BE>SFLO TEF@E PBBJBA @LIA >KA AFPQ>KQ >KA QEB BJMILVBO
TFII @LK@IRAB ?>PBA LK QEB >MMIF@>KQsP MLLO MBOCLOJ>K@B AROFKD QEB FKQBOSFBT QE>Q QEB >MMIF@>KQ T>P
FK C>@Q FK@LJMBQBKQ 4ERP QEB BJMILVBOsP PQBOBLQVMBoD>V JBK >OB FK@LJMBQBKQ >KA AL KLQ J>HB DLLA
BJMILVBBPoFP OBFKCLO@BA $L VLR QEFKH QEFP GL? >MMIF@>KQ FP IFHBIV QL ?B EFOBA 4OB>QFKD FKAFSFAR>IP
>@@LOAFKDQLPQBOBLQVMF@?BIFBCP@>KIB>AQLMOBGRAF@B>KAAFP@OFJFK>QFLK
!KLQEBO AVK>JF@ QE>Q @>K OBFKCLO@B PQBOBLQVMBP FP @LKCFOJ>QFLK ?F>P 7EBK FKQBO>@QFKD TFQE QEB Q>ODBQ LC
LRO MOBGRAF@B TB QBKA QL M>V >QQBKQFLK QL FKCLOJ>QFLK QE>Q FP @LKPFPQBKQ TFQE LRO PQBOBLQVMF@ BUMB@Q>QFLKP
>KA FDKLOB FKCLOJ>QFLK QE>Q FP FK@LKPFPQBKQ TFQE LRO BUMB@Q>QFLKP )K QEFP MOL@BPP HKLTK >P confirmation
bias TB PBBH LRQ FKCLOJ>QFLK QE>Q PRMMLOQP LRO PQBOBLQVMBP >KA FDKLOB FKCLOJ>QFLK QE>Q FP FK@LKPFPQBKQ
TFQE LRO PQBOBLQVMBP 7>PLK  *LEKPLK,>FOA 
 )K QEB GL? FKQBOSFBT BU>JMIB QEB BJMILVBO J>V KLQ
E>SB KLQF@BA QE>Q QEB GL? >MMIF@>KQ T>P COFBKAIV >KA BKD>DFKD >KA QE>Q EB MOLSFABA @LJMBQBKQ OBPMLKPBP
QL QEB FKQBOSFBT NRBPQFLKP FK QEB ?BDFKKFKD LC QEB FKQBOSFBT )KPQB>A QEB BJMILVBO CL@RPBA LK QEB GL?
>MMIF@>KQsP MBOCLOJ>K@B FK QEB I>QBO M>OQ LC QEB FKQBOSFBT >CQBO QEB >MMIF@>KQ @E>KDBA EFP ABJB>KLO >KA
?BE>SFLOQLJ>Q@EQEBFKQBOSFBTBOsPKBD>QFSBQOB>QJBKQ
(>SB VLR BSBO C>IIBK MOBV QL QEB PBICCRICFIIFKD MOLMEB@V LO @LKCFOJ>QFLK ?F>P BFQEBO >P QEB PLRO@B LO
Q>ODBQ LC PR@E ?F>P (LT JFDEQ TB PQLM QEB @V@IB LC QEB PBICCRICFIIFKD MOLMEB@V 3L@F>I @I>PP PQBOBLQVMBP
LC FKAFSFAR>IP QBKA QL >OFPB TEBK FKCLOJ>QFLK >?LRQ QEB FKAFSFAR>I FP >J?FDRLRP )C FKCLOJ>QFLK FP
RK>J?FDRLRP PQBOBLQVMBPALKLQQBKAQL>OFPB ">OLKBQ>I 


IN-GROUPS AND OUT-GROUPS


!P AFP@RPPBA MOBSFLRPIV FK QEFP PB@QFLK TB >II ?BILKD QL > DBKABO O>@B >DB >KA PL@F>I B@LKLJF@ DOLRM
4EBPB DOLRMP MOLSFAB > MLTBOCRI PLRO@B LC LRO FABKQFQV >KA PBICBPQBBJ 4>GCBI  4ROKBO 
 4EBPB
DOLRMP PBOSB >P LRO FKDOLRMP !K in-group FP > DOLRM QE>Q TB FABKQFCV TFQE LO PBB LROPBISBP >P ?BILKDFKD
QL ! DOLRM QE>Q TB ALKsQ ?BILKD QL LO >K out-group FP > DOLRM QE>Q TB SFBT >P CRKA>JBKQ>IIV AFCCBOBKQ
COLJ RP &LO BU>JMIB FC VLR >OB CBJ>IB VLRO DBKABO FKDOLRM FK@IRABP >II CBJ>IBP >KA VLRO DBKABO
LRQDOLRM FK@IRABP >II J>IBP Figure 12.24
 0BLMIB LCQBK SFBT DBKABO DOLRMP >P ?BFKD CRKA>JBKQ>IIV
AFCCBOBKQ COLJ B>@E LQEBO FK MBOPLK>IFQV QO>FQP @E>O>@QBOFPQF@P PL@F>I OLIBP >KA FKQBOBPQP "B@>RPB TB
LCQBK CBBI > PQOLKD PBKPB LC ?BILKDFKD >KA BJLQFLK>I @LKKB@QFLK QL LRO FKDOLRMP TB ABSBILM FKDOLRM
?F>P > MOBCBOBK@B CLO LRO LTK DOLRM LSBO LQEBO DOLRMP 4EFP in-group bias @>K OBPRIQ FK MOBGRAF@B >KA
AFP@OFJFK>QFLK?B@>RPBQEBLRQDOLRMFPMBO@BFSBA>PAFCCBOBKQ>KAFPIBPPMOBCBOOBAQE>KLROFKDOLRM

4EFP@LKQBKQFP>S>FI>?IBCLOCOBB>QKWWSVFQ[RUJFRQWHQWFRO

#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV



Figure 12.24 4EBPB@EFIAOBK>OBSBOVVLRKD ?RQQEBV>OB>IOB>AV>T>OBLCQEBFODBKABOFK DOLRM>KALRQ DOLRM


@OBAFQJLAFCF@>QFLKLCTLOH?V3FJLKB2>JBII>

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OB@LK@FIF>QFLK ?BQTBBK DOLRMP QEB BUMOBPPFLK LC BJM>QEV LC >@HKLTIBADJBKQ LC M>PQ PRCCBOFKD LK ?LQE
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?I>JFKD >K LRQDOLRM CLO QEB MOL?IBJ Scapegoating FP QEB >@Q LC ?I>JFKD >K LRQDOLRM TEBK QEB FKDOLRM
BUMBOFBK@BPCORPQO>QFLKLOFP?IL@HBACOLJL?Q>FKFKD>DL>I !IIMLOQ 


12.6 Aggression
Learning Objectives
"VQEBBKALCQEFPPB@QFLK VLRTFII?B>?IBQL
k $BCFKB>DDOBPPFLK
k $BCFKB@V?BO?RIIVFKD
k $BP@OF?BQEB?VPQ>KABOBCCB@Q
4EOLRDELRQ QEFP @E>MQBO TB E>SB AFP@RPPBA ELT MBLMIB FKQBO>@Q >KA FKCIRBK@B LKB >KLQEBOsP QELRDEQP
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QEFKDP PR@E >P EBIMFKD B>@E LQEBO FK BJBODBK@FBP OB@>II QEB EBOLFPJ AFPMI>VBA AROFKD QEB  QBOOLOFPQ
>QQ>@HP 0BLMIB >IPL @>K AL DOB>Q E>OJ QL LKB >KLQEBO PR@E >P @LKCLOJFKD QL DOLRM KLOJP QE>Q >OB FJJLO>I
>KA L?BVFKD >RQELOFQV QL QEB MLFKQ LC JROABO @LKPFABO QEB J>PP @LKCLOJFQV LC .>WFP AROFKD 77)) )K QEFP
PB@QFLKTBTFIIAFP@RPP>KBD>QFSBPFABLCERJ>K?BE>SFLOo>DDOBPPFLK

AGGRESSION
(RJ>KP BKD>DB FK aggression TEBK QEBV PBBH QL @>RPB E>OJ LO M>FK QL >KLQEBO MBOPLK !DDOBPPFLK
Q>HBP QTL CLOJP ABMBKAFKD LK LKBsP JLQFSBP ELPQFIB LO FKPQORJBKQ>I Hostile aggression FP JLQFS>QBA
?V CBBIFKDP LC >KDBO TFQE FKQBKQ QL @>RPB M>FK > CFDEQ FK > ?>O TFQE > PQO>KDBO FP >K BU>JMIB LC ELPQFIB
>DDOBPPFLK )K @LKQO>PQ instrumental aggression FP JLQFS>QBA ?V >@EFBSFKD > DL>I >KA ALBP KLQ KB@BPP>OFIV
FKSLISB FKQBKQ QL @>RPB M>FK "BOHLTFQW 
 > @LKQO>@Q HFIIBO TEL JROABOP CLO EFOB AFPMI>VP FKPQORJBKQ>I
>DDOBPPFLK
4EBOB >OB J>KV AFCCBOBKQ QEBLOFBP >P QL TEV >DDOBPPFLK BUFPQP 3LJB OBPB>O@EBOP >ODRB QE>Q >DDOBPPFLK
PBOSBP >K BSLIRQFLK>OV CRK@QFLK "RPP 
 -BK >OB JLOB IFHBIV QE>K TLJBK QL PELT >DDOBPPFLK
7FIPLK  $>IV 
 &OLJ QEB MBOPMB@QFSB LC BSLIRQFLK>OV MPV@ELILDV ERJ>K J>IB >DDOBPPFLK IFHB



#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV

QE>Q FK KLKERJ>K MOFJ>QBP IFHBIV PBOSBP QL AFPMI>V ALJFK>K@B LSBO LQEBO J>IBP ?LQE QL MOLQB@Q > J>QB
>KA QL MBOMBQR>QB QEB J>IBsP DBKBP Figure 12.25
 3BUR>I GB>ILRPV FP M>OQ LC J>IB >DDOBPPFLK J>IBP
BKAB>SLO QL J>HB PROB QEBFO J>QBP >OB KLQ @LMRI>QFKD TFQE LQEBO J>IBP QERP BKPROFKD QEBFO LTK M>QBOKFQV
LC QEB CBJ>IBsP LCCPMOFKD !IQELRDE >DDOBPPFLK MOLSFABP >K L?SFLRP BSLIRQFLK>OV >AS>KQ>DB CLO JBK
TLJBK >IPL BKD>DB FK >DDOBPPFLK 7LJBK QVMF@>IIV AFPMI>V FKPQORJBKQ>I CLOJP LC >DDOBPPFLK TFQE QEBFO
>DDOBPPFLK PBOSFKD >P > JB>KP QL >K BKA $LADB  3@ET>OQW 
 &LO BU>JMIB TLJBK J>V BUMOBPP QEBFO
>DDOBPPFLK @LSBOQIV CLO BU>JMIB ?V @LJJRKF@>QFLK QE>Q FJM>FOP QEB PL@F>I PQ>KAFKD LC >KLQEBO MBOPLK
!KLQEBO QEBLOV QE>Q BUMI>FKP LKB LC QEB CRK@QFLKP LC ERJ>K >DDOBPPFLK FP CORPQO>QFLK >DDOBPPFLK QEBLOV
$LII>OA $LL? -FIIBO -LTOBO  3B>OP 
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Figure 12.25 (RJ>KJ>IBP>KAKLKERJ>KJ>IBMOFJ>QBPBKAB>SLOQLD>FK>KAAFPMI>VALJFK>K@BLSBOLQEBO


J>IBP >PABJLKPQO>QBAFKQEB?BE>SFLOLCQEBPBJLKHBVP@OBAFQi!O@>AFRdj&IF@HO

Bullying
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>KA T>KQ QL MI>V OLRDEIV /QEBO @EFIAOBK >OB PBICFPE >KA AL KLQ T>KQ QL PE>OB QLVP /KB CLOJ LC KBD>QFSB
PL@F>I FKQBO>@QFLKP >JLKD @EFIAOBK QE>Q E>P ?B@LJB > K>QFLK>I @LK@BOK FP ?RIIVFKD Bullying FP OBMB>QBA
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BP@>MBQEBE>O>PPJBKQ >KARK>?IBQLOBQ>IF>QB 3MB>OP 3IBB /TBKP *LEKPLK 

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KLKMEVPF@>I >KA FP > IBPP AFOB@Q CLOJ LC ?RIIVFKD Figure 12.26
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Figure 12.26 "B@>RPB@V?BO?RIIVFKDFPKLQMEVPF@>IFKK>QROB @V?BO?RIIFBP>KAQEBFOSF@QFJP>OBJLPQLCQBKCBJ>IB


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THE BYSTANDER EFFECT


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LC?VPQ>KABOP QEBIBPPIFHBIV>KVLKBMBOPLKTFIIEBIM

12.7 Prosocial Behavior


Learning Objectives
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k $BP@OF?B>IQORFPJ
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COFBKAP 7ELJ AL TB A>QB 2BPB>O@EBOP E>SB AL@RJBKQBA PBSBO>I CB>QROBP LC QEB PFQR>QFLK QE>Q FKCIRBK@B
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CLO FK COFBKAPEFMP >KA OLJ>KQF@ OBI>QFLKPEFMP QEB AFCCBOBKQ QVMBP LC ILSB >KA > QEBLOV BUMI>FKFKD ELT LRO
OBI>QFLKPEFMP>OBCLOJBA J>FKQ>FKBA >KAQBOJFK>QBA

PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND ALTRUISM


$L VLR SLIRKQ>OFIV EBIM LQEBOP 6LIRKQ>OV ?BE>SFLO TFQE QEB FKQBKQ QL EBIM LQEBO MBLMIB FP @>IIBA prosocial
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Figure 12.27 4EBBSBKQPLCRKIB>PEBA>KBKLOJLRPPELTLC>IQORFPJ>KAEBOLFPJLKQEBM>OQPLCCFOPQ


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LINK TO LEARNING
3BBQEFPBU@BOMQCOLJQEBMLMRI>O46PBOFBP Friends episode
(http://openstaxcollege.org/l/friendsclip) CLO>AFP@RPPFLKLCQEBBDLFPJSBOPRP
>IQORFPJAB?>QB

FORMING RELATIONSHIPS
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KL BSFABK@B QE>Q LMMLPFQBP >QQO>@Q 2>QEBO TB >OB >QQO>@QBA QL MBLMIB TEL >OB JLPQ IFHB RP Figure 12.28

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Figure 12.28 0BLMIBQBKAQL?B>QQO>@QBAQLPFJFI>OMBLMIB->KV@LRMIBPPE>OB>@RIQRO>I?>@HDOLRKA4EFP@>K?B


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!IQELRDE ERJ>KP T>KQ J>QBP TEL >OB MEVPF@>IIV >QQO>@QFSB QEFP ALBP KLQ JB>K QE>Q TB ILLH CLO QEB
JLPQ >QQO>@QFSB MBOPLK MLPPF?IB )K C>@Q QEFP L?PBOS>QFLK E>P IBA PLJB QL MOLMLPB TE>Q FP HKLTK >P QEB
J>Q@EFKD EVMLQEBPFP TEF@E >PPBOQP QE>Q MBLMIB QBKA QL MF@H PLJBLKB QEBV SFBT >P QEBFO BNR>I FK MEVPF@>I
>QQO>@QFSBKBPP >KA PL@F>I ABPFO>?FIFQV 4>VILO &FLOB -BKABIPLEK  #EBPEFOB 
 &LO BU>JMIB VLR >KA
JLPQ MBLMIB VLR HKLT IFHBIV TLRIA P>V QE>Q > SBOV >QQO>@QFSB JLSFB PQ>O FP LRQ LC VLRO IB>DRB 3L BSBK FC
VLR E>A MOLUFJFQV QL QE>Q MBOPLK VLR IFHBIV TLRIA KLQ >PH QEBJ LRQ LK > A>QB ?B@>RPB VLR ?BIFBSB VLR
IFHBIV TLRIA ?B OBGB@QBA 0BLMIB TBFDE > MLQBKQF>I M>OQKBOsP >QQO>@QFSBKBPP >D>FKPQ QEB IFHBIFELLA LC PR@@BPP
TFQE QE>Q MBOPLK )C VLR QEFKH VLR >OB M>OQF@RI>OIV RK>QQO>@QFSB BSBK FC VLR >OB KLQ
VLR IFHBIV TFII PBBH
M>OQKBOPQE>Q>OBC>FOIVRK>QQO>@QFSB QE>QFP RK>QQO>@QFSBFKMEVPF@>I>MMB>O>K@BLOFK?BE>SFLO


STERNBERGS TRIANGULAR THEORY OF LOVE


7B QVMF@>IIV ILSB QEB MBLMIB TFQE TELJ TB CLOJ OBI>QFLKPEFMP ?RQ QEB QVMB LC ILSB TB E>SB CLO LRO
C>JFIV COFBKAP >KA ILSBOP AFCCBOP 2L?BOQ 3QBOK?BOD 
MOLMLPBA QE>Q QEBOB >OB QEOBB @LJMLKBKQP LC
ILSB FKQFJ>@V M>PPFLK >KA @LJJFQJBKQ 4EBPB QEOBB @LJMLKBKQP CLOJ > QOF>KDIB QE>Q ABCFKBP JRIQFMIB
QVMBP LC ILSB QEFP FP HKLTK >P 3QBOK?BODsP triangular theory of love Figure 12.29
 )KQFJ>@V FP QEB PE>OFKD
LC ABQ>FIP >KA FKQFJ>QB QELRDEQP >KA BJLQFLKP 0>PPFLK FP QEB MEVPF@>I >QQO>@QFLKoQEB CI>JB FK QEB CFOB
#LJJFQJBKQFPPQ>KAFKD?VQEBMBOPLKoQEBpFKPF@HKBPP>KAEB>IQEqM>OQLCQEBOBI>QFLKPEFM

Figure 12.29 !@@LOAFKDQL3QBOK?BODhPQOF>KDRI>OQEBLOVLCILSB PBSBKQVMBPLCILSB@>K?BABP@OF?BACOLJ


@LJ?FK>QFLKPLCQEOBB@LJMLKBKQPFKQFJ>@V M>PPFLK >KA@LJJFQJBKQ@OBAFQJLAFCF@>QFLKLCTLOH?V
i,KBP>j7FHFJBAF>#LJJLKP

3QBOK?BOD 
PQ>QBP QE>Q > EB>IQEV OBI>QFLKPEFM TFII E>SB >II QEOBB @LJMLKBKQP LC ILSBoFKQFJ>@V
M>PPFLK >KA @LJJFQJBKQoTEF@E FP ABP@OF?BA >P consummate love Figure 12.30
 (LTBSBO AFCCBOBKQ
>PMB@QP LC ILSB JFDEQ ?B JLOB MOBS>IBKQ >Q AFCCBOBKQ IFCB PQ>DBP /QEBO CLOJP LC ILSB FK@IRAB IFHFKD
TEF@E FP ABCFKBA >P E>SFKD FKQFJ>@V ?RQ KL M>PPFLK LO @LJJFQJBKQ )KC>QR>QFLK FP QEB MOBPBK@B LC
M>PPFLK TFQELRQ FKQFJ>@V LO @LJJFQJBKQ %JMQV ILSB FP E>SFKD @LJJFQJBKQ TFQELRQ FKQFJ>@V LO M>PPFLK
Companionate love TEF@E FP @E>O>@QBOFPQF@ LC @ILPB COFBKAPEFMP >KA C>JFIV OBI>QFLKPEFMP @LKPFPQP LC
FKQFJ>@V >KA @LJJFQJBKQ ?RQ KL M>PPFLK Romantic love FP ABCFKBA ?V E>SFKD M>PPFLK >KA FKQFJ>@V ?RQ
KL @LJJFQJBKQ &FK>IIV C>QRLRP ILSB FP ABCFKBA ?V E>SFKD M>PPFLK >KA @LJJFQJBKQ ?RQ KL FKQFJ>@V PR@E
>P > ILKD QBOJ PBUR>I ILSB >CC>FO #>K VLR ABP@OF?B LQEBO BU>JMIBP LC OBI>QFLKPEFMP QE>Q CFQ QEBPB AFCCBOBKQ
QVMBPLCILSB



#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV

Figure 12.30 !@@LOAFKDQL3QBOK?BOD @LKPRJJ>QBILSBABP@OF?BP>EB>IQEVOBI>QFLKPEFM@LKQ>FKFKDFKQFJ>@V


M>PPFLK >KA@LJJFQJBKQ@OBAFQ+BOOV#BPWVH

SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY


7B E>SB AFP@RPPBA TEV TB CLOJ OBI>QFLKPEFMP TE>Q >QQO>@QP RP QL LQEBOP >KA AFCCBOBKQ QVMBP LC ILSB "RQ
TE>Q ABQBOJFKBP TEBQEBO TB >OB P>QFPCFBA TFQE >KA PQ>V FK > OBI>QFLKPEFM /KB QEBLOV QE>Q MOLSFABP >K
BUMI>K>QFLK FP PL@F>I BU@E>KDB QEBLOV !@@LOAFKD QL social exchange theory TB >@Q >P K>fSB B@LKLJFPQP
FK HBBMFKD > Q>IIV LC QEB O>QFL LC @LPQP >KA ?BKBCFQP LC CLOJFKD >KA J>FKQ>FKFKD > OBI>QFLKPEFM TFQE LQEBOP
Figure 12.31
 2RP?RIQ6>K,>KDB 


Figure 12.31 !@QFKDIFHBK>^SBB@LKLJFPQP MBLMIBJ>VHBBMQO>@HLCQEB@LPQP>KA?BKBCFQPLCJ>FKQ>FKFKD>


OBI>QFLKPEFM4VMF@>IIV LKIVQELPBOBI>QFLKPEFMPFKTEF@EQEB?BKBCFQPLRQTBFDEQEB@LPQPTFII?BJ>FKQ>FKBA

0BLMIB >OB JLQFS>QBA QL J>UFJFWB QEB ?BKBCFQP LC PL@F>I BU@E>KDBP LO OBI>QFLKPEFMP >KA JFKFJFWB QEB
@LPQP 0BLMIB MOBCBO QL E>SB JLOB ?BKBCFQP QE>K @LPQP LO QL E>SB KB>OIV BNR>I @LPQP >KA ?BKBCFQP ?RQ JLPQ
MBLMIB >OB AFPP>QFPCFBA FC QEBFO PL@F>I BU@E>KDBP @OB>QB JLOB @LPQP QE>K ?BKBCFQP ,BQsP AFP@RPP >K BU>JMIB
)C VLR E>SB BSBO AB@FABA QL @LJJFQ QL > OLJ>KQF@ OBI>QFLKPEFM VLR MOL?>?IV @LKPFABOBA QEB >AS>KQ>DBP
>KA AFP>AS>KQ>DBP LC VLRO AB@FPFLK 7E>Q >OB QEB ?BKBCFQP LC ?BFKD FK > @LJJFQQBA OLJ>KQF@ OBI>QFLKPEFM
9LR J>V E>SB @LKPFABOBA E>SFKD @LJM>KFLKPEFM FKQFJ>@V >KA M>PPFLK ?RQ >IPL ?BFKD @LJCLOQ>?IB TFQE
> MBOPLK VLR HKLT TBII 7E>Q >OB QEB @LPQP LC ?BFKD FK > @LJJFQQBA OLJ>KQF@ OBI>QFLKPEFM 9LR J>V
QEFKH QE>Q LSBO QFJB ?LOBALJ COLJ ?BFKD TFQE LKIV LKB MBOPLK J>V PBQ FK JLOBLSBO FQ J>V ?B BUMBKPFSB
QL PE>OB >@QFSFQFBP PR@E >P >QQBKAFKD JLSFBP >KA DLFKD QL AFKKBO (LTBSBO QEB ?BKBCFQP LC A>QFKD VLRO
OLJ>KQF@M>OQKBOMOBPRJ>?IVLRQTBFDEQEB@LPQP LOVLRTLRIAKsQ@LKQFKRBQEBOBI>QFLKPEFM

4EFP@LKQBKQFP>S>FI>?IBCLOCOBB>QKWWSVFQ[RUJFRQWHQWFRO

#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV



Key Terms
actor-observer bias MEBKLJBKLKLCBUMI>FKFKDLQEBOMBLMIBsP?BE>SFLOP>OBARBQLFKQBOK>IC>@QLOP>KA
LROLTK?BE>SFLOP>OBARBQLPFQR>QFLK>ICLO@BP
ageism MOBGRAF@B>KAAFP@OFJFK>QFLKQLT>OAFKAFSFAR>IP?>PBAPLIBIVLKQEBFO>DB
aggression PBBHFKDQL@>RPBE>OJLOM>FKQL>KLQEBOMBOPLK
altruism ERJ>KPsABPFOBQLEBIMLQEBOPBSBKFCQEB@LPQPLRQTBFDEQEB?BKBCFQPLCEBIMFKD
Asch effect DOLRMJ>GLOFQVFKCIRBK@BP>KFKAFSFAR>IsPGRADJBKQ BSBKTEBKQE>QGRADJBKQFPFK>@@RO>QB
attitude BS>IR>QFLKPLCLOCBBIFKDPQLT>OA>MBOPLK FAB> LOL?GB@QQE>Q>OBQVMF@>IIVMLPFQFSBLOKBD>QFSB
attribution BUMI>K>QFLKCLOQEB?BE>SFLOLCLQEBOMBLMIB
bullying >MBOPLK LCQBK>K>ALIBP@BKQ ?BFKDQOB>QBAKBD>QFSBIVOBMB>QBAIV>KALSBOQFJB
bystander effect PFQR>QFLKFKTEF@E>TFQKBPPLO?VPQ>KABOALBPKLQSLIRKQBBOQLEBIM>SF@QFJLOMBOPLK
FKAFPQOBPP
central route persuasion ILDF@AOFSBK>ODRJBKQPRPFKDA>Q>>KAC>@QPQL@LKSFK@BMBLMIBLC>K
>ODRJBKQsPTLOQEFKBPP
cognitive dissonance MPV@ELILDF@>IAFP@LJCLOQQE>Q>OFPBPCOLJ>@LKCIF@QFK>MBOPLKsP?BE>SFLOP
>QQFQRABP LO?BIFBCPQE>QORKP@LRKQBOQLLKBsPMLPFQFSBPBICMBO@BMQFLK
collectivist culture @RIQROBQE>QCL@RPBPLK@LJJRK>IOBI>QFLKPEFMPTFQELQEBOPPR@E>PC>JFIV COFBKAP
>KA@LJJRKFQV
companionate love QVMBLCILSB@LKPFPQFKDLCFKQFJ>@V>KA@LJJFQJBKQ ?RQKLQM>PPFLK>PPL@F>QBATFQE
@ILPBCOFBKAPEFMP>KAC>JFIVOBI>QFLKPEFMP
confederate MBOPLKTELTLOHPCLO>OBPB>O@EBO>KAFP>T>OBLCQEBBUMBOFJBKQ ?RQTEL>@QP>P>
M>OQF@FM>KQRPBAQLJ>KFMRI>QBPL@F>IPFQR>QFLKP>PM>OQLCQEBOBPB>O@EABPFDK
confirmation bias PBBHFKDLRQFKCLOJ>QFLKQE>QPRMMLOQPLROPQBOBLQVMBPTEFIBFDKLOFKDFKCLOJ>QFLKQE>Q
FPFK@LKPFPQBKQTFQELROPQBOBLQVMBP
conformity TEBKFKAFSFAR>IP@E>KDBQEBFO?BE>SFLOQLDL>ILKDTFQEQEBDOLRMBSBKFCQEBVALKLQ>DOBB
TFQEQEBDOLRM
consummate love QVMBLCILSBL@@ROOFKDTEBKFKQFJ>@V M>PPFLK >KA@LJJFQJBKQ>OB>IIMOBPBKQ
cyberbullying OBMB>QBA?BE>SFLOQE>QFPFKQBKABAQL@>RPBMPV@ELILDF@>ILOBJLQFLK>IE>OJQL>KLQEBO
MBOPLK>KAQE>QQ>HBPMI>@BLKIFKB
diffusion of responsibility QBKABK@VCLOKLLKBFK>DOLRMQLEBIM?B@>RPBQEBOBPMLKPF?FIFQVQLEBIMFP
PMOB>AQEOLRDELRQQEBDOLRM
discrimination KBD>QFSB>@QFLKPQLT>OAFKAFSFAR>IP>P>OBPRIQLCQEBFOJBJ?BOPEFMFK>M>OQF@RI>ODOLRM
dispositionism ABP@OF?BP>MBOPMB@QFSB@LJJLKQLMBOPLK>IFQVMPV@ELILDFPQP TEF@E>PPBOQPQE>QLRO
?BE>SFLOFPABQBOJFKBA?VFKQBOK>IC>@QLOP PR@E>PMBOPLK>IFQVQO>FQP>KAQBJMBO>JBKQ
empathy @>M>@FQVQLRKABOPQ>KA>KLQEBOMBOPLKsPMBOPMB@QFSBoQLCBBITE>QEBLOPEBCBBIP



#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV

foot-in-the-door technique MBOPR>PFLKLCLKBMBOPLK?V>KLQEBOMBOPLK BK@LRO>DFKD>MBOPLKQL>DOBB


QL>PJ>IIC>SLO LOQL?RV>PJ>IIFQBJ LKIVQLI>QBOOBNRBPQ>I>ODBOC>SLOLOMRO@E>PBLC>I>ODBOFQBJ
fundamental attribution error QBKABK@VQLLSBOBJME>PFWBFKQBOK>IC>@QLOP>P>QQOF?RQFLKPCLO?BE>SFLO
>KARKABOBPQFJ>QBQEBMLTBOLCQEBPFQR>QFLK
group polarization PQOBKDQEBKFKDLCQEBLOFDFK>IDOLRM>QQFQRAB>CQBOAFP@RPPFKDSFBTPTFQEFKQEBDOLRM
groupthink DOLRMJBJ?BOPJLAFCVQEBFOLMFKFLKPQLJ>Q@ETE>QQEBV?BIFBSBFPQEBDOLRM@LKPBKPRP
homophily QBKABK@VCLOMBLMIBQLCLOJPL@F>IKBQTLOHP FK@IRAFKDCOFBKAPEFMP J>OOF>DB ?RPFKBPP
OBI>QFLKPEFMP >KAJ>KVLQEBOQVMBPLCOBI>QFLKPEFMP TFQELQEBOPTEL>OBPFJFI>O
homophobia MOBGRAF@B>KAAFP@OFJFK>QFLK>D>FKPQFKAFSFAR>IP?>PBAPLIBIVLKQEBFOPBUR>ILOFBKQ>QFLK
hostile aggression >DDOBPPFLKJLQFS>QBA?VCBBIFKDPLC>KDBOTFQEFKQBKQQL@>RPBM>FK
in-group DOLRMQE>QTBFABKQFCVTFQELOPBBLROPBISBP>P?BILKDFKDQL
in-group bias MOBCBOBK@BCLOLROLTKDOLRMLSBOLQEBODOLRMP
individualistic culture @RIQROBQE>QCL@RPBPLKFKAFSFAR>I>@EFBSBJBKQ>KA>RQLKLJV
informational social influence @LKCLOJFQVQL>DOLRMKLOJMOLJMQBA?VQEB?BIFBCQE>QQEBDOLRMFP
@LJMBQBKQ>KAE>PQEB@LOOB@QFKCLOJ>QFLK
instrumental aggression >DDOBPPFLKJLQFS>QBA?V>@EFBSFKD>DL>I>KAALBPKLQKB@BPP>OFIVFKSLISB
FKQBKQQL@>RPBM>FK
internal factor FKQBOK>I>QQOF?RQBLC>MBOPLK PR@E>PMBOPLK>IFQVQO>FQPLOQBJMBO>JBKQ
just-world hypothesis FABLILDV@LJJLKFKQEB5KFQBA3Q>QBPQE>QMBLMIBDBQQEBLRQ@LJBPQEBVABPBOSB
normative social influence @LKCLOJFQVQL>DOLRMKLOJQLCFQFK CBBIDLLA >KA?B>@@BMQBA?VQEBDOLRM
obedience @E>KDBLC?BE>SFLOQLMIB>PB>K>RQELOFQVCFDROBLOQL>SLFA>SBOPFSB@LKPBNRBK@BP
out-group DOLRMQE>QTBALKsQ?BILKDQLoLKBQE>QTBSFBT>PCRKA>JBKQ>IIVAFCCBOBKQCOLJRP
peripheral route persuasion LKBMBOPLKMBOPR>ABP>KLQEBOMBOPLK>KFKAFOB@QOLRQBQE>QOBIFBPLK
>PPL@F>QFLKLCMBOFMEBO>I@RBP PR@E>PMLPFQFSBBJLQFLKP>KA@BIB?OFQVBKALOPBJBKQ
QL>PPL@F>QB
MLPFQFSFQVTFQE>JBPP>DB
persuasion MOL@BPPLC@E>KDFKDLRO>QQFQRABQLT>OAPLJBQEFKD?>PBALKPLJBCLOJLC@LJJRKF@>QFLK
prejudice KBD>QFSB>QQFQRABP>KACBBIFKDPQLT>OAFKAFSFAR>IP?>PBAPLIBIVLKQEBFOJBJ?BOPEFMFK>
M>OQF@RI>ODOLRM
prosocial behavior SLIRKQ>OV?BE>SFLOTFQEQEBFKQBKQQLEBIMLQEBOMBLMIB
racism MOBGRAF@B>KAAFP@OFJFK>QFLKQLT>OAFKAFSFAR>IP?>PBAPLIBIVLKQEBFOO>@B
reciprocity DFSB>KAQ>HBFKOBI>QFLKPEFMP
romantic love QVMBLCILSB@LKPFPQFKDLCFKQFJ>@V>KAM>PPFLK ?RQKL@LJJFQJBKQ
scapegoating >@QLC?I>JFKD>KLRQDOLRMTEBKQEBFKDOLRMBUMBOFBK@BPCORPQO>QFLKLOFP?IL@HBACOLJ
L?Q>FKFKD>DL>I

4EFP@LKQBKQFP>S>FI>?IBCLOCOBB>QKWWSVFQ[RUJFRQWHQWFRO

#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV



script MBOPLKsPHKLTIBADB>?LRQQEBPBNRBK@BLCBSBKQPFK>PMB@FCF@PBQQFKD
self-disclosure PE>OFKDMBOPLK>IFKCLOJ>QFLKFKOBI>QFLKPEFMP
self-fulfilling prophecy QOB>QFKDPQBOBLQVMBADOLRMJBJ?BOP>@@LOAFKDQLLRO?F>PBABUMB@Q>QFLKPLKIV
QLE>SBQEFPQOB>QJBKQFKCIRBK@BQEBFKAFSFAR>IQL>@Q>@@LOAFKDQLLROPQBOBLQVMF@BUMB@Q>QFLKP QERP
@LKCFOJFKDLROPQBOBLQVMF@?BIFBCP
self-serving bias QBKABK@VCLOFKAFSFAR>IPQLQ>HB@OBAFQ?VJ>HFKDAFPMLPFQFLK>ILOFKQBOK>I>QQOF?RQFLKP
CLOMLPFQFSBLRQ@LJBP>KAPFQR>QFLK>ILOBUQBOK>I>QQOF?RQFLKPCLOKBD>QFSBLRQ@LJBP
sexism MOBGRAF@B>KAAFP@OFJFK>QFLKQLT>OAFKAFSFAR>IP?>PBALKQEBFOPBU
situationism ABP@OF?BP>MBOPMB@QFSBQE>Q?BE>SFLO>KA>@QFLKP>OBABQBOJFKBA?VQEBFJJBAF>QB
BKSFOLKJBKQ>KAPROOLRKAFKDP>SFBTMOLJLQBA?VPL@F>IMPV@ELILDFPQP
social exchange theory ERJ>KP>@Q>PK>fSBB@LKLJFPQPFKHBBMFKD>Q>IIVLCQEBO>QFLLC@LPQP>KA
?BKBCFQPLCCLOJFKD>KAJ>FKQ>FK>OBI>QFLKPEFM TFQEQEBDL>IQLJ>UFJFWB?BKBCFQP>KAJFKFJFWB@LPQP
social facilitation FJMOLSBAMBOCLOJ>K@BTEBK>K>RAFBK@BFPT>Q@EFKDSBOPRPTEBKQEBFKAFSFAR>I
MBOCLOJPQEB?BE>SFLO>ILKB
social loafing BUBOQFLKLCIBPPBCCLOQ?V>MBOPLKTLOHFKDFK>DOLRM?B@>RPBFKAFSFAR>IMBOCLOJ>K@B
@>KKLQ?BBS>IR>QBAPBM>O>QBIVCOLJQEBDOLRM QERP@>RPFKDMBOCLOJ>K@BAB@IFKBLKB>PVQ>PHP
social norm DOLRMsPBUMB@Q>QFLKPOBD>OAFKDTE>QFP>MMOLMOF>QB>KA>@@BMQ>?IBCLOQEBQELRDEQP>KA
?BE>SFLOLCFQPJBJ?BOP
social psychology CFBIALCMPV@ELILDVQE>QBU>JFKBPELTMBLMIBFJM>@QLO>CCB@QB>@ELQEBO TFQE
M>OQF@RI>OCL@RPLKQEBMLTBOLCQEBPFQR>QFLK
social role PL@F>IIVABCFKBAM>QQBOKLC?BE>SFLOQE>QFPBUMB@QBALC>MBOPLKFK>DFSBKPBQQFKDLODOLRM
stanford prison experiment 3Q>KCLOA5KFSBOPFQV@LKAR@QBA>KBUMBOFJBKQFK>JL@HMOFPLKQE>Q
ABJLKPQO>QBAQEBMLTBOLCPL@F>IOLIBP PL@F>IKLOJP >KAP@OFMQP
stereotype KBD>QFSB?BIFBCP>?LRQFKAFSFAR>IP?>PBAPLIBIVLKQEBFOJBJ?BOPEFMFK>DOLRM OBD>OAIBPPLC
QEBFOFKAFSFAR>I@E>O>@QBOFPQF@P
triangular theory of love JLABILCILSB?>PBALKQEOBB@LJMLKBKQPFKQFJ>@V M>PPFLK >KA@LJJFQJBKQ
PBSBO>IQVMBPLCILSBBUFPQ ABMBKAFKDLKQEBMOBPBK@BLO>?PBK@BLCB>@ELCQEBPB@LJMLKBKQP

Summary
12.1 What Is Social Psychology?
3L@F>I MPV@ELILDV FP QEB PR?CFBIA LC MPV@ELILDV QE>Q PQRAFBP QEB MLTBO LC QEB PFQR>QFLK QL FKCIRBK@B
FKAFSFAR>IPs QELRDEQP CBBIFKDP >KA ?BE>SFLOP 0PV@ELILDFPQP @>QBDLOFWB QEB @>RPBP LC ERJ>K ?BE>SFLO >P
QELPB ARB QL FKQBOK>I C>@QLOP PR@E >P MBOPLK>IFQV LO QELPB ARB QL BUQBOK>I C>@QLOP PR@E >P @RIQRO>I >KA
LQEBO PL@F>I FKCIRBK@BP "BE>SFLO FP ?BQQBO BUMI>FKBA ELTBSBO ?V RPFKD ?LQE >MMOL>@EBP ,>V MBLMIB QBKA
QL LSBOOBIV LK AFPMLPFQFLK>I BUMI>K>QFLKP CLO ?BE>SFLO >KA FDKLOB QEB MLTBO LC PFQR>QFLK>I FKCIRBK@BP >
MBOPMB@QFSB @>IIBA QEB CRKA>JBKQ>I >QQOF?RQFLK BOOLO 0BLMIB COLJ FKAFSFAR>IFPQF@ @RIQROBP >OB JLOB IFHBIV
QL AFPMI>V QEFP ?F>P SBOPRP MBLMIB COLJ @LIIB@QFSFPQF@ @RIQROBP /RO BUMI>K>QFLKP CLO LRO LTK >KA LQEBOP
?BE>SFLOP @>K ?B ?F>PBA ARB QL KLQ E>SFKD BKLRDE FKCLOJ>QFLK >?LRQ LQEBOPs JLQFS>QFLKP CLO ?BE>SFLOP
>KA?VMOLSFAFKDBUMI>K>QFLKPQE>Q?LIPQBOLROPBICBPQBBJ



#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV

12.2 Self-presentation
(RJ>K ?BE>SFLO FP I>ODBIV FKCIRBK@BA ?V LRO PL@F>I OLIBP KLOJP >KA P@OFMQP )K LOABO QL HKLT ELT QL
>@Q FK > DFSBK PFQR>QFLK TB E>SB PE>OBA @RIQRO>I HKLTIBADB LC ELT QL ?BE>SB ABMBKAFKD LK LRO OLIB FK
PL@FBQV 3L@F>I KLOJP AF@Q>QB QEB ?BE>SFLO QE>Q FP >MMOLMOF>QB LO FK>MMOLMOF>QB CLO B>@E OLIB %>@E PL@F>I OLIB
E>P P@OFMQP QE>Q EBIM ERJ>KP IB>OK QEB PBNRBK@B LC >MMOLMOF>QB ?BE>SFLOP FK > DFSBK PBQQFKD 4EB C>JLRP
3Q>KCLOA MOFPLK BUMBOFJBKQ FP >K BU>JMIB LC ELT QEB MLTBO LC QEB PFQR>QFLK @>K AF@Q>QB QEB PL@F>I OLIBP
KLOJP >KAP@OFMQPTBCLIILTFK>DFSBKPFQR>QFLK BSBKFCQEFP?BE>SFLOFP@LKQO>OVQLLROQVMF@>I?BE>SFLO
12.3 Attitudes and Persuasion
!QQFQRABP >OB LRO BS>IR>QFLKP LO CBBIFKDP QLT>OA > MBOPLK FAB> LO L?GB@Q >KA QVMF@>IIV >OB MLPFQFSB
LO KBD>QFSB /RO >QQFQRABP >KA ?BIFBCP >OB FKCIRBK@BA KLQ LKIV ?V BUQBOK>I CLO@BP ?RQ >IPL ?V FKQBOK>I
FKCIRBK@BP QE>Q TB @LKQOLI !K FKQBOK>I CLOJ LC >QQFQRAB @E>KDB FP @LDKFQFSB AFPPLK>K@B LO QEB QBKPFLK
TB BUMBOFBK@B TEBK LRO QELRDEQP CBBIFKDP >KA ?BE>SFLOP >OB FK @LKCIF@Q )K LOABO QL OBAR@B AFPPLK>K@B
FKAFSFAR>IP @>K @E>KDB QEBFO ?BE>SFLO >QQFQRABP LO @LDKFQFLKP LO >AA > KBT @LDKFQFLK %UQBOK>I CLO@BP LC
MBOPR>PFLK FK@IRAB >ASBOQFPFKD QEB CB>QROBP LC >ASBOQFPFKD QE>Q FKCIRBK@B LRO ?BE>SFLOP FK@IRAB QEB PLRO@B
JBPP>DB >KA >RAFBK@B 4EBOB >OB QTL MOFJ>OV OLRQBP QL MBOPR>PFLK 4EB @BKQO>I OLRQB QL MBOPR>PFLK RPBP
C>@QP >KA FKCLOJ>QFLK QL MBOPR>AB MLQBKQF>I @LKPRJBOP 4EB MBOFMEBO>I OLRQB RPBP MLPFQFSB >PPL@F>QFLK TFQE
@RBPPR@E>P?B>RQV C>JB >KAMLPFQFSBBJLQFLKP
12.4 Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
4EB MLTBO LC QEB PFQR>QFLK @>K IB>A MBLMIB QL @LKCLOJ LO DL >ILKD TFQE QEB DOLRM BSBK FK QEB C>@B LC
FK>@@RO>QB FKCLOJ>QFLK #LKCLOJFQV QL DOLRM KLOJP FP AOFSBK ?V QTL JLQFS>QFLKP QEB ABPFOB QL CFQ FK >KA
?B IFHBA >KA QEB ABPFOB QL ?B >@@RO>QB >KA D>FK FKCLOJ>QFLK COLJ QEB DOLRM !RQELOFQV CFDROBP >IPL E>SB
FKCIRBK@B LSBO LRO ?BE>SFLOP >KA J>KV MBLMIB ?B@LJB L?BAFBKQ >KA CLIILT LOABOP BSBK FC QEB LOABOP
>OB @LKQO>OV QL QEBFO MBOPLK>I S>IRBP #LKCLOJFQV QL DOLRM MOBPPROBP @>K >IPL OBPRIQ FK DOLRMQEFKH LO
QEB C>RIQV AB@FPFLKJ>HFKD MOL@BPP QE>Q OBPRIQP COLJ @LEBPFSB DOLRM JBJ?BOP QOVFKD QL J>FKQ>FK DOLRM
E>OJLKV 'OLRM PFQR>QFLKP @>K FJMOLSB ERJ>K ?BE>SFLO QEOLRDE C>@FIFQ>QFKD MBOCLOJ>K@B LK B>PV Q>PHP
?RQ FKEF?FQFKD MBOCLOJ>K@B LK AFCCF@RIQ Q>PHP 4EB MOBPBK@B LC LQEBOP @>K >IPL IB>A QL PL@F>I IL>CFKD TEBK
FKAFSFAR>IBCCLOQP@>KKLQ?BBS>IR>QBA
12.5 Prejudice and Discrimination
!P AFSBOPB FKAFSFAR>IP ERJ>KP @>K BUMBOFBK@B @LKCIF@Q TEBK FKQBO>@QFKD TFQE MBLMIB TEL >OB AFCCBOBKQ
COLJ B>@E LQEBO 0OBGRAF@B LO KBD>QFSB CBBIFKDP >KA BS>IR>QFLKP FP @LJJLK TEBK MBLMIB >OB COLJ >
AFCCBOBKQ PL@F>I DOLRM FB LRQDOLRM
 .BD>QFSB >QQFQRABP QLT>OA LRQDOLRMP @>K IB>A QL AFP@OFJFK>QFLK
0OBGRAF@B >KA AFP@OFJFK>QFLK >D>FKPQ LQEBOP @>K ?B ?>PBA LK DBKABO O>@B BQEKF@FQV PL@F>I @I>PP PBUR>I
LOFBKQ>QFLK LO > S>OFBQV LC LQEBO PL@F>I FABKQFQFBP )KDOLRMsP TEL CBBI QEOB>QBKBA J>V ?I>JB QEB LRQDOLRMP
CLOQEBFOMIFDEQ QERPRPFKDQEBLRQDOLRM>P>P@>MBDL>QCLOQEBFOCORPQO>QFLK
12.6 Aggression
!DDOBPPFLK FP PBBHFKD QL @>RPB >KLQEBO MBOPLK E>OJ LO M>FK (LPQFIB >DDOBPPFLK FP JLQFS>QBA ?V CBBIFKDP
LC >KDBO TFQE FKQBKQ QL @>RPB M>FK >KA FKPQORJBKQ>I >DDOBPPFLK FP JLQFS>QBA ?V >@EFBSFKD > DL>I >KA
ALBP KLQ KB@BPP>OFIV FKSLISB FKQBKQ QL @>RPB M>FK "RIIVFKD FP >K FKQBOK>QFLK>I MR?IF@ EB>IQE @LK@BOK QE>Q
I>ODBIV >CCB@QP QEB >ALIBP@BKQ MLMRI>QFLK "RIIVFKD FP OBMB>QBA ?BE>SFLOP QE>Q >OB FKQBKABA QL FKCIF@Q E>OJ
LK QEB SF@QFJ >KA @>K Q>HB QEB CLOJ LC MEVPF@>I MPV@ELILDF@>I BJLQFLK>I LO PL@F>I >?RPB "RIIVFKD
E>P KBD>QFSB JBKQ>I EB>IQE @LKPBNRBK@BP CLO VLRQE FK@IRAFKD PRF@FAB #V?BO?RIIVFKD FP > KBTBO CLOJ LC
?RIIVFKD QE>Q Q>HBP MI>@B FK >K LKIFKB BKSFOLKJBKQ TEBOB ?RIIFBP @>K OBJ>FK >KLKVJLRP >KA SF@QFJP >OB
EBIMIBPP QL >AAOBPP QEB E>O>PPJBKQ $BPMFQB QEB PL@F>I KLOJ LC EBIMFKD LQEBOP FK KBBA TEBK QEBOB >OB J>KV
?VPQ>KABOP TFQKBPPFKD >K BJBODBK@V AFCCRPFLK LC OBPMLKPF?FIFQV TFII IB>A QL > ILTBO IFHBIFELLA LC >KV LKB
MBOPLKEBIMFKD
12.7 Prosocial Behavior
!IQORFPJ FP > MROB CLOJ LC EBIMFKD LQEBOP LRQ LC BJM>QEV TEF@E @>K ?B @LKQO>PQBA TFQE BDLFPQF@
JLQFS>QFLKP CLO EBIMFKD &LOJFKD OBI>QFLKPEFMP TFQE LQEBOP FP > KB@BPPFQV CLO PL@F>I ?BFKDP 7B QVMF@>IIV

4EFP@LKQBKQFP>S>FI>?IBCLOCOBB>QKWWSVFQ[RUJFRQWHQWFRO

#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV



CLOJ OBI>QFLKPEFMP TFQE MBLMIB TEL >OB @ILPB QL RP FK MOLUFJFQV >KA MBLMIB TFQE TELJ TB PE>OB
PFJFI>OFQFBP 7B BUMB@Q OB@FMOL@FQV >KA PBICAFP@ILPROB FK LRO OBI>QFLKPEFMP 7B >IPL T>KQ QL CLOJ
OBI>QFLKPEFMP TFQE MBLMIB TEL >OB MEVPF@>IIV >QQO>@QFSB QELRDE PQ>KA>OAP CLO >QQO>@QFSBKBPP S>OV ?V
@RIQROB >KA DBKABO 4EBOB >OB J>KV QVMBP LC ILSB QE>Q >OB ABQBOJFKBA ?V S>OFLRP @LJ?FK>QFLKP LC FKQFJ>@V
M>PPFLK >KA @LJJFQJBKQ @LKPRJJ>QB ILSB TEF@E FP QEB FAB>I CLOJ LC ILSB @LKQ>FKP >II QEOBB
@LJMLKBKQP 7EBK ABQBOJFKFKD P>QFPC>@QFLK >KA TEBQEBO QL J>FKQ>FK > OBI>QFLKPEFM FKAFSFAR>IP LCQBK RPB
>PL@F>IBU@E>KDB>MMOL>@E>KATBFDEQEB@LPQP>KA?BKBCFQPLCCLOJFKD>KAJ>FKQ>FKFKD>OBI>QFLKPEFM

Review Questions
1. !P>CFBIA PL@F>IMPV@ELILDVCL@RPBPLK
========FKMOBAF@QFKDERJ>K?BE>SFLO
> MBOPLK>IFQVQO>FQP
? DBKBQF@MOBAFPMLPFQFLKP
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A PFQR>QFLK>IC>@QLOP

CFBIAQLGLFKEFPQB>JJ>QBP*LPBsP?BE>SFLOFP
OBCIB@QFSBLC========
> >P@OFMQ
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@ DLLA>QEIBQF@?BE>SFLO
A KLOJ>QFSB?BE>SFLO

2. ->HFKDFKQBOK>I>QQOF?RQFLKPCLOVLROPR@@BPPBP
>KAJ>HFKDBUQBOK>I>QQOF?RQFLKPCLOVLROC>FIROBP
FP>KBU>JMIBLC========
> >@QLOL?PBOSBO?F>P
? CRKA>JBKQ>I>QQOF?RQFLKBOOLO
@ PBICPBOSFKD?F>P
A GRPQTLOIAEVMLQEBPFP

7. 7EBKFQ@LJBPQL?RVFKD@ILQEBP QBBK>DBOP
LCQBKCLIILTPL@F>IKLOJPQEFPFPIFHBIVJLQFS>QBA
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> CLIILTFKDM>OBKQPsORIBP
? P>SFKDJLKBV
@ CFQQFKDFK
A ILLHFKDDLLA

3. #LIIB@QFSFPQF@@RIQROBP>OBQL========>P
FKAFSFAR>IFPQF@@RIQROBP>OBQL========
> AFPMLPFQFLK>IPFQR>QFLK>I
? PFQR>QFLK>IAFPMLPFQFLK>I
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A GRPQTLOIAEVMLQEBPFPPBICPBOSFKD?F>P

8. )KQEB3Q>KCLOAMOFPLKBUMBOFJBKQ BSBKQEB
IB>AOBPB>O@EBOPR@@RJ?BAQLEFPOLIB>P>MOFPLK
PRMBOSFPLO4EFPFP>KBU>JMIBLCQEBMLTBOLC
========FKCIRBK@FKD?BE>SFLO
> P@OFMQP
? PL@F>IKLOJP
@ @LKCLOJFQV
A PL@F>IOLIBP

4. !@@LOAFKDQLQEB>@QLOL?PBOSBO?F>P TBE>SB
JLOBFKCLOJ>QFLK>?LRQ========
> PFQR>QFLK>IFKCIRBK@BPLK?BE>SFLO
? FKCIRBK@BPLKLROLTK?BE>SFLO
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A AFPMLPFQFLK>IFKCIRBK@BPLK?BE>SFLO
5. ! K
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JBJ?BOP
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6. /KEFPCFOPQA>VLCPL@@BOMO>@QF@B *LPBPRFQPRM
FK>QPEFOQ PELOQP >KA@IB>QP>KAORKPLRQQLQEB

9. !QQFQRABPABP@OF?BLRO========LCMBLMIB
L?GB@QP >KAFAB>P
> QOB>QJBKQ
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@ @LDKFQFLKP
A HKLTIBADB
10. #LDKFQFSBAFPPLK>K@B@>RPBPAFP@LJCLOQ
?B@>RPBFQAFPORMQPLROPBKPBLC========
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11. )KLOABOCLOQEB@BKQO>IOLRQBQLMBOPR>PFLKQL
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========
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12. %U>JMIBPLC@RBPRPBAFKMBOFMEBO>IOLRQB
MBOPR>PFLKFK@IRAB>IILCQEBCLIILTFKD except
========
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13. )KQEB!P@EBUMBOFJBKQ M>OQF@FM>KQP
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> FKCLOJ>QFLK>I
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14. 5KABOTE>Q@LKAFQFLKPTFIIFKCLOJ>QFLK>I
PL@F>IFKCIRBK@B?BJLOBIFHBIV
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15. 3L@F>IIL>CFKDL@@ROPTEBK========
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BS>IR>QBA
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16. )CDOLRMJBJ?BOPJLAFCVQEBFOLMFKFLKPQL
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17. 0OBGRAF@BFPQL========>PAFP@OFJFK>QFLKFPQL
========
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4EFP@LKQBKQFP>S>FI>?IBCLOCOBB>QKWWSVFQ[RUJFRQWHQWFRO

#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV

18. 7EF@ELCQEBCLIILTFKDFP not >QVMBLC


MOBGRAF@B
> ELJLMEL?F>
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19. ========L@@ROPTEBKQEBLRQDOLRMFP
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20. 7EBKTBPBBHLRQFKCLOJ>QFLKQE>QPRMMLOQP
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21. 4VMF@>IIV ?RIIVFKDCOLJ?LVPFPQL========
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22. 7EF@ELCQEBCLIILTFKD>ALIBP@BKQPFPIB>PQ
IFHBIVQL?BQ>ODBQBACLO?RIIVFKD
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23. 4EB?VPQ>KABOBCCB@QIFHBIVL@@ROPARBQL
========
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24. !IQORFPJFP>CLOJLCMOLPL@F>I?BE>SFLOQE>Q
FPJLQFS>QBA?V========
> CBBIFKDDLLA>?LRQLKBPBIC
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A PELTFKD?O>SBOVQL?VPQ>KABOP

#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV

25. !CQBOJLSFKDQL>KBT>M>OQJBKQ?RFIAFKD
OBPB>O@EPRDDBPQPQE>Q3>JTFII?BJLPQIFHBIVQL
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26. 7E>QQO>FQAL?LQEJBK>KATLJBKQBKAQL
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A MEVPF@>I>QQO>@QFSBKBPP



27. !@@LOAFKDQLQEBQOF>KDRI>OQEBLOVLCILSB
TE>QQVMBLCILSBFPABCFKBA?VM>PPFLK>KA
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@ OLJ>KQF@ILSB
A IFHFKD
28. !@@LOAFKDQLPL@F>IBU@E>KDBQEBLOV ERJ>KP
T>KQQLJ>UFJFWBQEB========>KAJFKFJFWBQEB
========FKOBI>QFLKPEFMP
> FKQFJ>@V@LJJFQJBKQ
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@ @LPQP?BKBCFQP
A M>PPFLKFKQFJ>@V

Critical Thinking Questions


29. #LJM>OB >KA @LKQO>PQ PFQR>QFLK>I FKCIRBK@BP >KA AFPMLPFQFLK>I FKCIRBK@BP >KA DFSB >K BU>JMIB LC B>@E
%UMI>FKELTPFQR>QFLK>IFKCIRBK@BP>KAAFPMLPFQFLK>IFKCIRBK@BPJFDEQBUMI>FKFK>MMOLMOF>QB?BE>SFLO
30. 0OLSFAB >K BU>JMIB LC ELT MBLMIB COLJ FKAFSFAR>IFPQF@ >KA @LIIB@QFSFPQF@ @RIQROBP TLRIA AFCCBO FK
BUMI>FKFKDTEVQEBVTLK>KFJMLOQ>KQPMLOQFKDBSBKQ
31. 7EV AFAKsQ QEB pDLLAq DR>OAP FK QEB 3Q>KCLOA MOFPLK BUMBOFJBKQ L?GB@Q QL LQEBO DR>OAPs >?RPFSB
?BE>SFLO7BOBQEBPQRABKQMOFPLKBOPPFJMIVTB>HMBLMIB7EVAFAKsQQEBVL?GB@QQL?BFKD>?RPBA
32. $BP@OF?B ELT PL@F>I OLIBP PL@F>I KLOJP >KA P@OFMQP TBOB BSFABKQ FK QEB 3Q>KCLOA MOFPLK BUMBOFJBKQ
(LT @>K QEFP BUMBOFJBKQ ?B >MMIFBA QL BSBOVA>V IFCB !OB QEBOB >KV JLOB OB@BKQ BU>JMIBP TEBOB MBLMIB
PQ>OQBACRICFIIFKD>OLIB>KA?B@>JB>?RPFSB
33. 'FSB >K BU>JMIB LKB not RPBA FK @I>PP LO VLRO QBUQ
LC @LDKFQFSB AFPPLK>K@B >KA ELT >K FKAFSFAR>I
JFDEQOBPLISBQEFP
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>ASBOQFPFKD @>JM>FDK QL FK@OB>PB P>IBP LC "IFPP 3LA> (LT TLRIA VLR ABSBILM >K >ASBOQFPBJBKQ CLO QEFP
MOLAR@Q QE>Q RPBP > @BKQO>I OLRQB LC MBOPR>PFLK (LT TLRIA VLR ABSBILM >K >A RPFKD > MBOFMEBO>I OLRQB LC
MBOPR>PFLK
35. $BP@OF?BELTPBBHFKDLRQPFABLMFKFLKP@>KMOBSBKQDOLRMQEFKH
36. #LJM>OB>KA@LKQO>PQPL@F>IIL>CFKD>KAPL@F>IC>@FIFQ>QFLK
37. 3LJB MBLMIB PBBJ JLOB TFIIFKD QL LMBKIV AFPMI>V MOBGRAF@B OBD>OAFKD PBUR>I LOFBKQ>QFLK QE>K
MOBGRAF@BOBD>OAFKDO>@B>KADBKABO3MB@RI>QBLKTEVQEFPJFDEQ?B
38. 7EBKMBLMIB?I>JB>P@>MBDL>Q ELTALVLRQEFKHQEBV@ELLPBBSFABK@BQLPRMMLOQQEB?I>JB
39. #LJM>OB>KA@LKQO>PQELPQFIB>KAFKPQORJBKQ>I>DDOBPPFLK



#E>MQBO3L@F>I0PV@ELILDV

40. 7E>Q BSFABK@B AFP@RPPBA FK QEB MOBSFLRP PB@QFLK PRDDBPQP QE>Q @V?BO?RIIVFKD FP AFCCF@RIQ QL ABQB@Q >KA
MOBSBKQ
41. $BP@OF?BTE>QFKCIRBK@BPTEBQEBOOBI>QFLKPEFMPTFII?BCLOJBA
42. 4EB BSLIRQFLK>OV QEBLOV >ODRBP QE>Q ERJ>KP >OB JLQFS>QBA QL MBOMBQR>QB QEBFO DBKBP >KA OBMOLAR@B
5PFKD>KBSLIRQFLK>OVMBOPMB@QFSB ABP@OF?BQO>FQPFKJBK>KATLJBKQE>QERJ>KPCFKA>QQO>@QFSB

Personal Application Questions


43. 0OLSFAB > MBOPLK>I BU>JMIB LC >K BUMBOFBK@B FK TEF@E VLRO ?BE>SFLO T>P FKCIRBK@BA ?V QEB MLTBO LC
QEBPFQR>QFLK
44. 4EFKH LC >K BU>JMIB FK QEB JBAF> LC > PMLOQP CFDROBoMI>VBO LO @L>@EoTEL DFSBP > PBICPBOSFKD
>QQOF?RQFLK CLO TFKKFKD LO ILPFKD %U>JMIBP JFDEQ FK@IRAB >@@RPFKD QEB OBCBOBB LC FK@LOOB@Q @>IIP FK QEB @>PB
LCILPFKD LO@FQFKDQEBFOLTKE>OATLOH>KAQ>IBKQ FKQEB@>PBLCTFKKFKD
45. 4OV >QQBKAFKD > OBIFDFLRP PBOSF@B SBOV AFCCBOBKQ COLJ VLRO LTK >KA PBB ELT VLR CBBI >KA ?BE>SB
TFQELRQ HKLTFKD QEB >MMOLMOF>QB P@OFMQ /O QOV >QQBKAFKD >K FJMLOQ>KQ MBOPLK>I BSBKQ QE>Q VLR E>SB
KBSBO >QQBKABA ?BCLOB PR@E >P > ?>O JFQWS>E > @LJFKDLC>DB OFQR>I FK *BTFPE @RIQROB
> NRFK@B>gBO> FK
PLJB ,>QFK !JBOF@>K @RIQROBP > M>OQV FP DFSBK QL > DFOI TEL FP QROKFKD  VB>OP LIA
> TBAAFKD > CRKBO>I
LO > PMLOQFKD BSBKQ KBT QL VLR PR@E >P ELOPB O>@FKD LO ?RII OFAFKD /?PBOSB >KA OB@LOA VLRO CBBIFKDP >KA
?BE>SFLOP FK QEFP RKC>JFIF>O PBQQFKD CLO TEF@E VLR I>@H QEB >MMOLMOF>QB P@OFMQ $L VLR PFIBKQIV L?PBOSB QEB
>@QFLK LO AL VLR >PH >KLQEBO MBOPLK CLO EBIM FKQBOMOBQFKD QEB ?BE>SFLOP LC MBLMIB >Q QEB BSBKQ $BP@OF?B FK
TE>QT>VPVLRO?BE>SFLOTLRIA@E>KDBFCVLRTBOBQL>QQBKA>PFJFI>OBSBKQFKQEBCRQROB
46. .>JB >KA ABP@OF?B >Q IB>PQ QEOBB PL@F>I OLIBP VLR E>SB >ALMQBA CLO VLROPBIC 7EV AFA VLR >ALMQ QEBPB
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47. #LDKFQFSB AFPPLK>K@B LCQBK >OFPBP >CQBO J>HFKD >K FJMLOQ>KQ AB@FPFLK @>IIBA MLPQAB@FPFLK AFPPLK>K@B
LO FK MLMRI>O QBOJP ?RVBOsP OBJLOPB
 $BP@OF?B > OB@BKQ AB@FPFLK VLR J>AB QE>Q @>RPBA AFPPLK>K@B >KA
ABP@OF?BELTVLROBPLISBAFQ
48. $BP@OF?B > QFJB TEBK VLR LO PLJBLKB VLR HKLT RPBA QEB CLLQFKQEBALLO QB@EKFNRB QL D>FK
PLJBLKBsP@LJMIF>K@B
49. #LKAR@Q > @LKCLOJFQV PQRAV QEB KBUQ QFJB VLR >OB FK >K BIBS>QLO !CQBO VLR BKQBO QEB BIBS>QLO
PQ>KA TFQE VLRO ?>@H QLT>OA QEB ALLO 3BB FC LQEBOP @LKCLOJ QL VLRO ?BE>SFLO 7>Q@E QEFP video
(http://openstaxcollege.org/l/conformityexp) CLO > @>KAFA @>JBO> ABJLKPQO>QFLK LC QEFP MEBKLJBKLK
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